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3. Tas F, Kurul S, Camlica H, Topuz E: Malignant melanoma in Turkey: a single institution's experience on 475 cases. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Dec;36(12):794-9
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma in Turkey: a single institution's experience on 475 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the characteristics and the clinical outcomes of patients with cutaneous melanoma in Turkey.
  • RESULTS: Of the 475 adult cases with complete staging procedure, the incidence of localized (stages I-II) disease was 301 (63.4%), and followed by node involved (stage III) and metastatic (stage IV) disease with the incidence of 117 (24.6%) and 57 (12.0%), respectively.
  • In cases with early/node negative stage, stage distribution was identical.
  • The superficial spreading type was the commonest histology (52.2%).
  • In cases with the node involved stage, the majority of patients had only one lymph node involved.
  • The five-year survival rates of patients with stages I-II and III disease were 63.6% and 36.6%, respectively.
  • Nodular histology subtype, deeper Breslow tumor depth, extensive invasion, presence of ulceration, advanced stage, presence of relapse, being male and elderly patient, presence of visceral recurrence, and high mitotic activity were found to be associated with poor prognosis for overall survival in localized disease.
  • Unresponsiveness to chemotherapy, visceral metastasis, multiple metastases and not given chemotherapy were the poor prognostic factors for overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17060409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Lewis KD, Gibbs P, O'Day S, Richards J, Weber J, Anderson C, Zeng C, Baron A, Russ P, Gonzalez R: A phase II study of biochemotherapy for advanced melanoma incorporating temozolomide, decrescendo interleukin-2 and GM-CSF. Cancer Invest; 2005;23(4):303-8
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  • [Title] A phase II study of biochemotherapy for advanced melanoma incorporating temozolomide, decrescendo interleukin-2 and GM-CSF.
  • Metastatic malignant melanoma remains a very difficult disease to treat.
  • Previous phase II studies using biochemotherapy (combination of platinum-containing chemotherapy with IL-2 and IFNalpha) have shown response rates of about 50%.
  • We report the results of a phase II study using a novel biochemotherapy regimen containing temozolomide, cisplatin, decrescendo IL-2, IFNalpha, and GM-CSF in the treatment of stage IV melanoma.
  • Seventy-one patients with histologically confirmed metastatic melanoma were enrolled between June 1998 and October 1999.
  • Prior chemotherapy or IL-2 was not permitted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / mortality. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Humans. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Reproducibility of Results. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16100942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA46934
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Interleukin-2; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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5. Spitler LE, Grossbard ML, Ernstoff MS, Silver G, Jacobs M, Hayes FA, Soong SJ: Adjuvant therapy of stage III and IV malignant melanoma using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Apr;18(8):1614-21
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy of stage III and IV malignant melanoma using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as surgical adjuvant therapy in patients with malignant melanoma who are at high risk of recurrence.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-eight assessable patients with stage III or IV melanoma were treated in a phase II trial with long-term, chronic, intermittent GM-CSF after surgical resection of disease.
  • Patients with stage III disease were required to have more than four positive nodes or a more than 3-cm mass.
  • Treatment cycles continued for 1 year or until disease recurrence.
  • GM-CSF was well tolerated; only one subject discontinued drug due to an adverse event (grade 2 injection site reaction).
  • CONCLUSION: GM-CSF may provide an antitumor effect that prolongs survival and disease-free survival in patients with stage III and IV melanoma who are clinically disease-free.
  • These results support institution of a prospective, randomized clinical trial to definitively determine the value of surgical adjuvant therapy with GM-CSF in such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Life Tables. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2000 Apr;18(8):1603-5 [10764419.001]
  • (PMID = 10764421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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6. Wang Y, Cen Y, Li Z: [Therapeutic result of operation combined with large-dose of roferon-A for cutaneous malignant melanoma]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jan;21(1):37-9
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic result of operation combined with large-dose of roferon-A for cutaneous malignant melanoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of operation with large-dose of Roferon-A for cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: From January 1998 to December 2005, thirty-three patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma were treated.
  • In 33 patients, nine patients identified as clinical-stage I received singly enlarged-resection to the primary lesion and performed split-thickness skin graft dermoplasty or adjacent skin flap repair; twenty-three patients identified as clinical-stage II received enlarged-resection to the primary lesion and performed proximal lymphaden scavenge as well as received split-thickness skin graft dermoplasty; and one patient identified as clinical-stage III received palliative resection to the primary lesion.
  • RESULTS: There are no recidivation in the 9 patients of clinical-stage I.
  • There are 1 recidivation and 1 quit in all the 23 patients of clinical-stage II.
  • One patient of clinical-stage III died after 18 months of operation.
