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1. Clark PE, Peereboom DM, Dreicer R, Levin HS, Clark SB, Klein EA: Phase II trial of neoadjuvant estramustine and etoposide plus radical prostatectomy for locally advanced prostate cancer. Urology; 2001 Feb;57(2):281-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of neoadjuvant estramustine and etoposide plus radical prostatectomy for locally advanced prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report the results of a Phase II trial of neoadjuvant estramustine and etoposide before radical prostatectomy in patients with locally advanced disease.
  • METHODS: Treatment consisted of three cycles of estramustine (10 mg/kg/day) and etoposide (50 mg/m(2)/day) orally on days 1 through 21, repeated every 28 days, followed by radical prostatectomy.
  • The eligibility criteria included locally advanced prostate cancer (clinical Stage T2b/c or T3, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of 15 ng/mL or greater, or Gleason score of 8 or higher) without evidence of metastatic disease.
  • The median PSA level was 14 ng/mL (range 5.3 to 50), the median Gleason score was 7 (range 6 to 9), and 44% had Stage T2b/c or T3 disease.
  • The primary endpoint was feasibility of neoadjuvant therapy and radical prostatectomy, including drug and surgery-related toxicities.
  • Secondary endpoints included the pre-prostatectomy PSA level, local response, pathologic outcomes, and time to PSA failure.
  • RESULTS: Eighteen patients were entered and completed all three cycles of therapy, and 16 (89%) underwent radical prostatectomy.
  • A local response occurred in 15 (94%) of 16 patients with palpable tumors, and the serum PSA reached undetectable levels after therapy and before radical prostatectomy in 9 patients (50%).
  • The median operative time was 125 minutes, the mean blood loss was 665 mL, and the mean length of stay was 2.5 nights.
  • The pathologic analysis demonstrated residual carcinoma with squamous metaplasia and androgen deprivation effect in all patients.
  • All patients achieved an undetectable PSA level postoperatively and at a median follow-up of 14 months (range 5 to 20) and without additional therapy, all 14 patients with negative lymph nodes were disease free.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This trial confirms the feasibility of radical prostatectomy with acceptable surgical morbidity after neoadjuvant therapy with estramustine and etoposide in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer.
  • Additional study of this paradigm with other drug regimens is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Estramustine / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Prostatectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11182337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 35LT29625A / Estramustine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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2. Chen JQ, Litton J, Xiao L, Zhang HZ, Warneke CL, Wu Y, Shen X, Wu S, Sahin A, Katz R, Bondy M, Hortobagyi G, Berinstein NL, Murray JL, Radvanyi L: Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis and prognostic significance of TRPS-1, a new GATA transcription factor family member, in breast cancer. Horm Cancer; 2010 Feb;1(1):21-33
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  • [Title] Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis and prognostic significance of TRPS-1, a new GATA transcription factor family member, in breast cancer.
  • Previously, using a gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry (IHC) screen, we identified TRPS-1 as a highly prevalent gene in breast cancer (BC), expressed in >90% of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)(+) and ERα(-) BC subtypes.
  • TRPS-1 was also shown to be expressed in prostate cancer where it was shown to play a proapoptotic function during androgen withdrawal possibly through regulating antioxidant metabolism.
  • In this study, we developed a new quantitative IHC (qIHC) method to further study TRPS-1 as a marker and possible prognostic indicator in BC.
  • By using this method, a quantitative parameter for TRPS-1 expression called a quick score (QS) was derived from the measured labeling index and mean optical density after IHC and applied to a set of 152 stage II/III BC patients from 1993 to 2006 who did not receive preoperative chemotherapy.
  • Further analysis of different ductal structures in ten BC cases revealed that TRPS-1 expression was expressed at low levels in the remaining normal ducts and in areas of usual ductal hyperplasia but showed marked increase in expression in ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma lesions in the tissue.
  • An analysis of TRPS-1 expression in association with overall survival in the 152 stage II/III sample set also revealed that TRPS-1 QS (≥4.0) was significantly associated with improved survival (p = 0.0165).
  • Patients with TRPS-1 QS <4 had a hazard ratio of 2 (p = 0.019) after univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Transcription Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 21761348.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-8500
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TRPS1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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3. Startsev V, Pouline I: Adjuvant therapy in different risk-groups of patients with superficial bladder cancer. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2005 Jun;77(2):93-8
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy in different risk-groups of patients with superficial bladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We assessed and compared the outcomes of two different courses of adjuvant therapy to patients with superficial bladder TCC.
