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Items 1 to 37 of about 37
1. Shimabukuro T, Nakamura K, Uchiyama K, Tei Y, Aoki A, Naito K: Angiotensin-II combined intra-arterial chemotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer: a case series study at a single institution. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Feb;52(2):99-105
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  • [Title] Angiotensin-II combined intra-arterial chemotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer: a case series study at a single institution.
  • Patients with locally advanced bladder cancer are at significant risk for metastases.
  • We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) combined with angiotensin-II (AT-II) in such patients.
  • The possibility of bladder preservation is also discussed.
  • Patients were enrolled if they had muscle-invasive bladder cancer (stage T2 to T4NxM0).
  • Cisplatin, pirarubicin, and AT-II were infused through the tumor-feeding arteries.
  • Our results suggest that intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with AT-II is a useful treatment for patients with locally advanced bladder cancer, since this modality achieves a favorable response rate without severe toxicity or mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiotensin II / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16541762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; D58G680W0G / pirarubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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2. Fakhr I, El-Hossieny H, Salama A: Delayed Cystectomy for T1G3 Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of the Urinary Bladder, NCI Retrospective Case Series. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2008 Dec;20(4):387-94

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  • [Title] Delayed Cystectomy for T1G3 Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of the Urinary Bladder, NCI Retrospective Case Series.
  • AIM: We aim to evaluate the National Cancer Institute (NCI) treatment protocol and its outcome regarding recurrence, progression and survival in patients with T1G3 urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a retrospective study, between January 2001 and December 2007, all 34 patients with T1G3 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), after complete transurethral resection (TURBT), received intravesical BCG as adjuvant therapy.
  • Two (20.0%) of them, were staged as TNM stage II, 6 (60.0%) as TNM stage III and 2 (20.0%) patients were TNM stage IV.
  • Eight (72.7%) of these 11 patients had post-cystectomy radiotherapy alone; while the 2 (6.0%) other patients with stage IV had adjuvant concomitant Cisplatin and Gemcitabine chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Adjuvant intravesical therapy with BCG with repeated cystoscopies, and delayed radical cystectomy until progression to the invasive disease carries a significant risk of mortality from invasive disease.
  • This treatment policy may be acceptable for T1G3 bladder TCC, without concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), who don't recur after intravesical BCG, however, patients who progress to invasive disease may skip stage II disease and present with stage III or IV, with consequent poor survival.
  • KEY WORDS: Superficial bladder cancer - T1G3 TCC - Delayed cystectomy - BCG.

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  • (PMID = 20571597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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3. Herchenhorn D, Dienstmann R, Peixoto FA, de Campos FS, Santos VO, Moreira DM, Cardoso H, Small IA, Ferreira CG: Phase II trial of neoadjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with resectable bladder carcinoma. Int Braz J Urol; 2007 Sep-Oct;33(5):630-8; discussion 638
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of neoadjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with resectable bladder carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: Gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) is an active combination in the treatment of metastatic bladder cancer.
  • We have prospectively analyzed the efficacy and tolerability of GC as neoadjuvant treatment of invasive bladder cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-institution phase II trial, patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma received three cycles of gemcitabine 1200 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 with cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 prior to surgery.
  • Radiologic response was evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • All patients were referred to surgery after chemotherapy completion.
  • Initial stage was II (T2) in 11 and III (T3-4) in 11 patients.
  • One patient was excluded due to sarcomatoid carcinoma at definitive pathologic examination.
  • Grade III/IV toxicity was infrequent, with no deaths due to chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of GC is effective and well-tolerated when used as neoadjuvant therapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Int Braz J Urol. 2007 Nov-Dec;33(6):840-1 [18199355.001]
  • (PMID = 17980060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-5538
  • [Journal-full-title] International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Braz J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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4. Asadauskiene J, Aleknavicius E, Zelviene TP, Jankevicius F: [Bladder preservation possibilities in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2006;42(10):781-7
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  • [Title] [Bladder preservation possibilities in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer].
  • Radical cystectomy is the standard of treatment for muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in European Union and in United States.
  • During the last few decades, several clinical trials were performed with the aim to evaluate new treatment methods as an alternative to radical cystectomy for selected patient groups.
  • According to some clinical trials, it is clear that bladder preservation is possible without compromising overall survival of these patients.
  • Organ preservation requires a combined-modality treatment including transurethral resection of bladder tumor, radiation therapy, and systemic chemotherapy.
  • Incorporation of chemotherapeutic agents such as gemcitabine or taxanes in bladder-sparing protocols improves the results of conservative treatment of locally advanced bladder cancer.
  • Pretreatment selection criteria and the most important prognostic factors are macroscopically complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor, absence of hydronephrosis, and lower T stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy Dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Urinary Bladder / pathology. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17090976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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5. Poortmans PM, Richaud P, Collette L, Ho Goey S, Pierart M, Van Der Hulst M, Bolla M, EORTC Radiation Oncology Group: Results of the phase II EORTC 22971 trial evaluating combined accelerated external radiation and chemotherapy with 5FU and cisplatin in patients with muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Acta Oncol; 2008;47(5):937-40
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  • [Title] Results of the phase II EORTC 22971 trial evaluating combined accelerated external radiation and chemotherapy with 5FU and cisplatin in patients with muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • INTRODUCTION: We prospectively evaluated concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer in a phase II EORTC trial to test whether it could be further studied as a potential treatment of bladder cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients up to 75 years of age with invasive transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder up to 5 cm, stage pT2 to pT3b, N0M0, without residual macroscopical tumour after transurethral excision were eligible.
  • Radiotherapy consisted of 2 fractions of 1.2 Gy daily up to 60 Gy delivered in a period of 5 weeks.
  • Five patients had tumour stage pT2, 1 stage pT3a and 3 stage pT3b.
  • All patients completed radiotherapy and chemotherapy as scheduled.
  • All patients were evaluated 3 months after treatment: eight patients had no detectable tumour and one had para-aortic lymph nodes.
  • During further follow-up, a second patient got lymph node metastases and two patients developed distant metastases (lung in the patient with enlarged lymph nodes at the first evaluation and abdominal in one other).
  • DISCUSSION: Despite the small cohort, this combination of concomitant chemotherapy and accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer seemed to be well tolerated and to result in satisfactory local control with limited early and late toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / radiotherapy. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18568488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-37
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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6. Smith DC, Mackler NJ, Dunn RL, Hussain M, Wood D, Lee CT, Sanda M, Vaishampayan U, Petrylak DP, Quinn DI, Beekman K, Montie JE: Phase II trial of paclitaxel, carboplatin and gemcitabine in patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol; 2008 Dec;180(6):2384-8; discussion 2388
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of paclitaxel, carboplatin and gemcitabine in patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the bladder.
