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1. Gobbi PG, Broglia C, Merli F, Dell'Olio M, Stelitano C, Iannitto E, Federico M, Bertè R, Luisi D, Molica S, Cavalli C, Dezza L, Ascari E: Vinblastine, bleomycin, and methotrexate chemotherapy plus irradiation for patients with early-stage, favorable Hodgkin lymphoma: the experience of the Gruppo Italiano Studio Linfomi. Cancer; 2003 Dec 1;98(11):2393-401
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  • [Title] Vinblastine, bleomycin, and methotrexate chemotherapy plus irradiation for patients with early-stage, favorable Hodgkin lymphoma: the experience of the Gruppo Italiano Studio Linfomi.
  • BACKGROUND: The acknowledged effectiveness of vinblastine, bleomycin, and methotrexate (VBM) chemotherapy in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma has been associated with conflicting toxicity reports.
  • METHODS: One hundred forty-three patients were evaluated clinically and had favorable Stage IA or IIA Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Ninety-three patients were treated with the standard VBM schedule combined with extended-field radiotherapy (EF-RT), leaving the choice of the therapeutic sequence free.
  • Fifty subsequent patients were treated with a slightly modified VBM schedule (VbMp) combined with RT limited to involved fields (IF-RT) and delivered only after the end of chemotherapy.
  • On the whole, treatment was tolerated better when RT followed chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The VBM regimen was confirmed to be effective in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Administration of all cycles before RT improved tolerance; pulmonary toxicity probably is mitigated further by reduced bleomycin doses, mild prednisone therapy, and a more prolonged resting interval before RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lung / drug effects. Lung / pathology. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 14635074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Classical Article; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; VBM protocol
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2. Feugier P, Labouyrie E, Djeridane M, Jenabian A, Dubruille V, Berthou C, Ghandour C, Desablens B, Chaït Y, Casassus P, Delwail V, Ifrah N, Le Mevel A, Lamy T, Brière J, Colonna P, Andrieu JM: Comparison of initial characteristics and long-term outcome of patients with lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma at clinical stages IA and IIA prospectively treated by brief anthracycline-based chemotherapies plus extended high-dose irradiation. Blood; 2004 Nov 1;104(9):2675-81
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  • [Title] Comparison of initial characteristics and long-term outcome of patients with lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma at clinical stages IA and IIA prospectively treated by brief anthracycline-based chemotherapies plus extended high-dose irradiation.
  • Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (LPHL), according to the Revised European-American Lymphoma classification, was considered on a retrospective basis as a specific clinical entity with a large majority of patients at clinical stage (CS) IA or IIA.
  • Of the 500 patients with CS IA/IIA Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) prospectively treated between 1981 and 1996 by one or 3 courses of anthracycline-based chemotherapies combined with high-dose extended irradiation, disease in 42 patients was reclassified as LPHL.
  • This study demonstrated that LPHL and cHL without MI shared the same presenting characteristics and the same excellent long-term prognosis after a brief anthracycline-based chemotherapy plus high-dose extended irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / classification. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Lymphocytes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Heart Diseases / etiology. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Radiotherapy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15231567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines
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3. Abdel Hamid TM, El Zawahry HM, Khattab NA, Mowafy TM, Awaad MM, Ali El-Din NH, Mokhtar NM: Prognostic factors of Hodgkin's lymphoma and their impact on response to chemotherapy and survival. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2005 Mar;17(1):9-14
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors of Hodgkin's lymphoma and their impact on response to chemotherapy and survival.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the standard prognostic factors of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in relation to response to first line chemotherapy, disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
  • The first line chemotherapy was COPP in 40%, ABVD in 35% and COPP/ABV hybrid in 25%.
  • Patients were classified into early stage disease: Stages I, IIA and IIB without poor risk factors, n=43 and advanced stage disease: Stages III, IV and IIB with poor risk factors, n=57 analysis of the prognostic factors for early versus advanced-stage disease was done by univariate and multivariate regression analysis.
  • RESULTS: Complete remission (CR) was attained in 69% of the patients after first line chemotherapy; being 87.8 % and 54.7% for early and advanced disease, respectively, (p=0.0001).
  • The CR rates after different chemotherapy regimens were 81.8%, 90% and 90% for the ABVD, COPP and COPP/ABV hybrid regimens in the early-disease group; respectively; in contrast to the corresponding figures of 54.5%, 50% and 61.5% in the advanced- stage group.
  • The DFS and OS in this series of patients were 61.3% and 53.7%, being 69.8% and 70.7% for the early and 45.1% and 38.9% for the advanced-disease, respectively The OS of the whole group was significantly related to age (p=0.04), sex (p=0.005), early versus advanced disease (p=0.0001) and B symptoms (p=0.0006).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The adequate response and DFS of the early compared to the advanced-stage disease supported the evolving role of risk adapted chemotherapy for HL.
  • The results of this study pointed to the need for an improved treatment strategy in this potentially curable disease,especially for the advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Sex Factors. Survival. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16353077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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4. Brusamolino E, Baio A, Orlandi E, Arcaini L, Passamonti F, Griva V, Casagrande W, Pascutto C, Franchini P, Lazzarino M: Long-term events in adult patients with clinical stage IA-IIA nonbulky Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with four cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine and adjuvant radiotherapy: a single-institution 15-year follow-up. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Nov 1;12(21):6487-93
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  • [Title] Long-term events in adult patients with clinical stage IA-IIA nonbulky Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with four cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine and adjuvant radiotherapy: a single-institution 15-year follow-up.
  • PURPOSE: To report on long-term events after short doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy in favorable early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We monitored late events and causes of death over 15 years (median follow-up, 120 months) in 120 patients with nonbulky stage IA-IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma, treated with four cycles of ABVD and limited radiotherapy.
  • The risk of cardiovascular events at 5 and 12 years was 5.5% and 14%, with a median latent time of 67 months (range: 23-179 months) from the end of radiotherapy.
  • Pulmonary toxicity developed in 8% of patients; all had received mediastinal irradiation and the median time from radiotherapy to pulmonary sequelae was 76 weeks (range: 50-123 weeks).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term events were mostly related to radiotherapy; the role of short ABVD chemotherapy was very limited, as documented by fertility preservation and lack of secondary myelodysplasia/leukemia.
  • A proportion of patients died from causes unrelated to disease progression and the excess mortality risk was mostly due to the occurrence of secondary neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases.
  • A moderate dose reduction of radiotherapy from 40-44 Gy to 30-36 Gy did not decrease the risk of late complications; abolishing radiotherapy in nonbulky early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma is being evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Lung Diseases / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Fertility / drug effects. Fertility / radiation effects. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Vinblastine / adverse effects. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17085663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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5. Hines-Thomas MR, Howard SC, Hudson MM, Krasin MJ, Kaste SC, Shulkin BL, Metzger ML: Utility of bone marrow biopsy at diagnosis in pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma. Haematologica; 2010 Oct;95(10):1691-6
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  • [Title] Utility of bone marrow biopsy at diagnosis in pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Bone marrow biopsy is considered essential for the staging and risk-adapted treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma with unfavorable risk features.
  • We reviewed the cases of pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma in our institution to determine the impact of bone marrow involvement on treatment, relapse, and survival.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We reviewed the clinical characteristics and outcome of 383 patients treated for Hodgkin's lymphoma at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between August 1990 and August 2008.
