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1. Xie FY, Peng M, Hu WH, Han F, Wang X, Xu HM: [Prophylactic irradiation of cervical lymph nodes for Stage-N0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma]. Chin J Cancer; 2010 Jan;29(1):106-10
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  • [Title] [Prophylactic irradiation of cervical lymph nodes for Stage-N0 nasopharyngeal carcinoma].
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is controversial for the irradiation level and dose of the regional prevention for naspharyngeal cancer (NPC) with one or both cervical lymph node-negative neck.
  • The study was to analyze the proophylactic irradiation of cervical lymph nodes for Stage -N0 NPC patients.
  • Before treatment, each patient underwent CT or MRI.
  • Doses applied were 60-80 Gy to the nasopharynx and 46-64 Gy to the neck without lymphadenopathy.
  • Consecutive radiotherapy was performed employing conventional fractionation of 2 Gy/fraction, once a day, for a total of five fractions per week.
  • Chemotherapy was administered to 60 patients.
  • A total of 205 patients with stage-N0 NPC were divided into an upper-neck irradiation group and an entire-neck group.
  • The rates of regional failure in patients with T1-, T2-, T3- and T4-stage disease were 0, 3.08%, 0, and 0, respectively (P>0.05).
  • In multivariate analysis, sex (P=0.039) and T stage (P=0.004) were independent prognosis factors for patients with stage-N0 NPC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic irradiation to the upper neck does not influence regional failure or long-term survival in the patients with stage-N0 NPC.
  • Radiotherapy to the upper neck (levels II, III, VA) is recommended for the patients with stage-N0 NPC.
  • Involvement of the parapharyngeal space, T stage, and the rates of local failure do not influence regional failure in these patients.
  • Sex and T stage were independent prognosis factors of stage-N0 NPC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Irradiation. Lymphatic Metastasis / prevention & control. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, High-Energy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nasopharynx / radiation effects. Neck / radiation effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Particle Accelerators. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20038321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-467X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin J Cancer
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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2. Kim JG, Sohn SK, Kim DH, Baek JH, Jeon SB, Chae YS, Lee KB, Park JS, Sohn JH, Kim JC, Park IK: Phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Br J Cancer; 2005 Nov 14;93(10):1117-21
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  • [Title] Phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
  • In total, 37 patients with stage III or IV SCCHN were enrolled on the study.
  • The chemotherapy consisted of two cycles of intravenous cisplatin of 80 mg m(-2) on day 1 and oral capecitabine 825 mg m(-2) twice daily from day 1 to day 14 at 3-week intervals.
  • The radiotherapy (1.8-2.0 Gy 1 fraction day(-1) to a total dose of 70-70.2 Gy) was delivered to the primary tumour site and neck.
  • The primary tumour sites were as follows: oral cavity (n=6), oropharynx (n=11), hypopharynx (n=8), larynx (n=3), nasopharynx (n=6), and paranasal sinus (n=3).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Disease Progression. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16251869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361495
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3. Kong L, Lu JJ, Hu C, Guo X, Wu Y, Zhang Y: The risk of second primary tumors in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after definitive radiotherapy. Cancer; 2006 Sep 15;107(6):1287-93
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  • [Title] The risk of second primary tumors in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after definitive radiotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Second primary tumors (SPTs) have a substantial impact on survival in cancer patients.
  • However, risk factors for SPTs have not been documented well, especially in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • The objective of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate such risks in patients with NPC after they received definitive radiation treatment.
  • METHODS: Three hundred twenty-six consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed, nonmetastatic, undifferentiated NPC who received treatment between January 1, 1994 and December 30, 1995 were analyzed.
  • All patients were restaged in accordance with the 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging classification.
  • There were 18 patients (5.5%) with Stage I NPC, 152 patients (46.6%) with Stage II NPC, 101 patients (31.0%) with Stage III NPC, and 55 patients (16.9%) with Stage IVA or IVB NPC at initial diagnosis.
  • All patients received definitive radiotherapy with either Cobalt-60 or megavoltage therapy.
  • High-dose-rate brachytherapy was given to 23 patients either as part of their primary treatment or as adjuvant treatment for residual lesions.
  • Seventeen patients (5.2%) developed SPTs, for an average annual rate of 1.0%, and the 5-year cumulative incidence was 5.8%.
  • Other factors, including gender, tumor or lymph node classification, chemotherapy, total radiation dose to the nasopharynx, reirradiation, and adjuvant brachytherapy did not influence the risk of SPTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16909425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Belgaumi AF, Al-Kofide A, Sabbah R, Shalaby L: Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (PBLL) in children: pattern of presentation and outcome. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2005 Mar;17(1):15-9
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  • In four of the patients the primary involved were oro-nasopharynx or the paranasal sinuses.
  • One patient had a soft tissue mass in the upper thigh while one patient had a solitary bone lesion in the distal tibia.
  • Four of the patients had limited stage disease (2 stage I and stage II), while 2 were stage IV.
  • Both patients with stage IV disease had CNS involvement with blasts in the CSF.
  • Five patients were treated according to B-cell NHL type protocols.
  • Because of the specific diagnosis of PBLL, two of these patients were switched to an ALL-type protocol following post induction intensification; one died in remission due to encephalitis, while the other remained in CR almost 2 years after diagnosis.
  • A third patient suffered a loco-regional relapse 17 months after completing first line therapy, and was re-treated on an ALL-type protocol, and currently is in remission 25 months following relapse.
  • The fourth patient, who received 9 months of post induction therapy, remains free of disease 7 years following diagnosis.
  • The fifth patient had local and CNS progression on therapy, and died of his disease.
  • The last patient with a solitary bone lesion was misdiagnosed as Ewings' Sarcoma and received treatment for that disease.