  • METHODS: The study included 142 patients (28 women and 114 men with a median age of 58.5 years) with newly diagnosed bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) between October 2002 and October 2003.
  • In 26 (18.3%) patients with considerably enlarged prostate and LUTS we simultaneously performed TURBT and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
  • Pathological findings showed pTa stage in 20 (14.1%), pT1G1-2 in 99 (69.7%), pT1G3 in 15 (10.6%) and pTis in 3 (2.1%) cases; we additionally examined prostate specimens after TURP.
  • The main criteria for adjuvant treatment were: grade, number and location of the tumor in the bladder The group of patients (group A) with G3 and multicentric lesions, localized at the lower third of the bladder, underwent BCG-therapy according the conventional schedule (60 patients, 42.3%).
  • In group B (82 patients, 57.7%) patients underwent local chemotherapy (Thiotepa 80 mg p/week or Doxorubicin 50 mg p/week), started within 24 hours after operation.
  • A second-look TURBT was performed within 6 weeks of treatment course in both groups.
  • Adjuvant therapy was continued in all patients, except four patients with G3 and two patients with T2 stage who underwent more aggressive treatment (4 cystectomies and 2 external beam radiotherapy).
  • We switched 16 patients in group B with recurrent cancer to BCG treatment.
  • Nobody of TURP-operated patients had recurrence in the distal part of urethra, and toxicity level of TURP-operated patients was not worse than in the whole patients cohort (not more than grade II).
  • CONCLUSION: BCG adjuvant therapy demonstrated good results in the treatment of the recurrence of superficial TCC.
  • However, in patients with low recurrence risk we used chemotherapy successfully.
  • Patients with T1G3 tumors, being at high risk of residual, or even invasive, cancer, could be offered definitive therapy within a 1-year period.
  • Patients who underwent simultaneous TURP for relief of LUTS did not show cancer recurrences in the operated area or an higher toxicity of adjuvant treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16146269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa
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4. Dozić J, Bogdanović J: [Current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to invasive bladder cancer]. Med Pregl; 2005 Sep-Oct;58(9-10):465-71
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  • [Title] [Current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to invasive bladder cancer].
  • INTRODUCTION: Bladder cancer is the second most common urological cancer (after prostate cancer, and before kidney and testicular tumors).
  • After setting a diagnosis for bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), 25% of pts have extravesical spread of the disease, and almost 50% dies in the follow-up period and after radical surgical procedures.
  • T2 stage is underestimated in 40-50% of cases, whereas lymph nodes are positive in 10% of cases in T1 stage of the disease.
  • The aim of this study was to present modern diagnostic-therapeutic procedures, which are being used in multimodal treatment of invasive bladder tumors (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy), indications for their use, and treatment outcome in regard to the stage of the disease.
  • PATHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS: Pathological diagnosis is a key factor for correct and on-time treatment.
  • TREATMENT OF BLADDER CANCER: Treatment of bladder tumors is multimodal, multidisciplinary and includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • In regard to indications and established protocols, surgery is partial, simple or radical cystectomy, followed by different types of urine derivation (wet stoma--Bricker's ileal conduit, dry stoma--Kock pouch, ureterosigmoidostomy--Mainz pouch II, or orthotopic ileal bladder substitution).
  • The use of new operative procedures can be done only during the early stage of the disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Using new diagnostic equipment, up-to date therapeutic procedures, bladder cancer becomes a curable disease (depending on the stage of the disease) with high survival rate and better quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy


5. Fusi A, Procopio G, Della Torre S, Ricotta R, Bianchini G, Salvioni R, Ferrari L, Martinetti A, Savelli G, Villa S, Bajetta E: Treatment options in hormone-refractory metastatic prostate carcinoma. Tumori; 2004 Nov-Dec;90(6):535-46
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  • [Title] Treatment options in hormone-refractory metastatic prostate carcinoma.
  • Prostate cancer represents one of the most important health problems in industrialized countries.
  • It is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States.
  • Therapeutic options are different according to the stage of the disease at the diagnosis.
  • Patients with localized disease may be treated with surgery or radiation, whereas the treatment for patients with a metastatic disease is purely palliative.