  • CONCLUSION: The operation combined with large-dose of Roferon-A after operation was a more effective way to treat cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Recombinant Proteins. Skin Transplantation. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17305002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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9. Unger JM, Flaherty LE, Liu PY, Albain KS, Sondak VK: Gender and other survival predictors in patients with metastatic melanoma on Southwest Oncology Group trials. Cancer; 2001 Mar 15;91(6):1148-55
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  • [Title] Gender and other survival predictors in patients with metastatic melanoma on Southwest Oncology Group trials.
  • BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that women with metastatic malignant melanoma have a better survival rate than men.
  • However, little is known about the effect of gender on survival in combination with other clinical variables and treatment variables.
  • Thus, an analysis of 813 eligible patients from 15 consecutive Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) Phase II or III trials evaluating chemotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy for metastatic melanoma was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current study found that performance status, OSM, and type of visceral involvement were independent predictors of survival in patients with metastic malignant melanoma and should be used as stratification factors in future Phase III trials.
  • However, the current study also found that gender did not appear to be a significant independent predictor of survival for this stage of disease.
  • The study concluded that further investigation of the biologic differences at early stage diagnosis should be undertaken to determine whether women truly have a different pace of disease progression and a different metastatic pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11267960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14028; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46282
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Wong SF, Jakowatz JG, Taheri R: Potential drug-drug interaction between interferon alfa-2b and gemfibrozil in a patient with malignant melanoma. Clin Ther; 2005 Dec;27(12):1942-8
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  • [Title] Potential drug-drug interaction between interferon alfa-2b and gemfibrozil in a patient with malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In the United States, patients with high-risk stage II or III melanoma are often treated with adjuvant interferon (IFN) therapy for 1 year after surgery.
  • However, hypertriglyceridemia requiring treatment has been reported.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this report was to describe a potential drug-drug interaction between IFN alfa-2b and gemfibrozil in a patient with malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: This report presents the case of a 43-year-old male patient weighing 101 kg with newly diagnosed stage III melanoma of the left arm, with metastasis to the supraclavicular node.
  • The patient presented to the University of California Irvine Medical Center, Orange, California with severe gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and elevated hepatic enzyme concentrations at week 48 of 104 of adjuvant treatment of malignant melanoma (IFN alfa 11 MU SC TIW in combination with the investigational melanoma vaccine melanoma theraccine 1.25 mL [I mL lysate + 0.25 mL vaccine adjuvant] given SC at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, and 48 and then every 8 weeks until week 104), and IFN-induced hypertriglyceridemia (gemfibrozil 600 mg PO BID).
  • The patient had no history of cardiovascular or GI disease and was not receiving any concomitant medication.
  • RESULTS: In this case of a possible drug-drug interaction between IFN alfa 11 MU TIW and gemfibrozil 600 mg BID in a patient undergoing treatment for IFN-induced hypertriglyceridemia, the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) Probability Scale score was 7 (ie, ADR possibly related to treatment).
  • A possible drug-drug interaction between IFN alfa 11 MU TIW and gemfibrozil 600 mg BID was reported in a patient undergoing treatment for IFN-induced hypertriglyceridemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Gemfibrozil / adverse effects. Hypertriglyceridemia / drug therapy. Hypolipidemic Agents / adverse effects. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Drug Interactions. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Melanoma / drug therapy. Recombinant Proteins. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16507380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hypolipidemic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b; Q8X02027X3 / Gemfibrozil
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11. Neuber K, Reinhold U, Deutschmann A, Pföhler C, Mohr P, Pichlmeier U, Baumgart J, Hauschild A: Second-line chemotherapy of metastatic malignant melanoma with intravenous treosulfan: a phase II multicentre trial. Melanoma Res; 2003 Feb;13(1):81-5
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  • [Title] Second-line chemotherapy of metastatic malignant melanoma with intravenous treosulfan: a phase II multicentre trial.
  • The purpose of this multicentre phase II trial was to evaluate time to progression, survival time, rate of objective tumour response and toxicity of second-line intravenous treosulfan chemotherapy in stage IV melanoma patients.
  • Thirty-one patients with measurable stage IV malignant melanoma and prior chemotherapy with a dacarbazine-containing regimen were included.
  • Patients were evaluated for tumour response, survival time and toxicity.
  • Five patients (19%) showed no change and 21 had progressive disease after treosulfan treatment.
  • The median time to progression was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.1 months) and the median overall survival was 6.5 months (95% CI 3.1-10 months).
  • In conclusion, intravenous treosulfan treatment does not induce objective response rates when used as a second-line treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Busulfan / analogs & derivatives. Busulfan / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12569289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; CO61ER3EPI / treosulfan; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan
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12. Neuber K: Treosulfan in the treatment of metastatic melanoma: from chemosensitivity testing to clinical trials. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2003;161:159-79
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  • [Title] Treosulfan in the treatment of metastatic melanoma: from chemosensitivity testing to clinical trials.