  • He suffered an isolated CNS relapse, and is in CR 12 months following the relapse, on an ALL treatment protocol.
  • Patients should not be treated on short intensive protocols used for other B-cell NHL but should receive treatment based on ALL protocols like those for treating T-cell LL.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16353078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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5. Gil Z, Fliss DM: Contemporary management of head and neck cancers. Isr Med Assoc J; 2009 May;11(5):296-300
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  • Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide.
  • HNCs can originate in the skin or soft tissue, in the upper aerodigestive tracts (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands), or in the thyroid.
  • In each of these sites, tumors vary not only by the primary site but also by pathophysiology, biological behavior, and sensitivity to radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • The main goals of therapy are ablation of the cancer while minimizing morbidity and preserving function and cosmesis.
  • Early-stage HNC (stage I and II) should be managed with a single modality, and advanced tumors (stage III and IV) with multimodality therapy.
  • Treatment should be directed to the primary tumor and the area of its lymphatic drainage--the neck lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neck Dissection. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19637508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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6. Chen WC, Jackson A, Budnick AS, Pfister DG, Kraus DH, Hunt MA, Stambuk H, Levegrun S, Wolden SL: Sensorineural hearing loss in combined modality treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer; 2006 Feb 15;106(4):820-9
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  • [Title] Sensorineural hearing loss in combined modality treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Combined modality therapy has become the standard of care for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, yet the combined ototoxic effects of radiation and cisplatin are poorly understood.
  • The incidence and severity of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) with combined modality therapy was evaluated and the dose-response relation between radiation and hearing loss was investigated.
  • METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed AJCC Stage II-IVB nasopharynx carcinoma treated from 1994-2003 were identified.
  • All patients were treated with conformal radiotherapy to 70 Gy and received platinum-based chemotherapy similar to the Intergroup 0099 trial.
  • Mean cochlear dose (Dmean) ranged from 28.4-70.0 Gy (median, 48.5 Gy).
  • There was an increased risk of SNHL for ears receiving Dmean > 48 Gy compared with those receiving < or = 48 Gy at all frequencies within the range of speech (P = 0.04).
  • Using univariate logistic regression analysis, Dmean to the cochlea, cycles of cisplatin, and time postradiotherapy were independently significant factors in determining the incidence of SNHL (P = 0.02, P = 0.03, and P = 0.04, respectively).
  • In univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, Dmean was statistically significant at all frequencies in affecting degree of SNHL, whereas the significance of cisplatin and time was variable.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant increase in risk of SNHL among patients receiving > 48 Gy, suggesting a threshold in cochlear radiation dose-response in the setting of combined modality therapy.
  • This dose should serve as a Dmean constraint maximum for intensity-modulated radiotherapy treatment of nasopharynx carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / etiology. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Audiometry. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16421885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01-CA-59017
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. Iyengar P, Mazloom A, Shihadeh F, Berjawi G, Dabaja B: Hodgkin lymphoma involving extranodal and nodal head and neck sites: characteristics and outcomes. Cancer; 2010 Aug 15;116(16):3825-9
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  • Anderson Cancer Center's database for HL patients treated between 1967 and 2007 and included those with HL at head and neck sites.
  • They reviewed the records for site of involvement, pathology, treatment, and survival.
  • Specifically, 10 of 34 patients had disease in the tonsils, 9 in the nasopharynx, 8 in the thyroid, 3 in the parotid, 2 in the adenoids, and 1 each in Waldeyer's ring and nasal antrum.
  • Median age at diagnosis was 31.5 years, average age at diagnosis was 38 years, and 22 of 34 were male; 23 had stage I or II disease.
  • Five of 34 received chemotherapy alone, 5 received radiation alone, and 24 received combination therapy.
  • The most commonly used chemotherapy regimens were ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) and MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone).
  • CONCLUSIONS: HL of the head and neck is primarily diagnosed as early stage disease of men and of young to middle-aged individuals.
  • Chemotherapy and primary/adjuvant radiotherapy offer excellent local and systemic control.
  • The extent to which nodal disease is present in the neck does not alter outcomes when combined modality therapy is offered.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20564093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Koutcher L, Lee N, Zelefsky M, Chan K, Cohen G, Pfister D, Kraus D, Wolden S: Reirradiation of locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer with external beam radiotherapy with or without brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Jan 1;76(1):130-7
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  • [Title] Reirradiation of locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer with external beam radiotherapy with or without brachytherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To determine survival rates of patients with locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer (LRNPC) treated with modern therapeutic modalities.
  • Thirteen patients received combined-modality treatment (CMT), consisting of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by intracavitary brachytherapy, whereas 16 received EBRT alone.
  • Nine, 6, 8, and 6 patients had recurrent Stage I, II, III, and IV disease, respectively.
  • Median time to reirradiation was 3.9 years.
  • In total, 93% underwent imaging with positron emission tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging before reirradiation, 83% received intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 93% received chemotherapy, which was platinum-based in 85% of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Brachytherapy / methods. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects. Retreatment / methods. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19467802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Guo L, Lin HX, Li FY, Li Q, Qiu F, Luo DH, Guo X, Hong MH: [Phase I study of capecitabine with concurrent radiotherapy in early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2004 Apr;26(4):250-3
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  • [Title] [Phase I study of capecitabine with concurrent radiotherapy in early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), efficacy and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of capecitabine with concurrent radiotherapy in patients with node-positive stage II nasopharyngeal cancer.
  • METHODS: From August 2002 to June 2003, 30 patients with node-positive stage II T(2)N(1)M(0) nasopharyngeal cancer were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Radiotherapy of 68 - 72 Gy/34 - 36 fractions was delivered to the nasopharynx and 64 - 70 Gy/32 - 35 fractions to the node-positive area.