  • PURPOSE: This 2-arm phase II multicenter trial was designed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of neoadjuvant paclitaxel, gemcitabine and carboplatin in patients with invasive bladder cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in arm I had clinical stage T2 with hydronephrosis or T3 bladder cancer.
  • They received 3 cycles of chemotherapy (200 mg/m(2) paclitaxel on day 1, AUC 5 carboplatin on day 1, and 800 mg/m(2) gemcitabine on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle).
  • Patients in arm II with T4 or lymph node positive disease received up to 6 cycles of paclitaxel, carboplatin and gemcitabine.
  • In arm II, 37 patients were enrolled and 29 were evaluable for response with 24 suitable for surgical resection (83% of evaluable and 65% by intent to treat).
  • The most common toxicity was neutropenia with 39 events in arm I and 68 in arm II.
  • There were 7 deaths on study (5 during chemotherapy and 2 after cystectomy).
  • More studies of novel agents and combinations are needed to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of neoadjuvant therapy for bladder cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18930256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046592-209034; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P30 CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-209034
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS109651; NLM/ PMC2716704
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7. Gitlitz BJ, Baker C, Chapman Y, Allen HJ, Bosserman LD, Patel R, Sanchez JD, Shapiro RM, Figlin RA: A phase II study of gemcitabine and docetaxel therapy in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma. Cancer; 2003 Nov 1;98(9):1863-9
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  • [Title] A phase II study of gemcitabine and docetaxel therapy in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine plus docetaxel in patients with unresectable (Stage T4 or >/= N1) metastatic or locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urothelial tract.
  • The first 10 patients in the study received 800 mg/m(2) of gemcitabine intravenously on Days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day treatment cycle.
  • Twenty-five of 27 patients (92.6%) completed more than 1 cycle of combination therapy and were evaluated for antitumor responses.
  • Complete responses to therapy were observed in 2 of 27 patients (7.4%), and partial responses were observed in 7 of 27 patients (25.9%).
  • Four of 27 patients (14.8%) remained alive at the time of the current data analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggested that combination therapy with gemcitabine and docetaxel was an effective treatment for patients with unresectable (Stage T4 or >/= N1) metastatic or locally advanced TCC of the urothelial tract.
  • Gemcitabine plus docetaxel appeared to be tolerated well, and treatment-related toxicities were limited to hematologic toxicities.
  • Because cisplatin-containing regimens are contraindicated for patients with impaired renal function, the gemcitabine plus docetaxel combination may prove to be an effective and well tolerated treatment option for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Taxoids. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diet therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 14584068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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8. Malmström PU: A randomized comparative dose-ranging study of interferon-alpha and mitomycin-C as an internal control in primary or recurrent superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. BJU Int; 2002 May;89(7):681-6
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  • [Title] A randomized comparative dose-ranging study of interferon-alpha and mitomycin-C as an internal control in primary or recurrent superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare, in a phase II study, the activity and toxicity of three dose levels of interferon-alpha, and of mitomycin-C given intravesically (as an internal control to validate the results), the primary objective being to investigate the percentage of complete responses (complete disappearance of a marker lesion) induced by the three interferon-alpha dose levels on a marker lesion; a secondary objective was to compare the interferon-alpha doses for toxicity.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 115 patients were enrolled, with the inclusion criteria being multiple grade 1 or 2, stage Ta or T1, primary or recurrent transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • Interferon-alpha (30, 50 and 80 MU) and mitomycin-C (40 mg) intravesical treatments were given as follows.
  • However, in week 9 (first cystoscopy after baseline) interferon-alpha treatment was stopped if there was a complete response or disease progression.
  • The corresponding rates for severe adverse events related to treatment were 9% for interferon-alpha and 10% for mitomycin-C.
  • CONCLUSION: Ablative therapy with interferon-alpha was less effective than mitomycin-C in patients with superficial bladder cancer.
  • Both drugs were well tolerated, although interferon-alpha appeared to have a slightly better overall safety profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11966624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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9. Altay B, Girgin C, Kefi A, Cikili N: The best management of superficial bladder tumours: comparing TUR alone versus TUR combined with intravesical chemotherapy modalities? Int Urol Nephrol; 2000;32(1):53-8
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  • [Title] The best management of superficial bladder tumours: comparing TUR alone versus TUR combined with intravesical chemotherapy modalities?
  • To compare retrospectively the recurrence rates of TUR alone versus different intravesical chemotherapy modalities in superficial bladder cancer cases, 187 patients with stage Ta and T1 bladder tumours were treated with transurethral resection followed by adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy with mitomycin, BCG or epirubicin or by transurethral resection alone.
  • All patients in this study had historically proven transurethrally resectable primary, category Ta and T1 transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder.
  • Group I included transurethral resection alone, and the other groups included intravesical mitomycin-C (Group II), BCG (Group III) and epirubicin (Group IV) therapies after transurethral resection.
  • 146 male and 41 female patients (78% male and 22% female patients) in this study were diagnosed as primary TCC bladder tumours.
  • Only 52 of them were stage Ta and 135 of them were stage T1 bladder tumours.
  • Examining the histological grade of the bladder tumours, 88 (47%) of the patients had grade I, 53 (28%) had grade IIa, 30 (16%) had grade IIb and remaining 16 (9%) had grade III bladder cancers.
  • The recurrence rates were 25% for Group I, 23.8% for Group II, 26.2% for Group III and 22.7% for Group IV.
  • These values were given with disregarding the grade and volume of the bladder tumours.
  • For solitary, less than 3 cm low grade tumours (grade I, IIa) recurrence rates were 16% for Group I, 15.4% for Group II, 17.8% for Group III, 17.2% for Group IV (p > 0.05).
  • As a result of this retrospective study, for patients with low grade, stage Ta and T1 tumours TUR alone may be the best treatment modality.
  • Although intravesical chemotherapy is effective in decreasing short-term incidences of tumour recurrence, it has not decreased long-term incidences of tumour recurrence.
  • The high cost and adverse side effects of intravesical chemotherapy should also be taken into consideration in superficial, single, low grade tumours of bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11057773.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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10. Bassi PF, Spinadin R, Carando R, Dal Moro F, Abatangelo G, Piazza N, Tavolini IM: [Mitoxantrone chemoprophylaxis for multirecurrent multifocal superficial bladder tumours: results of a phase 2 controlled study]. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2003 Dec;75(4):202-4
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  • [Title] [Mitoxantrone chemoprophylaxis for multirecurrent multifocal superficial bladder tumours: results of a phase 2 controlled study].
  • [Transliterated title] Mitoxantrone chemoprophyaxis for multirecurrent multifocal superficial bladder tumours: results of a phase 2 controlled study.
  • Twenty-three patients with multifocal superficial bladder cancer (stage Ta - T1) unresponsive to at least 3 different intravesical agents, were enrolled in a phase II study in order to evaluate the prophylactic effects of intravesical Mitoxantrone (20 mg) after complete endoscopic resection (TUR) of any papillary tumor.