  • The therapy of metastatic malignant melanoma is limited by poor responses and short overall survival.
  • Thus it remains important to identify and test potential new drugs in this disease.
  • Five highly chemoresistant melanoma cell lines and melanoma cells freshly isolated from metastases surgically resected from stage IV melanoma patients (n = 10) were incubated with treosulfan.
  • Three cell lines and eight of ten tested tumor cells isolated from melanoma metastases showed tumor growth inhibition after incubation with treosulfan.
  • Therefore, 14 patients with rapidly progressing stage IV malignant melanoma who were pretreated with at least one standard chemotherapy regimen received treosulfan.
  • In this population of patients with highly refractory advanced melanoma one complete remission (7.1%), two partial remissions (14.3%), and three cases of stable disease (21.4%) were observed.
  • Median time to progression and median overall survival for all patients measured from the beginning of treosulfan treatment were 5 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.98-2.57 months] and 9 months (95% CI 3.92-8.69 months), respectively.
  • On the basis of these data a multicenter phase II trial was initiated.
  • A total of 31 patients with stage IV melanoma were included and treated second-line with 8 g/m2 i.v. treosulfan.
  • Patients with treosulfan-sensitive melanoma metastases showed better response rates and prolonged survival compared with patients who were not tested before treosulfan treatment.
  • We therefore suggest further studies with first-line treosulfane alone or in combination with gemcitabine or cytosine arabinoside together with pretherapeutic chemosensitivity testing that may help to select patients who might benefit from specific chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Busulfan / analogs & derivatives. Busulfan / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphate / analysis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Humans. Luminescent Measurements. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12528807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; CO61ER3EPI / treosulfan; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan
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13. O'Day SJ, Agarwala SS, Naredi P, Kass CL, Gehlsen KR, Glaspy J: Treatment with histamine dihydrochloride and interleukin-2 in patients with advanced metastatic malignant melanoma: a detailed safety analysis. Melanoma Res; 2003 Jun;13(3):307-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment with histamine dihydrochloride and interleukin-2 in patients with advanced metastatic malignant melanoma: a detailed safety analysis.
  • Intravenous high dose bolus therapy with interleukin-2 (IL2) is associated with low overall response rates (15%) and significant toxicity.
  • Phase II and III trials of a lower dose subcutaneous regimen of IL2 administered alone (n = 152) or in combination with histamine dihydrochloride (n = 239) have recently been completed.
  • Eligible patients had stage IV malignant melanoma with at least one measurable lesion.
  • Almost all toxicities in each treatment group were NCI grade 1 or 2.
  • The incidence of toxicities expected to occur with histamine treatment, such as hypotension/vasodilation, headache and injection site reaction, were higher among patients receiving histamine.
  • With the exception of headache, the incidence of grade 3 or 4 toxicities was similar across the treatment groups.
  • The addition of histamine to the subcutaneous IL2 regimen did not result in a difference in the incidence of drug interruption, dose modification or discontinuation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Asthenia / chemically induced. Chills / chemically induced. Fever / chemically induced. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vasodilation / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Histamine / administration & dosage. Humans. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12777988.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-2; 820484N8I3 / Histamine
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14. Lafuma A, Dreno B, Delaunay M, Emery C, Fagnani F, Hieke K, Bonerandi JJ, Grob JJ, French Cooperative Group on Melanoma: Economic analysis of adjuvant therapy with interferon alpha-2a in stage II malignant melanoma. Eur J Cancer; 2001 Feb;37(3):369-75
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  • [Title] Economic analysis of adjuvant therapy with interferon alpha-2a in stage II malignant melanoma.
  • Using the trial demonstrating that interferonalpha-2a (IFNalpha-2a) is efficacious as adjuvant therapy in stage II melanoma, we evaluate its outcomes and economic consequences.
  • Using rates observed in the 5-year trial and published figures, survival and Q-TWIST (Time Without Symptoms and Toxicity) were extrapolated to a 10-year and lifetime horizon.
  • Patients in the IFNalpha-2a-group have an additional 0.26 years in life-expectancy over a 5-year time period (P=0.046), 0.67 years over a 10-year period and 2.59 years over a lifetime.
  • Cost-effectiveness of IFNalpha-2a in stage II melanoma compares favourably with estimates for widely used therapies in the oncological field.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / economics. Interferon-alpha / economics. Melanoma / economics. Skin Neoplasms / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Direct Service Costs. Drug Costs. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / economics. Neoplasm Staging. Quality of Life. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Recombinant Proteins. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11239759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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15. Meral R, Duranyildiz D, Tas F, Camlica H, Yasasever V, Kurul S, Dalay N: Prognostic significance of melanoma inhibiting activity levels in malignant melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2001 Dec;11(6):627-32
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of melanoma inhibiting activity levels in malignant melanoma.