  • Capecitabine was administered orally on day 1 of radiotherapy by an intermittent schedule (14 days treatment; 7-day rest) at 3 weekly intervals for two cycles.
  • Dose escalation was done after six patients had completed 2 cycles of chemotherapy at the previous dose level with DLT assessed.
  • The CR response rate of the node-positive area and of the nasopharynx were 50.0% (14/28) and 46.4% (13/28).
  • The toxicity of grade I and II was hand-foot syndrome (4/28), fatigue (14/28), nausea and vomiting (19/28), diarrhea (5/27), and weight loss (21/28).
  • This regimen is tolerable and valid for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Capecitabine. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Stomatitis / chemically induced. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 15312392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Wolden SL, Chen WC, Pfister DG, Kraus DH, Berry SL, Zelefsky MJ: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharynx cancer: update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Jan 1;64(1):57-62
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for nasopharynx cancer: update of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering experience.
  • PURPOSE: We previously demonstrated that intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) significantly improves radiation dose distribution over three-dimensional planning for nasopharynx cancer and reported positive early clinical results.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Since 1998, all 74 patients with newly diagnosed, nonmetastatic nasopharynx cancer were treated with IMRT using accelerated fractionation to 70 Gy; 59 received a hyperfractionated concomitant boost, and more recently 15 received once-daily treatment with dose painting.
  • With the exception of Stage I disease (n = 5) and patient preference (n = 1), 69 patients received concurrent and adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy similar to that in the Intergroup 0099 trial.
  • RESULTS: median age 45; 32% Asian; 72% male; 65% World Health Organization III; 6% Stage I, 16% Stage II, 30% Stage III, 47% Stage IV.
  • There was 100% local control for Stage T1/T2 disease, compared to 83% for T3/T4 disease (p = 0.01).
  • Six patients failed at the primary site, with median time to local tumor progression 16 months; 5 were exclusively within the 70 Gy volume, and 1 was both within and outside the target volume.
  • There is a trend for improved local control with IMRT when compared to local control of 79% for 35 patients treated before 1998 with three-dimensional planning and chemotherapy (p = 0.11).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of primary site failure within the target volume suggests locally advanced T stage disease may require a higher biologic dose to gross tumor.
  • Rates of severe (Grade 3-4) ototoxicity and xerostomia are low with IMRT as a result of normal-tissue protection.
  • Distant metastases are now the dominant form of failure, emphasizing the need for improved systemic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Hearing Loss / etiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Xerostomia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15936155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Yuan ZY, Li YX, Zhao LJ, Gao YH, Liu XF, Gu DZ, Qian TN, Yu ZH: [Clinical features, treatment and prognosis of 136 patients with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the nasopharynx]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2004 Jul;26(7):425-9
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  • [Title] [Clinical features, treatment and prognosis of 136 patients with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the nasopharynx].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics, international prognostic index and treatment of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the nasopharynx.
  • METHODS: From January 1983 to December 1997, 136 patients with previously untreated NHL of the nasopharynx were retrospectively reviewed.
  • According to Ann Arbor classification, 25 patients had stage I, 91 stage II, 12 stage III and 8 stage IV lesions.
  • Primary therapy was radiotherapy alone in 13 patients and radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in 12 patients with stage I disease.
  • In 88 patients with stage II, radiotherapy alone was given to 31 patients, and a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy to 57 patients.
  • Chemotherapy was primary treatment for advanced stage III/IV diseases.
  • RESULTS: The overall survival rate (OS), cancer specific survival rate (CSS) and disease-free survival rate (DFS) at 5 and 10 years for all patients were 56.2%, 61.2%, 51.1% and 48.3%, 58.0%, 46.5%, respectively.
  • For stage I patients, the 5-year CSS was 83.1% for RT alone and 82.2% for combined modality therapy, respectively (P = 0.779).
  • For patients with stage II, the 5-year CSS was 46.0% for radiotherapy alone and 70.9% for combined modality therapy.
  • Multivariate analysis by Cox regression showed that Ann Arbor stage, B symptom and IPI were independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSION: International prognostic index is an important prognostic factor for Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the nasopharynx and the combined modality therapy may be optimal for the stage II patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15355649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP-B protocol
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12. Portaluri M, Fucilli FI, Castagna R, Bambace S, Pili G, Tramacere F, Russo D, Francavilla MC: Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for locally advanced (Stage II and worse) head-and-neck cancer: dosimetric and clinical evaluation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Nov 15;66(4):1036-43
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  • [Title] Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for locally advanced (Stage II and worse) head-and-neck cancer: dosimetric and clinical evaluation.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the dosimetric parameters of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in locally advanced head-and-neck tumors (Stage II and above) and the effects on xerostomia.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 49 patients with histologically proven squamous cell cancer of the head and neck were consecutively treated with 3D-CRT using a one-point setup technique; 17 had larynx cancer, 12 oropharynx, 12 oral cavity, and 6 nasopharynx cancer; 2 had other sites of cancer.
  • Of the 49 patients, 41 received postoperative RT and 8 definitive treatment.
  • Also, 13 were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy before and during RT; in 6 cases, 5-fluorouracil was added.
  • The follow-up time was 484-567 days (median, 530 days).
  • The mean dose to the primary planning target volume was 49.54 +/- 4.82 Gy (51.53 +/- 5.47 Gy for larynx cases).
  • The average dose to the contralateral parotid gland was approximately 38 Gy (30 Gy for larynx cases).
  • The maximal dose to the spinal cord was 46 Gy.
  • A Grade 0 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer xerostomia score corresponded to a mean dose of 30 Gy to one parotid gland.