  • The progression rate is acceptable; the side effects are at least similar to those available in the literature, but in our experience, Mitoxantrone has no prophylactic effects against superficial bladder cancer unresponsive to previous treatment.

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  • (PMID = 15005494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ITA
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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11. Izawa JI, Slaton JW, Kedar D, Karashima T, Perrotte P, Czerniak B, Grossman HB, Dinney CP: Differential expression of progression-related genes in the evolution of superficial to invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Oncol Rep; 2001 Jan-Feb;8(1):9-15
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  • [Title] Differential expression of progression-related genes in the evolution of superficial to invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • It is generally accepted that there are dichotomous biologic pathways that lead to the development of either: i) superficial papillary (Ta) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or ii) precursor lesions to muscle-invasive (CIS, T1) TCC and muscle-invasive (> or =T2) TCC.
  • Using a colorimetric in situ hybridization technique, we examined the expression of mRNAs of several progression-related genes in archival, pathologic specimens from 77 patients with bladder TCC.
  • Gene expression was normalized using poly (dT) and the expression of each factor in a panel of specimens of normal urothelium.
  • Patients were stratified according to disease stage, and the level of gene expression among the stratified groups was compared.
  • The pattern of expression of bFGF, VEGF, IL-8, MMP-9, and EGFR represent the divergent developmental pathways in the pathogenesis of bladder TCC, which characterizes superficial or invasive bladder cancer. bFGF, IL-8, and EGFR appear to be upregulated in early precursor lesions (CIS), whereas VEGF appears to be upregulated at later stages in the development of muscle-invasive TCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Colorimetry. Disease Progression. Endothelial Growth Factors / biosynthesis. Endothelial Growth Factors / genetics. Growth Substances / biosynthesis. Growth Substances / genetics. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. In Situ Hybridization. Interleukin-8 / biosynthesis. Interleukin-8 / genetics. Lymphokines / biosynthesis. Lymphokines / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / biosynthesis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Receptors, Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Receptors, Growth Factor / genetics. Staining and Labeling. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

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  • (PMID = 11115562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA56973; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA67914
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelial Growth Factors; 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Lymphokines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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12. Dalbagni G, Russo P, Bochner B, Ben-Porat L, Sheinfeld J, Sogani P, Donat MS, Herr HW, Bajorin D: Phase II trial of intravesical gemcitabine in bacille Calmette-Guérin-refractory transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jun 20;24(18):2729-34
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of intravesical gemcitabine in bacille Calmette-Guérin-refractory transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this phase II study was to determine the efficacy of gemcitabine administered as an intravesical agent in patients with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) -refractory transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with superficial bladder cancer refractory or intolerant to intravesical BCG therapy and refusing a cystectomy were considered eligible for the trial.
  • Twelve patients had tumor recurrence with a median recurrence-free survival time of 3.6 months (95% CI, 2.9 to 11.0 months).
  • The 1-year recurrence-free survival rate for patients with a CR was 21% (95% CI, 0% to 43%).
  • Two patients progressed to a higher stage while receiving gemcitabine treatment.
  • Eleven patients (37%) underwent a cystectomy subsequent to gemcitabine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 16782913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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13. Ro JY, Shen SS, Lee HI, Hong EK, Lee YH, Cho NH, Jung SJ, Choi YJ, Ayala AG: Plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic study of 9 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 May;32(5):752-7
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  • [Title] Plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic study of 9 cases.
  • In this report, we summarized the clinicopathologic features of 9 cases of plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder, a rare variant of TCC.
  • All 9 patients were men with a mean of age 64.3 years (range, 46 to 81 y).
  • One patient had TNM stage I disease, 2 had stage II disease, 3 had stage III disease, and 3 had stage IV disease.
  • Four patients were treated by radical cystectomy with chemotherapy, 2 by radical cystectomy alone, 1 each by chemotherapy or intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin infusion alone, and 1 did not receive any further therapy.
  • Eight of 9 cases were associated with high-grade TCC, and transitional cell carcinoma in situ was present in 4 cases.
  • Interestingly, plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma in situ was noted in 1 case.
  • The mean follow-up in 8 patients was 24.5 months (range, 5 to 47 mo); the other patient was lost to follow-up.
  • In summary, plasmacytoid TCC tends to present at an advanced stage and to have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Plasma Cells / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystoscopy. Cytoplasm / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18379419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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14. Uchio EM, Linehan WM, Figg WD, Walther MM: A phase I study of intravesical suramin for the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol; 2003 Jan;169(1):357-60
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  • [Title] A phase I study of intravesical suramin for the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • PURPOSE: Suramin is a polysulfonated naphthylurea that inhibits proliferation and DNA synthesis of transitional cell carcinoma cell lines.
  • Its large molecular size and negative charge inhibit bladder absorption, making suramin an excellent candidate for intravesical chemotherapy.
  • Intravesical suramin was evaluated in a phase I study to define dose limiting toxicity and systemic absorption, determine a starting dose and regimen for phase II studies and provide a preliminary assessment of in vivo antitumor activity.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intravesical suramin treatment was administered in 9 patients with histologically identified transitional cell carcinoma (Tcis, Ta or T1) in whom at least 1 course of standard intravesical chemotherapy (bacillus Calmette-Guerin, thiotepa or mitomycin C) had failed.
  • RESULTS: The 9 patients underwent 54 treatments with suramin.
  • Plasma suramin concentration after treatment was 1.9 to 38.0 microg.
  • /ml. and was not related to treatment dose.
  • Complications included self-limited bladder spasms (less than 24 hours) in 4 of 54 treatments (7%) and new or worsening vesicoureteral reflux in 3 ureters (17%).
  • Another patient who was treated after the Foley balloon was inflated in the urethra experienced bladder spasms, skin flushing and fever (39C).
  • Mean bladder capacity before and after treatment was 600 and 540 ml., respectively.
  • At followup 7 patients had stage Ta tumors and 2 had carcinoma in situ.
  • /ml was defined as a safe treatment parameter with acceptable plasma concentrations and minimal side effects.
  • Phase II studies are needed to assess the antitumor activity of suramin in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Suramin / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12478189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6032D45BEM / Suramin
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15. Khaled HM, Hamza MR, Mansour O, Gaafar R, Zaghloul MS: A phase II study of gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy in advanced bilharzial bladder carcinoma. Eur J Cancer; 2000 Jul;36 Suppl 2:34-7
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  • [Title] A phase II study of gemcitabine plus cisplatin chemotherapy in advanced bilharzial bladder carcinoma.
  • Bilharzial bladder cancer represents a distinct clinicopathological entity.
  • To investigate whether gemcitabine-cisplatin is also active against bladder cancer of bilharzial origin, we performed a phase II study of previously untreated patients with stage III/IV disease.
