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1. Corvin S, Sturm W, Schlatter E, Anastasiadis A, Kuczyk M, Stenzl A: Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph-node dissection with the waterjet is technically feasible and safe in testis-cancer patient. J Endourol; 2005 Sep;19(7):823-6
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph-node dissection with the waterjet is technically feasible and safe in testis-cancer patient.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The acceptance of open retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for stage I and II nonseminomatous testicular cancer has decreased because of the intraoperative and postoperative morbidity of the procedure.
  • Laparoscopic RPLND is a minimally invasive and safe alternative for low-stage germ-cell tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A series of 18 patients with clinical stage I testis cancer (group A) and 7 patients who had received chemotherapy for stage II disease (group B) underwent laparoscopic RPLND at our institution.
  • The procedure was performed identically to the open approach using the modified template according to Weissbach and associates.
  • The waterjet was used for removal of lymphatic tissue from the aorta and the vena cava, as well as from the sympathetic trunk.
  • The mean operating time was 232 +/- 48 minutes.
  • The waterjet was able to remove lymphatic tissue easily and atraumatically.
  • At pressures of 20 bar, the lymph-node capsule remained completely intact, thus avoiding tumor-cell spread.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The waterjet allows the safe and complete removal of lymphatic tissue, leaving vulnerable anatomic structures intact.
  • It can decrease the learning curve of laparoscopic RPLND and contribute to better acceptance of this procedure.

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  • (PMID = 16190836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 059QF0KO0R / Water
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2. Yamamoto G, Shimada T, Nishida T, Ishida Y, Iba T, Nakata T, Ohtsuki T, Takigami K, Yamaguchi Y, Yoshitake K, Tanaka A, Tsuda Y: [Evaluation of a combination chemotherapy with nedaplatin and 5-FU for oral cancers]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2001 Aug;28(8):1111-5
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of a combination chemotherapy with nedaplatin and 5-FU for oral cancers].
  • Nedaplatin (cis-diammine-glycolato platinum: CDGP) is a platinum compound with a molecular weight of 303.18 that was recently developed in Japan.
  • There have been reports of the antineoplastic effects of Nedaplatin on cancers in the cranio-cervical region, lung, esophagus, urinary bladder, testis, ovary, and uterus.
  • In this study, we performed combined therapy of CDGP and fluorouracil (5-FU) for 8 patients with oral cancers, and evaluated the results to elucidate the clinical effect and adverse side effects.
  • The subjects were 8 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (5 males and 3 females aged 33-65 years).
  • The primary carcinoma regions were the tongue in 5 patients, oral floor in 2 patients, and mandibular gingiva in 1 patient.
  • The T-classification was T2 in 6 patients and T4 in 2 patients, and the clinical staging was Stage II in 5 patients, Stage III in 1 patient and Stage IV in 2 patients.
  • The adverse side effects were slight myelotoxicity, gagging, nausea, alopecia, and stomatitis less than Grade II.
  • Although the oral cancers in this study were extroverted superficial ulcerative cancers, and the number of patients was low at 8, this combined therapy is considered useful and worth evaluating in further accumulated cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Mouth Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 11525027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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3. Lagrange JL, Ramaioli A, Theodore CH, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Beckendorf V, Biron P, Chevreau CH, Chinet-Charrot P, Dumont J, Delobel-Deroide A, D'Anjou J, Chassagne C, Parache RM, Karsenty JM, Mercier J, Droz JP, Radiation Therapy Group and the Genito-Urinary Group of the French Federation of Cancer Centres: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testis: a retrospective study of 84 patients treated in the French anticancer centres. Ann Oncol; 2001 Sep;12(9):1313-9
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  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testis: a retrospective study of 84 patients treated in the French anticancer centres.
  • Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testicle is rare.
  • Disease was classified as stages I in 42 cases, stages II in 19 and stages III-IV in 23.
  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in 75% of cases.
  • Treatment included orchidectomy and radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • A complete response was obtained in 72.6% of the patient population and in 100%, 68% and 33% of stage I, II and III-IV disease respectively.
  • Recurrence occurred in 32 cases and the most frequent site was the central nervous system: six of these patients presented stage I disease.
  • Median overall survival was 32 months for the entire population, 52 months for stage I, 32 months for stage II, and 12 months for stage III-IV cases (P < 0.0001).
  • Among patients presenting stage I disease, no difference was found between those treated with combined surgery and chemotherapy or surgery followed or not followed by radiotherapy.
  • This study confirms that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testicle carries a poor prognosis.
  • Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy should be discussed because of the high recurrence rate.

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  • (PMID = 11697846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Zucca E, Conconi A, Mughal TI, Sarris AH, Seymour JF, Vitolo U, Klasa R, Ozsahin M, Mead GM, Gianni MA, Cortelazzo S, Ferreri AJ, Ambrosetti A, Martelli M, Thiéblemont C, Moreno HG, Pinotti G, Martinelli G, Mozzana R, Grisanti S, Provencio M, Balzarotti M, Laveder F, Oltean G, Callea V, Roy P, Cavalli F, Gospodarowicz MK, International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group: Patterns of outcome and prognostic factors in primary large-cell lymphoma of the testis in a survey by the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Jan 1;21(1):20-7
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  • [Title] Patterns of outcome and prognostic factors in primary large-cell lymphoma of the testis in a survey by the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: To determine clinical features and patterns of outcome of primary testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLCL).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective international survey of 373 patients with primary testicular DLCL.
  • RESULTS: Most patients presented with localized disease (stage I to II), and the median age at diagnosis was 66 years (range, 19 to 91 years).
  • Anthracycline-based chemotherapy was administered to 255 patients (68%), and prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy was given to 68 patients (18%); 133 patients (36%) received prophylactic scrotal radiotherapy.
  • However, even for patients with stage I disease and good-risk IPI, the outcome seems worse than what was reported for DLCL at other sites.
  • A continuous risk of recurrence in the contralateral testis was seen in patients not receiving scrotal radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Testicular DLCL is characterized by a particularly high risk of extranodal relapse even in cases with localized disease at diagnosis.
  • Anthracycline-based chemotherapy, CNS prophylaxis, and contralateral testicular irradiation seem to improve the outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12506165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Albers P: Surgery in testis cancer: laparoscopic and open techniques. Curr Opin Urol; 2002 Sep;12(5):435-40
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  • [Title] Surgery in testis cancer: laparoscopic and open techniques.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review focuses on the current developments of the management of patients with testis cancer regarding surgery.