  • Hormonal treatment represents the standard therapy for stage IV prostate cancer, but patients ultimately become unresponsive to androgen ablation and are classified as hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients.
  • The important thing is that we understand these mechanisms to define potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients.
  • Conventional options for patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer include secondary hormone therapy, radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, there is no standard therapy for these patients, thus we need new approaches which should be studied in clinical trials.
  • The evaluation and incorporation of new agents into current treatment regimens could have a role in the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer, but their efficacy has not yet been demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / drug effects. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Estramustine / therapeutic use. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Survival Analysis. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15762353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Taxoids; 35LT29625A / Estramustine; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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6. Stephenson AJ, Bosl GJ, Bajorin DF, Stasi J, Motzer RJ, Sheinfeld J: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with low stage testicular cancer with embryonal carcinoma predominance and/or lymphovascular invasion. J Urol; 2005 Aug;174(2):557-60; discussion 560
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with low stage testicular cancer with embryonal carcinoma predominance and/or lymphovascular invasion.
  • PURPOSE: The outcome after primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) was analyzed in patients with clinical stage I-IIA nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer with embryonal carcinoma predominance (ECP) or lymphovascular invasion (LVI).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1989 and 2002, 267 patients with clinical stage I-IIA nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer, and ECP and/or LVI underwent RPLND.
  • RESULTS: Overall 42% of patients had pathological stage (PS) II disease, of whom 54% had low volume (PN1) disease and 16% had retroperitoneal teratoma.
  • All patients with relapse were continuously free of disease following standard chemotherapy with or without resection of residual masses and the 10-year actuarial overall survival was 100%.
  • When adjuvant chemotherapy was restricted to patients with PN2 disease, the estimated 5-year relapse rate was 9% and an estimated 72% of patients avoided chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The low risk of systemic relapse in patients with PS I and PN1 after RPLND alone combined with the 16% incidence of retroperitoneal teratoma and the favorable morbidity profile supports RPLND over primary chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with low stage disease with ECP and/or LVI who are not candidates for surveillance.
  • An estimated 72% of patients are spared the potential toxicity of chemotherapy if adjuvant therapy is restricted to patients with PN2.
  • After primary RPLND and selective adjuvant chemotherapy late recurrence is distinctly uncommon and long-term cancer control is anticipated in essentially all patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retroperitoneal Space

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  • [CommentIn] Aktuelle Urol. 2007 Jan;38(1):1-2 [17290323.001]
  • (PMID = 16006891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 32-CA82088
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Gilks CB, Ionescu DN, Kalloger SE, Köbel M, Irving J, Clarke B, Santos J, Le N, Moravan V, Swenerton K, Cheryl Brown Ovarian Cancer Outcomes Unit of the British Columbia Cancer Agency: Tumor cell type can be reproducibly diagnosed and is of independent prognostic significance in patients with maximally debulked ovarian carcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2008 Aug;39(8):1239-51
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  • [Title] Tumor cell type can be reproducibly diagnosed and is of independent prognostic significance in patients with maximally debulked ovarian carcinoma.
  • Ovarian surface epithelial carcinomas are routinely subclassified by pathologists based on tumor cell type and grade.
  • It is controversial whether cell type or grade is superior in predicting patient response to treatment or survival, in patients stratified by stage of disease.
  • The aim of this study was to uniformly apply updated criteria for cell-type and grade assignment to a series of 575 cases of ovarian surface epithelial carcinoma.
  • In 50 cases, 2 additional pathologists reviewed the slides independently to determine interobserver variation in assessment of cell type and grade.
  • The distribution of tumor stage was as follows: stage I--233 cases, stage II--246 cases, stage III--96 cases.
  • The most common cell type encountered was serous carcinoma (229/575, 40%), followed by clear cell (149/575, 26%), endometrioid (139/575, 24%), and mucinous (36/575, 6%).
  • Serous carcinomas were significantly more likely to present with advanced stage disease (76/229 [33.2%] were stage III, and 82% of all stage III tumors were serous), whereas all nonserous cell types were stage I or II at diagnosis in greater than 90% of cases.
  • In multivariate analysis, stage was the most powerful prognostic indicator (P < .0001), followed by tumor cell type (P = .015), but grade was not of independent significance.