  • Bone marrow findings changed the disease stage in only seven patients (3.1%): from IB to IVB (n=1), from IIA (with bulky disease) to IVA (n=1), from IIB to IVB (n=1), and from IIIB to IVB (n=4).
  • One patient's risk assignment changed from intermediate to unfavorable risk without his chemotherapy being altered.
  • No statistically significant difference was observed between patients with stage IV Hodgkin's lymphoma who did (n=21) and did not (n=61) have bone marrow involvement in 5-year relapse-free survival (89.6± 7% versus 73.9±6.1%; P=0.25) or 5-year overall survival (95.2±8.2% versus 87.3±4.9%; P=0.82).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although bone marrow involvement changed the stage in 3.1% of pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma patients, it did not change risk-adapted treatment or prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 20494933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA023944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2948094
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6. Gallamini A, Rigacci L, Merli F, Nassi L, Bosi A, Capodanno I, Luminari S, Vitolo U, Sancetta R, Iannitto E, Trentin L, Stelitano C, Tavera S, Biggi A, Castagnoli A, Versari A, Gregianin M, Pelosi E, Torchio P, Levis A: The predictive value of positron emission tomography scanning performed after two courses of standard therapy on treatment outcome in advanced stage Hodgkin's disease. Haematologica; 2006 Apr;91(4):475-81
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  • [Title] The predictive value of positron emission tomography scanning performed after two courses of standard therapy on treatment outcome in advanced stage Hodgkin's disease.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We explored the predictive value on therapy outcome of an early evaluation of treatment response by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) scan performed after two courses of conventional standard-dose chemotherapy in advanced-stage Hodgkin's disease.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with newly-diagnosed Hodgkin's disease in stage IIA with adverse prognostic factors, or in stage IIB through IVB, were re-staged with FDG-PET after two cycles of ABVD (PET-2).
  • No treatment variation based only on PET-2 results was allowed.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients attained complete remission (CR) while 20 showed disease progression during therapy or within 6 months after having reached CR; one patient relapsed.
  • PET-2 was positive in 20 patients: 17 progressed during therapy, one relapsed and two remained in CR.
  • By contrast, 85/88 (97%) patients with a negative PET-2 remained in CR; three progressed or relapsed early after the end of the chemotherapy.
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: 18F-FDG-PET scan performed after two courses of conventional standard-dose chemotherapy in advanced-stage Hodgkin's disease was able to predict treatment outcome in 103/108 (95%) of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Predictive Value of Tests
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16585014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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7. de Wildt SN, Taguchi N, Koren G: Unintended pregnancy during radiotherapy for cancer. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2009 Mar;6(3):175-8
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  • BACKGROUND: A 27-year-old woman with upper mediastinum stage IIA Hodgkin lymphoma was treated with six cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / radiotherapy. Pregnancy, Unplanned. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Counseling. Female. Fetus. Humans. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Pregnancy Trimester, First. Radiation Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 19174775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Juretić A, Zivković M, Samija M, Cović D, Bistrović M, Viculin T, Bagović D, Tomek R: [Radiotherapy treatment of lymphoma]. Lijec Vjesn; 2000 Nov-Dec;122(11-12):283-91
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  • [Title] [Radiotherapy treatment of lymphoma].
  • Radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy are primary treatment modalities in the therapy of lymphoma.
  • The treatment depends on the lymphoma type, stage of disease and patients general condition.
  • Radiation therapy is applied with curative or palliative intent, either as a single or combined modality treatment.
  • In patients with stage I and stage IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and no adverse risk factors, radiotherapy is applied as a single modality treatment.
  • Moreover, treatment modalities in early-stage HL (I and IIA) consisting of either chemotherapy alone or combined with radiotherapy are the subject of ongoing clinical trials.
  • In addition to the region/s with clinically involved lymph nodes, the target volume of radiation therapy applied as a primary radical treatment modality (stages I and IIA) also includes non-involved lymph nodes of adjacent regions aimed at their prophylactic irradiation.
  • On the other hand, with radiation therapy applied in combination with chemotherapy, the target volume depends on both the stage of the disease and the number of chemotherapy cycles.
  • Likewise, the combined treatment is dependent on whether the role of radiotherapy is only the control of clinically involved regions, or of regions with potential subclinical disease too.
  • Chemotherapy is the most frequently applied treatment modality in the management of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • Radiation therapy as a single modality treatment with curative intent is applied in patients with, according to the histopathologic classification of the disease, the indolent NHL type and pathological stages I and II in continuation.
  • In higher stages of disease or other, more aggressive NHL chemotherapy is applied either alone or in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 11291272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3477
  • [Journal-full-title] Lijec̆nic̆ki vjesnik
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lijec Vjesn
  • [Language] hrv
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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9. Moody AM, Pratt J, Hudson GV, Smith P, Lamont A, Williams MV: British National Lymphoma Investigation: pilot studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in clinical stage Ia and IIa Hodgkin's disease. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2001;13(4):262-8
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  • [Title] British National Lymphoma Investigation: pilot studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in clinical stage Ia and IIa Hodgkin's disease.
  • In order to improve treatment in early Stage IA and IIA Hodgkin's disease, the British National Lymphoma Investigation (BNLI) has evaluated two neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens with involved field radiotherapy.
  • Both studies recruited clinical Stage IA or IIA Hodgkin's disease patients with intermediate risk of relapse into a prospective multicentre Phase II study.
  • They received two cycles of chemotherapy followed by involved field radiotherapy and then four further cycles of chemotherapy.
  • However, in view of the length of treatment with MVP (9 months) and the excellent results reported by the Manchester group, future efforts of the BNLI are to be directed towards a new short course chemotherapy regimen, VAPEC-B (vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisolone, etoposide, cyclophosphamide and bleomycin).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Recurrence. Survival Rate. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 11554622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; VBM protocol 2
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10. Martinelli G, Cocorocchio E, Saletti PC, Orecchia R, Bernier J, Tradati N, Santoro P, Robertson C, Peccatori FA, Zucca E, Cavalli F: Efficacy of vinblastine, bleomycin, methotrexate (VBM) combination chemotherapy with involved field radiotherapy in early stage (I-IIA) Hodgkin disease patients. Leuk Lymphoma; 2003 Nov;44(11):1919-23
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  • [Title] Efficacy of vinblastine, bleomycin, methotrexate (VBM) combination chemotherapy with involved field radiotherapy in early stage (I-IIA) Hodgkin disease patients.
  • Vinblastine, bleomycin, methotrexate (VBM) combination chemotherapy (CT) with involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) was first described by the Stanford group as an active regimen in early stage Hodgkin's disease (HD).
  • From 1988, 49 patients with stage I-IIA HD received vinblastine (VBL) 6 mg/m2, bleomycin (BLM) 10 IU/m2, methotrexate (MTX) 30 mg/m2 day 1,8 every four weeks for three cycles; IFRT was delivered four weeks later followed by three additional cycles of VBM with a dose reduction of BLM (6 IU/m2).
  • In this retrospective analysis, VBM + IFRT treatment with bleomycin dose reduction seems safe and active.
  • Such combination could be considered as first line treatment for early stage HD patients with favorable prognosis and/or not suitable for anthracyclines-containing regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / methods. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14738143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; VBM protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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11. Pavone V, Ricardi U, Luminari S, Gobbi P, Federico M, Baldini L, Iannitto E, Ucci G, Marcheselli L, Orsucci L, Angelucci E, Liberati M, Gavarotti P, Levis A, Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi (IIL): ABVD plus radiotherapy versus EVE plus radiotherapy in unfavorable stage IA and IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma: results from an Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi randomized study. Ann Oncol; 2008 Apr;19(4):763-8
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  • [Title] ABVD plus radiotherapy versus EVE plus radiotherapy in unfavorable stage IA and IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma: results from an Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi randomized study.