  • For clinical stage I and stage II disease, the pros and cons of surgery as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool are updated.
  • The review presents the currently changing indications for surgery in addition to chemotherapy in metastatic disease.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: The complication rates of primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection have recently been assessed by the German Testicular Cancer Study Group.
  • Laparoscopic surgery has been performed in a larger cohort of patients in specialized centers, and, concomitantly, operative times and complication rates have dropped.
  • Indications for surgery in the post-chemotherapy setting have been more clearly defined recently.
  • Seminoma patients usually do not need surgical removal of the residual tumor after chemotherapy, whereas patients with non-seminoma disease probably need surgery even in cases of complete radiological remission after chemotherapy.
  • SUMMARY: Larger series of surgical procedures, laparoscopic as well as open, have helped to define the role of this approach in the management of testis cancer.
  • Long-term data on patients with complete response to initial treatment and late relapse have shown the danger of limiting the treatment of metastatic disease to chemotherapy alone.
  • These data have also shown the importance of proper surgical techniques for all stages of testis cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 12172433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0963-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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6. Popadiuk S, Korzon M, Chybicka A, Szmyd K, Balwierz W, Trelinska J, Kowalczyk J, Wisniewska-Slusarz H, Woźniak W, Bilska K, Wachowiak J, Wysocki M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Szumera M, Sznurkowska K, Renke J: [Analysis of risk factor treatment failures in therapeutic programme for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Multicentre prospective study of Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours 1998--2006]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2007 Jul-Sep;11(3 Pt 2):301-6
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  • [Title] [Analysis of risk factor treatment failures in therapeutic programme for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Multicentre prospective study of Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours 1998--2006].
  • AIMS: The aim of the study was the analysis of risk factors of therapeutic failures in children with malignant germ cell tumours treated within the multicentre programme of PPGGL from 1999--2006.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigated group included 18 (14.3%) patients, of 123 who have finished the treatment of malignant germ cell tumour, in whom no remission was obtained or relapse occurred.
  • RESULTS: Among 18 patients with therapeutic failures 12 died.
  • Two patients from the high risk group died of complications of the treatment--sepsis during neutropenia after chemotherapy and one after haemorrhage to the central nervous system.
  • 10 (82%) of 12 patients who died had extragonadal location and in 11 (92%) the tumour was in stage III or IV of the disease.
  • The most frequent histology in this group was mixed germ cell tumour with component of yolk sac tumour or carcinoma embrionale.
  • In 11 (92%) patients primary chemoresistance was observed, and radical surgery was not possible for the reason of advanced stage of the disease.
  • In 3 patients testis was the primary location (I and II stage), in 3 patients the tumour was localized in the sacrococcygeal region (III and IV stage).
  • All the patients are alive in remission after second line therapy, with 78 months (median) of follow-up.
  • The main risk factor for therapeutic failures in malignant germ cell tumours was primary chemoresistance in inoperable tumours of the sacrococcygeal region.
  • 2. The mortality of treatment complications was low.
  • 3. The relapse of cancer was not a risk factor for therapeutic failure due to the high probability of second remission 4.
  • Therapeutic failures are mainly observed in patients with mixed germ cell tumour with components of yolk sac tumour or carcinoma embrionale.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Poland. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18663271.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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7. Classen J, Souchon R, Hehr T, Bamberg M: Treatment of early stage testicular seminoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2001 Aug;127(8):475-81
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  • [Title] Treatment of early stage testicular seminoma.
  • Stage I and IIA/B testicular seminoma represent approximately 45% of all testicular germ cell tumours.
  • Due to the availability of highly efficient salvage treatment, the disease-specific survival in stage I seminoma is approximately 100%, irrespective of the choice of adjuvant treatment.
  • Radiotherapy with 26 Gy to the paraaortic/paracaval lymph nodes yields excellent cure rates of 95 98% with a favourable profile of acute and late toxicity.
  • Likewise, phase-II trials with single-agent carboplatinum systemic treatment have demonstrated a rate of relapse of 3-4% on average.
  • However, carboplatinum chemotherapy has to be regarded as experimental until data of phase-III trials are available.
  • Surveillance in stage I disease is conflicted with a rate of relapse of approximately 20%.
  • In stage IIA/B seminoma, "dogleg" radiotherapy with 30 Gy and 36 Gy, respectively, provides high cure rates of 90-95%.
  • Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) is the common precursor lesion of testicular germ cell tumours except for spermatocytic seminoma.
  • In case of TIN in a single testis or bilateral TIN, local radiotherapy with 18 Gy is recommended as standard treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / radiotherapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Population Surveillance. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11501746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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8. Ashley T, Gaeth AP, Creemers LB, Hack AM, de Rooij DG: Correlation of meiotic events in testis sections and microspreads of mouse spermatocytes relative to the mid-pachytene checkpoint. Chromosoma; 2004 Sep;113(3):126-36
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  • [Title] Correlation of meiotic events in testis sections and microspreads of mouse spermatocytes relative to the mid-pachytene checkpoint.
  • In mouse, asynaptic meiotic mutants arrest at Testis Epithelial Stage IV.
  • To correlate cytological events with meiotic progression in testis and to determine which meiotic events are normally completed by Stage IV, we induced spermatogenic arrest by placing mice on a vitamin A deficient diet.
  • Between Days 11 and 16 post-injection we prepared one testis for immunocytological and the other for histological evaluation, then used antibodies to SCP3 and either RPA, or MLH1 to follow quantitative changes in synapsis and recombination.
  • RPA was found at sites along the synaptonemal complex as soon as homologs synapsed, and most, but not all, RPA disappeared by Stage IV.
  • MLH1 foci appeared between Stage II and IV and remained through Stage VII, the end point of the study.
  • The data suggest that the earliest the mid-pachytene checkpoint can be activated is Epithelial Stage IV, but that activities monitored by the checkpoint may not be completed by this time.