  • Interobserver variation in assignment of cell type was very good (kappa = 0.77) with moderate reproducibility in assignment of Silverberg grade (kappa = 0.40) and minimal reproducibility in assignment of FIGO grade (kappa = 0.27).
  • Thus, in this series of cases of ovarian surface epithelial carcinomas with no macroscopic residual disease after primary debulking surgery, assignment of tumor cell type was both more reproducible and provided superior prognostic information compared with assignment of tumor grade.
  • As tumor cell type also correlates with underlying molecular abnormalities and may predict response to chemotherapy, this suggests that tumor cell type could be used to guide treatment decisions for patients with ovarian surface epithelial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18602670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / WT1 Proteins
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8. Pedersen MØ, Larsen A, Stoltenberg M, Penkowa M: The role of metallothionein in oncogenesis and cancer prognosis. Prog Histochem Cytochem; 2009;44(1):29-64
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  • [Title] The role of metallothionein in oncogenesis and cancer prognosis.
  • The antiapoptotic, antioxidant, proliferative, and angiogenic effects of metallothionein (MT)-I+II has resulted in increased focus on their role in oncogenesis, tumor progression, therapy response, and patient prognosis.
  • Studies have reported increased expression of MT-I+II mRNA and protein in various human cancers; such as breast, kidney, lung, nasopharynx, ovary, prostate, salivary gland, testes, urinary bladder, cervical, endometrial, skin carcinoma, melanoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and pancreatic cancers, where MT-I+II expression is sometimes correlated to higher tumor grade/stage, chemotherapy/radiation resistance, and poor prognosis.
  • However, MT-I+II are downregulated in other types of tumors (e.g. hepatocellular, gastric, colorectal, central nervous system (CNS), and thyroid cancers) where MT-I+II is either inversely correlated or unrelated to mortality.
  • Large discrepancies exist between different tumor types, and no distinct and reliable association exists between MT-I+II expression in tumor tissues and prognosis and therapy resistance.
  • Furthermore, a parallel has been drawn between MT-I+II expression as a potential marker for prognosis, and MT-I+II's role as oncogenic factors, without any direct evidence supporting such a parallel.
  • This review aims at discussing the role of MT-I+II both as a prognostic marker for survival and therapy response, as well as for the hypothesized role of MT-I+II as causal oncogenes.

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  • (PMID = 19348910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in histochemistry and cytochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Histochem Cytochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein
  • [Number-of-references] 203
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9. Borgoño CA, Fracchioli S, Yousef GM, Rigault de la Longrais IA, Luo LY, Soosaipillai A, Puopolo M, Grass L, Scorilas A, Diamandis EP, Katsaros D: Favorable prognostic value of tissue human kallikrein 11 (hK11) in patients with ovarian carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2003 Sep 10;106(4):605-10
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  • [Title] Favorable prognostic value of tissue human kallikrein 11 (hK11) in patients with ovarian carcinoma.
  • Recently, we developed a highly sensitive and specific immunoassay for hK11 and found that this protease is expressed in the prostate, stomach and trachea as well as in amniotic fluid and milk of lactating women.
  • Elevated serum hK11 levels were found in 60% of men with prostate cancer and 70% of women with ovarian cancer.
  • We hypothesized that hK11 may be implicated in endocrine-related malignancies and serve as a novel prostate and ovarian cancer serological marker.
  • An optimal cutoff value of 0.54 ng/mg was selected to categorize tumors as hK11-positive or -negative. hK11-positive tumors were more frequently associated with early stage (Stage I/II) disease, pre-/peri-menopausal status and patients who exhibited complete or partial response to chemotherapy (p < 0.05).
  • These results indicate that hK11 is a novel, independent marker of favorable prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Up-Regulation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12845660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R1CA93568-O1A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / trypsin-like serine protease; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases
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10. Dreicer R, Magi-Galluzzi C, Zhou M, Rothaermel J, Reuther A, Ulchaker J, Zippe C, Fergany A, Klein EA: Phase II trial of neoadjuvant docetaxel before radical prostatectomy for locally advanced prostate cancer. Urology; 2004 Jun;63(6):1138-42
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of neoadjuvant docetaxel before radical prostatectomy for locally advanced prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To perform a Phase II trial of docetaxel administered on a weekly schedule for 6 weeks before radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: Treatment consisted of six doses of docetaxel 40 mg/m(2) intravenously administered weekly for 6 weeks followed by RP.
