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1. Gadducci A, Cavazzana A, Cosio S, DI Cristofano C, Tana R, Fanucchi A, Teti G, Cristofani R, Genazzani AR: Lymph-vascular space involvement and outer one-third myometrial invasion are strong predictors of distant haematogeneous failures in patients with stage I-II endometrioid-type endometrial cancer. Anticancer Res; 2009 May;29(5):1715-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymph-vascular space involvement and outer one-third myometrial invasion are strong predictors of distant haematogeneous failures in patients with stage I-II endometrioid-type endometrial cancer.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the predictive value of different clinicopathological variables (patient age, tumour size, FIGO grade, myometrial invasion, lymph-vascular space involvement [LVSI], invasion margins, peri-tumour phlogistic infiltrate and mitotic activity) for the risk of distant haematogenous recurrences in patients with endometrioid-type stage Ib-II endometrial cancer.
  • Between August 1990 and April 2005, 259 patients had undergone laparotomy, peritoneal washing, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, with or without pelvic +/- para-aortic lymphadenectomy for endometrioid-type endometrial cancer.
  • Thirty-six (13.9%) patients had developed recurrent disease after a median time of 17 months (range, 2-128 months).
  • This study assessed 12 patients with FIGO stage Ib-II disease who had developed distant haematogenous recurrences and 20 randomly chosen control patients with FIGO stage Ib-II disease who had remained recurrence-free after a median follow-up of 52 months (range, 37-66 months).
  • Adjuvant therapy had been: no further treatment in 15 patients, external pelvic irradiation in 14 patients, adjuvant external pelvic irradiation plus brachytherapy in 2 patients and platinum-based chemotherapy followed by external pelvic irradiation in 1 patient.
  • % versus 20.0%, p=0.0022) was found in the patients who had developed distant haematogeneous metastases compared to the recurrence-free women.
  • Patients with these pathological findings should be enrolled in randomised trials designed to assess the role of adjuvant chemotherapy alone or combined with sequential and/or concomitant external pelvic irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Myometrium / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19443392.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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2. Denschlag D, Ulrich U, Emons G: The diagnosis and treatment of endometrial cancer: progress and controversies. Dtsch Arztebl Int; 2010 Aug;108(34-35):571-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The diagnosis and treatment of endometrial cancer: progress and controversies.
  • BACKGROUND: Endometrial carcinoma is the fourth most common type of cancer among women in Germany, with more than 11 000 newly diagnosed cases each year.
  • On the other hand, women with postmenopausal and acyclic bleeding should undergo histopathological evaluation, particularly if they have risk factors for endometrial cancer.
  • The current FIGO classification divides endometrial cancer into stages depending on the findings at surgery.
  • On the basis of risk stratification (e.g., by tumor stage and histological differentiation grade), women who are judged to be at high risk (FIGO Stage IB and above, Grade 3) should undergo not just hysterectomy and adnexectomy, but also systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy.
  • The additional or alternative administration of chemotherapy is a particular consideration for women at high risk, although the pertinent clinical trials to date have yielded conflicting evidence on this point.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / therapy. Cystadenoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenoma, Serous / therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 21904591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1866-0452
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsches Ärzteblatt international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch Arztebl Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3167060
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3. Kim JH, Lee SJ, Bae JH, Lee SH, Bae SN, Namkoong SE, Park JS: Adjuvant therapy in high-risk early endometrial carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 46 cases. J Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Dec;19(4):236-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy in high-risk early endometrial carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 46 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: We assessed the prognostic factors and the efficacy of adjuvant therapy and reviewed randomized studies carried out on patients receiving adjuvant therapy with early endometrial carcinoma.
  • METHODS: One hundred and five patients that received primary surgical treatment for stage IB, IC and II endometrial cancer were enrolled in this study.
  • The clinical outcomes were compared among the patients with variable prognostic factors and adjuvant treatments.
  • RESULTS: One hundred and five patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria and 46 patients (43.8%) underwent adjuvant therapy.
  • Disease recurrence occurred in nine patients within a median time of 24 months.
  • Eight of 16 patients with FIGO stage II disease received adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and etoposide (or cyclophosphamide) or combined chemoradiation.
  • The 5-year disease-free survival rate for these patients was 87.5%, a value significantly higher than for patients that received radiation therapy alone (30%).
  • CONCLUSION: Adjuvant chemotherapy or combination chemo-radiotherapy might be superior to radiation therapy alone in high-risk early endometrial cancer patients.

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  • (PMID = 19471649.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2676478
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adjuvant therapy / Endometrial carcinoma / Prognostic factor
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4. Foad I, Sharawy I, Mostafa E, Margergis M, Hussein T: Concurrent cisplatin/radiation followed by adjuvant cisplatin/paclitaxel in treatment of patients with stage IB grade 3, IC and IIA endometrial carcinoma. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2007 Jun;19(2):163-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Concurrent cisplatin/radiation followed by adjuvant cisplatin/paclitaxel in treatment of patients with stage IB grade 3, IC and IIA endometrial carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Postoperative radiotherapy (RT) is the most commonly used adjuvant treatment in high risk endometrial carcinoma (HREC), it reduces the incidence of pelvic relapses but doesn't improve survival.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of concomitant weekly cisplatin and postoperative RT in HREC (stages IB grade 3, IC and IIA) followed by adjuvant cisplatin and weekly paclitaxel.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with pathologically confirmed endometrial carcinoma were enrolled in this study.
  • Five patients (28%), 4 patients (22%) and 9 patients (50%) presented with stages IB grade 3, IC and IIA respectively.
  • RESULTS: Between May 2000 and March 2002, a total of 18 patients with pathologically confirmed endometrial carcinoma, presented to Radiation Oncology & Nuclear Medicine Department, Ain Shams University Hospitals, were enrolled in this study.
  • Grade 3 hematological toxicities, leucopenia, neutropenia and anemia were recorded in one patient (5.6%) each during adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Two patients (11%) relapsed with distant metastases and one patient (5.6%) developed pelvic recurrence.
  • Median time to progression was 67 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Concomitant cisplatin and postoperative RT followed by adjuvant cisplatin and weekly paclitaxel is safe and acceptable treatment in patients with HREC.
  • This study verifies the feasibility of this treatment to potentially reduce the incidence of local and distant relapses in order to improve survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19034346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Kim S, Wu HG, Lee HP, Kang SB, Song YS, Park NH, Ha SW: Patterns of failure after postoperative radiation therapy for endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Res Treat; 2006;38(3):133-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patterns of failure after postoperative radiation therapy for endometrial carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: We tried to investigate the outcome and patterns of failure of endometrial cancer patients who were treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy (RT).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three patients with endometrial cancer who received postoperative RT between May 1979 and August 2000 were included in this retrospective study.
  • All the patients were staged according to 1988 FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) staging system; 2 were stage IA, 23 were stage IB, 20 were stage IC, 4 were stage IIA, 5 were stage IIB, 9 were stage IIIA, 2 were stage IIIB and 18 were stage IIIC.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 11 patients (13%) experienced disease relapse: 4 with initial stage I or II disease and 7 with initial stage III disease.