  • [MeSH-major] Meiosis. Pachytene Stage. Spermatocytes / ultrastructure. Spermatogenesis. Testis / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cytogenetic Analysis. Female. Male. Mice. Time Factors. Vitamin A / pharmacology. Vitamin A Deficiency / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15338235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-5915
  • [Journal-full-title] Chromosoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chromosoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01-HD39384
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11103-57-4 / Vitamin A
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9. Seymour JF, Solomon B, Wolf MM, Janusczewicz EH, Wirth A, Prince HM: Primary large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testis: a retrospective analysis of patterns of failure and prognostic factors. Clin Lymphoma; 2001 Sep;2(2):109-15
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  • [Title] Primary large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testis: a retrospective analysis of patterns of failure and prognostic factors.
  • We have analyzed 25 patients with primary testicular large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma managed at our institution from 1972-1998.
  • The median age was 69 years, with bilateral testicular involvement in 16%.
  • The disease stage was I in 56%, II in 32%, and IV in 12%.
  • Twenty-four patients received further therapy after orchiectomy, including chemotherapy in 18 and radiation therapy in 11 (encompassing regional nodes in 8 and the contralateral testis in 6), with 5 patients receiving both modalities.
  • The dominant sites of first failure were extranodal (91%), with prominent involvement of the contralateral testis and cerebral parenchyma.
  • Within the entire cohort, adverse prognostic factors for treatment failure were serum albumin < or = to 3.5 g/dL (P = 0.02), advanced age, advanced stage, and lack of anthracycline-containing chemotherapy (each P < or = to 0.3).
  • Among patients with locoregional disease, albumin < or = to 3.5 g/dL (P = 0.08), no anthracycline-containing chemotherapy (P = 0.15), and fewer than 6 cycles of chemotherapy (P = 0.03) remained predictive.
  • Based on this analysis, we are prospectively evaluating a treatment program for patients with testicular non-Hodgkin's large-cell lymphoma comprising (1) 6 cycles of anthracycline-based chemotherapy, (2) prophylactic radiation therapy to the contralateral testis, and (3) central nervous system prophylaxis with both intrathecal chemotherapy and systemic high-dose methotrexate.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cohort Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Serum Albumin / metabolism. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11707851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-9655
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Serum Albumin
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10. Mosharafa AA, Foster RS, Bihrle R, Koch MO, Ulbright TM, Einhorn LH, Donohue JP: Does retroperitoneal lymph node dissection have a curative role for patients with sex cord-stromal testicular tumors? Cancer; 2003 Aug 15;98(4):753-7
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  • [Title] Does retroperitoneal lymph node dissection have a curative role for patients with sex cord-stromal testicular tumors?
  • BACKGROUND: Sex cord-stromal tumors account for < 5% of all adult testicular tumors, and 10% are malignant.
  • METHODS: Reviewing the Indiana University testis cancer registry revealed 17 patients who underwent RPLND for sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • The data examined included clinical and pathologic stage, surgical procedure, additional therapy received, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Pathology included Leydig tumors in six patients, Sertoli tumors in four patients, sex cord-stromal tumors in five patients, a granulosa cell tumor in one patient, and a poorly differentiated non-germ cell tumor in one patient.
  • Clinical stage at surgery was Stage I in nine patients and Stage IIA-IIIA in eight patients.
  • Nine patients had pathologic Stage I tumors, and the remaining eight patients and had pathologic Stage IIB-IIIA tumors.
  • Of the eight patients with Stage II-III disease, six patients eventually died of metastatic disease despite additional radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • Although the therapeutic role of RPLND in patients with small-volume metastatic retroperitoneal tumors is unclear, RPLND remains an option to be performed immediately after orchiectomy, especially in patients who have tumors with malignant features and/or small-volume metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12910519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Donohue JP: Evolution of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND) in the management of non-seminomatous testicular cancer (NSGCT). Urol Oncol; 2003 Mar-Apr;21(2):129-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evolution of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND) in the management of non-seminomatous testicular cancer (NSGCT).
  • The metastatic lymphatic drainage of testis cancer to the retroperitoneum was noted clinically about a century ago.
  • Transperitoneal approaches failed due to infection until post World War II experience at Walter Reed Army Hospital.
  • The advent of platinum based combination chemotherapy has had a major impact on both the timing of and the technical requirements of RPLND.
  • Our experience with over 2500 RPLNDs in the last 3 decades is divided between low stage (I and II) and high stage (III, postchemotherapy) disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / history. Testicular Neoplasms / history

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  • (PMID = 12856641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Peled N, Oton AB, Hirsch FR, Bunn P: MAGE A3 antigen-specific cancer immunotherapeutic. Immunotherapy; 2009 Jan;1(1):19-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MAGE A3 antigen-specific cancer immunotherapeutic.
  • Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma are devastating diseases with high rates of recurrence.
  • Current clinical recommendations include postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in stages II and IIIA NSCLC, while there is a debate regarding its clinical benefit in stage IB.
  • Recent Phase II trials have demonstrated a clinical benefit by postoperative vaccine with melanoma-specific antigen A3 (MAGE A3) in NSCLC and in stage IV melanoma.
  • MAGE A3 is a tumor-specific shared antigen that is frequently expressed in lung cancer and melanoma, as well as in few other tumors.
  • Its level is associated with disease burden and with prognosis, while normal tissues do not express it, except the testis and the placenta.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Cancer Vaccines. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Immunotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 20635969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-7448
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / MAGEA3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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13. Mosharafa AA, Foster RS, Koch MO, Bihrle R, Donohue JP: Complications of post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testis cancer. J Urol; 2004 May;171(5):1839-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Complications of post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testis cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC RPLND) is a tool in the management of testis cancer.
  • Our impression has been that the short-term morbidity of standard PC RPLND has diminished with time.
  • Therefore, we attempted to verify this hypothesis by evaluating the morbidity of the procedure in 2 comparable groups of patients from 2 different periods.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared 150 patients who underwent post-chemotherapy RPLND between July 2000 and July 2002 to 79 patients who underwent the same procedure between 1990 to 1992.
  • All patients had clinical stage II-III testis cancer and had received 3 to 4 courses of standard platinum based chemotherapy before surgery.
  • RESULTS: The 2 groups were comparable regarding preoperative clinical stage, patient characteristics and postoperative pathological findings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With time morbidity and hospital stay after standard PC RPLND have decreased.
  • Therefore, comparing newer surgical techniques to historical controls is inappropriate since differences may not actually represent the technical advances of the newer procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / adverse effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15076289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Mezvrishvili ZN: [Modified chemotherapy regimens in selected testicular cancer patients with good prognosis]. Georgian Med News; 2006 Jun;(135):7-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Modified chemotherapy regimens in selected testicular cancer patients with good prognosis].