  • BACKGROUND: In 1997, the Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi started a randomized trial to evaluate, in unfavorable stage IA and IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) patients, the efficacy and toxicity of the low toxic epirubicin, vinblastine and etoposide (EVE) regimen followed by involved field radiotherapy in comparison to the gold standard doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) regimen followed by the same radiotherapy program.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients should be younger than 65 years with unfavorable stage IA and IIA HL (i.e. stage IA or IIA with bulky disease and/or subdiaphragmatic disease, erythrocyte sedimentation rate higher than 40, extranodal (E) involvement, hilar involvement and more than three involved lymph node areas).
  • Complete remission (CR) rates at the end of treatment program [chemotherapy (CT) + RT] were 93% and 92% for ABVD and EVE arms, respectively (P = NS).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In unfavorable stage IA and IIA HL patients, no differences were observed between ABVD and EVE arms in terms of CR rate and OS.
  • EVE CT, however, was significantly worse than ABVD in terms of RFS and FFS and cannot be recommended as initial treatment for HL.

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  • (PMID = 18180244.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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12. Goda JS, Tsang RW: Involved field radiotherapy for limited stage Hodgkin lymphoma: balancing treatment efficacy against long-term toxicities. Hematol Oncol; 2009 Sep;27(3):115-22
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  • [Title] Involved field radiotherapy for limited stage Hodgkin lymphoma: balancing treatment efficacy against long-term toxicities.
  • Limited stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) refers to patients with stage IA or IIA disease in the absence of any bulky mass or unfavourable prognostic factors.
  • In this group, the long-term disease control with treatment can be expected in more than 90%, and management has now been directed to make strategies to reduce late morbidities related to therapy.
  • With the advent of very effective chemotherapy, the role of radiation therapy has evolved from a first line single modality treatment, to an adjuvant therapy following brief cycles of chemotherapy.
  • Furthermore, with the progress in diagnostic functional imaging and advances in radiotherapy, it is possible to accurately deliver low to moderate doses of radiation to defined regions resulting in durable control of disease.
  • This review will evaluate the literature that shapes the current standard of care in limited stage Hodgkin lymphoma with special emphasis on the use of limited field radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19274613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1069
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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13. Vassilakopoulos TP, Angelopoulou MK, Siakantaris MP, Kontopidou FN, Dimopoulou MN, Kokoris SI, Kyrtsonis MC, Tsaftaridis P, Karkantaris C, Anargyrou K, Boutsis DE, Variamis E, Michalopoulos T, Boussiotis VA, Panayiotidis P, Papavassiliou C, Pangalis GA: Combination chemotherapy plus low-dose involved-field radiotherapy for early clinical stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Jul 1;59(3):765-81
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  • [Title] Combination chemotherapy plus low-dose involved-field radiotherapy for early clinical stage Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • PURPOSE: To present our long-term experience regarding the use of chemotherapy plus low-dose involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) for clinical Stage I-IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Secondary acute leukemia developed after MOPP with or without salvage therapy (n = 6) or after ABVD plus salvage therapy (n = 2).
  • None of the nine secondary solid tumors developed within the RT fields.
  • CONCLUSION: IFRT at a dose of 2800-3000 cGy is highly effective in clinical Stage I-IIA HL patients who achieved a complete response or very good partial response with A(E)BVD.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Mechlorethamine / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15183480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 50D9XSG0VR / Mechlorethamine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; ABVD protocol; EBVD protocol; MOPP protocol
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14. Sagan D, Semczuk A, Lampka E: Combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma during pregnancy: favorable outcome for mother and child. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Aug;36(4):882-6
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  • [Title] Combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma during pregnancy: favorable outcome for mother and child.
  • The management of such cases poses unusual medical and ethical challenges, particularly in hematological malignancies, when potentially teratogenic chemotherapy is indicated.
  • We report a case of stage IIA nodular sclerosis Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), diagnosed in a 24-year-old woman at 18 weeks of gestation.
  • Individualized combination chemotherapy according to etoposide-vinblastine-doxorubicin (EVA) regimen was administered, resulting in effective local control of the disease and improvement in the patient's general condition.
  • Four weeks later, bleomycin-dacarbazine-doxorubicin-vinblastine (ABVD) chemotherapy was commenced, which provided complete remission after five cycles.
  • Individualized chemotherapy for HL according to EVA regimen during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, with early cesarian delivery, followed by ABVD regimen, provided a positive outcome both for the mother and her child.
  • This strategy may be considered as an alternative for the treatment of HL in pregnancy, and deserves further clinical assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin. Dacarbazine. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin. Etoposide. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine

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  • (PMID = 20666963.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ABVD protocol; EVA regimen
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15. Wirth A, Grigg A, Wolf M, Davis S, Hertzberg M, Joseph D, Johnson C, Weih L, Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group, Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Lymphoma Group: Risk and response adapted treatment for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (ESHL): Preliminary results of an Australasian Leukaemia & Lymphoma Group/Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):6531

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  • [Title] Risk and response adapted treatment for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (ESHL): Preliminary results of an Australasian Leukaemia & Lymphoma Group/Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group study.
  • : 6531 Background: Risk- and response-adapted therapy of ESHL may provide an optimal balance of efficacy and toxicity.
  • METHODS: Patients (Pt) with clinically staged ESHL were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups which determined the initial number of ABVD cycles administered: Group(Gp) A (Stage I-IIA, no risk factors)-3 cycles; Gp B (I-IIA with ≥ 1 risk factor (ESR > 50, bulky disease, extra-nodal disease, > 3 sites)-4 cycles; and Gp C (I-II with B symptoms)-4 cycles.
  • The protocol specified that involved-field radiotherapy 30 Gy (IFRT) be given for Gps A and B if they attained a complete response/unconfirmed (CR/u) or partial response (PR) to initial ABVD, and for Gp C only if they attained a CR/u.
  • Lesser responses/major toxicity led to treatment at clinician discretion.
  • Data presented are for 12 months follow-up after completion of initial treatment.
  • RESULTS: There were 148 eligible pt: median age 34 yrs, 52% male, 32% stage I, 18% B-symptoms, 20% bulky disease, 5% extra-nodal.
  • 10 pt had individualised treatment.
  • Main results are presented in the table: [Figure: see text] Conclusions: Protocol treatment was well tolerated.
  • Response and early progression rates were promising after 3 ABVD+IFRT for pt without risk factors and, if confirmed on follow-up, support further treatment de-escalation studies for this pt group.
  • For pt with B-symptoms or other risk factors, further follow-up is needed to assess the adequacy of 4 ABVD + IFRT, and the importance of the response to initial chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 28016940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Rubio-Martínez A, Recasens V, Martos C, Montañés A, García-Carpintero G, Gómez-López L, Rubio-Félix D, Giraldo P: Predictive factors to develop a second neoplasia in a Hodgkin disease cohort patients. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):6707

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  • [Title] Predictive factors to develop a second neoplasia in a Hodgkin disease cohort patients.
  • : 6707 Background: Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a rare malignancy, incidence rate (IR): 2.4/105 inh/y, 85% can be cured.