  • Among the 54 stage I or II patients, 1 (2%) relapsed in the pelvis only, 2 (4%) relapsed in the vagina and distant organs, and 1 (2%) relapsed in the paraaortic lymph nodes (PANs).
  • Among the 29 stage III patients, 1 (3%) relapsed in the vagina.
  • The most common sites of failure for the stage III patients were the peritoneum (3 patients, 10%), PANs (2 patients, 7%), and lung (2 patients, 7%).
  • The five-year DFS rate was 93%, 100% and 74% for the stage I, II and III patients, respectively.
  • Three patients experienced severe radiation-related late complications: RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) grade 3 radiation cystitis was seen in one patient, and grade 3 bowel obstruction was seen in two patients.
  • The major patterns of failure for stage III patients were peritoneal seeding and distant metastasis.
  • Selective use of whole abdominal radiotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy may improve the therapeutic outcome of these patients.

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  • (PMID = 19771273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2741680
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Endometrial neoplasms / Patterns of failure / Postoperative radiation therapy
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6. Kodama J, Seki N, Ojima Y, Nakamura K, Hongo A, Hiramatsu Y: Efficacy and prognostic implications of administering adjuvant chemotherapy to patients with endometrial cancer that is confined to the uterus. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2007 Mar;131(1):76-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy and prognostic implications of administering adjuvant chemotherapy to patients with endometrial cancer that is confined to the uterus.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the value of prognostic factors and to assess the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with endometrial cancer confined to the uterus.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Patients surgically stage IB, IC and II endometrial cancer according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics were enrolled in this study.
  • Stage IIIA tumors with positive peritoneal cytology, in the absence of other evidence of extra uterine disease, were also included.
  • RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-seven patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria and 58 patients (34.7%) underwent combination chemotherapy.
  • Disease recurrence occurred in 10 patients within a median time of 17 months.
  • Fourteen of 23 patients with histologic grade 3 tumors received adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide (or etoposide), epirubicin and cisplatin (in 1989-1999) or paclitaxel, pirarubicin and carboplatin (in 2000-2002).
  • The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates for these individuals was 92.3%, a value significantly higher than those in patients who had not undergone chemotherapy (50.0%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Histologic grade of 3 is an independent prognostic marker in patients with endometrial cancer confined to the uterus and adjuvant chemotherapy might improve the survival rates in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16459012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. Jereczek-Fossa BA: Postoperative irradiation in endometrial cancer: still a matter of controversy. Cancer Treat Rev; 2001 Feb;27(1):19-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postoperative irradiation in endometrial cancer: still a matter of controversy.
  • Although endometrial cancer is the most common female malignancy, evidence-based uniform guidelines for postoperative therapy have not been established.
  • Currently, the only widely accepted treatment recommendations are no further therapy in low-risk patients who underwent extensive surgical staging, and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in high-risk patients.
  • A combination of BRT and EBRT should however be considered in patients with stage II disease, for infiltration of the lower uterine segment, vaginal involvement, positive or close surgical margins, capillary space involvement or unfavourable histology.
  • Two ongoing Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) studies compare adjuvant chemotherapy with pelvic or abdominal irradiation in patients with high risk of local relapse.
  • The role of adjuvant radiotherapy (EBRT with or without BRT) in high-risk patients as well as the value of lymphadenectomy in patients fit for such surgery is being addressed in a trial co-ordinated by the Medical Research Council.
  • Future studies are warranted to define whether any irradiation should be employed in intermediate-risk patients and which radiotherapy modality should be used in high-risk node-negative patients with stage I tumours (stage Ib grade 3 and all stage Ic).
  • Other issues which should be addressed in future studies include the extent of surgery, the role of systemic therapies, the relevance of novel biologic prognostic factors, salvage therapies after recurrence, cost-benefit analysis and quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 11237775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 160
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8. Gogas H, Ignatiadis T, Markopoulos Ch, Karageorgopoulou S, Floros D, Vaiopoulos G: Solitary spleen metastasis and amyloidosis in a patient with endometrial cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004;25(3):391-3
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  • [Title] Solitary spleen metastasis and amyloidosis in a patient with endometrial cancer.
  • It may occasionally be the first manifestation of recurrent solid cancers, and in particular of gynecologic malignancies.
  • CASE: A 52-year-woman originally diagnosed with a Stage IB, grade 2 endometrial carcinoma presented two and a half years later with a paroxysmal non-productive cough, weakness, loss of appetite and daily afternoon fever.
  • As the patient had received a full course of postoperative irradiation after a total abdominal hysterectomy, six cycles of combination chemotherapy were administered.
  • CONCLUSION: A case of solitary spleen metastasis with amyloidosis in a patient with endometrial cancer is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloidosis / etiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Splenic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15171329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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9. Zepiridis L, Zafrakas M, Theodoridis TD, Kaplanis K, Dinas KK, Bontis JN: A unique case of palatinate tonsil metastasis from endometrial cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(2):229-30
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  • [Title] A unique case of palatinate tonsil metastasis from endometrial cancer.
  • A case of a 55-year-old woman presenting with a palatinate tonsil tumour two and half years after primary diagnosis of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma (FIGO Stage IB, G2) and six months after local disease recurrence is presented.
  • The tonsillar malignancy was poorly differentiated and tumour cells were immunohistochemically positive to LMW keratin and EMA, and negative to HMW keratin and LCA, strongly suggesting a possible endometrial origin of the tumour.
  • Metastatic disease was treated with systemic chemotherapy, but the patient soon succumbed due to rapid disease progression.
  • In conclusion, a unique case of a palatinate tonsil tumour as the first metastatic site in an endometrial cancer patient is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19480265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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10. Watanabe Y, Kitagawa R, Aoki D, Takeuchi S, Sagae S, Sakuragi N, Yaegashi N, Disease Committee of Uterine Endometrial Cancer, Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group: Practice pattern for postoperative management of endometrial cancer in Japan: a survey of the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Dec;115(3):456-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Practice pattern for postoperative management of endometrial cancer in Japan: a survey of the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the current status of postoperative management of endometrial cancer in Japan by surveying members of the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG).
  • METHOD: We conducted an original mail survey regarding the status of postoperative treatment including indication criteria, treatment procedures, and chemotherapeutic regimen among all 226 active member institutions of the JGOG.
  • A total of 4063 patients with endometrial cancer were treated at the member institutions of the JGOG over a year.
  • As adjuvant therapy, chemotherapy (79.9%) was significantly (p<0.01) preferred over radiotherapy (13.0%) or hormonal therapy (7.1%).
  • Furthermore, more than 50% of respondent institutions performed adjuvant therapy when patients exhibited International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB/G3/positive lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI)/endometrioid adenocarcinoma or FIGO IB/G3/non-endometrioid histology, and more than 90% institutions administered adjuvant therapy when patients exhibited FIGO IC/G3/positive LVSI/endometrioid adenocarcinoma or FIGO stage IC/G3/regardless of LVSI/non-endometrioid histology.
  • A combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin was the most preferred first-line regimen for adjuvant chemotherapy followed by combination regimens consisting of anthracycline and platinum.