  • This analytic (phase II) study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that the decline in serum melanoma-inhibiting activity (MIA) levels following initiation of treatment might have prognostic value.
  • The mean serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), MIA and S100 levels in patients with malignant melanoma before treatment were higher than in the control group.
  • A regression model was constructed to analyse the prognostic factors in patients with advanced stage malignant melanoma.
  • Therapy included surgical excision or lymph node dissection, hypofractionated radiotherapy, and immunotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Blood samples were collected within 24 h before the initiation of systemic treatment and two or three times more at 20-28 day intervals.
  • Gender, primary tumour site, surgery, radiation therapy, serum S100 levels before systemic treatment and choice of chemotherapy were not correlated with the outcome.
  • In addition to the stage of disease, low serum LDH levels before systemic treatment and a decline in serum MIA levels following initiation of systemic treatment predicted a favourable outcome.
  • Persistence of high serum MIA levels despite systemic treatment predicts an unfavourable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / blood. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Skin Neoplasms / blood

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  • [CommentIn] Melanoma Res. 2002 Dec;12(6):633 [12459654.001]
  • (PMID = 11725209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / MIA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100A1 protein; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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16. Whitehead RP, Moon J, McCachren SS, Hersh EM, Samlowski WE, Beck JT, Tchekmedyian NS, Sondak VK, Southwest Oncology Group: A Phase II trial of vinorelbine tartrate in patients with disseminated malignant melanoma and one prior systemic therapy: a Southwest Oncology Group study. Cancer; 2004 Apr 15;100(8):1699-704
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  • [Title] A Phase II trial of vinorelbine tartrate in patients with disseminated malignant melanoma and one prior systemic therapy: a Southwest Oncology Group study.
  • BACKGROUND: Single-agent chemotherapy with dacarbazine continues to be the standard of care for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.
  • However, there is a large population of patients who have failed first-line therapy and might benefit from additional treatment.
  • In the current study, the authors evaluated the antitumor effects and toxicity of vinorelbine therapy in patients who had failed one prior systemic therapy.
  • METHODS: Patients were required to have a histologic diagnosis of melanoma and be of Stage IV with measurable disease, a Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) performance status (PS) of 0-2, no evidence of brain metastases, and adequate bone marrow and liver function.
  • Treatment was comprised of vinorelbine given at a dose of 30 mg/m(2)/week by intravenous bolus.
  • There were no complete or partial responses observed, for a response rate of 0 of the 21 patients studied (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0-16%); the study closed after the first stage of accrual.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite impressive preclinical activity against melanoma, vinorelbine does not appear to have enough clinical activity to be of interest in previously treated patients with disseminated melanoma.
  • The progression-free and overall survival results noted in previously treated patients in the current study were similar to results reported in prior SWOG Phase II trials in untreated patients.
  • The group of previously treated patients may be used to evaluate new agents for the treatment of disseminated melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives. Vinblastine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15073859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13612; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA20319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA22433; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35176; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37981; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA42777; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45807; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46441; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58348; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63850; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA67575; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76132
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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17. Nicholson S, Guile K, John J, Clarke IA, Diffley J, Donnellan P, Michael A, Szlosarek P, Dalgleish AG: A randomized phase II trial of SRL172 (Mycobacterium vaccae) +/- low-dose interleukin-2 in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2003 Aug;13(4):389-93
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  • [Title] A randomized phase II trial of SRL172 (Mycobacterium vaccae) +/- low-dose interleukin-2 in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma.
  • We conducted a randomized phase II trial of SRL172 (Mycobacterium vaccae) +/- low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) as treatment for stage IV malignant melanoma.
  • All patients had measurable metastatic disease and none received concurrent chemotherapy, radiotherapy, corticosteroids or any other investigational agent.
  • This trial provides preliminary evidence of a new, non-toxic, immunotherapeutic regimen in the management of malignant melanoma.
  • Further trials are required to establish a definitive response rate and to compare the combination regimen with the regimen of low-dose IL-2 used in this trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Immunotherapy / methods. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Adult. Bacterial Vaccines / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Mycobacterium / immunology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12883365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Bacterial Vaccines; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / SRL172
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18. Weber J, Sondak VK, Scotland R, Phillip R, Wang F, Rubio V, Stuge TB, Groshen SG, Gee C, Jeffery GG, Sian S, Lee PP: Granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor added to a multipeptide vaccine for resected Stage II melanoma. Cancer; 2003 Jan 1;97(1):186-200
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  • [Title] Granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor added to a multipeptide vaccine for resected Stage II melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Forty-eight patients with resected Stages IIA and IIB melanoma were immunized with two tumor antigen epitope peptides derived from gp100(209-217) (210M) (IMDQVPSFV) and tyrosinase(368-376) (370D) (YMDGTMSQV) emulsified with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA).