  • The importance of late effects of therapy have become more apparent.
  • VARIABLES: demographic data, date of HL diagnosis, histological subtype, stage, treatment schedule (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, combined), date SM diagnosis, subtype and location of cancer.
  • Cohort was stratified according to age, gender and schedule of therapy.
  • Subtype: NE 71%, MC22%, LP 24; stage: IA 12.7%, IB 1.6%, IIA 27.9%, IIB 5%, IIIA 16.9%, IIIB 14.4% IVA 9.3% IVB 11.8%.
  • Radiotherapy 16.1% (mantle 50%, inverted-Y 11.8 %, both: 1.6%;cobalt 59.3%, linear accelerator 4.2%; total dose 20-36 Gy), chemotherapy 39.8% (ABVD 14.4%, MOPP 15.5%, CMOPP 23.7%, CMOPP/ABVD 18.6%, ABVD/MOPP 15.2%), combined 44%.
  • HL relapsed: 10.1%, mean time: 49 m.
  • Developed a SM 15(12.7%), mean 102.3 m; range 9-285: 11 a non-hematological neoplasia: adenocarcinoma (colon, breast, lung, oropharynx, skin, cavum, parotida. thyroid) and 4 a hematological neoplasia (AML and NHL).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of SM among long-time survivors of HL is higher than in normal population.
  • In other essays the major risk has been observed in patients treated with radiotherapy either alone or combined with chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 28014611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Meyer RM: Is there convincing evidence for the use of chemotherapy alone in patients with limited stage Hodgkin's lymphoma? Eur J Haematol Suppl; 2005 Jul;(66):115-20
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  • [Title] Is there convincing evidence for the use of chemotherapy alone in patients with limited stage Hodgkin's lymphoma?
  • Standard practices for patients with stages I and IIA non-bulky Hodgkin's lymphoma have evolved to include combined-modality therapy consisting of two or three cycles of ABVD and radiation therapy to the involved field.
  • Long-term disease control can be expected in more than 90% of patients.
  • However, long-term survival will also be dependent on the occurrence of treatment-related toxicities (late-effects) that include second cancers and cardiovascular events; deaths from these causes will outnumber those due to progressive Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Data from randomized trials testing the role of chemotherapy alone are now available.
  • These trials are based on the hypothesis that avoidance of radiation therapy will result in fewer deaths from late-effects, and that long-term survival will be at least comparable and possibly superior.
  • With intermediate periods of follow-up, the results of these randomized trials demonstrate that with chemotherapy alone, disease control is reduced by approximately 5-7%, but this difference has not translated into a survival advantage.
  • While further follow-up is required to evaluate longer term overall survival, current data can be interpreted as showing that a trade-off exists that requires balancing the advantage of superior disease control achieved with inclusion of radiation therapy and minimization of late-effects resulting from use of chemotherapy alone.
  • The balance associated with this trade-off makes chemotherapy alone a legitimate treatment option; patients and clinicians need to be aware of these options in when making treatment decisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Retrospective Studies. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16007879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0902-4506
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology. Supplementum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Haematol Suppl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ABVD protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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18. Molin D, Enblad G, Gustavsson A, Ekman T, Erlanson M, Haapaniemi E, Glimelius B, Swedish National Care Programme, Swedish Lymphoma Study Group: Early and intermediate stage Hodgkin's lymphoma--report from the Swedish National Care Programme. Eur J Haematol; 2003 Mar;70(3):172-80
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  • [Title] Early and intermediate stage Hodgkin's lymphoma--report from the Swedish National Care Programme.
  • In Sweden a National Care Programme provides treatment principles for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) since 1985, for early and intermediate stages often less extensive than international recommendations.
  • A total of 308 patients (167 men and 141 women), 17-59 yr old (median 31), diagnosed during 1985-92, pathological stage (PS) I-III1A and I-IIB and clinical stage (CS) I-IIA, mean follow-up 8.8 yr, were studied.
  • Staging laparotomy was recommended in CS IIA.
  • Recommended treatment was mantle or mini-mantle radiotherapy (RT) alone in CS IA, and PS I-IIA and subtotal nodal irradiation in PS III1A if the disease was not bulky.
  • Patients in PS I-IIA and III1A with bulky disease, and PS I-IIB received one cycle of mechlorethamine, vincristine, prednisone, procarbazine/doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, lacarbazine (MOPP/ABVD) before irradiation.
  • The remaining patients received three to four cycles of MOPP/ABVD with RT to bulky disease.
  • Relapse-free (RFS), Hodgkin specific (HLS), and overall survival (OS) at 10 yr were 74%, 92% and 85%.
  • RFS (P = 0.006), HLS, and OS were significantly better in patients treated with chemotherapy compared with those treated with RT alone, especially in patients with bulky disease (P = 0.0005).
  • The OS rates are in agreement with results from international centres during that time.
  • The recommended treatment was sufficient to produce the desired results of <20-30% recurrences, except in PS III1A.
  • These results favour the trend to treat early and intermediate stages with a short course of chemotherapy followed by limited RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / mortality. Hodgkin Disease / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Base Sequence. Delivery of Health Care. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Registries. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Sweden. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12605661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0902-4441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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19. Harris MA, Radford JA, Deakin DP, James RD, Swindell R, Cowan RA: Limited field radiotherapy for early stage, infra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin's lymphoma. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2004 Feb;16(1):53-7
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  • [Title] Limited field radiotherapy for early stage, infra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • AIMS: To analyse the treatment outcome for patients with stage I and II infra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Twenty-five out of 33 patients received radiotherapy alone, three out of 33 patients received minimal initial chemotherapy (MIT) (4 weeks VAPEC B) and five patients received six cycles of ChlVPP EVA hybrid chemotherapy before radiotherapy.
  • Fifteen of the 33 patients were stage IA, 15 were IIA, 1 was IB and 2 were IIB.
  • The median time to relapse was 37 months (range 7-65 months).
  • All five relapses had received radiotherapy alone and four were salvaged with chemotherapy.
  • There have been four second malignancies and one patient transformed to high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • No patient has died of Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of patients with infra-diaphragmatic stage I and II Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with limited-field radiotherapy, no patients died from uncontrolled disease.
  • The use of MIT may reduce the risk of relapse and obviate the need for conventional salvage chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Staging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chlorambucil / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14768756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; ChlVPP-EVA regimen; VAPEC-B protocol
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20. Azuma T, Ozaki E, Yakushijin Y, Kohno M, Sakai I, Takada K: [Esophageal stricture following complete remission after chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma in an elderly patient]. Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi; 2006 Jul;43(4):531-5
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  • [Title] [Esophageal stricture following complete remission after chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma in an elderly patient].
  • A 75-year-old woman was given a diagnosis of malignant lymphoma (non-Hodgkin, diffuse large B cell type, stage IIA) at our hospital on August 2003.
  • She received six courses of rituximab-based chemotherapy (R-CHOP regimen) and then she achieved complete remission.