  • CONCLUSION: The present survey provides relevant information regarding the current status of adjuvant therapy in Japanese patients with endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Practice Patterns, Physicians'
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Japan. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Postoperative Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 19765806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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11. Thomas L, Bataillard A, Brémond A, Fondrinier E, Fervers B, Achard JL, Lansac J, Bailly C, Hoffstetter S, Basuyau JP, d'Anjou J, Descamps P, Farsi F, Guastalla JP, Laffargue F, Rodier JF, Vincent P, Pigneux J: [Standards, options, and recommendations for the radiotherapy of patients with endometrial cancer. FNCLCC (National Federation of Cancer Campaign Centers) and CRLCC (Regional Cancer Campaign Centers)]. Cancer Radiother; 2001 Apr;5(2):163-92
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  • [Title] [Standards, options, and recommendations for the radiotherapy of patients with endometrial cancer. FNCLCC (National Federation of Cancer Campaign Centers) and CRLCC (Regional Cancer Campaign Centers)].
  • [Transliterated title] Standards, Options et Recommandations pour la radiothérapie des patientes atteintes de cancer de l'endomètre.
  • OBJECTIVES: To develop clinical practice guidelines according to the definitions of the Standards, Options and Recommendations project for the radiotherapy of carcinoma of the endometrium.
  • Once the guidelines were defined, the document was submitted for review to independent reviewers, and to the medical committees of the 20 French Cancer Centres.
  • RESULTS: The main recommendations for the radiotherapy of carcinoma of the endometrium are:.
  • 1) For grade 1 and 2 stage IA tumours, follow-up alone is standard as additional treatment.
  • For grade 1 and 2 stage IB tumours, vaginal brachytherapy or follow-up alone are options.
  • For grade 3, stage IB tumours and stage IC disease, there are two treatment options: external pelvic radiotherapy with a brachytherapy boost or vaginal brachytherapy.
  • 2) Treatment for stage II disease can be preoperative when stage II disease has been suggested by a positive endometrial curettage.
  • Postoperative vaginal brachytherapy is given for stage IIA tumours if the penetration of the myometrium is less than 50% or if the tumour is grade 1 or 2.
  • In the case of deep penetration, or higher grade disease, or for stage IIB external radiotherapy with brachytherapy boosting must be undertaken routinely.
  • 3) After surgery, for stage IIIA disease, either external pelvic radiotherapy or abdomino-pelvic radiotherapy is indicated, along with medical treatment in certain patients.
  • For stage IIIB tumours, postoperative external radiotherapy with brachytherapy (if possible) should be undertaken.
  • For stage IIIC tumours, standard treatment is external (pelvic or pelvic and para-aortic) radiotherapy followed or not by a brachytherapy boost.
  • 4) Standard treatment for inoperable stage I and II disease is external radiotherapy and brachytherapy.
  • For patients with inoperable stage III or IV disease, treatment is often symptomatic, combining external radiotherapy and medical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / standards
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / surgery. Cesium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Indium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Irradiation / adverse effects. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Postoperative Period. Preoperative Care. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, High-Energy / adverse effects. Radium / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11355582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Guideline; Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cesium Radioisotopes; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; W90AYD6R3Q / Radium
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12. Arenas Prat M, Rovirosa A, Sabater S, Ameijide A, Henríquez I, Servitja S, Cabezas I, Mur E, Gumà J: Experience with endometrial carcinoma (EC): A population-based study in Tarragona Province (Spain). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16550

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  • [Title] Experience with endometrial carcinoma (EC): A population-based study in Tarragona Province (Spain).
  • FIGO Stage (S): 8.2% IA; 36.2% IB; 19% IC; 7.8% IIA; 6.5% IIB; 7.3% IIIA; 1.3% IIIB; 3.4% IIIC; 2.6% IVA; 2.2 IVB.
  • TREATMENT:. 1) Surgery in 93.5%, 49.6% lymph nodes dissection.
  • 3) Chemotherapy in 11.1% and hormonal treatment in 6.9%. 3).

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  • (PMID = 27960813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Amato NA, Partipilo V, Mele F, Boscia F, De Marzo P: [Pelvic lymphadenectomy as an alternative to adjuvant radiotherapy in early stage endometrial cancer at high risk of recurrent lymphatic metastases (stage I)]. Minerva Ginecol; 2009 Feb;61(1):1-12
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  • [Title] [Pelvic lymphadenectomy as an alternative to adjuvant radiotherapy in early stage endometrial cancer at high risk of recurrent lymphatic metastases (stage I)].
  • [Transliterated title] Linfoadenectomia pelvica come alternativa alla radioterapia adiuvante nel carcinoma endometriale ad alto rischio di metastasi linfonodali in fase precoce (stadio I).
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate if the surgical approach without pelvic lymphadenectomy and with adjuvant radiotherapy in the patients suffering from endometrioid adenocarcinoma type at high risk (of lymphatic metastasis) in early stage can be substituted by only surgery with pelvic lymphadenectomy (with or without para-aortic lymphadenectomy).
  • The cancer grading (G) was defined before the surgery with an hystological exam on endometrial biopsies.
  • The follow-up had a medium duration of 30 months (range: 9-44 months) and consisted of the evaluation of: cancer related survival (CRS); recurrence free survival (RFS).
  • Both were evaluated according to age, risk type, and therapy adopted.
  • RESULTS: Four patients (7.1%) showed relapse during the period of study in a medium time of 24 months (range: 12-36): 2 of these patients (C and D cases; 36%) had a relapse both locally (pelvic wall) and distantly; the other two (A and B cases; 36%) had only a distant relapse.
  • None of the patients at the stage IA had a relapse, but it occurred in the 8.7% of the cases (N.=2) IB and in the 10.5 % of the patients IC (N.=2).
  • One patient of the low risk group (3.8%) (case A) had a distant relapse (lungs) 12 months after the surgery and died 6 months after the appearance of the relapse without any additional treatment, because of age and of concomitant pathologies which suggested another illness.
  • One of them with distant relapse (36 months after the primary treatment) (case B) is still alive, even though she has got a controlled cancer, 8 months after the rescue treatment (chemotherapy), whereas two of them died in a medium time of 14 months (range 13-15 months) from the rescue treatment (C and D cases).
  • One of the three patients of the high risk group underwent the standard surgical treatment with lympho-adenectomy (case B) whereas the other two underwent the standard surgical treatment with aiding radiotherapy (C and D cases).
  • The degree of differentiation of the cancer is the most important prognostic factor in relation to the survival free from relapse (RFS).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymphatic Metastasis / prevention & control. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvis. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19204656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4784
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva ginecologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Ginecol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Myriokefalitaki E, Iavazzo C, Vorgias G, Akrivos T: A two eterochronous primary gynaecological malignancies of different origin. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2009;110(11):726-8
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  • Curettage revealed an endometrial cancer.
  • Histology showed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma of endometrium stage Ib, moderately differentiated.
  • No additional therapy was given.
  • Although, recurrence on vaginal cuff was possible, the biopsies of anterior vaginal wall showed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina.
  • An exploratory laparotomy was performed, but tumor resection was not possible.