  • With a mean dose of approximately 30 Gy to the contralateral parotid, we observed no or mild xerostomia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiometry / methods. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Body Burden. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Relative Biological Effectiveness. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16750321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Shen C, Gao Y, Xu T, Wang X, Ying H, Hu C: Carcinoma of the nasopharynx in young patients: a single institution experience. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2009 Oct;21(8):617-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoma of the nasopharynx in young patients: a single institution experience.
  • AIMS: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare in young patients.
  • Of these patients, 14 were stage II, 21 stage III, and seven stage IV, as diagnosed according to the 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system.
  • Seventeen patients received radiotherapy alone and 25 had cisplatin-based chemotherapy additionally.
  • The radiation dose to the primary tumour and involved nodes was 64-74 Gy.
  • Patients with N0-1 had a lower distant metastasis rate compared with patients with N2-3, and the TNM stage grouping was found to be a marginally important prognostic factor for disease-free survival.
  • The addition of chemotherapy failed to be of therapeutic value.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Nasopharynx / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19660923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-2981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Bucci MK, Rosenthal DI, Hershock D, Metz J, Devine P, Kligerman MM, Machtay M: Final report of a pilot trial of accelerated radiotherapy plus concurrent 96-hour infusional paclitaxel for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Am J Clin Oncol; 2004 Dec;27(6):595-602
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  • [Title] Final report of a pilot trial of accelerated radiotherapy plus concurrent 96-hour infusional paclitaxel for locally advanced head and neck cancer.
  • Eligible patients had stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, exclusive of nasopharynx cancer.
  • XRT was given continuous course using an accelerated regimen with twice a day fractionation for the cone down (70-72 Gy/6 weeks).
  • Chemotherapy consisted of 2 cycles of paclitaxel via 96-hour infusion during weeks 1 and 5 of XRT.
  • Median treatment time was 44 days, and all but 1 patient received both cycles of paclitaxel at their planned dose.
  • Four patients (18%) developed distant metastases.
  • Two patients (9%) developed severe esophageal strictures requiring permanent gastrostomy/tracheostomy, and 2 patients developed other late grade 3+ toxicities.
  • Further study of accelerated XRT with concurrent chemotherapy is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15577438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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15. Raney B, Anderson J, Breneman J, Donaldson SS, Huh W, Maurer H, Michalski J, Qualman S, Ullrich F, Wharam M, Meyer W, Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group, Arcadia, California, USA: Results in patients with cranial parameningeal sarcoma and metastases (Stage 4) treated on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) Protocols II-IV, 1978-1997: report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Jul;51(1):17-22
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  • [Title] Results in patients with cranial parameningeal sarcoma and metastases (Stage 4) treated on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) Protocols II-IV, 1978-1997: report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • PURPOSE: Determine outcome of patients with cranial parameningeal sarcoma and concurrent metastases treated on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) Protocols II-IV.
  • Primary sites were nasopharynx-nasal cavity, middle ear/mastoid and parapharyngeal area ("better" sites, 55%), paranasal sinus and infratemporal-pterygopalatine area ("worse" sites, 42%), and other (3%).
  • Treatment included vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the primary tumor and up to five metastatic sites/tissues.
  • Sixty patients had progressive disease (N = 49) or death as a first event (N = 11); another developed myelodysplastic syndrome and died.
  • Patients with the best outlook had embryonal RMS located in the nasopharynx/nasal cavity, middle ear/mastoid, or parapharyngeal region.
  • Distant metastases were the most frequent type of recurrence, indicating that more effective systemic agents are needed to eliminate residual disease.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18266224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-24507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-72989; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29511
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Li YH, Jiang WQ, Huang HQ, Xu RH, Lin TY, Xia ZJ, He YJ, Guan ZZ: [Clinical analysis of 75 patients with nasopharyngeal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma]. Ai Zheng; 2003 Apr;22(4):401-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 75 patients with nasopharyngeal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Nasopharynx is one of the common extranodal involved site in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.However,no standard treatment regimen ever established for nasopharyngeal lymphoma(NPL).
  • The purpose of this paper is to investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment results of NPL.
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed the records of 75 NPL patients who were managed from June 1976 to August 2001 in Cancer Center,Sun Yat-sen University,to evaluate the influence of clinical characteristics and treatment modality on survival.
  • RESULTS: Limited stage disease ( I/ II) was present in 90.8% of the NPL patients.
  • The most common pathological type was intermediate grade(95.2%) and the most common immune phenotype was B-cell lineage (68.6%).
  • These patients were treated with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (64%),chemotherapy alone (23%),and radiotherapy alone (14%),respectively.
  • The 2-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates were 79.1%, 69.8%, and 64.3%, respectively.
  • For the patients who treated with stranded CHOP (cyclophosphamide + hydroxydaunomycin + Oncovin + prednisone) chemotherapy regimen.
  • The 2-,5-,10-year overall survival rates were 84.6%.
  • There was also no difference in the survival between radiotherapy dosage <or=50 Gy and >50 Gy.
  • CONCLUSION: The treatment modality for NPL should include systemic chemotherapy with CHOP regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Nose Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12703998.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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17. Roth BM, Giglio R, Cerchietti L, Blanco Saborio A, Cuartero V, Menendez P, Pogany C, Mickiewicz E, Bonomi MR: Late toxicity in head and neck cancer (H&N) patients (pts) treated with hyperfractionated (HF) or accelerated (AC) radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5610

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late toxicity in head and neck cancer (H&N) patients (pts) treated with hyperfractionated (HF) or accelerated (AC) radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT).