  • We report here a case of esophageal stricture following complete remission after chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma in an elderly patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Stenosis / diagnosis. Esophageal Stenosis / etiology. Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Esophagectomy. Esophagitis, Peptic / complications. Female. Fractures, Compression / complications. Hernia, Hiatal / complications. Humans. Laparoscopy. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Rituximab. Spinal Fractures / complications

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  • (PMID = 16937948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Ronen Igakkai zasshi. Japanese journal of geriatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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21. Rueda Domínguez A, Márquez A, Gumá J, Llanos M, Herrero J, de Las Nieves MA, Miramón J, Alba E: Treatment of stage I and II Hodgkin's lymphoma with ABVD chemotherapy: results after 7 years of a prospective study. Ann Oncol; 2004 Dec;15(12):1798-804
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  • [Title] Treatment of stage I and II Hodgkin's lymphoma with ABVD chemotherapy: results after 7 years of a prospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy with ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and darcarbacine) schedule is the standard treatment for advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Certain facts, including a low toxicity compared with MOPP/ABV (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, doxorubicin, bleomycin and vinblastine) and minimal potential for inducing second neoplasias or patient sterility, support the use of ABVD to treat early disease stages.
  • In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the long-term efficacy and toxicity of six cycles of ABVD as treatment for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1990 to June 2002, 95 patients with stage I and II Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with six ABVD cycles.
  • Fifteen patients who met the criteria for mediastinal bulky disease also received further radiotherapy on the mediastinum.
  • For patients with stage IA and IIA without mediastinal bulky disease, the survival rates were 97% and 88%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The administration of six ABVD cycles is an effective and safe treatment in patients with stage I and II Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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  • (PMID = 15550585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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22. Martinelli G, Cocorocchio E, Peccatori F, Zucca E, Saletti PC, Calabrese L, Pastano R, Pruneri G, Mazzetta C, Ghielmini M, Cavalli F: ChlVPP/ABVVP, a first line 'hybrid' combination chemotherapy for advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma: a retrospective analysis. Br J Haematol; 2004 Jun;125(5):584-9
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  • [Title] ChlVPP/ABVVP, a first line 'hybrid' combination chemotherapy for advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma: a retrospective analysis.
  • We retrospectively analysed toxicities and clinical results of 61 Hodgkin's lymphoma patients treated with chlorambucil, vinblastine, procarbazine, doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine and etoposide (ChlVPP/ABVVP), delivered in a weekly alternate schedule.
  • Of 61 patients, 33 were in stages III-IV, 21 in stage IIB and seven in stage IIA with bulky disease or extranodal presentation.
  • Involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) (30-35 Gy) was delivered to 31 patients with residual disease after chemotherapy or bulky disease at diagnosis.
  • Of 61 patients, 58 (95%) achieved complete clinical or radiological remission after chemotherapy and IFRT.
  • One patient developed secondary acute myeloid leukaemia 1 year after ChlVPP/ABVVP.
  • Due to the retrospective nature of this study, no definitive conclusions could be drawn about the clinical activity of ChlVPP/ABVVP.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Chlorambucil / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15147373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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23. Samant R, Alomary I, Alsaeed E, Al-Jasir B, Bence-Bruckler I, Cross P, Genest P, Huebsch L: Comparison of favorable early-stage hodgkin's lymphoma treatments: a single-institution review. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Mar 15;76(4):1166-70
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  • [Title] Comparison of favorable early-stage hodgkin's lymphoma treatments: a single-institution review.
  • PURPOSE: To compare outcomes of patients receiving combined-modality chemotherapy and radiation (CMT) vs. other approaches for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A review of patients with nonbulky, early-stage (IA/IIA) HL treated between 1984 and 2002 was performed to determine the treatment approaches used and the outcomes obtained.
  • RESULTS: There were 173 adult patients with newly diagnosed early-stage HL (49% men, 51% women, median age 33 [range 17-82] years).
  • Treatment was as follows: extended-field radiotherapy alone (EFRT) 49%; chemotherapy alone (CTA) 13%; and CMT 38%.
  • Among CMT patients, 36% received abbreviated doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy (three to four cycles) followed by involved-field radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Early-stage HL treatment has changed dramatically over the past 2 decades, and our results support the superiority and continued use of CMT, specifically abbreviated-course chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy, as an appropriate treatment approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19695788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ABVD protocol
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24. Ben Arush MW, Shafat I, Ben Barak A, Shalom RB, Vlodavsky I, Ilan N: Plasma heparanase as a significant marker of treatment response in children with Hodgkin lymphoma: pilot study. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Jun;26(4):157-64
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  • [Title] Plasma heparanase as a significant marker of treatment response in children with Hodgkin lymphoma: pilot study.
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of this pilot study was to determine heparanase plasma levels (HP) at diagnosis and at restaging in children diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma and to investigate whether this parameter provides prognostic information for response to treatment after induction therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: HP levels of 19 pediatric patients (mean age: 10.3 years (y) (range, 4-18 y), 9 girls, 10 boys) with Hodgkin lymphoma were assayed at diagnosis and at restaging.
  • According to diagnosis, CAT scan and/or FDG/ PET-CT fusion were performed to assess response to treatment after 2-3 courses of chemotherapy.
  • Two patients received VAMP protocol (1 stage IA, 1 stage IIA), 1 received AV-PC (nonbulky stage IIA), 4 received COPP/ABV (3 stage IIA bulky, 1 stage IIIA nonbulky), 4 received ABVE-PC (2 stage IIB, 1 stage IIA bulky, 1 stage IIIA bulky), 2 received ABVD (1 stage IIA bulky, 1 stage IIIA), and 6 received escalated BEACOPP (1 stage IIIB, 3 stage IVA, 2 stage IVB).
  • RESULTS: Changes in HP levels were found to correlate with response to treatment for most of the children.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Changes in plasma HP levels correlated with response to treatment for children diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • This provides a rationale for exploring clinical interest in plasma heparanase measurements of a larger group, using the test for clinical trials of antiangiogenic therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Glucuronidase / blood. Hodgkin Disease / blood. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis

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  • [ErratumIn] Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009 Sep;26(6):479. Shafat, I [corrected to Shafat, Itay]; Vlodavsky, Eugene [corrected to Vlodavsky, Israel]
  • (PMID = 19437318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.2.1.- / heparanase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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25. Eich HT, Haverkamp U, Engert A, Kocher M, Skripnitchenko R, Brillant C, Sehlen S, Dühmke E, Diehl V, Müller RP: Biophysical analysis of the acute toxicity of radiotherapy in Hodgkin's lymphoma--a comparison between extended field and involved field radiotherapy based on the data of the German Hodgkin Study Group. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Nov 1;63(3):860-5
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  • [Title] Biophysical analysis of the acute toxicity of radiotherapy in Hodgkin's lymphoma--a comparison between extended field and involved field radiotherapy based on the data of the German Hodgkin Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: To determine biophysical parameters from the complication probability data during and after radiotherapy of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), based on the number of gastrointestinal side effects that were found in the multicenter HD8 trial of the German Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1993 and 1998, 1204 patients with newly diagnosed, histology-proven HL in clinical Stages I/IIA/IIB with defined risk factors and stage IIIA without risk factors were enrolled into the multicenter HD8 study.
  • Patients were randomized to receive two cycles of COPP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) alternating with two cycles of ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) followed by radiotherapy (RT) of 30 Gy extended field plus 10 Gy to bulky disease (Arm A) or 30 Gy involved field plus 10 Gy to bulky disease (Arm B).
  • From the dose-volume histograms for a "standard patient" (volume intestine 2300 cm3), we determined the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) (V, D, m, n, TD50), the biophysical parameter TD50, and n (volume dependent) in such a manner that the observed NTCP in Arm A in cases of supradiaphragmatic involvement only and in cases of infradiaphragmatic involvement correlated with the calculated values.
  • The median observation time was 54 months.