  • The goal of our study was to assess the feasibility of usage of chemotherapy regimens with reduced intensity in subgroups of selected patients with good-prognosis metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) of the testis.
  • 18 patients with low-volume stage II NSGCT who achieved normal tumor marker level after the first cycle of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin (BEP) chemotherapy (group 1) received etoposide and cisplatin (EP) as second and third cycles of treatment and 15 testicular cancer patients with serological disease only (group 2) underwent three cycles of EP chemotherapy.
  • The chemotherapy-related side effects observed in these patients were compared with those in control group consisting of 93 good-prognosis metastatic patients treated with three standard cycles of BEP.
  • All patients from both groups achieved complete response with chemotherapy alone (14 group 1 and 15 group 2 patients) or by subsequent resection of teratoma or necrosis (4 cases from group 1).
  • No relapse with viable malignancy was observed after the treatment.
  • Compared to the control group, less number of treatment cycles was associated with grade III-IV leucopenia in groups 1 (p=0.07) and 2 (p=0.03).
  • Reduced intensity chemotherapy regimens showed efficacy equal to the standard treatment and can be considered as less toxic therapeutic options in these selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16905797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
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15. Casey RG, Aktar M, Hegarty P, Butler M, Thornhill JA: A prospective 10 year audit of a single Irish centre's experience of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for metastatic testis cancer. Surgeon; 2008 Oct;6(5):294-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A prospective 10 year audit of a single Irish centre's experience of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for metastatic testis cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Retro-peritoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) following chemotherapy is critical in advanced germ cell tumours with residual retro-peritoneal masses.
  • Post-chemotherapy RPLND is more extensive, may require adjacent organ resection and has higher morbidity.
  • The study aim was to analyse patient demographics, clinical stage, surgical procedures and cure rates following RPLND.
  • METHODS: An RPLND database (1994-2005) was analysed prospectively for demographics, pre/post-RPLND staging, chemotherapy regimen, cure, follow-up and early/late morbidity and mortality.
  • Clinical stage at presentation was; IV (16), III (19), II (27), I (11) and prior to RPLND was IV (12), III (6), II (55), I (0).
  • Eleven patients with stage I disease progressed prior to RPLND.
  • Seventy-one patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy with partial response (49), minimal response (14), no response (7), disease progression (3) and 13 patients required salvage chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The decision to perform post-chemotherapy RPLND depends on the possibility of viable tumour or teratoma and surgical morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Humans. Ireland. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Medical Audit. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18939377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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16. Sato S, Tanaka T, Takahashi A, Sasai M, Kitamura H, Masumori N, Tsukamoto T: Late recurrence and second primary malignancy among 139 patients with germ cell tumors: long-term outcome of the disease in a single-center experience. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb;40(2):157-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late recurrence and second primary malignancy among 139 patients with germ cell tumors: long-term outcome of the disease in a single-center experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively evaluated long-term oncological outcomes in patients with germ cell tumors (GCTs) primarily treated at our institution and assessed late recurrence and second primary malignancies.
  • METHODS: This study included a total of 139 males with newly diagnosed GCTs of the testis or extragonadal origin who received treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, at our hospital between 1980 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: In patients with seminoma, 5-year progression-free survival and cause-specific survival rates were 87.2% and 100% for Stage I, 88.9% and 100% for Stage II, and 50.0% and 50.0% for Stage III, respectively, whereas in those with non-seminomatous GCTs, they were 79.1% and 96.3% for Stage I, 89.5% and 89.4% for Stage II, and 85.7% and 78.4% for Stage III, respectively.
  • Late recurrence was found in five (3.6%) patients and all of them responded to salvage treatment and achieved disease-free status.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Late recurrence was successfully managed with appropriate treatments, although its incidence was not negligible.
  • Periodic follow-up may be necessary for >5 years in patients with GCTs for early detection of late recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / therapy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19906660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2813544
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17. Terenziani M, D'Angelo P, Bisogno G, Boldrini R, Cecchetto G, Collini P, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Ilari I, Indolfi P, Inserra A, Piva L, Siracusa F, Spreafico F, Tamaro P, Lo Curto M: Teratoma with a malignant somatic component in pediatric patients: the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Apr;54(4):532-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PROCEDURE: The Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica identified 14 cases of TMSC.
  • RESULTS: The series (9 female, 5 male) showed the following disease: testis (2), sacrococcygeal (3), ovary (3), retroperitoneum (3), mediastinum (2), and foot soft tissue (1).
  • Distribution of the somatic component was: carcinoma (4), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (1), neuroblastoma (3), rhabdomyosarcoma (3), rhabdomyosarcoma plus liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, neurogenic sarcoma (1), chondrosarcoma plus neuroectodermal sarcoma (1), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (1).
  • Three patients were in stage I, four in stage II, three in stage III, and four in stage IV.
  • All but one patient underwent surgery and only females showed carcinoma components.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis for germ cell tumors (GCTs) containing MSC is worse than that for GCTs.
  • The pediatric disease appears to be more heterogeneous in tumor site distribution and MSC histology than in adults.
  • Chemotherapy optimized for histology should include reagents directed to the somatic malignancy, if chemosensitive.
  • Malignant GCT warrants GCT-directed chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


18. Mezvrishvili Z, Managadze L: Is bleomycin necessary in adjuvant chemotherapy of clinical stage I non-seminomatous testicular cancer? Georgian Med News; 2006 May;(134):25-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is bleomycin necessary in adjuvant chemotherapy of clinical stage I non-seminomatous testicular cancer?
  • The aim of our study was to assess the feasibility of bleomycin omission from two cycles of adjuvant bleomycin, etoposide and cysplatin (BEP) chemotherapy in patients with clinical stage I non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT).
  • A total of 41 patients with high risk clinical stage I NSGCT of the testis were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy at our center from October 1994 to June 2005.
  • The criteria for high risk were lymphatic and/or vascular tumor invasion in the primary tumor.
  • 24 patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with two standard cycles of BEP (I group) and 17 patients received two alternative cycles of EP (II group).
  • Toxicity was analyzed on a per treatment cycle basis.
  • All the patients were alive and relapse-free at a median follow-up time of 75 and 49 months for groups 1 and 2 respectively.