  • The patient was classified as stage II vaginal carcinoma and underwent complete radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: This case indicates that female genital carcinomas of different histological origins may occur with minimal time-interval, even in the absence of known predisposing factors like previous chemo-radiotherapy, HPV infection or diethylstilbestrol exposure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20120445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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15. Nishimura N, Hachisuga T, Saito T, Kawarabayashi T: Subsequent endometrial carcinoma with adjuvant tamoxifen treatment in Japanese breast cancer patients. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2001 Jul-Aug;11(4):272-6
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  • [Title] Subsequent endometrial carcinoma with adjuvant tamoxifen treatment in Japanese breast cancer patients.
  • This study aimed to detail the clinicopathologic features of endometrial carcinomas that developed in Japanese patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer patients.
  • Ten endometrial carcinomas in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients were collected from two medical centers.
  • The endometrial carcinomas included two stage Ia, four stage Ib, two stage Ic and two stage IIIc.
  • The tumor was limited to the endometrium in two cases.
  • The cell types comprised nine endometrioid adenocarcinomas and one serous carcinoma.
  • Five of eight postmenopausal endometrial carcinomas were associated with polypoid endometrial lesions composed of cystically dilated atrophic and proliferative glands widely separated by fibrotic stroma.
  • Two patients with retroperitoneal lymph node metastases died of endometrial cancer.
  • One patient developed a contralateral breast cancer during tamoxifen treatment.
  • No patient died of breast cancer.
  • We did not demonstrate a higher frequency of either high-grade tumors or unfavorable histologic subtypes in tamoxifen-treated Japanese breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / etiology. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / etiology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Japan. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 11520364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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16. Ferrandina G, Zannoni GF, Martinelli E, Vellone V, Prisco MG, Scambia G: Endometrial carcinoma recurring as carcinosarcoma: report of two cases. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(9):677-81

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  • [Title] Endometrial carcinoma recurring as carcinosarcoma: report of two cases.
  • Endometrial carcinosarcoma is a rare, aggressive disease, accounting for approximately 3% of all uterine neoplasms.
  • The emergence of sarcomatous elements is considered the evolution of subclones arising from high grade endometrial carcinomas.
  • Here, we report two cases of primary endometrial carcinomas recurring as carcinosarcoma.
  • Case 1. a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman diagnosed to have a poorly differentiated endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (FIGO stage IB) developed an intra-abdominal recurrence of disease after 17 months from diagnosis.
  • Histopathological analysis documented a biphasic neoplasia consisting of an epithelial (grade 3 endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma) and a sarcomatous component.
  • Salvage chemotherapy with cisplatin, ifosfamide, epirubicin, and then with taxotere was attempted.
  • A 56-year-old woman with a diagnosis of grade 3 endometrial adenosquamous carcinoma of the endometrium (FIGO stage IIIA) experienced pelvic recurrence after five months from completion of chemotherapy.
  • Definitive histology was malignant mixed mesodermal tumor with focal areas of chondrosarcomatous elements.
  • The patient was triaged to exclusive concomitant chemoradiotherapy and salvage chemotherapy.
  • We describe two cases of high grade endometrial carcinomas recurring as carcinosarcoma, thus providing evidence that the metaplastic sarcomatous evolution is a very rare event which can occur in patients with anaplastic endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Carcinosarcoma / secondary. Chondrosarcoma / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17646054.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Kelly MG, O'malley DM, Hui P, McAlpine J, Yu H, Rutherford TJ, Azodi M, Schwartz PE: Improved survival in surgical stage I patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) treated with adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Sep;98(3):353-9
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  • [Title] Improved survival in surgical stage I patients with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) treated with adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is an aggressive form of endometrial cancer characterized by a high recurrence rate and a poor prognosis.
  • Prior studies evaluating treatment of UPSC have been limited by small numbers of patients and inclusion of partially staged patients.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy and vaginal cuff radiation in a large cohort of surgical stage I UPSC patients.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 74 stage I patients with UPSC who underwent complete surgical staging at our institution between 1987 and 2004.
  • RESULTS: Stage IA patients were divided into two groups: patients with no cancer in the hysterectomy specimen (defined as no residual uterine disease) and patients with cancer in the hysterectomy specimen (defined as residual uterine disease).
  • Stage IA patients with no residual uterine disease had no recurrences, regardless of adjuvant therapy (n = 12).
  • Stage IA patients with residual uterine disease who were treated with platinum-based chemotherapy had no recurrences (n = 7).
  • However, 6 of 14 (43%) stage IA patients with residual uterine disease who did not receive chemotherapy recurred.
  • The 15 patients with stage IB UPSC who received platinum-based chemotherapy had no recurrences but 10 of the 13 (77%) stage IB patients who did not receive chemotherapy recurred.
  • One of the 7 patients with stage IC UPSC who received platinum-based chemotherapy recurred and 4 of the 5 (80%) stage IC patients who did not receive chemotherapy recurred.
  • Overall platinum-based chemotherapy was associated with improved disease-free survival (P < 0.01) and improved overall survival (P < 0.05) in patients with stage I UPSC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Platinum-based chemotherapy improves the disease-free and overall survival of patients with stage I UPSC and vaginal cuff radiation provides local control.
  • Stage IA UPSC patients with no residual uterine disease can be observed but concomitant platinum-based chemotherapy and vaginal cuff radiation (referred to as chemoradiation) should be offered to all other stage I UPSC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dilatation and Curettage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16005947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds
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18. Korcum AF, Aksu G, Ozdogan M, Erdogan G, Taskin O: Stage I small cell carcinoma of the endometrium: survival and management options. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2008;87(1):122-6
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  • [Title] Stage I small cell carcinoma of the endometrium: survival and management options.
  • Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the endometrium is a rare but aggressive disease with early systemic involvement.
  • To date, no effective treatment protocol has been established.
  • Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy have been used either alone or in combination.
  • The case of a patient with stage IB endometrial SCC is presented with an overview based on all reported cases of SCC of the endometrium and its treatment with particular reference to stage I cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17943466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0412
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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19. Varras M, Akrivis Ch, Demou A, Hadjopoulos G, Stefanaki S, Antoniou N: Primary small-cell carcinoma of the endometrium: clinicopathological study of a case and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2002;23(6):577-81

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  • [Title] Primary small-cell carcinoma of the endometrium: clinicopathological study of a case and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Small-cell carcinomas are almost always primary in the lungs and are highly malignant.
  • However, primary small-cell carcinoma of the endometrium is extremely rare with very few cases reported in the English literature.
  • This tumor may exhibit evidence of neuroendocrine differentiation and has a high propensity for systemic spread and poor prognosis.
  • CASE: A 55-year-old postmenopausal woman with primary small-cell carcinoma of the endometrium, FIGO stage Ib, underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and sampling node biopsies of the parametrial spaces, followed by adjuvant combined chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: A case of small-cell carcinoma of the endometrium, is reported and its clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 12556112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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20. Bafghi A, Zafrani Y, Pautier P, Lhommé C, Duvillard P, Castaigne D, Haie-Meder C, Morice P: Endometrial disorders in patients with peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2007 Sep;134(1):101-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endometrial disorders in patients with peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence rate of endometrial disease, particularly endometrial carcinoma, in patients with primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma (PSPC).
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical and histological data from 32 women undergoing surgery (with hysterectomy) for stage III or IV PSPC.
  • RESULTS: Six patients underwent primary debulking surgery and 26 underwent interval debulking surgery after 3 or 4 courses of platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Six patients (18%) had endometrial disease (hyperplasia in four).