  • Time to recurrence and survival were secondary end points.
  • A leukapheresis to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells for immune analyses and skin testing with peptides and recall reagents was performed before and after eight vaccinations.
  • Seventeen of the 40 patients for whom posttreatment skin tests were performed developed a positive skin test response to the gp100 peptide, but only 1 of the 40 patients developed a positive skin test response to tyrosinase.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest a significant number of patients with resected melanoma mount an antigen-specific immune response against a peptide vaccine.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology. Antibody Formation. Cytokines / immunology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / immunology. Middle Aged. Monophenol Monooxygenase / immunology. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Neoplasm Staging. Oligopeptides / immunology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Vaccination. gp100 Melanoma Antigen

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12491520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5P30 CA 14089; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 090809
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / PMEL protein, human; 0 / gp100 Melanoma Antigen; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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19. Ribas A, Kirkwood JM, Atkins MB, Whiteside TL, Gooding W, Kovar A, Gillies SD, Kashala O, Morse MA: Phase I/II open-label study of the biologic effects of the interleukin-2 immunocytokine EMD 273063 (hu14.18-IL2) in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. J Transl Med; 2009;7:68
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  • [Title] Phase I/II open-label study of the biologic effects of the interleukin-2 immunocytokine EMD 273063 (hu14.18-IL2) in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: To explore the biological activity of EMD 273063 (hu14.18-IL2), a humanized anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody fused to interleukin-2 (IL2), in patients with unresectable, stage IV cutaneous melanoma as measured by induction of immune activation at the tumor site and in peripheral blood.
  • Biopsies of tumor metastasis were performed prior to therapy and at day 10 of the first 2 cycles to study lymphocyte accumulation by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Treatment was generally well tolerated and there were no study drug-related grade 4 adverse events.
  • Best response on therapy was stable disease in 2 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Cytokines / therapeutic use. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Area Under Curve. Biopsy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Half-Life. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19640287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / EMD 273063 antibody, human; 0 / Interleukin-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2724499
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20. Garbe C, Eigentler TK: [Therapy of malignant melanoma at the stage of distant metastasis]. Hautarzt; 2004 Feb;55(2):195-213
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  • [Title] [Therapy of malignant melanoma at the stage of distant metastasis].
  • [Transliterated title] Therappie des malignen Melanoms im Stadium der Fernmetastasierung.
  • Treatment of melanoma in the stage of distant metastasis aims on palliation and achievement of durable tumor remission with prolongation of survival.
  • As long as metastasis is confined to one organ system and is removable, surgery remains the treatment of first choice.
  • More extensive metastasis should be treated by chemotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy.
  • As these treatments are associated with substantially higher toxicity they have been widely abandoned.
  • Combined treatment with dacarbazine and interferon-alpha obtain tumor responses or stable disease in 40-50% and objective tumor remissions in 15-20% of patients.
  • Effective cancer vaccination strategies and blockade of melanoma specific target molecules are currently developed as new treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunotherapy. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nitrosourea Compounds / administration & dosage. Nitrosourea Compounds / therapeutic use. Organophosphorus Compounds / administration & dosage. Organophosphorus Compounds / therapeutic use. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vindesine / administration & dosage. Vindesine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15043023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; GQ7JL9P5I2 / fotemustine; RSA8KO39WH / Vindesine; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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21. Ishihara K, Saida T, Otsuka F, Yamazaki N, Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee of the Japanese Skin Cancer Society: Statistical profiles of malignant melanoma and other skin cancers in Japan: 2007 update. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;13(1):33-41
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  • [Title] Statistical profiles of malignant melanoma and other skin cancers in Japan: 2007 update.
  • BACKGROUND: In the previous report of the Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee of the Japanese Skin Cancer Society, we tabulated data on patients with malignant melanoma who had been registered at major medical institutions (22 institutions on average) in Japan over 5-year periods from 1987 to 1991 (group A) and from 1992 to 1996 (group B).
  • METHODS: The numbers of melanoma patients registered were: 545 in group A (1987-1991), 699 in group B (1992-1996), and 821 in group C (1997-2001).
  • Because the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) TNM and stage classifications for malignant melanoma were changed substantially in 2002, analyses in the present investigation were performed according to the new classifications.