  • Patient's characteristics were: M/F: 116/6, age: mean 58 (range 27-79), stage: I:2 (2%), II:7 (6.9%), III:39 (38.2%) and IV:54 (52.9%) and primary site: nasopharynx, 3 pts; oropharynx, 48 pts; oral cavity, 3 pts; paranasal sinus, 5 pts; hypopharynx,10 pts; larynx, 52 pts and lip, 1 pt.
  • Fisty-six pts were treated for larynx preservation with HF RT (74.4 Gy; 1.2 Gy bid; 6.5 wk.
  • Whereas 66 pts with locally advanced inoperable H&N were treated with AC RT (70 Gy; 1.5 Gy bid; 5 wk) and concomitant CT.
  • The 2 year OS (n=122) was 88%.
  • The 2 year PFS (n=122) was 76.8% (95%CI: 65-85.5%).

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  • (PMID = 28015282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Vermorken JB, Remenar E, van Herpen C, Germa Lluch J, Stewart S, Gorlia T, Degardin M, Schollen K, Bernier J: Standard cisplatin/infusional 5-fluorouracil (PF) vs docetaxel (T) plus PF (TPF) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for nonresectable locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head andneck (LA-SCCHN): a phase III trial of the EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Group (EORTC #24971). J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5508

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Standard cisplatin/infusional 5-fluorouracil (PF) vs docetaxel (T) plus PF (TPF) as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for nonresectable locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head andneck (LA-SCCHN): a phase III trial of the EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Group (EORTC #24971).
  • : 5508 Background: Data from 5 phase II studies support the notion that T may add to the efficacy of PF in LA-SCCHN (Posner et al.
  • Based on our phase I-II experience with TPF (Schrijvers et al.
  • METHODS: Eligible pts included nonresectable LA-SCCHN (excluding nasopharynx, nasal & paranasal cavities), measurable disease, adequate organ function, WHO performance status (PS) 0-1, age 18-70 yrs, signed informed consent.
  • Treatment arms were: Arm 1 (PF): P 100 mg/m<sup>2</sup> day (d) 1, then F 1000 mg/m<sup>2</sup> CI d1-5 q 21 d; Arm 2 (TPF): T 75 mg/m<sup>2</sup> d1, P 75 mg/m<sup>2</sup> d1, then 5-FU 750 mg/m<sup>2</sup> CI d1-5 q 21 d.
  • Planned treatment included 4 cycles unless progression (PD), unacceptable toxicity or pt refusal.
  • Pt/tumor characteristics (age, sex, PS, primary site, T&N stage) were well balanced.

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  • (PMID = 28014200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Yamaguchi M, Tobinai K, Oguchi M, Isobe Y, Ishizawa K, Maseki N, Wasada I, Ishizuka N, Hotta T, Oshimi K, Japan Clinical Oncology Group, Lymphoma Study Group (JCOG-LSG): Phase I/II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for localized nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma: Final results of JCOG0211. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):8549

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase I/II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy for localized nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma: Final results of JCOG0211.
  • : 8549 Background: Nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma is rare and its standard therapy has not been established.
  • Tumor cells express P-glycoprotein concerning multi-drug resistance (MDR).
  • Anthracycline-containing chemotherapy is not effective and %2-yr overall survival (OS) of radiotherapy (RT) alone is only 45%.
  • METHODS: To explore a more effective treatment for localized nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma, we conducted a phase I/II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy consisted of 50 Gy of RT and 3 courses of DeVIC [carboplatin (CBDCA), etoposide (ETP), ifosfamide (IFM), dexamethasone (DMS)].
  • The 3-D conformal RT planning was required to cover adequately target volumes (2 cm margin to gross tumor, entire nasal cavities and nasopharynx) and to minimize doses to organs at risk.
  • Primary endpoint of the phase II portion was 2-yr OS and the enrollment of 24 pts to the phase II portion was planned.
  • Based on the results of the phase I portion (ASH 2005, #2685), 2/3-dose of DeVIC (CBDCA 200mg/m<sup>2</sup> d1 IV, ETP 67mg/m<sup>2</sup> d1-3 IV, IFM 1.0g/m<sup>2</sup> d1-3 IV, DMS 40mg/body d1-3 IV; every 3 wks) was applied for the phase II portion.
  • RESULTS: From Sep 2003 to Dec 2006, 33 pts were enrolled in the phase I/II study.
  • 27 pts evaluated in the phase II portion showed the following features: age 21-68 yrs (median 56), M:F=17:10, stage IE 18, stage IIE 9, B symptom (+) 10, elevated serum LDH 5, PS2 2.
  • No treatment-related death was observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy using MDR-non-related agents and ETP is a safe and effective treatment for localized nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma, providing the basis for subsequent studies.

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  • (PMID = 27960966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Yamouni M, Benhadji KA, Beldjilali Y, Lahfa I, Khellafi H, Abdelaoui A, Djellali L, Bouzid K: Phase II trial of combination docetaxel and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6044

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of combination docetaxel and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • : 6044 Background: The standard treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma is cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by locoregional radiotherapy.
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the antitumor activity and toxicity of a new neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen combining docetaxel (D) and cisplatin (C).
  • METHODS: Previously untreated patients (pts) with histologically diagnosed locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (stages IVA and IVB, TNM/UICC 1997) received D 75 mg/m<sup>2</sup> and C 75 mg/m<sup>2</sup> both on day 1, with cycles repeated every 21 days.
  • All pts received three cycles in a neoadjuvant setting before radiotherapy (4 to 6 weeks after the third cycle of DC, 65-70 Gy 5 fractions/week).
  • Pts were evaluated by clinical examination, CT scan of the nasopharynx, and nasofibroscopy with biopsy.
  • 75 pts (81%) had an undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT) and 18 pts (19%) a differenciated carcinoma of the nasopharynx.