  • In patients from group 1 more number of treatment cycles was associated with grade 2-3 leukopenia compared to group 2 (p=0,043).
  • The results of this study show that two cycles of EP regimen is as effective as two cycles of BEP chemotherapy in patients with clinical stage I NSGCT and may be suggested as a less toxic alternative approach to standard adjuvant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16783058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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19. Albers P, Perabo FG, Melchior D, Siener R: Adjuvant chemotherapy in stage I and stage II testicular cancer. World J Urol; 2001 Apr;19(2):76-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant chemotherapy in stage I and stage II testicular cancer.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy in low-stage testis cancer is an accepted treatment option for two clinical situations:.
  • (1) chemotherapy after complete removal of the primary tumor by orchidectomy without clinical evidence of metastasis (clinical stage I), and (2) chemotherapy after complete surgical removal of non-seminomatous retroperitoneal metastases up to 5 cm in greatest transverse diameter by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in clinical stage II.
  • Aim of treatment is the prevention of tumor recurrences.
  • The risk of recurrence depends on the type and stage of disease and ranges from 16% (clinical stage I seminoma) to 50% (pathological stage II B non-seminoma).
  • Thus, 50-84% of patients receive adjuvant treatment unnecessarily.
  • Prognostic factors have been developed in each tumor entity to tailor treatment to patients with high risk of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 11374321.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-4983
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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20. Maldonado-Valadez R, Schilling D, Anastasiadis AG, Sturm W, Stenzl A, Corvin S: Post-chemotherapy laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph-node dissection in testis cancer patients. J Endourol; 2007 Dec;21(12):1501-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Post-chemotherapy laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph-node dissection in testis cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is still the most sensitive and specific method for the detection of malignant tumor and mature teratoma in stage II nonseminomatous testicular carcinoma after chemotherapy.
  • In this study, we describe our experiences with laparoscopic RPLND for stage II testicular carcinoma after chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Sixteen patients underwent 17 laparoscopic RPLND after chemotherapy for clinical stage IIA-III nonseminomatous testicular cancer.
  • Patients with post-chemotherapy residual masses >1 cm and normalization of tumor markers were considered for the procedure.
  • Our dissection field included the resection of the residual tumor as well as the ipsilateral template.
  • Operative time ranged from 125 to 370 minutes (mean 240 +/- 56 min).
  • No transfusions were required, and no intra- or postoperative complications occurred because of the procedure.
  • A bleomycin-induced interstitial pneumonia developed in one patient.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic RPLND after chemotherapy is a feasible and oncologically safe procedure.
  • However, the technique is challenging and should only be performed in selected patients with low residual tumor volume.

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  • (PMID = 18186691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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21. Mezvrishvili Z, Managadze L: One cycle of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin plus two cycles of etopeside and cisplatin chemotherapy in selected patients with low-volume stage II nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis. Urol Int; 2005;75(4):304-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] One cycle of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin plus two cycles of etopeside and cisplatin chemotherapy in selected patients with low-volume stage II nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of bleomycin omission from second and third cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy in low-volume stage II nonseminomatous germ cell tumor patients who achieve a normal tumor marker level after the first cycle of treatment.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Out of 59 nonseminomatous testicular cancer patients with low-volume retroperitoneal disease, serum markers normalized after the first cycle of treatment in 30 cases.
  • 12 patients completed 3BEP (group 1; years 1994-1998) and other 18 patients received etoposide and cisplatin (EP) as second and third cycles of chemotherapy (group 2; years 1998-2004).
  • RESULTS: All patients from each group achieved complete response with chemotherapy alone or by subsequent resection of teratoma or necrosis.
  • There was no relapse with active cancer after the treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: One cycle of BEP plus two cycles of EP chemotherapy was as effective as three standard cycles of BEP.
  • The regimen can be suggested as a less toxic therapeutic alternative in these selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Seminoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16327295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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22. Westermann DH, Schefer H, Thalmann GN, Karamitopoulou-Diamantis E, Fey MF, Studer UE: Long-term followup results of 1 cycle of adjuvant bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for high risk clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis. J Urol; 2008 Jan;179(1):163-6
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  • [Title] Long-term followup results of 1 cycle of adjuvant bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for high risk clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the long-term outcome after 1 cycle of adjuvant modified bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy in patients who underwent orchiectomy for high risk clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1995 and 1999 a consecutive series of 44 patients underwent orchiectomy for clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis, followed by a single postoperative cycle of adjuvant modified bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin for vascular or lymphatic tumor invasion, and/or a predominance (50% or greater) of embryonal carcinoma.
  • One patient with progression after 13 months showed complete remission after 3 cycles of salvage bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy but he died of pneumonia 4 weeks after the third course.
  • Two patients underwent orchiectomy for contralateral testis cancer at 18 and 42 months, respectively, followed by an additional 3 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Late side effects were tinnitus in 3 patients and involuntary childlessness in 3, of whom 2 had cryptorchidism of the contralateral testis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: One cycle of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin effectively decreases the risk of relapse in patients with high risk stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18001800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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23. Foster RS, Donohue JP: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for the management of clinical stage I nonseminoma. J Urol; 2000 Jun;163(6):1788-92
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for the management of clinical stage I nonseminoma.
  • PURPOSE: We review the rationale for the use of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I nonseminomatous testis cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The published literature regarding the alternative treatments for clinical stage I nonseminoma was reviewed as well as the personal experience of the authors to define the role of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • RESULTS: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection alone is curative in 50% to 75% of patients with pathological stage II disease.
  • If recurrence develops after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, it is virtually always curable with cisplatin based chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection retains a therapeutic and staging capability in these patients.
  • The probability for cure, short and long-term morbidity, and minimal need for long-term followup in these patients indicates that retroperitoneal lymph node dissection continues to be standard therapy for clinical stage I nonseminoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 10799183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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24. Pohar KS, Rabbani F, Bosl GJ, Motzer RJ, Bajorin D, Sheinfeld J: Results of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I and II pure embryonal carcinoma of the testis. J Urol; 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1155-8
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  • [Title] Results of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I and II pure embryonal carcinoma of the testis.
  • PURPOSE: We determined the pathological findings and clinical outcome of patients with pure embryonal carcinoma (EC) of the testis managed by primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Patients presented as clinical stage I in 26, IIA in 17 and IIB in 2.