  • In addition, the numbers of patients with various kinds of skin malignancies, including not only malignant melanoma but also basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, mycosis fungoides, actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, and Paget's disease, registered at approximately 100 medical institutions in Japan from 1987 to 2001, were also investigated and data were tabulated.
  • RESULTS: The nationwide survey of Japanese patients with malignant skin tumors from 1987 to 2001 showed that the most prevalent skin tumor was basal cell carcinoma, which increased year by year, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, and then by malignant melanoma.
  • The following results were obtained from the data for melanoma patients registered at major institutions from 1987 to 2001. (1) The overall 10-year survival rates for melanoma patients in each chronological group were ranked as: group C > B > A, although only the difference between groups C and A was statistically significant. (2) The male-to-female ratio ranged from 1: 0.97 to 1: 1.14, and the survival rate of female patients was higher than that of male patients (the 140-month survival rate was 70.6% in females and 60% in males). (3) Assessment of the age distribution showed that the number of patients increased rapidly from ages 40-49 years and reached a peak at around 60 years in all three groups. (4) The sole of the foot was the most common site of melanoma in both males and females, while melanomas on the lower limbs were also prevalent in females. (5) Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) was the most common type in all three groups, accounting for nearly 50% of the patients in each group.
  • The number of patients with superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) increased steadily over time and exceeded the number of patients with nodular melanoma (NM) in group C.
  • The prognosis of NM was the worst, while that of SSM was the most favorable. (6) The proportion of stage I patients was larger in group C than in groups A and B, but no significant difference among the groups was observed in the proportions of stage II, III, and IV patients.
  • For patients in stage III, the overall survival rate was higher in group C than that in group A or B, while there was no apparent difference in survival between the groups for patients in stage I or II.
  • For patients in stage IV, the survival rate in group C was slightly lower than that in group A or B. (7) In group C, the overall survival rates for substages III A, B, and C were ranked as III A > III B > III C. (8) The overall survival rates for stage IV M1a, M1b, and M1c were ranked as M1a > M1b > M1c.
  • In group C, the overall survival rate of stage IV patients with a normal serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level was higher than that of patients with elevated LDH values. (9) Evaluation of the effects of some therapeutic procedures (prophylactic lymph node dissection and chemotherapy with and without interferon-beta) on the survivals of patients with melanoma was inconclusive and suggested the need for more studies in this area.
  • CONCLUSION: In Japan, the number of patients with malignant skin tumors has increased year by year.
  • The prognosis of patients with advanced malignant melanoma remains extremely poor, but that of patients in stage III has shown an improvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18307017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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22. Chen KG, Leapman RD, Zhang G, Lai B, Valencia JC, Cardarelli CO, Vieira WD, Hearing VJ, Gottesman MM: Influence of melanosome dynamics on melanoma drug sensitivity. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2009 Sep 16;101(18):1259-71
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  • [Title] Influence of melanosome dynamics on melanoma drug sensitivity.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant melanomas are intrinsically resistant to many conventional treatments, such as radiation and chemotherapy, for reasons that are poorly understood.
  • Here we propose and test a model that explains drug resistance or sensitivity in terms of melanosome dynamics.
  • METHODS: The growth and sensitivity to cisplatin of MNT-1 cells, which are melanotic and enriched with mature stage III and IV melanosomes, and SK-MEL-28 cells, which have only immature stage I and II melanosomes, were compared using clonogenic assays.
  • Differences in pigmentation, melanosome stages, melanosome number, and cellular structures in different cell lines in response to various treatments were examined by electron microscopy.
  • The relative numbers of melanosomes of different stages were compared after treatment with 1-phenyl-2-thiourea.
  • The relationship between drug transporter function and endogenous melanogenic toxicity was assessed by treating cells with the cyclosporin analog PSC-833 and by assessing vacuole formation and cell growth inhibition.
  • After treatment with 6.7 microM CDDP for 72 hours, the number of stage II-III melanosomes in surviving MNT-1 cells was 6.8-fold that of untreated cells.
  • Modulation of MNT-1 cells to earlier-stage (II, II-III, III) melanosomes by treatment with the tyrosinase inhibitor 1-phenyl-2-thiourea dramatically increased CDDP resistance.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Melanosome dynamics (including their biogenesis, density, status, and structural integrity) regulate the drug resistance of melanoma cells.