  • Thus, these data suggest that gemcitabine plus cisplatin induces high response rates in patients with bilharzial bladder cancer with a moderate toxicity profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Schistosomiasis / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10908847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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16. Hagan MP, Winter KA, Kaufman DS, Wajsman Z, Zietman AL, Heney NM, Toonkel LM, Jones CU, Roberts JD, Shipley WU: RTOG 97-06: initial report of a phase I-II trial of selective bladder conservation using TURBT, twice-daily accelerated irradiation sensitized with cisplatin, and adjuvant MCV combination chemotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Nov 1;57(3):665-72
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  • [Title] RTOG 97-06: initial report of a phase I-II trial of selective bladder conservation using TURBT, twice-daily accelerated irradiation sensitized with cisplatin, and adjuvant MCV combination chemotherapy.
  • To examine combination cisplatin and twice-daily accelerated irradiation (RT) after aggressive transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) in an attempt to preserve the bladder and to determine the likelihood that patients who complete this regimen could then complete three cycles of methotrexate, cisplatin, vinblastine (MCV) chemotherapy.
  • Between 1998 and 2000, 52 patients with Stage T2-T4aN0M0 disease, from 17 institutions, were entered into the trial.
  • The clinical T stage was T2 in 66%, T3a in 25%, and T3b in 9%.
  • The median follow-up at the time of analysis was 26 months.
  • The protocol required TURBT within 6 weeks of the initiation of induction therapy.
  • Induction treatment involved 13 days of concomitant boost RT, 1.8 Gy to the pelvis in the morning followed by 1.6 Gy to the tumor 4-6 h later.
  • For sensitization, cisplatin (20 mg/m(2)) was given on the first 3 days of each treatment week.
  • After either consolidation or cystectomy, patients were to complete three cycles of MCV chemotherapy.
  • Of the 47 patients, 45% completed all phases of the protocol treatment with minor, or no, deviations.
  • Five patients refused either the postinduction evaluation or cystectomy and 6 refused adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The CR rate after induction therapy was 74%.
  • Of the 8 cystectomy patients, 2 had no evidence of disease in the bladder at pathologic review of the surgery specimen.
  • Grade 3 toxicity related to chemotherapy was observed in 11% of patients during both induction and consolidation, and in 41% during adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • A total of 8 patients (36% of those receiving adjuvant chemotherapy) went on to develop Grade 4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia during additional adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • One patient developed Grade 4 hydronephrosis during consolidation.
  • The projected 36-month value for locoregional failure, distant metastasis, overall survival, and bladder-intact survival was 27%, 29%, 61%, and 48%, respectively.
  • After aggressive TURBT, twice-daily accelerated RT initiated in concomitant-boost format is well tolerated and results in a rate of complete response (74%) similar to that in previous bladder-sparing trials.
  • The projected 2-year values for locoregional control, bladder-intact survival, and overall survival were also consistent with previously reported trials of bladder-sparing treatment.
  • With only 45% of patients completing three cycles of MCV, this form of adjuvant chemotherapy appears to be poorly tolerated by most patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Confidence Intervals. Cystectomy. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy / methods. Remission Induction. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14529770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; MEC protocol 1
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17. Bazarbashi S, Raja MA, El Sayed A, Ezzat A, Ibrahim E, Kattan S, Kardar A, Peracha A, Lindstedt E, Hanash K: Prospective phase II trial of alternating intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and interferon alpha IIB in the treatment and prevention of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: preliminary results. J Surg Oncol; 2000 Jul;74(3):181-4
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  • [Title] Prospective phase II trial of alternating intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and interferon alpha IIB in the treatment and prevention of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: preliminary results.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of alternating intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin(BCG) and Interferon alpha2-b (IFN) in the treatment and prevention of recurrence of superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder.
  • METHODS: Patients with Ta, T1 tumors and carcinoma in situ, either recurrent (TaG1, T1G1) or primary/recurrent TaG2 TaG3, T1G2, T1G3 and Tis (T: Tumor stage, G: grade) are eligible.
  • Cystoscopy performed 4 weeks after completion of therapy, and every 3 months thereafter.
  • With a median follow-up of 26.2 month, 22 patients (59%) failed above therapy.
  • Median time to treatment failure was 7 months.
  • Seven, 6 and 9 patients recurred at a higher, lower and same stage or grade respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Alternating intravesical BCG and IFN is effective and well tolerated therapy for superficial TCC of urinary bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / adverse effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Recombinant Proteins

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  • (PMID = 10951412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Connaught; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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18. Kaya AO, Coskun U, Yildiz R, Gonul II, Karagulle K, Yaman E, Ozturk B: Primary pure small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder that responded to carboplatin plus etoposide: a case report and review of the literature. J BUON; 2009 Oct-Dec;14(4):703-6
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  • [Title] Primary pure small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder that responded to carboplatin plus etoposide: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Primary pure small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCCB) is an extremely rare tumor and accounts for less than 1% of all malignant tumors of the urinary bladder.
  • This tumor exhibits more aggressive behavior than bladder transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Unfortunately, optimal treatment strategy for this malignancy is still unknown.
  • We present a patient with metastatic primary pure SCCB (stage IV) who responded to carboplatin plus etoposide combination chemotherapy and discuss the relevant current literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20148466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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19. Khaled H, Emara ME, Gaafar RM, Mansour O, Abdel Warith A, Zaghloul MS, El Malt O: Primary chemotherapy with low-dose prolonged infusion gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer: a Phase II trial. Urol Oncol; 2008 Mar-Apr;26(2):133-6
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  • [Title] Primary chemotherapy with low-dose prolonged infusion gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with bladder cancer: a Phase II trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine is an active agent in the treatment of bladder cancer.
  • After an infusion during 30 minutes, this enzyme will be saturated, therefore, accumulation of higher intracellular concentrations of the active gemcitabine triphosphate could be achieved by prolonging the infusion time of gemcitabine.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Based on previously published Phase I trials, the efficacy and safety of a combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine given as prolonged infusion were tried in a Phase II study of 57 untreated patients with stage III/IV bladder cancer, which is the most common malignant tumor among Egyptian males.
  • A total of 37 patients had transitional cell, 15 had squamous cell, 2 had adenocarcinoma, and 3 had undifferentiated cell carcinoma.