  • Eligibility criteria included clinical Stage T2b, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level 15 ng/mL or greater or Gleason sum 8 or greater, and no evidence of metastatic disease.
  • The primary endpoint was feasibility and drug-related and surgical-related toxicities.
  • Secondary endpoints included pre-RP PSA level, local response, pathologic outcomes, and time to PSA failure.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-nine patients were entered; 80% completed all 6 weeks of therapy and 97% underwent RP.
  • The median PSA level was 12 ng/mL (range 2.5 to 43.3), the median Gleason sum was 8 (range 6 to 9), and all had Stage T2b or greater disease.
  • Pathologic analysis demonstrated residual carcinoma in all cases.
  • At a median follow-up of 23 months (range 1.5 to 36), 20 patients were disease free with no additional therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This trial establishes the baseline effect of short-course high-dose docetaxel alone on locally advanced prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Taxoids / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Premedication. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15183967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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11. Nagata M, Ueda T, Komiya A, Suzuki H, Akakura K, Ishihara M, Tobe T, Ichikawa T, Igarashi T, Ito H: Treatment and prognosis of patients with paraplegia or quadriplegia because of metastatic spinal cord compression in prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis; 2003;6(2):169-73
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  • [Title] Treatment and prognosis of patients with paraplegia or quadriplegia because of metastatic spinal cord compression in prostate cancer.
  • Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a serious complication of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa).
  • Characteristics, treatment efficacy, and prognosis of these patients were analyzed.
  • In total, 15 cases became paraplegic despite androgen ablation therapy (Group I).
  • Average time to paraplegia from initial hormonal treatment was 34 months.
  • Out of nine cases who underwent radiation therapy (RT) to spinal lesions with/without chemotherapy, one patient became ambulatory.
  • MSCC was the first indication of PCa in 11 cases (Group II).
  • Two cases underwent laminectomy plus hormone therapy and nine cases underwent hormone therapy alone.
  • Average interval from paraplegia to death was 7.4 months in Group I and 27.1 months in Group II.
  • However, there was no statistical difference in these two groups on disease-specific survival from the start of initial treatment.
  • It is difficult to recover the ability to walk if paraplegia or quadriplegia occurs in PCa patients although decompression surgery plus hormone therapy seemed to impair the prognosis.
  • Stage M1 patients with paraplegia had survival rates as good as stage M1 patients without paralysis.
  • This should encourage an aggressive treatment approach.
  • However, for patients with hormone-independent disease there seems to be no effective treatment and prognosis is poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / complications. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Paraplegia / etiology. Paraplegia / rehabilitation. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Quadriplegia / etiology. Quadriplegia / rehabilitation. Spinal Cord Compression / complications. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Decompression, Surgical. Humans. Laminectomy. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


12. Pilepich MV, Winter K, Lawton CA, Krisch RE, Wolkov HB, Movsas B, Hug EB, Asbell SO, Grignon D: Androgen suppression adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma--long-term results of phase III RTOG 85-31. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Apr 1;61(5):1285-90
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  • [Title] Androgen suppression adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma--long-term results of phase III RTOG 85-31.
  • PURPOSE: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 85-31 was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of adjuvant androgen suppression, using goserelin, in unfavorable prognosis carcinoma of the prostate treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible patients were those with palpable primary tumor extending beyond the prostate (clinical Stage T3) or those with regional lymphatic involvement.
  • Patients who had undergone prostatectomy were eligible if penetration through the prostatic capsule to the margin of resection and/or seminal vesicle involvement was documented histologically.
  • The patients were randomized to either RT and adjuvant goserelin (Arm I) or RT alone followed by observation and application of goserelin at relapse (Arm II).
  • In Arm I, the drug was to be started during the last week of RT and was to be continued indefinitely or until signs of progression.
  • RESULTS: Between 1987 and 1992, when the study was closed, 977 patients were entered: 488 to Arm I and 489 to Arm II.