  • Manipulation of melanosome functions may be an effective way to enhance the therapeutic activity of anticancer drugs against melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology. Melanosomes / drug effects. Melanosomes / ultrastructure. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Death / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Cyclosporins / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Melanoma, Experimental / drug therapy. Melanoma, Experimental / pathology. Mice. Microscopy, Confocal. Microscopy, Electron. Verapamil / pharmacology. Vinblastine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19704071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 NS999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclosporins; 121584-18-7 / valspodar; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; CJ0O37KU29 / Verapamil; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2744727
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23. DiFronzo LA, Gupta RK, Essner R, Foshag LJ, O'Day SJ, Wanek LA, Stern SL, Morton DL: Enhanced humoral immune response correlates with improved disease-free and overall survival in American Joint Committee on Cancer stage II melanoma patients receiving adjuvant polyvalent vaccine. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Aug 1;20(15):3242-8
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  • [Title] Enhanced humoral immune response correlates with improved disease-free and overall survival in American Joint Committee on Cancer stage II melanoma patients receiving adjuvant polyvalent vaccine.
  • PURPOSE: Although the improved overall survival (OS) of patients who receive Canvaxin (CancerVax Corp, Carlsbad, CA) polyvalent vaccine (PV) immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma has been correlated with cellular and humoral immune responses, the mechanisms of vaccine immunotherapy for early-stage melanoma are unclear.
  • Specific immune responses to tumor-associated antigens might correlate with disease-free survival (DFS) and OS in patients receiving adjuvant PV therapy for primary melanoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-three patients received PV plus bacille Calmette-Guérin after wide excision of American Joint Committee on Cancer stage II melanoma.
  • Humoral and cellular responses during the first 12 weeks of adjuvant immunotherapy were assessed by serum antibody titers to a tumor-associated 90-kd glycoprotein antigen (TA90) expressed by PV, and by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin testing with PV (PV-DTH).
  • CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that an increased IgM response in patients receiving PV therapy for stage II melanoma is associated with decreased recurrence and improved survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Melanoma / immunology. Melanoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibody Formation / drug effects. Antibody Formation / immunology. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Hypersensitivity, Delayed / immunology. Immunoglobulin G / biosynthesis. Immunoglobulin M / biosynthesis. Male. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12149297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12582; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 29605
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Canvaxin; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunoglobulin M
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24. Martín-Algarra S, Espinosa E, Rubió J, López López JJ, Manzano JL, Carrión LA, Plazaola A, Tanovic A, Paz-Ares L: Phase II study of weekly Kahalalide F in patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Mar;45(5):732-5
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  • [Title] Phase II study of weekly Kahalalide F in patients with advanced malignant melanoma.
  • This phase II clinical trial evaluated the antitumour response of Kahalalide F (KF) 650 microg/m(2) given as a 1-h weekly infusion in advanced malignant melanoma patients, both untreated and those who relapsed or progressed after one line of systemic therapy.
  • Of 24 enrolled patients (median age, 55 years; range, 28-89), 14 patients had been previously treated with chemotherapy or biological therapy.
  • No RECIST responses occurred; five chemotherapy-naïve patients with cutaneous melanoma had disease stabilisation for > or = 3 months; median progression-free survival was 1.7 months (95% CI, 1.2-1.9 months); and median overall survival was 10.8 months (95% CI, 5.0-upper limit not reached).
  • KF was a well-tolerated and safe chemotherapy regimen.
  • Despite a favourable safety profile, this trial was closed after the first stage because of the lack of objective response in patients with malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Depsipeptides / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19186051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Depsipeptides; 149204-42-2 / kahalalide F
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25. Becker JC, Terheyden P, Kämpgen E, Wagner S, Neumann C, Schadendorf D, Steinmann A, Wittenberg G, Lieb W, Bröcker EB: Treatment of disseminated ocular melanoma with sequential fotemustine, interferon alpha, and interleukin 2. Br J Cancer; 2002 Oct 7;87(8):840-5
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  • [Title] Treatment of disseminated ocular melanoma with sequential fotemustine, interferon alpha, and interleukin 2.
  • Malignant melanoma of the uvea is remarkable for purely haematogenous dissemination and its tendency to metastasise to the liver.
  • Although the liver is involved in up to 95% of patients, 50% of these also develop extrahepatic metastases, most often in the lungs, bone, skin, and brain.
  • The only effective treatments reported to date relied on hepatic arterial chemoembolisation or -perfusion.
  • The objective of this study was to establish a therapy protocol addressing patients with both sole liver involvement and systemic disease.
  • Forty-eight patients with metastatic ocular melanoma received fotemustine 100 mg m(-2) either as 60-min infusion into the hepatic artery or as 15-min infusion via a peripheral vein, depending on the metastatic sites involved, i.e., restriction to the liver or hepatic together with extrahepatic disease.
  • For the first treatment cycle this infusion was repeated after one week.