  • Two patients had endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine body (stage IA grade 1 in one case, and stage IB grade 1 in the other) associated with the PSPC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial carcinoma of the uterine body may be associated with PSPC (6% cases in the present series).
  • This result suggests that systematic hysterectomy should be performed at the time of debulking surgery in PSPC, even in the absence of peritoneal spread within pelvic cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / complications. Endometrial Hyperplasia / complications. Endometrial Neoplasms / complications. Peritoneal Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16860923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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21. Rahimi S, Lena A, Vittori G: Endometrial lymphoepitheliomalike carcinoma: absence of Epstein-Barr virus genomes. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Mar-Apr;17(2):532-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endometrial lymphoepitheliomalike carcinoma: absence of Epstein-Barr virus genomes.
  • The aim of this study was to report a case of primary lymphoepitheliomalike endometrial carcinoma (FIGO stage IB).
  • A 57-year-old woman presented with an endometrial tumor showing the classic clinical and hysteroscopic aspects of endometrial carcinoma.
  • Morphologically, the neoplasm was similar to undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (lymphoepithelioma).
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor cells were cyokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen positive.
  • We report the third case of an endometrial lymphoepitheliomalike carcinoma (LELC).
  • The patient did not receive chemotherapy and is alive and free of disease 24 month after diagnosis.
  • LELC can occur in the endometrium and in this location may not be associated with EBV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / virology. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / virology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17362326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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22. Savino L, Borruto F, Comparetto C, Massi GB: Radical vaginal hysterectomy with extraperitoneal pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2001;22(1):31-5
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  • [Title] Radical vaginal hysterectomy with extraperitoneal pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to examine three types of radical vaginal hysterectomy with different degrees of radicality, performed in order to reduce surgical complications and sequelae in different indications, and to test the feasibility of a new simple and quick technique for extraperitoneal pelvic lymphadenectomy to be used in combination with radical vaginal hysterectomy for treatment of cervical cancer.
  • In this way the advantages of vaginal surgery (e.g.: unnecessary general anaesthesia, reduced surgical trauma, applicability to obese and poor surgical risk patients, fast time-saving procedure) can be preserved.
  • METHODS: We compared retrospectively the long-term results of radical vaginal and radical abdominal operations in a large series of stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients treated at our institution in Florence from 1968 to 1983.
  • Furthermore, we analysed the results of our experience from 1995 to 1998, when we performed extraperitoneal pelvic lymphadenectomy, followed by radical vaginal hysterectomy, on 48 patients affected by cervical cancer.
  • FIGO stage was: IB1 in 18 cases, IB2 in eight, IIA in six, IIB in 12, IIIB in four.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was given in 12 cases and preoperative irradiation was given in ten.
  • RESULTS: As for past experience, in stage IB the five-year survival of 356 patients who underwent radical vaginal hysterectomy and that of 288 who had radical abdominal hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy were 81% and 75%, respectively (p<0.05).
  • In stage IIA, survival rates were 68% for radical vaginal hysterectomy and 64% for radical abdominal hysterectomy, in 76 and 64 cases, respectively (p=n.s.).
  • As for the more recent experience, median operative time for extraperitoneal pelvic lymphadenectomy was 20 minutes for each side (range 15-36).
  • Median operative time for radical vaginal hysterectomy was 40 minutes (range 30-65).
  • All complications occurred in patients who received radiotherapy or chemotherapy preoperatively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of our work demonstrate that our technique for extraperitoneal pelvic lymphadenectomy shows a good applicability to cervical cancer patients submitted to radical vaginal hysterectomy, which has a high rate of cure for stage IB and IIA as shown by our past experience.
  • The procedure of extraperitoneal pelvic lymphadenectomy was quick, easy, and safe, and its realization was not detrimental to the advantages of radical vaginal hysterectomy.
  • Our experience supports the continued use of this combined extraperitoneal and vaginal approach in the treatment of cervical cancer.
  • Moreover, the three classes of radical vaginal hysterectomy allow tailoring the type of the operation to the clinical and physical characteristics of the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Hysterectomy, Vaginal / methods. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvis / pathology. Pelvis / surgery. Peritoneal Cavity. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


23. Tropé C, Kristensen GB, Abeler VM: Clear-cell and papillary serous cancer: treatment options. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2001 Jun;15(3):433-46

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clear-cell and papillary serous cancer: treatment options.
  • Clear-cell carcinoma (CCC) and serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium (UPSC) are rare subtypes of endometrial carcinoma (10%).
  • The histological diagnosis can be made on the dilation and curettage specimens in both types in a very high percentage of the cases.
  • This is important in the planning of treatment.
  • CCC and UPSC are associated with about 50% of all relapses occurring in endometrial carcinoma, and the 5-year survival rate is, on average, 42% and 27% respectively.
  • Surgico-pathological stage, age, and vessel invasion are independent prognostic factors for both groups.
  • Stage Ia patients treated with complete surgical staging alone have a low risk of relapse and need not be offered adjuvant systemic therapy or pelvic radiation.
  • The treatment of patients with CCC and UPSC stage Ib, Ic, II and III should include radical debulking surgery and some form of adjuvant therapy, but it is not clear which type is most effective.
  • Adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy plus intracavitary radiotherapy is usually given in early-stage disease and pelvic radio therapy/or whole abdomen irradiation plus adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (PAC) in advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aneuploidy. Combined Modality Therapy. Dilatation and Curettage. Female. Genes, p53. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Transcriptional Activation. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 11476564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6934
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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24. Torizuka T, Nakamura F, Takekuma M, Kanno T, Ogusu T, Yoshikawa E, Okada H, Maeda M, Ouchi Y: FDG PET for the assessment of myometrial infiltration in clinical stage I uterine corpus cancer. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Jun;27(6):481-7
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  • [Title] FDG PET for the assessment of myometrial infiltration in clinical stage I uterine corpus cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: For surgical planning of uterine corpus cancer, prior knowledge of the depth of myometrial invasion is important.
  • Curative tumour resection is possible in superficial invasion (stages IA and IB), while post-surgical chemotherapy or radiation therapy is required in deep invasion (stage IC).
  • We evaluated the value of positron emission tomography with 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG PET) for estimating the myometrial invasion in uterine corpus cancer.
  • METHODS: We studied 22 patients with clinical stage I uterine corpus cancer, who underwent FDG PET prior to surgery.
  • Standardized uptake value (SUV; tracer activity per injected dose normalized to body weight) was calculated on the PET image.
  • RESULTS: The surgical stage was IA in five, IB in 11 and IC in six patients.
  • Using 12.0 as a cut-off value of SUV for the differentiation of these two groups, PET results were correct in 19 patients but were incorrect in three patients.
  • Although both PET and MRI provided correct staging in 14 patients, only MRI overestimated the myometrial invasion in four patients with stage IB and showed inconclusive findings in one patient with stage IC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The cut-off value of SUV (=12.0) may be a useful index for the differentiation of superficial invasion and deep invasion.