  • 31 pts had stage IVA disease and 62 pts had stage IVB.
  • CONCLUSIONS: DC chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy is an effective regimen for the treatment of advanced UCNT and has an acceptable safety profile.

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  • (PMID = 27961920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Karasawa K, Umezawa T, Hanyu N, Kawamura H, Kiguchi Y, Mitsuhashi T, Niibe Y: Hyperfractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5554

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hyperfractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • : 5554 Background: Altered fractionation radiation therapy has been thought to improve the local control and survival of the patients with head and neck cancer.
  • Since 1996, we have been conducting a clinical trial of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
  • Primary site: Larynx 34 cases, hypopharynx 27 cases, oropharynx 17 cases, oral cavity 5 cases, nasopharynx 4 cases, and maxillary sinus 2 cases.
  • Stage I/II/III/IV(M0) = 11/32/15/31.
  • Chemotherapy was combined in 22 cases.
  • OS and LC of stage I-II and III-IV were, 82.7%, 95.2%, and 54.5%, 53.5%, respectively.
  • As for larynx, OS and LC of overall, stage I-II, and stage III-IV were, 91.2%, 84.2%, 100%, 93.8%, and 50% (2y), 67% (1y), respectively.
  • As for oropharynx, OS and LC of overall, stage I-II, and stage III-IV were, 71.1%, 83.9%, 100% (2y), 100% (2y), and 73.8%, 80%, respectively.
  • As for hypopharynx, OS and LC of overall, stage I-II, and stage III-IV were, 49.9%, 65.3%, 53.6%, 100%, and 48.2%, 42.9%, respectively.
  • Disease-specific survival of stage I-II hypopharyngeal cancer was 100%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HFRT for SCCHN was promising not only for stage III and IV(advanced) cases but also for stage I and II (early) cases.

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  • (PMID = 28013972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Pedersen MØ, Larsen A, Stoltenberg M, Penkowa M: The role of metallothionein in oncogenesis and cancer prognosis. Prog Histochem Cytochem; 2009;44(1):29-64
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  • [Title] The role of metallothionein in oncogenesis and cancer prognosis.
  • The antiapoptotic, antioxidant, proliferative, and angiogenic effects of metallothionein (MT)-I+II has resulted in increased focus on their role in oncogenesis, tumor progression, therapy response, and patient prognosis.
  • Studies have reported increased expression of MT-I+II mRNA and protein in various human cancers; such as breast, kidney, lung, nasopharynx, ovary, prostate, salivary gland, testes, urinary bladder, cervical, endometrial, skin carcinoma, melanoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and pancreatic cancers, where MT-I+II expression is sometimes correlated to higher tumor grade/stage, chemotherapy/radiation resistance, and poor prognosis.
  • However, MT-I+II are downregulated in other types of tumors (e.g. hepatocellular, gastric, colorectal, central nervous system (CNS), and thyroid cancers) where MT-I+II is either inversely correlated or unrelated to mortality.
  • Large discrepancies exist between different tumor types, and no distinct and reliable association exists between MT-I+II expression in tumor tissues and prognosis and therapy resistance.
  • Furthermore, a parallel has been drawn between MT-I+II expression as a potential marker for prognosis, and MT-I+II's role as oncogenic factors, without any direct evidence supporting such a parallel.
  • This review aims at discussing the role of MT-I+II both as a prognostic marker for survival and therapy response, as well as for the hypothesized role of MT-I+II as causal oncogenes.

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  • (PMID = 19348910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in histochemistry and cytochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Histochem Cytochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein
  • [Number-of-references] 203
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23. Zhang YJ, Ren ZM, Wu QL, He ZY, Huang Y, Xia YF, Lin TY, Cui NJ: [Treatment outcome and prognosis of 112 patients with nasal and nasopharyngeal peripheral T cell lymphomas]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Apr;27(4):217-21
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  • [Title] [Treatment outcome and prognosis of 112 patients with nasal and nasopharyngeal peripheral T cell lymphomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of nasal and nasopharyngeal peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL) patients.
  • METHODS: One hundred and twelve patients with pathologically confirmed nasal and nasopharyngeal PTCL were included, among which 39 were CD56(+) NK/T cell lymphomas.
  • The median pre-treatment disease course was 4 months.
  • The tumors mainly involved nasal cavity (88 cases) and/or nasopharynx (50 cases) and adjacent structures, and 83 cases with extra-cavity diseases.
  • 91.1% of the patients had Ann Arbor I(E)/II(E) diseases.
  • Seventy two patients received combined chemo-radiotherapy, 32 chemotherapy only, 3 radiotherapy only and 5 no any treatment.
  • Chemotherapy achieved a complete remission (CR) rate of 34.4% for initial treatment, and of 65.1% after primary treatment.
  • The local tumor controlled rate was 50.5%, and the median time to tumor progression (TTP) was 11 months.
  • Univariate analysis showed that favorable prognostic factors for survival were pre-treatment course > 3 months, earlier clinical stage, non NK/T lymphoma, no skin involvement, lower IPI, CR after initial chemotherapy, radiotherapy, CR after primary treatment and local tumor controlled.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that, pre-treatment course > 3 months (P = 0.011), non NK/T lymphoma (P = 0.007), CR after initial chemotherapy (P = 0.008) and radiotherapy (P = 0.000) were favorable prognostic factors for survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although most nasal and nasopharyngeal peripheral T-cell lymphomas were diagnosed at early stage diseases, some of them were highly aggressive with poor prognosis, particularly CD56(+) NK/T cell lymphomas.