  • The overall survival for all eligible patients was 91%, and freedom from treatment failure was 83%.
  • Survival rates at 5 years after start of RT revealed no differences in terms of freedom from treatment failure (85.8% in Arm A, 84.2% in Arm B) and overall survival (90.8% and 92.4%).
  • There were also no differences between the two arms in terms of complete remission, progressive disease, relapse, death, and secondary neoplasias.
  • Concerning gastrointestinal toxicity, the different radiation treatment volumes resulted in different NTCPs.
  • On the basis of these findings, values of n = 0.09 and TD50 = 32 Gy were derived.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy volume reduction from extended field to involved field after two cycles of COPP/ABVD chemotherapy gives similar results and less toxicity in patients with early-stage, unfavorable HL.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Tract / radiation effects. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15925455.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; ABVD protocol; COPP protocol
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26. Angelopoulou MK, Vassilakopoulos TP, Siakantaris MP, Kontopidou FN, Boussiotis VA, Papavassiliou C, Kittas C, Pangalis GA: EBVD combination chemotherapy plus low dose involved field radiation is a highly effective treatment modality for early stage Hodgkin's disease. Leuk Lymphoma; 2000 Mar;37(1-2):131-43
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  • [Title] EBVD combination chemotherapy plus low dose involved field radiation is a highly effective treatment modality for early stage Hodgkin's disease.
  • To evaluate the efficacy of EBVD combination chemotherapy followed by low dose (LD) involved field (IF) radiation therapy (RT) in patients with clinical stage (CS) I-IIA Hodgkin's disease (HD), we analyzed 148 patients treated in our Unit from March 1988 to November 1995.
  • All drugs were administered i.v. at days 1 and 15, every 4 weeks, for a total of 4-6 cycles.
  • LDIF RT (24-32 Gy) was scheduled for patients with complete response (CR) or >90% reduction of tumor load, after EBVD.
  • Patients with stable or progressive disease (SD, PD) after EBVDx3 or poor compliance to the regimen received mantle or inverted Y RT at standard dose.
  • Nine patients relapsed at a median of 7 months from the end of treatment.
  • One patient developed a diffuse large cell lymphoma 48 months after the diagnosis of HD.
  • We conclude that EBVD followed by LDIF RT is a highly effective regimen for patients with CS I-IIA HD.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10721777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; EBVD protocol
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27. Meyer RM, Gospodarowicz MK, Connors JM, Pearcey RG, Bezjak A, Wells WA, Burns BF, Winter JN, Horning SJ, Dar AR, Djurfeldt MS, Ding K, Shepherd LE, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group: Randomized comparison of ABVD chemotherapy with a strategy that includes radiation therapy in patients with limited-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jul 20;23(21):4634-42
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  • [Title] Randomized comparison of ABVD chemotherapy with a strategy that includes radiation therapy in patients with limited-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.
  • PURPOSE: We report results of a randomized trial comparing ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) chemotherapy alone with treatment that includes radiation therapy in patients with limited-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with nonbulky clinical stage I to IIA Hodgkin's lymphoma were stratified into favorable and unfavorable risk cohorts.
  • Patients allocated to radiation-containing therapy received subtotal nodal radiation if favorable risk or combined-modality therapy if unfavorable risk.
  • Patients allocated to ABVD received four to six treatment cycles.
  • In comparison with ABVD alone, 5-year freedom from disease progression is superior in patients allocated to radiation therapy (P = .006; 93% v 87%); no differences in event-free survival (P = .06; 88% v 86%) or overall survival (P = .4; 94% v 96%) were detected.
  • In a subset analyses comparing patients stratified into the unfavorable cohort, freedom from disease progression was superior in patients allocated to combined-modality treatment (P = .004; 95% v 88%); no difference in overall survival was detected (P = .3; 92% v 95%).
  • Of 15 deaths observed, nine were attributed to causes other than Hodgkin's lymphoma or acute treatment-related toxicity.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with limited-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma, no difference in overall survival was detected between patients randomly assigned to receive treatment that includes radiation therapy or ABVD alone.
  • Although 5-year freedom from disease progression was superior in patients receiving radiation therapy, this advantage is offset by deaths due to causes other than progressive Hodgkin's lymphoma or acute treatment-related toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Vinblastine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Survival Rate


28. Campbell BA, Voss N, Pickles T, Morris J, Gascoyne RD, Savage KJ, Connors JM: Involved-nodal radiation therapy as a component of combination therapy for limited-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: a question of field size. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Nov 10;26(32):5170-4
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  • [Title] Involved-nodal radiation therapy as a component of combination therapy for limited-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: a question of field size.
  • PURPOSE: Combined-modality therapy is the standard of care for limited-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL).
  • Radiation therapy has evolved from extended-field radiation therapy (EFRT) to involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT), reducing toxicity while maintaining high cure rates.
  • Recent publications recommend a further reduction to involved-nodal radiation therapy (INRT), however, this has not been clinically validated.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 325 patients with limited-stage HL, diagnosed between May 1, 1989 and April 1, 2005, and treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy following era-specific guidelines: EFRT until 1996; IFRT from 1996 to 2001; INRT < or = 5 cm from 2001 to the present.
  • INRT < or = 5 cm was defined as the prechemotherapy nodal volume with margins < or = 5 cm to account for physiological movement, set-up variation, and the limitations of conventional simulation and radiation therapy techniques.
  • Exclusion criteria were age younger than 16, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, non-doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine-like chemotherapy, and/or more than four chemotherapy cycles.
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, median age was 35 years; 52% male; stage IA 29%; stage IIA 71%.
  • Ninety-five percent of patients received two chemotherapy cycles.
  • The three radiation therapy groups were: EFRT, 39%; IFRT, 30%; and INRT < or = 5 cm, 31%.
  • Median time to relapse was 37 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Lymph Nodes / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Recurrence. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18838714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Lee KH, Fiedler P, Passarelli J, Bobrow S: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia associated with postirradiation malignant stromal tumor (leiomyosarcoma) of the jejunum. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2000 Dec;4(6):367-9
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  • We describe a patient who presented with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and small bowel obstruction secondary to a malignant stromal tumor (leiomyosarcoma) of the jejunum, 25 years postchemotherapy and radiation treatment for stage IIA Hodgkin's disease.
  • The patient was treated with corticosteroid therapy and surgical resection of the jejunal tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / adverse effects


30. Kolstad A, Nome O, Delabie J, Lauritzsen GF, Fossa A, Holte H: Standard CHOP-21 as first line therapy for elderly patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2007 Mar;48(3):570-6
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  • [Title] Standard CHOP-21 as first line therapy for elderly patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • There is no consensus on the optimal chemotherapy regimen for Hodgkin's lymphoma patients > or = 60 years.
  • Stage I/IIA patients (38%) were treated with 2 - 4 cycles of CHOP followed by radiotherapy.
  • Stage IIB - IV patients (62%) received 6 - 8 cycles of CHOP and for the majority (13/18 pts) no radiotherapy.
  • Two treatment-related deaths occurred.
  • With a median follow-up of 41 months, five patients have relapsed and four have died from Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • So far, no relapses have occurred after 2 years from the end of therapy.