  • FDG PET may be feasible for predicting the myometrial infiltration of uterine corpus cancer, especially when uterine atrophy makes it difficult at MRI in post-menopausal patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Myometrium / pathology. Myometrium / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Preoperative Care / methods. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16710101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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25. Straughn JM Jr, Huh WK, Kelly FJ, Leath CA 3rd, Kleinberg MJ, Hyde J Jr, Numnum TM, Zhang Y, Soong SJ, Austin JM Jr, Partridge EE, Kilgore LC, Alvarez RD: Conservative management of stage I endometrial carcinoma after surgical staging. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Feb;84(2):194-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conservative management of stage I endometrial carcinoma after surgical staging.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of Stage I endometrial carcinoma patients who are managed without adjuvant radiation after comprehensive surgical staging.
  • METHODS: A computerized hospital database identified women diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium from 1993 to 1998.
  • A chart review identified 864 women as having primary surgery for adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • RESULTS: A total of 321 of 325 Stage IB patients (99%) did not receive adjuvant radiation.
  • Seventy-seven patients were diagnosed with Stage IC disease; 53 (69%) received no adjuvant therapy.
  • Three of 4 patients (75%) were salvaged, 2 with XRT/BT and 1 with surgery and chemotherapy.
  • For all Stage I patients, the 5-year disease-free survival was 93% and the 5-year overall survival was 98%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgically staged patients with endometrial carcinoma confined to the uterine corpus have a small risk of recurrence and the majority of these recurrences can be salvaged with radiation therapy.
  • Conservative management of Stage I endometrial carcinoma patients is an effective treatment strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] ©2001 Elsevier Science.
  • [CommentIn] Gynecol Oncol. 2002 Feb;84(2):191-3 [11812073.001]
  • (PMID = 11812074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Gershenson DM: Fertility-sparing surgery for malignancies in women. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr; 2005;(34):43-7
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  • Girls or women of childbearing age with several ovarian cancer subtypes have a high probability of unilateral ovarian involvement, and, thus, may be candidates for fertility-sparing surgery with preservation of a contralateral normal ovary and uterus.
  • These subtypes include ovarian tumors of low malignant potential, malignant ovarian germ cell tumors, and ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • For women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer who have early-stage disease, fertility-sparing surgery may be an option.
  • In some cases, fertility-sparing surgery may be followed by postoperative chemotherapy.
  • For women with invasive cervical cancer, fertility-sparing surgery may be possible.
  • Options include conization alone for stage IA1 or IA2 disease, radical trachelectomy with stage IA2 or IB disease, or ovarian transposition for women undergoing chemoradiation.
  • Non-operative options, such as hormonal therapy, may be considered for women with early-stage, low-grade endometrial cancer.
  • For all women of childbearing age with gynecologic malignancies, in vitro fertilization techniques or cryopreservation of ovarian tissue may be an option prior to definitive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Endometrial Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Endometrial Hyperplasia / surgery. Female. Humans. Ovary / physiology. Uterus / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15784822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1052-6773
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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27. Terada T: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with sarcomatous changes of the endometrium: a case report with immunohistochemical studies and molecular genetic study of KIT and PDGFRA. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Jun 15;206(6):420-5
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with sarcomatous changes of the endometrium: a case report with immunohistochemical studies and molecular genetic study of KIT and PDGFRA.
  • The author herein reports a very rare case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) with sarcomatous changes of the endometrium.
  • A 40-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of abnormal uterine bleeding.
  • Gynecologic examination and imaging modalities revealed a polypoid tumor of the uterine corpus.
  • Uterine curettage biopsy revealed a sarcomatous undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • The patient was diagnosed as having FIGO stage Ib (T1N0M0) carcinoma, and adjuvant chemotherapy was performed.
  • Pathologically, a polypoid tumor measuring 3x2x2 cm(3) was found in the uterine corpus.
  • Histologically, the tumor consisted of relatively large-sized carcinoma cells without differentiation.
  • The tumor cells have abundant cytoplasm and prominent nucleoli.
  • The carcinoma cells were positive for cytokeratin, vimentin, CA125, CD34, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53 protein, Ki-67 antigen (80%), synaptophysin, CD56, KIT, and PDGFRA.
  • The final diagnosis was LCNEC with sarcomatous changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / genetics. Stem Cell Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20189318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Stem Cell Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
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28. Small W Jr, Mahadevan A, Roland P, Vallow L, Zusag T, Fishman D, Massad S, Rademaker A, Kalapurakal JA, Chang S, Lurain J: Whole-abdominal radiation in endometrial carcinoma: an analysis of toxicity, patterns of recurrence, and survival. Cancer J; 2000 Nov-Dec;6(6):394-400

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Whole-abdominal radiation in endometrial carcinoma: an analysis of toxicity, patterns of recurrence, and survival.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the toxicity, patterns of recurrence, and survival in high-risk endometrial cancer patients treated with whole-abdominal radiation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients with endometrial cancer treated at Northwestern University since 1994 and at Rush University since 1993 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Forty-seven percent of the patients were found to have serous histology as a component of their tumor.
  • Surgical staging results included 19% stage 1B, 4% stage IC, 8% stage IIB, 37% stage IIIA, 26% stage IIIC, and 7% stage IVB.
  • Megestrol acetate (Megace) was used as an adjuvant treatment in 37% of patients, and no cases received initial chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Utilizing a conservatrive total whole-abdominal radiation dose and limited para-aortic nodal boost resulted in very tolerable treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm, Residual / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary. Brachytherapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11131490.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Hiura M, Nogawa T, Matsumoto T, Yokoyama T, Shiroyama Y, Wroblewski J: Long-term survival in patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis with systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Aug;20(6):1000-5
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  • [Title] Long-term survival in patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis with systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to assess modified radical hysterectomy including systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with para-aortic lymph node (PAN) metastasis in endometrial carcinoma and to identify the multivariate independent prognostic factors for long-term survival during the past 10 years.
  • METHODS: Between December 1987 and December 2002, we performed modified radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy including systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy and peritoneal cytology in 284 endometrial carcinoma patients according to the classification of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (stage IA, n = 66; stage IB, n = 96; stage IC, n = 33; stage IIA, n = 5; stage IIB, n = 20; stage IIIA, n = 28; stage IIIC, n = 28; and stage IV, n = 8) who gave informed consents at our institute.
  • Patients with tumor confined to the uterus (stages IC and II) were treated by 3 courses of cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, epirubicin 50 mg/m2, and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 regimen 3 to 4 weeks apart, and patients with extrauterine lesions involving adnexa and/or pelvic lymph node (PLN) were treated by 5 courses.
  • Patients with PLN metastasis received adjuvant chemotherapy, and adjuvant radiation was not part of our institutional protocol.
  • RESULTS: The overall incidence of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis assessed by systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was 12.0% (34/284) in stages I to IV endometrial carcinoma, and incidences of PLN and PAN metastases were 9.2% (26/284) and 7.4% (21/284), respectively.
  • Univariate analysis of prognostic factors revealed that International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics clinical stage (P < 0.0001), histological finding (P = 0.0292), myometrial invasion (P < 0.0001), adnexal metastasis (P < 0.0001), lymphovascular space invasion (P < 0.0001), tumor diameter (P = 0.0108), peritoneal cytology (P = 0.0001), and retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with 10-year overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that surgery with systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy could improve long-term survival in patients with PAN metastasis, although there are only 21 patients with PAN metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / secondary. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Endometrial Neoplasms / mortality. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Aorta, Abdominal. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20683408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Kesic V: Fertility after the treatment of gynecologic tumors. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2008;178:79-95
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  • [Title] Fertility after the treatment of gynecologic tumors.