  • Combination chemo/radiotherapy, though remained principal treatments, more effective therapeutic modalities are expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, T-Cell, Peripheral / therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 16875549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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24. Xie FY, Huang HY, Hu JZ: [Observation on effect of radiotherapy and antike capsule combination therapy in treating nasopharyngeal cancer patients]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi; 2001 Dec;21(12):888-90
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  • [Title] [Observation on effect of radiotherapy and antike capsule combination therapy in treating nasopharyngeal cancer patients].
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of radiotherapy (RT) combined with Antike capsule (AC) and RT alone in treating nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients.
  • METHODS: Eighty-nine patients with pathologically confirmed NPC (stage II-IV) were randomly divided into two groups: group A (46 cases) were treated with RT, receiving 65-70 Gy/6.5-7 weeks to nasopharynx region and the same dosage to neck region, and AC was given in combination.
  • The total dosis of RT for complete remission (CR) of primary nasopharyngeal tumor and neck lymph nodes, the CR rate and the changes of peripheral NK cell, T lymphocyte subsets in the two groups were compared.
  • RESULTS: The total dosis of RT for CR in group A and B were 41.6 +/- 8.9 Gy vs 50.7 +/- 9.2 Gy for primary nasopharyngeal tumor, P < 0.05 and 47.4 +/- 10.3 Gy vs 56.2 +/- 9.7 Gy for neck lymph nodes, P < 0.05.
  • The CR rate of primary nasopharyngeal tumor in group A and B were 93.5% and 88.4% respectively, P < 0.05.
  • The activity of NK cell as well as T3, T4 in peripheral blood increased significantly in the group A after treatment, P < 0.05, while in group B, T3, T4 lowered significantly, P < 0.05.

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  • (PMID = 12575586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-5370
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Capsules; 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal
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25. Seung S, Bae J, Solhjem M, Bader S, Gannett D, Hansen EK, Louie J, Underhill K, Cha C: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer in the community setting. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Nov 15;72(4):1075-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer in the community setting.
  • PURPOSE: To review outcomes with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the community setting for the treatment of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between April 2003 and April 2007, 69 patients with histologically confirmed cancer of the nasopharynx and oropharynx underwent IMRT in our practice.
  • The primary sites included nasopharynx (11), base of tongue (18), and tonsil (40).
  • The disease stage distribution was as follows: 2 Stage I, 11 Stage II, 16 Stage III, and 40 Stage IV.
  • The median prescribed doses were 70 Gy to the planning target volume, 59.4 Gy to the high-risk subclinical volume, and 54 Gy to the low-risk subclinical volume.
  • Forty-five patients (65%) received concurrent chemotherapy.
  • Toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group toxicity criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Community Health Services. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiodermatitis / etiology. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oregon. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18486355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Wolden SL, Zelefsky MJ, Hunt MA, Rosenzweig KE, Chong LM, Kraus DH, Pfister DG, Leibel SA: Failure of a 3D conformal boost to improve radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2001 Apr 1;49(5):1229-34
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  • [Title] Failure of a 3D conformal boost to improve radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether the use of 3-dimensional (3D) boost for patients with nasopharynx cancer improves local control and reduces the risk of long-term complications.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1988 to 1998, 68 patients with nasopharynx cancer received conventional external beam therapy followed by a 3D boost.
  • Disease characteristics of treated patients were as follows: WHO I histology 7%, WHO II 62%, WHO III 31%, clinical AJCC stage T1--2 45%, T3--4 55%, N0--1 63%, N2--3 37%, M0 100%.
  • The median radiation dose was 70 Gy (68--75.6 Gy).
  • Thirty-five patients (52%) received cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Stage was the only identifiable prognostic factor: 5-year progression-free survival was 65% for Stages I--III vs. 40% for Stage IV (p = 0.01).
  • We are now using intensity modulated radiation therapy to deliver the entire course of radiation.
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy achieves better conformal distributions than conventional 3D planning, allowing dose escalation and increased normal tissue sparing.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11286827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Lu JJ, Shakespeare TP, Tan LK, Goh BC, Cooper JS: Adjuvant fractionated high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy after external beam radiotherapy in Tl and T2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Head Neck; 2004 May;26(5):389-95
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  • [Title] Adjuvant fractionated high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy after external beam radiotherapy in Tl and T2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The value of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRIB) for persistent or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been well described; however, the benefit of routine adjuvant fractionated HDRIB following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has not been completely determined.
  • The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the outcome of two fractions of adjuvant HDRIB treatment in Tl and T2 nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Thirty-three consecutive and nonselected patients who had Tl and T2 non-disseminated nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated according to an IRB approved institutional research protocol between March 1999 and July 2001.
  • By the 1997 AJCC cancer staging classification, 22 patients (67%) had Tl disease and 11 patients (33%) had T2 disease.
  • Seventeen of these patients who had stage I or stage II disease (i.e., NO or Nl) were treated with EBRT followed by two fractions of adjuvant HDRIB (group 1); 16 patients who had stage III or stage IV disease (i.e., N2 or N3) were treated with concurrent cisplatin, EBRT and adjuvant HDRIB and subsequent adjuvant cisplatin and fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy (group 2).
  • EBRT was delivered by daily conventional fractionation to a total dose of 66 Gy to the primary tumor.
  • Nodal disease received 66 Gy if it was less than 3 cm in maximum diameter and 70 Gy if larger or there was palpable residual disease after 66 Gy.
  • A total of 10 Gy of HDRIB in 2 equal fractions of 5 Gy spaced 1 week apart was delivered starting 1 week after the completion of EBRT.
  • All patients were assessed for treatment response, local control, survival, and toxicity.
  • One patient died 7 months and one died 18 months after radiation therapy from the effects of distant metastases; two died of unrelated causes.
  • At the time of this analysis, one patient (3%) had persistent local disease and one patient (3%) developed pathologically confirmed local recurrence in the nasopharynx.