  • We conclude that CHOP-21 is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for elderly patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17454601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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31. Levis A, Anselmo AP, Ambrosetti A, Adamo F, Bertini M, Cavalieri E, Gavarotti P, Genua A, Liberati M, Pavone V, Pietrasanta D, Ricetti MM, Scalabrini DR, Salvi F, Vitolo U, Angelucci E, Boccadoro M, Gallo E, Mandelli F, Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi (IIL): VEPEMB in elderly Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. Results from an Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi (IIL) study. Ann Oncol; 2004 Jan;15(1):123-8
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  • [Title] VEPEMB in elderly Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. Results from an Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi (IIL) study.
  • BACKGROUND: In advanced age the prognosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is poor, but, as a consequence of the low incidence of HL in the elderly, prospective studies are lacking and the best treatment strategy is difficult to define.
  • Forty-eight early stage (IA-IIA) patients received three courses of VEPEMB followed by involved field irradiation.
  • Fifty-seven advanced stage (IIB-IV) patients received six courses followed by radiotherapy limited to the areas of bulky disease.
  • A treatment plan modification for poor tolerance or toxicity was needed in 18 patients.
  • Results were satisfactory, even if they were better in early rather than in advanced stage disease: complete response rate 98% versus 58% (P <0.01); 5-year failure-free survival 79% versus 34% (P <0.01).
  • The results were affected by advanced stage, systemic symptoms and co-morbidity but they were not influenced by age itself.

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  • (PMID = 14679131.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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32. Hoskin PJ, Lowry L, Horwich A, Jack A, Mead B, Hancock BW, Smith P, Qian W, Patrick P, Popova B, Pettitt A, Cunningham D, Pettengell R, Sweetenham J, Linch D, Johnson PW: Randomized comparison of the stanford V regimen and ABVD in the treatment of advanced Hodgkin's Lymphoma: United Kingdom National Cancer Research Institute Lymphoma Group Study ISRCTN 64141244. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Nov 10;27(32):5390-6
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  • [Title] Randomized comparison of the stanford V regimen and ABVD in the treatment of advanced Hodgkin's Lymphoma: United Kingdom National Cancer Research Institute Lymphoma Group Study ISRCTN 64141244.
  • PURPOSE: This multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy and toxicity of two chemotherapy regimens in advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL): the weekly alternating Stanford V and the standard, twice-weekly regimen of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients had stage IIB, III, or IV disease or had stages I to IIA disease with bulky disease or other adverse features.
  • Five hundred patients received protocol treatment, and radiotherapy was administered to 73% in the Stanford V arm and to 53% in the ABVD arm.
  • RESULTS: The overall response rates after completion of all treatment were 91% for Stanford V and 92% for ABVD.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Lung Diseases / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19738111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ISRCTN/ ISRCTN64141244
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C2422/A2858
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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33. You Y, Xia LH, Zhang C, Liu F, Chen ZC, Zou P: [Clinical observation of selected CD34(+) cell autologous transplantation in non-Hodgin lymphoma: report of 5 cases]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Nov 27;87(44):3127-9
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  • [Title] [Clinical observation of selected CD34(+) cell autologous transplantation in non-Hodgin lymphoma: report of 5 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical effect of peripheral blood progenitor (PBPC) selected CD34(+) cell autologous transplantation in non-Hodgin lymphoma (NHL) patients.
  • METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from 5 NHL patients, 3 males and 2 females, aged 29 (14 - 58), t3 with T cell NHL, 1 with diffused large B cell NHL and 1 with genuine histiocytic lymphoma, 2 at the IIA stage and 3 at the IVB stage, and 4 in their first complete remission (CR1) period, and 1 in partial remission (PR2).
  • CD34(+) cells were collected by magnetic-activated cell sorting system, enriched, and re-infused after pretreatment with chemotherapy and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / blood. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods

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  • (PMID = 18269872.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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34. Coleman M, Kaufmann T, Nisce LZ, Leonard JP: Treatment of nonlaparotomized (clinical) stage I and II Hodgkin's disease patients by extended field and splenic irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Mar 15;46(5):1235-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of nonlaparotomized (clinical) stage I and II Hodgkin's disease patients by extended field and splenic irradiation.
  • PURPOSE: At the New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, patients with unequivocal clinical stage I and IIA Hodgkin's disease (HD) have been treated with mantle, splenic, and extended field radiation therapy (EFRT) (without surgical staging).
  • Patients with pathological or equivocal staging, "B" symptoms, bulk disease, history of previous chemotherapy, and/or Stage III or IV disease were excluded from our analysis.
  • There were 27 Stage IA and 67 Stage IIA patients.
  • The median time to relapse was 38 months; mean time 42. 3 months.
  • All patients are alive, well and free of disease, including nine who received subsequent chemotherapy and one who underwent autotransplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Spleen

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  • (PMID = 10725636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 07968
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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35. Shikama N, Oguchi M, Isobe K, Nakamura K, Tamaki Y, Hasegawa M, Kodaira T, Sasaki S, Kagami Y, Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG): A prospective study of reduced-dose three-course CHOP followed by involved-field radiotherapy for patients 70 years old or more with localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Sep 1;66(1):217-22
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  • [Title] A prospective study of reduced-dose three-course CHOP followed by involved-field radiotherapy for patients 70 years old or more with localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • PURPOSE: We conducted a multicenter prospective study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of reduced-dose three-course CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) followed by involved-field radiotherapy for elderly patients with localized aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study included untreated patients, > or =70 years old, with diffuse aggressive lymphoma, Stage IA or contiguous nonbulky Stage IIA.
  • After three cycles of chemotherapy, involved-field radiotherapy was performed with a radiation dose of 30-50 Gy in 15-28 fractions.
  • Three patients received only two cycles of chemotherapy because of toxicity or second neoplasm.
  • The next step is to evaluate three-course 80%-CHOP and rituximab followed by radiotherapy in elderly patients with localized disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16814951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
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36. Karmiris TD, Grigoriou E, Tsantekidou M, Spanou E, Mihalakeas H, Baltadakis J, Apostolidis J, Pagoni M, Karakasis D, Bakiri M, Mitsouli C, Harhalakis N, Nikiforakis E: Treatment of early clinically staged Hodgkin's disease with a combination of ABVD chemotherapy plus limited field radiotherapy. Leuk Lymphoma; 2003 Sep;44(9):1523-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of early clinically staged Hodgkin's disease with a combination of ABVD chemotherapy plus limited field radiotherapy.
  • The current management of early stage Hodgkin's disease (HD) is usually based on clinical staging, combined modality therapy and the use of less toxic chemotherapy regimens.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a brief course of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy followed by limited field radiotherapy (RT) in favorable clinical stage (CS) I and IIA HD.
  • Forty patients, aged 17-68 (median 34) years, with favorable CS I and IIA HD, without bulky mediastinal disease, have been treated with 4-6 (median 4) cycles of ABVD plus limited field RT.
  • Twenty seven (67%) patients received 4 cycles of chemotherapy, while 13 received 5-6 cycles.
  • Thirty five (87%) patients received limited field RT with dose 24-36 Gy and five (13%) received extended field with 36-46 Gy.
  • All patients responded completely to chemotherapy.
  • One patient experienced a relapse two months after the end of therapy.
  • Considering the short follow-up time and the small number of patients, the combination of a brief course of ABVD plus regional RT is a very efficacious treatment of favorable CS I and IIA HD with mild toxicity.