  • These results are comparable to those of a previous Phase II study of the same combination but with gemcitabine given in the standard dose and schedule.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged infusion of gemcitabine and cisplatin is an effective treatment for advanced bilharzial-related bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18312930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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20. Bartoletti R, Cai T, Gacci M, Giubilei G, Viggiani F, Santelli G, Repetti F, Nerozzi S, Ghezzi P, Sisani M, TUR (Toscana Urologia) Group: Intravesical gemcitabine therapy for superficial transitional cell carcinoma: results of a Phase II prospective multicenter study. Urology; 2005 Oct;66(4):726-31
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  • [Title] Intravesical gemcitabine therapy for superficial transitional cell carcinoma: results of a Phase II prospective multicenter study.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the tolerability and efficacy after 1 year of weekly intravesical gemcitabine therapy in patients with intermediate-risk and high-risk superficial transitional cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: A total of 116 patients with intermediate-risk and high-risk bladder cancer who had undergone transurethral resection were treated with one cycle (once a week for 6 weeks) of gemcitabine 2000 mg.
  • RESULTS: In terms of the tolerability of gemcitabine, 14 patients (12.0%) reported urgency, 6 (5.1%) dizziness and slight fever (less than 38 degrees C), 1 (0.8%) severe abdominal pain, with ulcerative lesions of the bladder mucosa at cystoscopy, and 1 (0.8%) parosmia.
  • The remaining 94 patients (81.3%) did not report any local side effects during the treatment period.
  • In terms of efficacy, recurrence developed in 29 patients (25.4%) a mean of 7 months after transurethral resection; 85 patients (74.6%) were disease free after 12 months.
  • The univariate analysis showed a greater level of efficacy in patients with a first occurrence (P = 0.0408), patients who had had no previous treatment (P = 0.0368), and patients with Stage pTa superficial transitional cell carcinoma (P = 0.0018).
  • No recurrence developed in 18 (75%) of 24 intermediate-risk bacille Calmette-Guérin-refractory or 7 (43.7%) of 16 high-risk bacille Calmette-Guérin-refractory patients.
  • The treatment schedule proposed resulted in high patient compliance, and the results can be compared with the results of studies using other intravesical treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16230125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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21. Roohullah, Nusrat J, Hamdani SR, Burdy GM, Khurshid A: Cancer urinary bladder--5 year experience at Cenar, Quetta. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2001 Apr-Jun;13(2):14-6
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  • [Title] Cancer urinary bladder--5 year experience at Cenar, Quetta.
  • BACKGROUND: Purpose of this study was to see the incidence, age, sex, geographical distribution, symptoms, personal habits, signs, histo-pathology, early diagnosis and management of cases of Cancer Urinary Bladder (Ca UB) in the patients coming to CENAR, Quetta, Pakistan.
  • 97, in which about 100 cases of cancer of urinary bladder were included, out of which 82 patients were male and 12 were females.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study concluded that Ca UB occurs more in male with a male female ratio of 4.5:1 and a high incidence after 40 years of age.
  • Histopathologically, Transitional Cell Carcinoma was dominating (75%).
  • Other histological types seen were squamous cell carcinoma (4%), Adenocarcinoma (3%), UD (5%) and HPNA (10%).
  • The patients were mainly treated with Radiotherapy, because at the time of reporting they were already in stage II or beyond (97%).
  • A few patients (6%) also received chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / epidemiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 11732213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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22. Gårdmark T, Carringer M, Beckman E, Malmström PU, Members of the Intravesical Gemcitabine Study Group: Randomized phase II marker lesion study evaluating effect of scheduling on response to intravesical gemcitabine in recurrent Stage Ta urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder. Urology; 2005 Sep;66(3):527-30
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  • [Title] Randomized phase II marker lesion study evaluating effect of scheduling on response to intravesical gemcitabine in recurrent Stage Ta urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the response rate for intravesical gemcitabine given in three different schedules to patients with recurrent multiple carcinoma of the urinary bladder Stage Ta, grade 1-2, in whom all but one marker lesion was removed.
  • METHODS: This was a multicenter, open-label, randomized, Phase II study in which gemcitabine 2000 mg in 100 mL of unbuffered saline was instilled as a single dose (n = 11), two doses per week for 3 weeks (n = 11), or once weekly for 6 weeks (n = 10).
  • Ten patients were unable to retain the drug intravesically for the full hour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study have shown that gemcitabine has a tumor ablative effect when given intravesically for bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16140071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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23. Galsky MD, Mironov S, Iasonos A, Scattergood J, Boyle MG, Bajorin DF: Phase II trial of pemetrexed as second-line therapy in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Invest New Drugs; 2007 Jun;25(3):265-70
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of pemetrexed as second-line therapy in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this single-center phase II study was to determine the activity of pemetrexed administered as second-line therapy in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma that had relapsed after receiving perioperative chemotherapy, or progressed on first-line chemotherapy for metastatic disease, were eligible for enrollment.
  • This level of activity did not meet criteria for expansion based on the pre-defined optimal 2-stage Simon design and the trial was concluded.
  • Treatment was generally well tolerated, however, 2/13 patients developed febrile neutropenia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pemetrexed as second-line therapy in advanced urothelial carcinoma is associated with modest activity.
  • The role of this novel antifolate in chemotherapy-naïve patients warrants further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Glutamates / therapeutic use. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Pelvic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urothelium / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Drug Administration Schedule. Folic Acid / administration & dosage. Folic Acid / therapeutic use. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Pemetrexed. Treatment Outcome. Vitamin B 12 / administration & dosage. Vitamin B 12 / therapeutic use. Vitamin B Complex / administration & dosage. Vitamin B Complex / therapeutic use

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  • [Cites] Semin Oncol. 2002 Dec;29(6 Suppl 18):69-75 [12571815.001]
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  • (PMID = 17146733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Glutamates; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 12001-76-2 / Vitamin B Complex; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid; P6YC3EG204 / Vitamin B 12
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24. Lamm DL, Dehaven JI, Riggs DR: Keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunotherapy of bladder cancer: laboratory and clinical studies. Eur Urol; 2000;37 Suppl 3:41-4
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  • [Title] Keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunotherapy of bladder cancer: laboratory and clinical studies.
  • BACKGROUND: Since the serendipitous observation by Olsson in 1974 that patients immunized with 5 mg of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) had a marked reduction in recurrence of superficial bladder cancer, multiple laboratory and clinical studies have confirmed the efficacy of KLH immunotherapy.
  • RESULTS: In 1981, we reported that KLH immunotherapy reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the MBT-2 murine model of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), and in 1988, Jurincic and co-workers demonstrated that KLH was superior to mitomycin C chemotherapy in preventing bladder tumor recurrence.
  • Subsequent studies using Immucothel (Biosyn), crude KLH, and endotoxin-free KLH confirmed the efficacy of KLH immunotherapy in the MBT-2 murine bladder cancer model (p < 0.05), and resulted in up to 100% survival.
  • Sixty-four patients with CIS or residual stage T(a), T(1) TCC, or both were enrolled in a phase I-II trial of escalating doses of weekly KLH given intravesically for 6 weeks.
  • Patients were followed with cystoscopic examination, urine cytology, and bladder biopsy.
  • No significant difference in response according to dose was noted, but optimal overall complete response was seen with a dose of only 2 mg.