  • In addition, one patient (3%) developed recurrence only in a neck node followed by distant metastasis, and two patients (6%) developed distant metastasis without locoregional relapse.
  • The 2-year local control rate at the primary site was 93.6%, and the overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 82% and 74% respectively.
  • All patients experienced some degree of acute and/or late toxicity related to radiation therapy.
  • Ten patients (30%) experienced grade 3 acute and/or late toxicity and six patients (18%) developed grade 4 acute and/or late toxicity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EBRT supplemented by two fractions of adjuvant HDRIB produced a 93.6% local control rate for Tl and T2 nasopharyngeal cancer at 2 years of follow up, with acceptable rates of acute and late toxicity.
  • Brief adjuvant HDRIB appears to permit dose escalation safely, even in patients who receive chemotherapy concurrently with conventional radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 26: 389-395, 2004.
  • (PMID = 15122654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Lin JC, Liang WM, Jan JS, Jiang RS, Lin AC: Another way to estimate outcome of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma--is concurrent chemoradiotherapy adequate? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Sep 1;60(1):156-64
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  • [Title] Another way to estimate outcome of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma--is concurrent chemoradiotherapy adequate?
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate a simple risk grouping system and determine whether concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is adequate for patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 284 patients with 1992 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage III to IV (M0) NPC were analyzed retrospectively.
  • (1) nodal size >6 cm, (2) supraclavicular node metastases, (3) 1992 AJCC stage T4N2, (4) multiple neck node metastases with 1 node >4 cm.
  • The disease extent of each patient was stratified by our risk grouping system, AJCC 1992 and 1997 staging systems.
  • Survival analyses-including nasopharynx disease free (TS), neck disease free (NS), distant metastasis disease free (MS), overall survival (OS), and progression-free (PFS) survival curves-were compared between these three different classifications.
  • RESULTS: According to the 1992 AJCC staging system, 80.3% (228/284) of NPC patients are Stage IV, whereas only 19.7% are Stage III.
  • Most patients are downstaged by the 1997 AJCC staging system with 28.5% (81/284) Stage IV and 71.5% (203/284) Stage III/II.
  • Log-rank test of Kaplan-Meier survival curves, multivariate comparison of the Cox proportional hazards model, and 3 goodness-of-fit indices validated that our risk grouping system seemed to be at least as efficacious as, or slightly superior to, the 1992 and 1997 AJCC systems.
  • Adding neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant chemotherapy would be a reasonable approach for high-risk patients.
  • Our risk grouping criteria are a simple and useful guide that will have important implications in the design of future therapeutic trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk. Treatment Failure


29. Lu TX, Mai WY, Teh BS, Zhao C, Han F, Huang Y, Deng XW, Lu LX, Huang SM, Zeng ZF, Lin CG, Lu HH, Chiu JK, Carpenter LS, Grant WH 3rd, Woo SY, Cui NJ, Butler EB: Initial experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Mar 1;58(3):682-7
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  • [Title] Initial experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report our initial experience on the feasibility, toxicity, and tumor control using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for retreatment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 49 patients with locoregional recurrent carcinoma in the nasopharynx were treated with IMRT between January 2001 and February 2002 at the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.
  • The average time to the nasopharyngeal recurrence was 30.2 months after initial conventional RT.
  • The median isocenter dose to the nasopharynx was 70 Gy (range 60.9-78.0) for the initial conventional RT.
  • All patients were restaged at the time of recurrence according to the 1992 Fuzhou, China staging system on NPC.
  • The number of patients with Stage I, II, III and IV disease was 4, 9, 10, and 26, respectively.
  • The GTV in the nasopharynx and positive lymph nodes in the neck received a prescription dose of 68-70 Gy and 60 Gy, respectively.
  • Three patients who had positive lymph nodes were treated with five to six courses of chemotherapy (cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil) after IMRT.
  • RESULTS: The treatment plans showed that the percentage of GTV receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (V(95-GTV)) was 98.5%, and the dose encompassing 95% of GTV (D(95-GTV)) was 68.1 Gy in the nasopharynx.
  • The mean dose to the GTV was 71.4 Gy.
  • Three patients developed metastases at a distant site: two in the bone and one in the liver and lung at 13 months follow-up.
  • Acute toxicity (skin, mucosa, and xerostomia) was acceptable according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria.
  • The treatment-related toxicity profile was acceptable.
  • In contrast to primary NPC, recurrent NPC reirradiated with high-dose IMRT led to the shedding of tumor necrotic tissue toward the end of RT.
  • More patients and longer term follow-up are warranted to evaluate late toxicity and treatment outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 14967420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Biel MA: Photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancers. Methods Mol Biol; 2010;635:281-93
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancers.
  • The predominant histology is squamous cell carcinoma, but other histologies treated include mucosal melanoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, adenocarcinoma, metastatic breast carcinoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • Several multi-institutional phase II clinical trials evaluating PDT treatment of head and neck cancers have demonstrated the efficacy of this minimally invasive therapy in the treatment of early oropharyngeal primary and recurrent cancers as well as the palliative treatment of refractory head and neck cancers.
  • Patients with early stage cancers or early recurrences in the oral cavity and larynx (Cis, T1, T2) tend to have an excellent response to PDT.
  • Of 518 patients treated with Cis, T1, or T2 cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and nasopharynx, 462 (89.1%) obtained a complete clinical response after one PDT treatment.
  • Photodynamic therapy is as effective as conventional therapies for the treatment of early (Cis, T1, T2) squamous cell cancers of the head and neck.
  • It is also a promising therapy to be used in association with surgery to increase tumor-free margins and therefore increase cure rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20552353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-6029
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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