  • However, long term survival data are needed, which could give confident answers regarding the risk of late therapy related complications, particularly second malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 14565654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ABVD protocol
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37. Balwierz W, Moryl-Bujakowska A, Depowska T, Klekawka T, Stanuch H, Matysiak M, Sopyło B, Kołakowska-Mrozowska B, Krenke K, Chybicka A, Raś M, Sońta-Jakimczyk D, Moszant A, Wachowiak J, Kaczmarek-Kanold M, Kowalczyk J, Odój T, Balcerska A, Drozyńska E, Wysocki M, Kołtan A, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Stolarska M: [Over 30-year experience of Polish Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group for treatment of Hodgkin's disease in children and adolescents: improvement curability and decrease of serious complications]. Przegl Lek; 2004;61 Suppl 2:33-9
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  • [Title] [Over 30-year experience of Polish Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group for treatment of Hodgkin's disease in children and adolescents: improvement curability and decrease of serious complications].
  • Currently over 90% of children with HD can be cured thanks to use of chemotherapy (CT) combined with involved field radiotherapy (IF-RT).
  • From 1971 to 2001, 1062 children and adolescents with HD (stage I to IV) were treated in 10 oncological centers PPLLSG.
  • Year by year the intensity of therapy (CT and RT) was gradually adjusted to the risk-factor groups, and invasive methods of staging were also gradually limited.
  • Supportive care was improved at the same time.
  • Along with the modified therapy protocol, five consecutive periods of time (I: 1971-82; II: 1983-87; IIII: 1988-93; IV: 1994-96; V: 1997-2001) were analyzed.
  • In order to decrease the incidence of late complications, the dose of IF-RT from 45 Gy to 15-30 Gy was reduced in the next periods.
  • In V period in 21 children with stage IA and IIA with favorable prognostic factors, CT alone was used.
  • Intensity of therapy should be tailored to the stage of disease, and to other significant prognostic factors.
  • The current strategy of diagnosing and treatment of HD is aimed at balancing between the highest possible cure rates and risk of late complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Mechlorethamine / administration & dosage. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Poland. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15688474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 50D9XSG0VR / Mechlorethamine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; B-DOPA protocol; MVPP protocol
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38. Alebouyeh M, Moussavi F, Haddad-Deylami H, Vossough P: Successful ambulatory treatment of Hodgkin's disease in Iranian children based on German-Austrian DAL-HD 85-90: single institutional results. Ann Oncol; 2005 Dec;16(12):1936-40
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  • [Title] Successful ambulatory treatment of Hodgkin's disease in Iranian children based on German-Austrian DAL-HD 85-90: single institutional results.
  • BACKGROUND: Hodgkin's disease (HD) accounts for 7.5% of childhood malignancies in Iran.
  • In order to minimize chemotherapy toxicity and avoid eventual hospitalization and psychological and financial burdens we have applied since 1988, for the first time in Iran, a treatment regimen based on subsequently revised DAL-HD 85-90 and later GPOH-HD 95 protocols.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the period 1988-2004, 40 children with HD received DAL/GPOH-HD-adapted treatment; 25 males (62.5%) and 15 females (37.5%) (male/female ratio 1.7; age 4-14 years, mean 8.8).
  • Staging was as follows: stage I; seven (17.5%); II, 11 (27.5%); III, 11 (27.5%); and IV, 11 (27.5%).
  • Stage IA and IIA patients (n = 15) received either OPA x2 (vincristine, prednisolone, doxorubicin) or OPPA x2 or OPEA x2 (vincristine, prednisolone, procarbazine and doxorubicin), the latter receiving etoposide instead of procarbazine, and applied to males.
  • Twenty nine patients (72.5%) received radiotherapy (20-25 Gy); four to the involved field (stage I), 25 to the upper mantel (stage II and also III with either residual or mediastinal mass) and three additionally to spleen and para-aortic lymph nodes.
  • Eleven patients received only chemotherapy.
  • Relapse occurred in eight patients (20%); seven stage IV (MC) and one stage IA (LP) with progression to IIIB.
  • Salvage chemotherapy consisted of MOPP/ABVD hybrid; six patients achieved a second sustained remission and three patients died: two due to relapse and progressive disease and the third one in CR, owing to thrombocytopenic hemorrhage and foudroyant pneumonia.
  • Aside from minor acute toxicities, three patients demonstrated azoospermia at the age of 18 years and one of these patients suffered non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a second malignancy.
  • Both received appropriate treatment and are over 10 years in CR.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The DAL/GPOH-HD-based treatment approach proved to achieve long-term sustained cure even in children with advanced HD disease.
  • The essentially outpatient diagnosis and treatment modus did not compromise the disease outcome, and was well tolerated and accepted by the patients and their parents.
  • The employed drugs are easily available and affordable.
  • This treatment approach is suitable for ambulatory use in developing countries.

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  • (PMID = 16157620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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39. Balwierz W, Moryl-Bujakowska A, Depowska T, Klekawka T, Rokicka-Milewska R, Sopylo B, Kolakowska-Mrozowska B, Chybicka A, Boguslawska-Jaworska J, Pisarek J, Ras M, Sonta-Jakimczyk D, Janik-Moszant A, Kolecki P, Kaczmarek-Kanold M, Kowalczyk J, Odoj T, Matysiak M, Newecka-Samol T, Balcerska A, Adamkiewicz-Drozynska E, Wysocki M, Kurylak A: [Treatment regimen for children and adolescents with Hodgkin's disease designed to decrease late complications of radiotherapy]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2001 Jul-Sep;5(3 Suppl 1):25-35
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  • [Title] [Treatment regimen for children and adolescents with Hodgkin's disease designed to decrease late complications of radiotherapy].
  • Between 1997 to 1999 in 9 centres of the Polish Paediatlic Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group, 167 children and adolescents (aged 2-19 years) with stage 1 to IV Hodgkin's disease (HD) were treated according to a regimen with a limited use of radiotherapy (RT).
  • All patients received B-DOPA and MVPP chemotherapy.
  • The number of cycles of chemotherapy was adjusted in respective risk groups.
  • In 13 children with stage IA and IIA disease with favourable prognostic factors chemotherapy alone was used.
  • In other patients the dose of RT applied to lymphatic regions was 15-46,4 Gy.
  • In case of a small tumour at presentation and good response to initial chemotherapy the RT dose was 15-16 Gy.
  • In other cases doses of 25-30 Gy were planned.
  • The use of higher doses, particularly exceeding 35 Gy, in eleven patients, was not justified.
  • Among all the 167 patients, three oftliem (1.2%) with advanced disease (Stage III-1V) did not achieve first remission.
  • All 13 children in whom chemotherapy alone was used remain in first remission.
  • In the group of children who received RT in the dose of 15-16 Gy relapse occurred in one child.
  • Our preliminary analysis indicates that limited use of RT in selected cases of HD in children and adolescents did not show worse results of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Risk. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12004149.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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40. Yakushijin Y, Sakai I, Takada K, Yasukawa M, Fujita S: [Double B-cell malignancies with simultaneous onset]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2004 Mar;45(3):218-22
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We encountered a case of a 59-year-old female who simultaneously contracted a non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and a plasma cell neoplasm.
  • She was diagnosed as having NHL (follicular center lymphoma, grade I, stage IIA) after an open tumor biopsy, and treated by cycles of CHOP chemotherapy which resulted in complete remission.
  • A tumor biopsy was performed laparoscopically at that time.
  • Follicular lymphoma (with positive LCA, L-26, and bcl-2 immuno-staining) with the development of retroperitoneal fibrosis was diagnosed again.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms. Lymphoma, Follicular. Multiple Myeloma. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Multiple Myeloma.
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  • (PMID = 15103935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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