  • In a young woman with gynecologic cancer, preservation of fertility is possible.
  • Fertility-sparing surgery may be safe in early ovarian cancer of certain histological subtypes such as ovarian tumors of low malignant potential, malignant ovarian germ cell tumors, and ovarian sex cord stromal tumors.
  • For women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer who have early-stage disease, fertility-sparing surgery may be an option.
  • In some cases, fertility-sparing surgery may be followed by postoperative chemotherapy.
  • The concept of fertility-preserving surgery in early cervical cancer has been adopted by several leading centers worldwide as an option for stage Ia and small Ib disease without the presence of lymphovascular involvement.
  • Nonsurgical options such as hormonal therapy may be considered for women with early-stage, low-grade endometrial cancer.
  • Improvements in cancer cure rates and the development of conservative treatments mean that many young women with early gynecologic cancer can hope to start a new pregnancy after the treatment.
  • Patients are generally advised to wait 2 years after treatment for any malignancy before attempting pregnancy, but the optimal interval between cure and conception must be carefully determined by a multidisciplinary team including oncologist and obstetrician.
  • Management of young women diagnosed with gynecologic cancer should be individualized, with the risk of conservative therapy balanced against the disadvantages of more radical treatment.
  • The alternatives to the traditional and standard radical procedures should be discussed, and the limitation of data regarding many conservative treatment options should be explained.
  • The patients should be aware that by accepting fertility-sparing treatment they are assuming a small but undefined risk for recurrence of the disease.
  • They need to know that these conservative therapeutic approaches are yet not considered "standard."
  • They may also consider ovarian tissue, oocyte, or embryo cryopreservation before definitive cancer therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Fertility / physiology. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Pregnancy Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18080446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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31. Cirisano FD Jr, Robboy SJ, Dodge RK, Bentley RC, Krigman HR, Synan IS, Soper JT, Clarke-Pearson DL: The outcome of stage I-II clinically and surgically staged papillary serous and clear cell endometrial cancers when compared with endometrioid carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2000 Apr;77(1):55-65
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  • [Title] The outcome of stage I-II clinically and surgically staged papillary serous and clear cell endometrial cancers when compared with endometrioid carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare survival and recurrence in clinical and surgical stage I-II papillary serous (PS), clear cell (CC), and endometrioid (EM) cancers of the endometrium and examine the prognostic utility of myometrial invasion.
  • METHODS: Clinical, surgicopathologic, and survival data were retrospectively collected on 574 clinical stage I-II endometrial cancer patients, including 53 PS and 18 CC (based on postoperative histology), undergoing hysterectomy at Duke University Medical Center between 1967 and 1990.
  • Prognostic variables examined included age, stage, grade, myometrial invasion, lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI), and histology.
  • Among PS, CC, and EM3 patients with recurrences there were no statistical differences in the proportion that received preoperative or postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Prognostic factors for shorter survival included age >=60, surgical stage III+IV, presence of LVSI, histology (PS, CC, or EM3), and >=50% myometrial invasion.
  • PS + CC tumors confined to the endometrium had a 5-year survival of 0.60 compared to 0.98 and 1.00 for EM and EM3, respectively.
  • The 5-year survival for surgically staged IA patients (0.57) was not different from stages IB and IC combined (0.53) (P = 0.72).
  • The 5-year survival for surgical stage I + II PS + CC patients (0.56) was comparable to that for clinical stage I + II PS + CC patients (0.46) and remained significantly smaller than that for EM patients (0.86) (P < 0.001).
  • When controlled for surgical stage I-II tumors, 5-year survival for PS + CC patients remains comparable to that of clinical stage I-II patients and below that of EM.
  • Prognostic factors for survival in PS and CC patients include age, stage, and LVSI.
  • Thorough extended surgical staging is indicated in PS and CC tumors, and prospective trials of aggressive adjuvant therapies for surgical stage I-II tumors are needed to improve outcome in PS and CC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10739691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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32. Bakrin N, Cotte E, Sayag-Beaujard A, Raudrant D, Isaac S, Mohamed F, Gilly FN, Glehen O: Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent endometrial carcinoma confined to the peritoneal cavity. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Jul;20(5):809-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent endometrial carcinoma confined to the peritoneal cavity.
  • Our objective was to determine if cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a feasible therapeutic option for treatment of peritoneal recurrence of endometrial carcinoma.
  • Between August 2002 and May 2007, 5 patients with recurrent endometrial carcinoma confined to the peritoneal cavity who underwent CRS with HIPEC.
  • Of the 5 patients treated, histopathological type and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage were as follows: IB endometrioid (n = 1), IIIA endometrioid (n = 1), IIIC endometrioid (n = 2), and IC endometrioid + pseudosarcomatoid component (n = 1).
  • One patient with pseudosarcomatoid component developed recurrent disease 10 months after surgery and died 2 months later.
  • One patient experienced early recurrence with a malignant pleural effusion and died.
  • Regarding the toxicity of the procedure, highly selected patients with recurrent endometrial carcinoma confined to the peritoneal cavity may benefit from improved survival after CRS with HIPEC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Hyperthermia, Induced. Infusions, Parenteral. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20973274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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33. Eltabbakh GH, Shamonki J, Mount SL: Surgical stage, final grade, and survival of women with endometrial carcinoma whose preoperative endometrial biopsy shows well-differentiated tumors. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Nov;99(2):309-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical stage, final grade, and survival of women with endometrial carcinoma whose preoperative endometrial biopsy shows well-differentiated tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to assess the surgical stage, final grade, and survival of women with endometrial carcinoma whose preoperative endometrial biopsy showed well-differentiated (FIGO grade 1) carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted including all women treated at the University of Vermont between 1992 and 2004 whose preoperative endometrial biopsy was reviewed by the staff at the Pathology Department and diagnosed as FIGO grade 1 adenocarcinoma and who received peritoneal washings, total abdominal (or laparoscopic) hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic +/- para-aortic lymphadenectomy as part of their surgery.
  • The surgical stages were: IA: 55 (30.2%), IB: 61 (33.5%), IC: 26 (14.3%), IIA: 9 (4.9%), IIB: 8 (4.4%), IIIA: 10 (5.5%), IIIB: 2 (1.1%), IIIC: 8 (4.4%), and IV: 3 (1.6%).
  • Postoperatively, 131 (72%) patients received no additional treatment, 47 (25.8%) received radiation therapy, 3 (1.6%) received chemotherapy, and 1 (0.5%) received Megace.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 30% of women with endometrial carcinoma whose preoperative endometrial biopsy shows grade 1 tumors have grade 2 or 3 in the hysterectomy specimen and 12.6% have advanced surgical stage (stage III and IV) disease.
  • Women with preoperative endometrial biopsy showing grade 1 tumors who undergo surgical staging have excellent survival and acceptable operative morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16005945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Mehta N, Yamada SD, Rotmensch J, Mundt AJ: Outcome and pattern of failure in pathologic stage I-II papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Nov 15;57(4):1004-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome and pattern of failure in pathologic stage I-II papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome and patterns of failure in women with pathologic Stage I-II papillary serous carcinoma of the uterus and to discuss the implications for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT).