  • KLH appears to be a safe and highly effective immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Hemocyanin / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10828686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 9013-72-3 / Hemocyanin; FV4Y0JO2CX / keyhole-limpet hemocyanin
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25. Lebret T, Bohin D, Kassardjian Z, Herve JM, Molinie V, Barre P, Lugagne PM, Botto H: Recurrence, progression and success in stage Ta grade 3 bladder tumors treated with low dose bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillations. J Urol; 2000 Jan;163(1):63-7
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  • [Title] Recurrence, progression and success in stage Ta grade 3 bladder tumors treated with low dose bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillations.
  • PURPOSE: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy is considered to be an effective prophylactic and therapeutic agent for high risk superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • Nevertheless, in a select uncommon population of stage Ta grade 3 superficial lamina-free tumors the results of this treatment have not yet been well established.
  • We evaluated recurrence and progression rates, and the success of BCG therapy in a population with stage Ta grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 605 patients treated at our institution from 1982 to 1996 for the histopathological diagnosis of primary bladder cancer 32 (5.3%) with stage Ta grade 3 noninvasive primary bladder tumor were treated with intravesical instillations of 75 mg.
  • At a followup of 2 to 13 years (mean 58.4 months) patients were evaluated with urinary cytology, cystoscopy, transurethral resection and random mucosal biopsies.
  • Recurrence, grade and stage progression, death and causality were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 32 patients 9 (28%) responded positively to BCG without recurrence, while disease recurred as stage Ta in 8 (25%) and T1 in 7 (22%), and progressed to muscle layer infiltration in 8 (25%).
  • Four patients (12%) died of bladder cancer.
  • The number of tumors at primary resection, gross examination, the mitotic index or an association with carcinoma in situ did not appear to be predictive factors of progression to muscle invasion.
  • Urine cytology (I to II versus III to IV) appeared to correlate highly with progression and BCG response (p<0.001) with excellent sensitivity (1) but low specificity (0.67).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the high progression potential of stage Ta grade 3 tumors, since nearly 50% recurred and 25% progressed to invasive disease.
  • These results may be closely compared with the results of previous trials of stage T1 grade 3 disease.
  • We suggest that recurrence should be detected at an early stage using long-term followup with strict observance of the surveillance protocols during a minimum 5-year tumor-free period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2000 Jan;163(1):79-80 [10604318.001]
  • (PMID = 10604315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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26. Startsev VY: The role of combined method in organ-sparing treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2002 Jun;74(2):54-6
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  • [Title] The role of combined method in organ-sparing treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the local control and survival of patients with bladder cancer recurrences (BCR) treated by operative methods, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have treated 180 patients (114 men, median age 64.5 years, range 56-73) with documented transitional-cell non-metastasized BC recurrences: 90 T2N0M0 and 90 T3aN0M0.
  • All patients received different operations (transurethral resection and partial cystectomies) and definitive EBRT (total dose varied from 50 to 64 Gy with a mean of 60.5 Gy, 5 days a week).
  • In a second group of patients we performed 3 courses of 4-drug regimen ACT administered with EBRT.
  • ACT consisting of cisplatin and adriamycin i.a. and methotrexate and vinblastin i.v. (M-VAC) was administered on the fourth week after radiation therapy.
  • The complete response rates in patients with clinical stage T2 and T3a disease was 64.4 and 44.4%, respectively and it was slightly higher in patients with a non-papillary cancer than in those with a papillary one.
  • The acute toxicity was mild: no hematological and renal toxicity over grade II, 14 (7.8%) cases of bowel or rectal reversible grade II toxicity and 12 (6.7%) cases of reversible grade III cystitis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Four-drug ACT is feasible without major toxicity and offers a potentially curative and conservative treatment for patients with localized muscle-invasive BC (bladder cancer) recurrences.
  • Bladder conservation therapy may be offered to selected patients with BC recurrences as an alternative option to radical cystectomy, and its use should be limited to teams of uro-oncologists, experienced in multi-modalty treatment.

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  • (PMID = 12161935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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27. Winquist E, Moore MJ, Chi KN, Ernst DS, Hirte H, North S, Powers J, Walsh W, Boucher T, Patton R, Seymour L: A multinomial Phase II study of lonafarnib (SCH 66336) in patients with refractory urothelial cancer. Urol Oncol; 2005 May-Jun;23(3):143-9
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  • [Title] A multinomial Phase II study of lonafarnib (SCH 66336) in patients with refractory urothelial cancer.
  • As disturbances in Ras signaling pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), the antitumor activity of lonafarnib was studied in a National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group Phase II trial in patients with previously treated TCC.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients had at least 1 prior chemotherapy regimen for advanced unresectable or metastatic TCC, or recurrence less than 1 year after adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Median time on treatment was 7.1 weeks (range, 0.6-23.9).
  • Drug-related Grade 3 toxicities included fatigue, anorexia, nausea, confusion, dehydration, muscle weakness, depression, headache, and dyspnea.
  • Of 9 patients not evaluable for response, 5 had symptomatic progression, fulfilling multinomial criteria to stop the study after the first stage.
  • CONCLUSION: No single-agent activity of lonafarnib was observed in this study of patients with aggressive TCC failing prior chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Piperidines / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Ureteral Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15907712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Pyridines; 193275-84-2 / lonafarnib
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28. Gao JG, Tian T, Song YL, Dong ZY, Yang XF: [Clinical investigation on intravesical instillation of high-dose pirarubicin during perioperative period to prevent bladder carcinoma recurrence]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Nov 1;48(21):1650-2
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  • [Title] [Clinical investigation on intravesical instillation of high-dose pirarubicin during perioperative period to prevent bladder carcinoma recurrence].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravesical instillation of high-dose pirarubicin during perioperative period to prevent bladder carcinoma recurrence.
  • A total of 120 patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TNM I-II) underwent partial cystectomy or transurethral resection of bladder tumour were randomly divided into 2 groups, which were chosen from the patients were hospitalized during June 2003 to May 2009.
  • RESULTS: No significant difference was found between group A and group B from gender, age, pathological stage and operation methods (P > 0.05).
  • The adverse effect rates of cystic stimulation including irritation signs of bladder and hematuria in group A and group B were 4.8% and 27.6%.
  • CONCLUSION: Intravesical instillation of high-dose pirarubicin during perioperative period is an effective procedure for the prevention of bladder cancer recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Perioperative Period. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21211262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; D58G680W0G / pirarubicin
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29. Startsev V, Pouline I: Adjuvant therapy in different risk-groups of patients with superficial bladder cancer. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2005 Jun;77(2):93-8
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy in different risk-groups of patients with superficial bladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We assessed and compared the outcomes of two different courses of adjuvant therapy to patients with superficial bladder TCC.
  • METHODS: The study included 142 patients (28 women and 114 men with a median age of 58.5 years) with newly diagnosed bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) between October 2002 and October 2003.