  • RESULTS: Overall the pathological stage was pN0 in 11, pN1 in 10 (4 with microscopic disease) and pN2/N3 in 24 patients (8 with extranodal extension).
  • Nineteen of 26 patients (73%) with clinical stage I and 13 of 17 (77%) patients with clinical stage IIA had retroperitoneal disease.
  • Only 1 of 9 (11%) patients with pN1 treated without adjuvant chemotherapy has had relapse.
  • Of 24 patients with pN2/N3 disease only 3 (12%) have required more than 2 cycles of postoperative chemotherapy for persistent or recurrent disease despite complete resection of the retroperitoneum.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low stage pure EC of the testis are at high risk for retroperitoneal disease.
  • However these patients do not appear to be at increased risk for high volume (pN2/N3) retroperitoneal disease, systemic relapse in pN0 or pN1 disease managed without adjuvant chemotherapy (although the number of evaluable patients in this subset is somewhat small), or persistent or recurrent disease in completely resected high volume (pN2/N3) retroperitoneal disease compared to patients with mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1168 [14501717.001]
  • (PMID = 14501714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Valdevenito Sepúlveda JP, Merhe Nieva E, Valdevenito Sepúlveda R, Cuevas Toro M, Gómez Gallo A, Bermúdez Luna H, Contreras Meléndez L, Gallegos Méndez I, Gallardo Escobar J, Palma Ceppi C: [Reduced retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for clinical stage I non seminomatous germ cell testicular cancer]. Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Apr;60(3):245-54
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  • [Title] [Reduced retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for clinical stage I non seminomatous germ cell testicular cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Linfadenectomia retroperitoneal reducida en cancer testicular de celulas germinales no seminomatoso estadio clinico I.
  • OBJECTIVES: The best treatment of clinical stage I non-seminomatous germ cell testicular cancer (NSGCTC) is controversial.
  • Lymphadenectomy allows an adequate retroperitoneal staging and cures up to 70% of patients in pathological stage II.
  • The objective of this study is to analyse our experience in the treatment of this patients with radical orchiectomy and reduced retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RRL) as the initial treatment.
  • METHODS: Retrospective study of patients with clinical stage I NSGCTC submitted to radical orchiectomy and RRL at the Urology Service of the University of Chile Clinical Hospital, from January 1990 to December 2000.
  • INCLUSION CRITERIA: retroperitoneal staging with computed tomography (CT), normal tumor markers after orchiectomy and testicular and retroperitoneal biopsy informed at our hospital.
  • The following metastatic risk factors in the testicular biopsy were checked: vascular invasion (venous and/or lymphatic), infiltration of tunica albuginea, rete testis, epididymis, and spermatic cord.
  • RESULTS: 36 patients with 37 testicular tumors were analysed (1 bilateral case).
  • Twenty nine mixed tumors (78%); most frequent histology embryonal carcinoma (76%).
  • Average surgery time 2 hr 7 min; average dissected lymph nodes 13.
  • Chemotherapy in 7 patients (19%) a total of 18 cycles.
  • Four cases of contralateral tumor during follow-up (11%).
  • Clinical stage I NSGCTC initially managed with RRL has a 100% survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17601299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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26. Yousef GM, Kyriakopoulou LG, Scorilas A, Fracchioli S, Ghiringhello B, Zarghooni M, Chang A, Diamandis M, Giardina G, Hartwick WJ, Richiardi G, Massobrio M, Diamandis EP, Katsaros D: Quantitative expression of the human kallikrein gene 9 (KLK9) in ovarian cancer: a new independent and favorable prognostic marker. Cancer Res; 2001 Nov 1;61(21):7811-8
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  • [Title] Quantitative expression of the human kallikrein gene 9 (KLK9) in ovarian cancer: a new independent and favorable prognostic marker.
  • Many members of the human kallikrein gene family were found to be differentially expressed in various malignancies and some are useful cancer diagnostic/prognostic markers.
  • KLK9 is a newly discovered human kallikrein gene that is expressed in several tissues including thymus, testis, spinal cord, salivary gland, ovary, and skin.
  • Like other kallikreins, the KLK9 gene was found to be regulated by steroid hormones in cancer cell lines.
  • Our purpose is to examine whether quantitative analysis of KLK9 expression has prognostic value in ovarian cancer.
  • We studied the expression of KLK9 by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in 168 consecutive ovarian tumors of different stages, grades, and histological types, and correlated the expression with clinicopathological parameters, response to chemotherapy, and patients' survival.
  • We found that KLK9 expression was significantly higher in patients with early disease stages (I or II; P = 0.044) and in patients with optimal debulking (P = 0.019).
  • When the Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was applied to subgroups of patients, KLK9 expression was found to be a significant predictor of progression-free survival in the subgroup of patients with low-grade tumors [hazard ratio (HR), 0.13; P = 0.0015], early stage (HR, 0.099; P = 0.031); and those with optimal debulking (HR, 0.26; P = 0.012).
  • Our results indicate that KLK9 is under steroid hormone regulation in ovarian and breast cancer cell lines.
  • Immmunohistochemically, human kallikrein protein (hK9) was localized in the cytoplasm, but not in the nuclei, of the epithelial cells of ovarian cancer tissues.
  • We conclude that KLK9 is a potential new independent favorable prognostic marker for early stage, low-grade, optimally debulked ovarian cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Kallikreins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11691797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Progestins; EC 3.4.21.- / KLK9 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
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27. Annerstedt M, Gudjonsson S, Wullt B, Uvelius B: Robot-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in clinical stage II testicular cancer. J Robot Surg; 2008 Sep;2(3):189-91
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  • [Title] Robot-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in clinical stage II testicular cancer.
  • Robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissections were performed in three patients after chemotherapy for clinical stage II testicular cancer.
  • Although our experience is still limited, we think that the outcomes of the cases suggest a role for robot-assisted surgery in selected cases undergoing post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.

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  • (PMID = 27628259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-2483
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of robotic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Robot Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Clinical stage II / Robot-assisted laparoscopy / Testicular cancer
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28. Beck SD: Optimal management of testicular cancer: from self-examination to treatment of advanced disease. Open Access J Urol; 2010;2:143-54
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  • [Title] Optimal management of testicular cancer: from self-examination to treatment of advanced disease.
  • Germ-cell cancer is the most common solid tumor in men aged 15 to 35 years and has become the model for curable neoplasm.