  • Of note, this overall survival is much longer than that repeatedly reported for stage IV uveal melanoma not treated with fotemustine, suggesting a therapeutic activity of this cytostatic drug even after systemic administration.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Uveal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Immunotherapy. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Nitrosourea Compounds / administration & dosage. Organophosphorus Compounds / administration & dosage. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Cancer Research UK
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  • (PMID = 12373596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; GQ7JL9P5I2 / fotemustine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2376169
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26. Ishihara K, Saida T, Yamamoto A, Japanese Skin Cancer Society Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee: Updated statistical data for malignant melanoma in Japan. Int J Clin Oncol; 2001 Jun;6(3):109-16
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  • [Title] Updated statistical data for malignant melanoma in Japan.
  • BACKGROUND: A statistical investigation was conducted of Japanese melanoma patients who had been registered by the Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee of the Japanese Skin Cancer Society.
  • METHODS: The data analyzed included age, sex, anatomical distribution, clinical features of primary lesions, Clark's subtype, tumor thickness, Clark's level, disease stage, and treatment.
  • In addition, the results of a nationwide survey of various types of skin malignancies, obtained from 101 medical institutions in Japan between 1987 and 1996, were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The nationwide survey revealed that the number of patients with malignant melanoma showed a steady increase during the period 1987-1996 in Japan.
  • It is noteworthy that the numbers of actinic keratoses, a type of early squamous cell carcinoma in situ, showed a steep increase in recent years.
  • Results revealed in our study of the melanoma registry for the period 1987-1996 were as follows:.
  • (1) the male-to-female ratio was 1 to 1.06, (2) the survival rate of female patients was higher than that of male patients (10-year survival in group B: female, 71.6% vs male, 55.9%), (3) the commonest site of melanoma in both sexes was the sole of the foot, (4) with respect to Clark's subtype, acral lentiginous melanoma was commonest, accounting for about half of all melanomas, (5) nodular melanoma showed the worst prognosis among the subtypes, (6) patients in stage IIIB and stage IV had an unfavorable outcome, with 10-year survivals of less than 50% and less than 10%, respectively, (7) Clark's level of invasion, as well as Breslow's tumor thickness of the primary lesions, were confirmed to be important prognostic factors, and (8) prophylactic lymph node dissection in stage II and IIIA and chemotherapy in stage IV seemed to have limited effect on the prognosis.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of advanced melanoma is poor, as it is highly resistant to chemotherapy.
  • Thus, to improve the prognosis, early detection is mandatory, and this is possible because this neoplasm appears as a distinctive pigmented lesion on the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Registries. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prevalence. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11706778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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27. Schmidt-Hieber M, Schmittel A, Thiel E, Keilholz U: A phase II study of bendamustine chemotherapy as second-line treatment in metastatic uveal melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2004 Dec;14(6):439-42
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  • [Title] A phase II study of bendamustine chemotherapy as second-line treatment in metastatic uveal melanoma.
  • Uveal melanoma is the most frequent primary malignant neoplasm of the eye and has a poor prognosis in metastatic stage.
  • We conducted a phase II trial to assess the second-line activity and toxicity of bendamustine hydrochloride, a nucleoside analogue with alkylating activity.
  • Inclusion criteria were a Karnofsky performance status of > or = 60% and progressive disease during or after first-line chemotherapy.
  • We conclude that bendamustine is ineffective as second-line chemotherapy for metastatic uveal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Nitrogen Mustard Compounds / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uveal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bendamustine Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


28. Juergensen A, Holzapfel U, Hein R, Stolz W, Buettner R, Bosserhoff A: Comparison of two prognostic markers for malignant melanoma: MIA and S100 beta. Tumour Biol; 2001 Jan-Feb;22(1):54-8
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  • [Title] Comparison of two prognostic markers for malignant melanoma: MIA and S100 beta.
  • It has recently been shown that the serum level of melanoma-inhibitory protein (MIA) provides useful information for the therapy and follow-up of patients with malignant melanoma.
  • Previously, S100 beta has been described as a useful tumor marker for malignant melanoma.
  • In this study, we compare the significance of the two markers in follow-up, therapy outcome and prognosis by measuring MIA and S100 beta serum levels in 50 melanoma patients.
  • Serum levels were measured in patients with malignant melanomas of stages I-IV with at least 3 time points of measurement.
  • Serial MIA and S100 beta measurements were obtained from 32 patients with stage IV disease in parallel to chemotherapy and from 18 patients with a history of stage I and stage II disease during follow-up.
  • The response to chemotherapy in stage IV disease and relapse of melanoma during follow-up correlated with changes in MIA and S100 beta serum levels.
  • In conclusion, both markers are useful for detection of progression from localized to metastatic disease during follow-up and for monitoring therapy of advanced melanomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Melanoma / blood. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. S100 Proteins / blood. Skin Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Evaluation Studies as Topic. Extracellular Matrix Proteins. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Life Tables. Luminescent Measurements. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 11054027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / MIA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100A1 protein
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