  • Pathological findings showed pTa stage in 20 (14.1%), pT1G1-2 in 99 (69.7%), pT1G3 in 15 (10.6%) and pTis in 3 (2.1%) cases; we additionally examined prostate specimens after TURP.
  • The main criteria for adjuvant treatment were: grade, number and location of the tumor in the bladder The group of patients (group A) with G3 and multicentric lesions, localized at the lower third of the bladder, underwent BCG-therapy according the conventional schedule (60 patients, 42.3%).
  • In group B (82 patients, 57.7%) patients underwent local chemotherapy (Thiotepa 80 mg p/week or Doxorubicin 50 mg p/week), started within 24 hours after operation.
  • A second-look TURBT was performed within 6 weeks of treatment course in both groups.
  • Adjuvant therapy was continued in all patients, except four patients with G3 and two patients with T2 stage who underwent more aggressive treatment (4 cystectomies and 2 external beam radiotherapy).
  • We switched 16 patients in group B with recurrent cancer to BCG treatment.
  • Nobody of TURP-operated patients had recurrence in the distal part of urethra, and toxicity level of TURP-operated patients was not worse than in the whole patients cohort (not more than grade II).
  • CONCLUSION: BCG adjuvant therapy demonstrated good results in the treatment of the recurrence of superficial TCC.
  • However, in patients with low recurrence risk we used chemotherapy successfully.
  • Patients with T1G3 tumors, being at high risk of residual, or even invasive, cancer, could be offered definitive therapy within a 1-year period.
  • Patients who underwent simultaneous TURP for relief of LUTS did not show cancer recurrences in the operated area or an higher toxicity of adjuvant treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16146269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa
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30. van der Heijden AG, Moonen PM, Cornel EB, Vergunst H, de Reijke TM, van Boven E, Barten EJ, Puri R, van Kalken CK, Witjes JA: Phase II marker lesion study with intravesical instillation of apaziquone for superficial bladder cancer: toxicity and marker response. J Urol; 2006 Oct;176(4 Pt 1):1349-53; discussion 1353
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II marker lesion study with intravesical instillation of apaziquone for superficial bladder cancer: toxicity and marker response.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 46 patients with multiple pTa or pT1 bladder tumors underwent visible lesion resection except for 1 marker tumor.
  • RESULTS: One patient withdrew informed consent and refused the last treatment due to side effects.
  • Progression to invasive stage was not observed.
  • Local side effects in this study were comparable to those due to other chemotherapy instillations, such as mitomycin C and epirubicin, but less severe and less frequent compared to those of bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The histological complete response rate after 6 consecutive instillations of apaziquone in patients with superficial bladder cancer was 67% (95% CI 51 to 80).
  • Local side effects were comparable to side effects due to other chemotherapy instillations.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Aziridines / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Indolequinones / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2007 May;4(5):248-9 [17389884.001]
  • (PMID = 16952629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Aziridines; 0 / Indolequinones; H464ZO600O / apaziquone
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31. Gontero P, Casetta G, Maso G, Sogni F, Pretti G, Zitella A, Frea B, Tizzani A: Phase II study to investigate the ablative efficacy of intravesical administration of gemcitabine in intermediate-risk superficial bladder cancer (SBC). Eur Urol; 2004 Sep;46(3):339-43
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  • [Title] Phase II study to investigate the ablative efficacy of intravesical administration of gemcitabine in intermediate-risk superficial bladder cancer (SBC).
  • New treatment options are needed for intermediate-risk SBC recurring after conventional intravesical treatments.
  • METHODS: The study was designed as a two-stage phase II trial, with a sample size of 39 patients.
  • The efficacy of intravesical Gemcitabine at a concentration of 40 mg/ml (2000 mg in 50 ml saline solution) administered weekly for 6 weeks was assessed on a single marker tumour left in the bladder after a complete TUR of all other lesions.
  • Patients underwent TUR or biopsy at the site of the marker lesion 2 weeks after completion of the treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: The ablative effect of Gemcitabine produced a higher number of responses than the minimum required by the protocol to indicate a significant probability of drug efficacy.
  • It is worth testing the drug in phase III trials to assess for durability of response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15306105.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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32. Dozić J, Bogdanović J: [Current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to invasive bladder cancer]. Med Pregl; 2005 Sep-Oct;58(9-10):465-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to invasive bladder cancer].
  • INTRODUCTION: Bladder cancer is the second most common urological cancer (after prostate cancer, and before kidney and testicular tumors).
  • After setting a diagnosis for bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), 25% of pts have extravesical spread of the disease, and almost 50% dies in the follow-up period and after radical surgical procedures.
  • T2 stage is underestimated in 40-50% of cases, whereas lymph nodes are positive in 10% of cases in T1 stage of the disease.
  • The aim of this study was to present modern diagnostic-therapeutic procedures, which are being used in multimodal treatment of invasive bladder tumors (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy), indications for their use, and treatment outcome in regard to the stage of the disease.
  • PATHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS: Pathological diagnosis is a key factor for correct and on-time treatment.
  • TREATMENT OF BLADDER CANCER: Treatment of bladder tumors is multimodal, multidisciplinary and includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • In regard to indications and established protocols, surgery is partial, simple or radical cystectomy, followed by different types of urine derivation (wet stoma--Bricker's ileal conduit, dry stoma--Kock pouch, ureterosigmoidostomy--Mainz pouch II, or orthotopic ileal bladder substitution).
  • The use of new operative procedures can be done only during the early stage of the disease.
  • Orthotopic substitution of bladder with ileum, significantly improves the quality of life in these patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Using new diagnostic equipment, up-to date therapeutic procedures, bladder cancer becomes a curable disease (depending on the stage of the disease) with high survival rate and better quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy


33. Bassi P, Spinadin R, Longo F, Saraeb S, Pappagallo GL, Zattoni F, Pagano F: Delayed high-dose intravesical epirubicin therapy of superficial bladder cancer. A way to reduce the side effects and increase the efficacy--a phase 2 trial. Urol Int; 2002;68(4):216-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Delayed high-dose intravesical epirubicin therapy of superficial bladder cancer. A way to reduce the side effects and increase the efficacy--a phase 2 trial.
  • INTRODUCTION: Intravesical epirubicin is a widely used agent for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer.
  • A direct relationship between dose and activity has been reported: unfortunately the dose increase also increased the frequency and the intensity of treatment-related side effects.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A phase 2 trial was designed to evaluate the toxicity and the activity of a delayed (biweekly) high-dose (80 mg) epirubicin therapy of superficial bladder cancer.
  • Thirty patients with intermediate risk superficial bladder cancer (stage mTa, G2) have been treated with transurethral resection and epirubicin intravesical therapy: the patients were given 80 mg epirubicin in 50 ml sterile saline every 2 weeks for 6 times (delayed regimen).