  • This improved cure rate has been largely attributed to the introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • In stage I seminoma and nonseminoma, cure rates approach 100% and treatment is governed by patient choice based on the perceived morbidities of each therapy and personal preferences.
  • For seminoma, treatments include surveillance, radiotherapy, and single course carboplatin.
  • For nonseminoma, treatments include surveillance, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Low volume (<3 cm) stage II seminoma is typically managed with radiotherapy while higher volume (>3 cm) stage II and stage III disease treated with chemotherapy.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can differentiate active cancer versus necrosis for postchemotherapy residual masses.
  • PET-positive masses are managed with either surgery or second-line chemotherapy.
  • Low volume (<5 cm) stage II nonseminoma with normal serum tumor markers may be managed with either RPLND or chemotherapy.
  • Patients with persistently elevated serum tumor markers and larger volume stage II and stage III disease are managed with systemic chemotherapy.
  • Residual postchemotherapy masses should be resected due to the uncertainty of the histology with 50% to 60% harboring residual teratoma or active cancer.
  • The majority of patients completing initial therapy who relapse do so within 2 years.
  • Current therapeutic challenges in testis cancer include the accurate prediction of postchemotherapy histology to avoid surgery in patients harboring fibrosis only, improved therapy in platinum-resistant and platinum-refractory disease, and the understanding of the biology of late relapse.

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  • (PMID = 24198622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-1551
  • [Journal-full-title] Open access journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Open Access J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3818885
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; advanced disease / self-examination / testicular cancer
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29. Foster RS: Early-stage testis cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2001 Oct;2(5):413-9
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  • [Title] Early-stage testis cancer.
  • The treatment of low-stage testis cancer (defined as clinical stage I or low-volume clinical stage II disease) varies, depending on whether or not the orchiectomy specimen reveals seminoma or nonseminoma.
  • Treatments for clinical stage I seminoma include radiotherapy to the retroperitoneum, surveillance, or two courses of carboplatin chemotherapy.
  • Until the results of an ongoing randomized study comparing radiotherapy with two courses of carboplatin are known, standard accepted treatments currently include radiotherapy or surveillance.
  • In nonbulky clinical stage II seminoma, therapeutic options include radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • For clinical stage I nonseminoma, equivalent short-term survival rates are obtained with either nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), surveillance, or two courses of BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, and platinum) chemotherapy.
  • However, minimization of toxicity of treatment would argue that the two preferred treatments in clinical stage I nonseminoma are nerve-sparing RPLND or surveillance.
  • For low- volume clinical stage II nonseminoma, options include three courses of BEP or primary RPLND.
  • Therefore, in each clinical stage of early-stage testis cancer, therapeutic options exist that, based upon current data, are therapeutically equivalent in the short term.
  • Therefore, the ultimate choice of therapy is also dependent upon the short- and long-term toxicity of therapy and the likelihood of late recurrence of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Epidemiologic Methods. Erectile Dysfunction / prevention & control. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / mortality. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / therapy. Orchiectomy / adverse effects. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Radiation Tolerance. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Risk Factors. Sarcoma / mortality. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Seminoma / mortality. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12057104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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30. Fernández Gómez JM, Escaf Barmadah S, Guate Ortiz JL, Martín Huescar A, Fresno Forcelledo F, García Rodríguez J, Rodríguez Faba O, Jalón Monzón A, Rodríguez Martínez JJ: [Urologic treatment of testicular germ cell cancer]. Arch Esp Urol; 2002 Oct;55(8):927-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Urologic treatment of testicular germ cell cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento urológico del cáncer germinal de testículo.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the treatment of testicular germ-cell cancer in our series.
  • METHODS: 73 cases with the diagnosis of germ-cell testicular tumours were reviewed.
  • We reviewed the treatment options employed in our series, analysing different currently recognised risk factors.
  • RESULTS: 34 out of 73 testicular germ-cell tumours were seminomas (46.6%) and 39 non seminomas (54.4%).
  • Clinically 58.9% of the patients had localised, stage I tumours.
  • 85.7% seminomas were stage I at presentation compared to 35.9% (14) non seminomatous tumours.
  • The remainder tumours presented in advanced phases (stages II & III).
  • Inguinal orchiectomy was performed in all cases except 5 patients in whom tumours were incidentally diagnosed (atrophic testis orchiectomy, hydrocelectomy, trauma) and underwent ipsilateral scrotal excision in a second time.
  • 30 patients received chemotherapy after orchiectomy: 3 metastatic seminomas (stage II) (8.8% of seminomas treated with chemotherapy) and 27 non seminomatous tumours (69.2% of them).
  • All metastatic tumours are among the last (25) (Stages II & III) and 2 stage I non seminomatous tumours.
  • Median time to relapse was 4 months (2-102).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Testicular germ-cell cancer needs a well established multidisciplinary approach, in which the role of the urologist is fundamental.
  • Orchiectomy is the primary treatment and allows determination of the dissemination risk.
  • Radiotherapy is very effective for localised seminomas with poor prognostic factors, and for non seminomas 2 cycles of chemotherapy seem to be an effective approach, as well as of little toxicity.
  • We must know and apply optimised programs for observation of these tumours (stage I), and also use follow-up protocols after chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • Some cases need complex surgery for residual masses resection or post chemotherapy salvage surgery in disseminated tumours (Stages II & III).
  • Sterility treatment protocols are applied to preserve fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Orchiectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / radiotherapy. Seminoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12455283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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31. Tavolini IM, Norcen M, Oliva G, Nigro F, Benedetto G, Mazzariol C, Bassi P: [Caval involvement in advanced-stage non-seminoma testicular tumors: surgical strategy and long-term results]. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2002 Jun;74(2):69-76
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  • [Title] [Caval involvement in advanced-stage non-seminoma testicular tumors: surgical strategy and long-term results].
  • [Transliterated title] II coinvolgimento cavale nei tumori non seminomatosi del testicolo in stadio avanzato: strategie chirurgiche e risultati a lungo termine.
  • OBJECTIVES: The involvement of vena cava by residual masses after cytoreductive chemotherapy for bulky metastatic germ cell tumors is a rare but possible event.
  • It could ensue by tumor invasion of the inferior vena cava (IVC), venous or neoplastic thrombosis, or by close adherence and encasement of IVC by scar tissue containing fibrosis or cancer; it usually occurs in right testicular neoplasms.