  • CONCLUSION: In a population of patients with unfavorable prognosis carcinoma of the prostate, androgen suppression applied as an adjuvant after definitive RT was associated not only with a reduction in disease progression but in a statistically significant improvement in absolute survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Androgen Antagonists. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Prostatectomy. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2005 Nov;2(11):536-7 [16474596.001]
  • (PMID = 15817329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-32115
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin
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13. Hatae M, Nakamura T, Ohnishi Y: [Evidenced-based medicine and future direction of Taxol]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 Jul;27(8):1279-87
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  • Taxol was introduced for the clinical treatment of several solid tumor malignancies in the 1990s.
  • It has been established that primary chemotherapy based on Taxol is the standard for non-small cell lung cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • After initial chemotherapy containing doxorubicin, sequential administration of Taxol for advanced or metastatic breast cancer is recommended by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States.
  • Taxol-based chemotherapy and/or concurrent chemoradiation for head and neck cancer, esophageal carcinoma, urothelial and prostate cancer are under investigation, but these trials have not produced evidence showing that they are superior to the present standard treatment for these malignancies.
  • Although phase I/II trials of Taxol combined with new agents such as vinorelbine, topotecan, CPT-11 and others may demonstrate efficacy to a certain extent for some solid tumor malignancies, a phase III study will be required in the next stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Forecasting. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 10945027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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14. Köbel M, Xu H, Bourne PA, Spaulding BO, Shih IeM, Mao TL, Soslow RA, Ewanowich CA, Kalloger SE, Mehl E, Lee CH, Huntsman D, Gilks CB: IGF2BP3 (IMP3) expression is a marker of unfavorable prognosis in ovarian carcinoma of clear cell subtype. Mod Pathol; 2009 Mar;22(3):469-75
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  • [Title] IGF2BP3 (IMP3) expression is a marker of unfavorable prognosis in ovarian carcinoma of clear cell subtype.
  • Clear cell carcinoma is an uncommon subtype of ovarian carcinoma, accounting for 10% of cases.
  • Clear cell carcinoma typically presents with stage I or II disease, and in this setting prognostic markers could aid in management decisions, in particular the decision to treat with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • We tested whether expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3, also known as IMP3) can serve as a new biomarker to predict outcome for patients with clear cell carcinoma and other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma.
  • We conclude that IGF2BP3 is the first biomarker of prognostic significance in ovarian clear cell carcinoma that has been validated in an independent case series.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19136932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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15. Stephenson AJ, Sheinfeld J: Management of patients with low-stage nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2005 Sep;6(5):367-77
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  • [Title] Management of patients with low-stage nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer.
  • Management options for patients with clinical stage (CS) I nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer (NSGCT) include surveillance, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), or two cycles of bleomycin-etoposide-cisplatin (BEP x 2) chemotherapy.
  • The optimal management of these patients is controversial, as cure rates of 97% or greater are reported with each of these treatment modalities.
  • Patients without evidence of lymphovascular invasion, a predominant component of embryonal carcinoma, or advanced pathologic (p) T stage (pT 2 or greater) are at low risk for occult metastases and are optimal candidates for surveillance.
  • Compliance with diagnostic testing and imaging is essential for a successful surveillance strategy to detect and treat metastases at an early stage.
  • For patients who are not candidates for surveillance, RPLND offers several advantages over chemotherapy.
  • RPLND alone is curative in 50% to 80% of CS I patients with pathologic stage (PS) II, and an estimated 75% of CS I patients avoid chemotherapy (as adjuvant therapy or for treatment of relapse).
  • Virtually all patients are cured following two cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy for PS II disease, which is reserved for patients with high-volume (PN2-3) retroperitoneal disease.
  • The poor outcome of patients with late retroperitoneal recurrence from unresected, chemorefractory germ cell testicular cancer indicates that RPLND is a vital component to the long-term cure of patients with NSGCT.
  • Approximately 20% to 30% of patients with PS II disease have retroperitoneal teratoma (which is chemoresistant), and an estimated 5% of PS II patients have chemoresistant viable cancer following BEP x 2 as primary therapy.
  • Patients who relapse after RPLND are "chemotherapy-naïve" and cured in virtually all cases with good-risk chemotherapy regimens.
  • When nerve-sparing techniques are employed to preserve ejaculation, RPLND is also associated with a more favorable long-term toxicity profile compared with chemotherapy.
  • In the absence of conclusive evidence from a randomized trial, we believe RPLND is the treatment of choice for patients with CS I NSGCT who are not candidates for surveillance, as it offers the greatest likelihood of long-term cure with considerably less morbidity than primary chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16107240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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