  • Eleven of 30 (37%) patients experienced a local adverse reaction to intravesical epirubicin requiring specific medication (grade > or = 2 according to NCI-CTC v.2.0, 1999).
  • No systemic toxicity related to the treatment was observed.
  • RESULTS: Out of the 29 evaluable patients, 22 (76%) were free of disease after the induction course, 6 (21%) had superficial bladder cancer recurrences and 1 (3%) experienced tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSION: A delayed (biweekly instillation) high-dose (80 mg) intravesical epirubicin regimen was acceptable in terms of side effects and showed a worthwhile therapeutical impact in patients with intermediate risk superficial bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12053020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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34. Sangar VK, McBain CA, Lyons J, Ramani VA, Logue JP, Wylie JP, Clarke NW, Cowan RA: Phase I study of conformal radiotherapy with concurrent gemcitabine in locally advanced bladder cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Feb 1;61(2):420-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase I study of conformal radiotherapy with concurrent gemcitabine in locally advanced bladder cancer.
  • PURPOSE: A prospective phase I trial was conducted to determine the maximal tolerated dose of gemcitabine given once weekly during hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy to patients with locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • Eight male patients, median age 69 years, with Stage T2 (n = 4) or T3 (n = 4) N0M0, were enrolled in cohorts of 3.
  • Treatment comprised conformal radiotherapy (52.5 Gy in 20 fractions) within 4 weeks, with concurrent gemcitabine once weekly for four cycles.
  • Dose-limiting toxicity was defined as any acute Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity Grade 3 or greater arising in >1 of 3 patients in each cohort.
  • Dose-limiting toxicity was observed at 150 mg/m(2) with Grade 3 toxicity seen in 2 of 2 patients (one bladder, one bowel).
  • CONCLUSION: The maximal tolerated dose for gemcitabine given once weekly with concurrent hypofractionated conformal bladder radiotherapy was 150 mg/m(2), with a maximal recommended dose of 100 mg/m(2).
  • This dose regimen has now entered Phase II clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Conformal. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15667962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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35. Josephson DY, Pasin E, Stein JP: Superficial bladder cancer: part 1. Update on etiology, classification and natural history. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2006 Dec;6(12):1723-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Superficial bladder cancer: part 1. Update on etiology, classification and natural history.
  • Superficial 'nonmuscle-invasive' bladder tumors represent a heterogeneous group of cancers, which include those that are papillary in nature and limited to the mucosa (Ta), high grade, flat and confined to the epithelium (Tis) and those that invade the submucosa or lamina propria (T1).
  • The natural history of these bladder cancers is that of disease recurrence and progression to higher grade and stage.
  • Furthermore, recurrence and progression rates of superficial bladder cancer vary according to several tumor characteristics.
  • The goal in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer is twofold: reducing tumor recurrence and the subsequent need for additional therapies, such as cystoscopy, transurethral resections, intravesical therapy and the morbidity associated with these treatments; and preventing tumor progression and the subsequent need for more aggressive therapy, such as radical cystectomy.
  • The administration of intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy has become an important component in accomplishing these goals.
  • This update is the first part of two articles reviewing important contemporary concepts in the etiology, classification and natural history of superficial bladder cancer, while part II of the series will review and highlight important aspects in management of superficial bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinogens, Environmental / adverse effects. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Chromosome Aberrations. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Occupational Diseases / chemically induced. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Risk Factors. Smoking / adverse effects. Urinary Tract Infections / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17181486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens, Environmental
  • [Number-of-references] 124
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36. Okegawa T, Kinjo M, Nutahara K, Higashihara E: Value of reverse transcription polymerase chain assay in peripheral blood of patients with urothelial cancer. J Urol; 2004 Apr;171(4):1461-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Value of reverse transcription polymerase chain assay in peripheral blood of patients with urothelial cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used to determine expression of uroplakin II (UP II) or cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) in cells separated from the peripheral blood of patients with urothelial cancer.
  • We examine whether UP II or CK-20 expression can be used as a urothelial cancer marker for urothelial cancer in cells isolated from peripheral blood.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood was taken from 20 healthy volunteers without a history of urothelial cancer, from 10 patients with a negative bladder biopsy for urothelial cancer and from 108 patients with urothelial cancer.
  • Results of a nested RT-PCR assay were compared with pathological stage and recurrence.
  • Among 108 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder nested RT-PCR for UP II was positive in 25 (23%) versus 31 (29%) for CK-20 (p >0.05).
  • Nested RT-PCR for UP II was positive in 5 (8%) patients with superficial stage disease (pTa and pT1) versus 8 (11%) positive for CK-20.
  • Nested RT-PCR for UP II was positive in 15 (58%) patients with a stage of pT2 or advanced stages versus 17 (65%) positive for CK-20.
  • Nested RT-PCR for UP II was positive in 13 (20%) and 10 (56%) patients with grades 2 and 3, respectively, versus 17 (27%) and 12 (67%) nested RT-PCR positive for CK-20.
  • A significant difference in the Kaplan-Meier recurrence-free actuarial curve was noted among patients with superficial stage who were positive and negative on nested RT-PCR for UP II and CK-20 in peripheral blood, respectively, but not in the invasive stage.
  • On multivariate analysis nested RT-PCR for UP II and CK-20 in peripheral blood were independent prognostic factors in patients with superficial stage disease but not with invasive stage disease.
  • Lung and/or liver metastasis developed in 5 (80%) of 6 patients whose results after chemotherapy (consisting of cisplatin, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vinblastine sulfate and methotrexate) for nested RT-PCR for UP II and CK-20 remained positive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results seem to indicate that UP II and CK-20 mRNA in the blood may be useful tumor markers for predicting patient survival and the extent of urothelial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / blood. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood Cells / chemistry. Female. Humans. Keratin-20. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Uroplakin II

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  • (PMID = 15017198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / UPK2 protein, human; 0 / Uroplakin II
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37. Hobdy EM, Ciesielski TE, Kummar S: Unusual sites of colorectal cancer metastasis. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2003 May;3(1):54-7
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  • We present 2 separate cases of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastasis to the chin and the bladder, both of which are unusual sites of colorectal cancer metastasis.
  • Patient 1 is a 77-year-old man who was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) T4 N0 M0 (stage II), and underwent a right hemicolectomy.
  • Fourteen months later he developed a firm 2.5-cm mass involving the chin.
  • Patient 2 is a 75-year-old man who was diagnosed with AJCC T3 N1 M0 (stage III) adenocarcinoma of the colon and underwent sigmoid colectomy.
  • Ten years later, he was found to have transitional cell carcinoma involving retroperitoneal nodes with no identifiable bladder or ureteral primary, for which he received chemotherapy.
  • Eighteen months following this diagnosis, he developed hematuria and was found to have metastatic colon adenocarcinoma involving the bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 12777193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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