  • In this study we evaluated a group of nine over 86 patients who underwent IVC (and possibly aortic) surgery for post-chemotherapy residual masses and we assessed long term oncological and functional efficacy of the procedure.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1980 and 1997, 86 patients underwent retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND) after induction or additional salvage chemotherapy.
  • A subgroup of nine patients, all with primary tumors of the right testis in stage II C to III, showed evidence of caval involvement, four had caval thrombosis, seven exhibited caval invasion; in one case the IVC was displaced and compressed with no clear evidence of infiltration.

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  • (PMID = 12161940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ITA
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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32. Gori S, Porrozzi S, Roila F, Gatta G, De Giorgi U, Marangolo M: Germ cell tumours of the testis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2005 Feb;53(2):141-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Germ cell tumours of the testis.
  • Cancer of the testis is a relatively rare disease, accounting for about 1% of all cancers in men.
  • Cryptorchidism is the only confirmed risk factor for testicular germ cell tumour.
  • Any nodular, hard, or fixed area discovered in the testis, must be considered neoplastic until proved otherwise.
  • The appropriate surgical procedure to make the diagnosis is a radical orchidectomy through an inguinal incision.
  • Many GCT produce tumoural markers (AFP, HCG, LDH), who are useful in the diagnosis and staging of disease; to monitor the therapeutic response and to detect tumour recurrence.
  • In 1997 a prognostic factor-based classification for the metastatic germ cell tumours was developed by the IGCCCG: good, intermediate and poor prognosis, with 5-year survival of 91, 79 and 48%, respectively.
  • GCT of the testis is a highly table, often curable, cancer.
  • Germ cell testicular cancers are divided into seminoma and non-seminoma types for treatment planning because seminomatous testicular cancers are more sensitive to radiotherapy.
  • For patients with low-stage disease, the cure approaches 100%.
  • For patients with non-seminoma tumours, the cure rate is >95% in stages I and II; it is approximately 70% with standard chemotherapy and resection of residual disease, if necessary, in stages III and IV.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15661565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 189
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33. Fujimura T, Minowada S, Kishi H, Hamasaki K, Saito K, Kitamura T: Acute pericarditis as a result of unusual metastasis of the visceral pleura in a patient with testicular seminoma. Int J Urol; 2006 May;13(5):653-4
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  • [Title] Acute pericarditis as a result of unusual metastasis of the visceral pleura in a patient with testicular seminoma.
  • A 30-year-old man with a left testicular swelling was referred to our hospital.
  • We performed a left high orchiectomy based on a diagnosis of clinical stage II testicular cancer.
  • Pathological specimens of the left testis showed seminoma.
  • The patient underwent three courses of combined chemotherapy.
  • The retroperitoneal lymph nodes were dissected and there were no viable cancer cells.
  • Twelve years later a right testicular tumor was discovered.
  • Pathological specimens of the testis showed seminoma, and the patient was treated with prophylactic irradiation.
  • The patient was treated with combined chemotherapy and irradiation.
  • Six months after the treatment he complained of dyspnea.
  • [MeSH-major] Pericarditis / etiology. Pericarditis / pathology. Seminoma / complications. Seminoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Autopsy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiotherapy. Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16771750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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34. Sweeney CJ, Hermans BP, Heilman DK, Foster RS, Donohue JP, Einhorn LH: Results and outcome of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I embryonal carcinoma--predominant testis cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Jan;18(2):358-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results and outcome of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I embryonal carcinoma--predominant testis cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of metastatic disease and usage of chemotherapy (adjuvant or metastatic) after primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in patients with clinical stage (CS) I embryonal carcinoma (EC)-predominant testicular cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: All CS I patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors who underwent RPLND at Indiana University from 1990 to 1995 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Eighty-five (68.0%) of 125 patients with EC-predominant disease had pathologic stage (PS) I, and 18 (21.2%) of this group of 85 relapsed.
  • PS II disease was more frequent in patients with EC predominance, as 40 (32.0%) of 125 had retroperitoneal metastases, compared with 26 (15.6%) of 167 patients with a non-EC-predominant histologic diagnosis (P =.0024).
  • Chemotherapy was administered to 48 (38.4%) of the 125 patients with CS I EC-predominant disease after RPLND.
  • This included 25 CS I patients with PS II disease who received adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to 23 patients who subsequently required chemotherapy for relapse after RPLND. Ten (66.
  • 6%) of 15 PS II EC-predominant patients were cured by surgery alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Incidence. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10637250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2 R 35 CA 39844-14
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Porcaro AB, Antoniolli SZ, Martignoni G, Brunelli M, Curti P: Adult primary teratoma of the testis--report on 5 cases in clinical stage I disease. Int Urol Nephrol; 2001;33(4):657-9
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  • [Title] Adult primary teratoma of the testis--report on 5 cases in clinical stage I disease.
  • OBJECTIVES: Testis pure teratoma accounts for 2.7% to 3% of all germ cell tumors in adult where it behaves as a malignant neoplasm.
  • Pure teratoma of the testis presents in clinical stage I disease in 44% of the patients whose risk of having pathological stage II disease is 16.7% to 19.2%.
  • Herein we report on 5 cases of adult pure teratoma of the testis presenting itself in clinical stage I disease.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 1976 to February 2000, 75 patients underwent orchidectomy for clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell cancer of the testis.
  • Testis pure teratoma was detected in 5 patients (7%).
  • Testis tumor markers were evaluated in all cases.
  • Patients underwent imaging examination to detect the clinical stage of the disease.
  • Treatment options after orchidectomy included retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in 4 patients and surveillance in 1.
  • The tumor was on the left sided in 3 cases (60%) and right in 2 (40%).
  • Tumor average size was 3.2 cm (rang 1-6).
  • All patients were at clinical stage I disease.
  • Germ cell cancer microscopic metastatic disease including embryonal carcinoma was detected in I dissected lymph node of 1/4 patients (25%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary pure teratoma of the testis does not respond to chemotherapy nor does it to radiation therapy.
  • The disease treatment options after orchidectomy for patients with clinical stage I disease include RPLND or surveillance with their relative risks and benefits.
  • RPLND is the chosen treatment because it is both staging and treating.
  • [MeSH-major] Orchiectomy. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 12452623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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