  • METHODS: Twenty-three pathologic Stage I-II uterine papillary serous carcinoma patients were treated at our institution between 1980 and 2001.
  • FIGO stages were as follows: IA = 3, IB = 8, IC = 6, IIA = 5, and IIB = 1.
  • Adjuvant therapies included the following: 9 none, 10 RT (6 pelvic, 1 vaginal brachytherapy, 3 both), 4 chemotherapy, and 1 hormonal therapy.
  • No patient received whole abdominal radiation therapy or para-aortic RT.
  • Nine patients developed recurrent disease.
  • However, neither developed an isolated abdominal recurrence.
  • CONCLUSION: Although patients with pathologic Stage I-II uterine papillary serous carcinomas have organ-confined disease, recurrence is common, particularly in the pelvis and distant sites.
  • Contrary to traditional assumptions, however, abdominal recurrence was uncommon in our patients, despite the lack of whole abdominal radiation therapy.
  • Future studies should investigate the role of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 14575831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Murphy KT, Rotmensch J, Yamada SD, Mundt AJ: Outcome and patterns of failure in pathologic stages I-IV clear-cell carcinoma of the endometrium: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Apr 1;55(5):1272-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome and patterns of failure in pathologic stages I-IV clear-cell carcinoma of the endometrium: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome and patterns of failure in women with uterine clear-cell carcinoma and discuss implications for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT).
  • METHODS: Between 1980 and 2000, 686 endometrial carcinoma patients underwent primary surgery at our institution.
  • Thirty-eight women (5.5%) had clear-cell tumors (18 clear-cell only, 8 clear-cell + adenocarcinoma, and 12 clear-cell + other unfavorable histologies [10 papillary serous, 1 uterine sarcoma, 1 both]).
  • FIGO stages were as follows: 3 IA, 4 IB, 5 IC, 4 IIA, 6 IIB, 8 IIIA, 2 IIIB, 3 IIIC, and 6 IV.
  • Adjuvant therapies included the following: 5 none, 22 RT (13 pelvic RT, 2 vaginal brachytherapy, 7 both), 11 chemotherapy (8 alone, 3 after pelvic RT), and 3 hormones.
  • No correlation was seen between relapse and stage, myometrial invasion, cytology, cervical extension, or involvement of extrauterine sites.
  • Corresponding pelvic failure rates in the Stage IA-IIB patients with and without RT were 0/16 (0%) and 5/6 (83%) (p < 0.0001).
  • Only 1 (2%) patient developed an isolated abdominal failure (This patient had a mixed clear-cell/papillary serous tumor).
  • CONCLUSION: Clear-cell carcinoma comprises a small percentage of endometrial cancers, frequently presents as a mixed histology, and has a poor overall outcome.
  • Unlike papillary serous tumors, clear-cell carcinoma does not seem to have a high propensity for abdominal failure.
  • Future protocols should focus instead on combinations of locoregional RT and chemotherapy to reduce the risk of local and systemic recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Life Tables. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Prognosis. Sarcoma / pathology. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 12654437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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36. Ma SK, Zhang HT, Sun YC, Wu LY: [Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary: review of 43 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Sep;30(9):690-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary: review of 43 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics, treatment methods, and prognosis of synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 43 patients with synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 49 years (range, 28-73 years).
  • The most common symptoms were abnormal vaginal bleeding (69.8%) and abdominal or pelvic pain (44.2%).Pelvic masses were found in 39.5% of the patients and enlarged corpus in 27.9% at physical examination, while pelvic masses were found in 67.4% of the 43 patients (29 cases) and thickening or abnormal endometrium in 23.3% (10 cases) during ultrasound examination.
  • All 15 patients who underwent endometrial biopsies were proven to have endometrial carcinomas.
  • Serum CA125 level was found to be elevated in 22 of the 34 examined cases (64.7%) with a median value of 500 U/ml (range, 39-3439 U/ml).
  • FIGO stages of endometrial carcinomas: IA 18 cases, IB 20 cases, IC 2 cases, IIA 3 cases; Stages of ovarian carcinomas: IA 19 cases, IB 4 cases, IC 7 cases, II 4 cases, III C 9 cases.
  • Twenty-four patients (55.8%) were in stage I both endometrial and ovarian carcinomas.
  • Thirty-eight of the 43 patients (88.4%) had a pathologically proven endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The predominant ovarian histology was endometrioid or mixed tumor with endometrioid components (30/43, 69.8%).
  • Postoperatively, 26 patients (60.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy alone, 12 had chemotherapy plus radiotherapy, only one patient had radiation alone and the remaining 4 cases received no adjuvant treatment.
  • The 3- and 5-year survival rates of patients with both endometrioid and ovarian carcinomas were higher than that of those with non-endometrioid or mixed subtypes (93.8%, 82.0% vs. 79.7%, 69.0%).
  • The 3-year and 5-year survival rates of patients with early stage disease were better than those of the other patients (93.3%, 93.3% vs. 69.7%, 36.7%).
  • Recurrence developed in 15 patients (34.9%).
  • It was showed by univariate analysis that lower CA125 level, early FIGO stage, and adjuvant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy significantly and positively affect the 5-year survival rates, while only early FIGO stage and chemotherapy plus radiotherapy were revealed by multivariate analysis as independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSION: Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary are different from either primary endometrial carcinoma or ovarian cancer, while it can usually be detected in early stage and with a good prognosis.
  • Surgical treatment alone may be enough for early stage patients.
  • Chemotherapy plus radiotherapy may be necessary for advanced stage patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid. Endometrial Neoplasms. Hysterectomy / methods. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Ovarian Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Proteins / metabolism. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19173912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NBR1 protein, human; 0 / Proteins
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37. Craighead PS, Sait K, Stuart GC, Arthur K, Nation J, Duggan M, Guo D: Management of aggressive histologic variants of endometrial carcinoma at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre between 1984 and 1994. Gynecol Oncol; 2000 May;77(2):248-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of aggressive histologic variants of endometrial carcinoma at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre between 1984 and 1994.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the patient characteristics and outcome of patients with aggressive histologic variants (AV) of endometrial carcinoma, including uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC), uterine clear cell carcinoma (UCCC), and mixed type.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: All cases with AV histological type of endometrial carcinoma from January 1984 to December 1994 at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre were identified using the Alberta Cancer Registry.
  • Relevant data from the charts of these patients were entered into a study database (Microsoft Excel) and analyzed for presentation, demography, treatment parameters, and outcome of treatment.
  • All pathology was reviewed at the time of diagnosis.
  • Statistical analysis was performed using the S-plus statistics computer program.
  • RESULTS: A total of 103 patients with AV histological type were identified and analyzed; there were 61, 31, and 11 cases of UPSC, CCC, and mixed tumors, respectively.
  • Sixty-three patients had Stage I, 11 had Stage II, 15 had Stage III, and 14 had Stage IV disease.
  • The Cox proportional hazards model showed that lymphvascular space invasion and stage are the two independent prognostic factors affecting recurrence and survival.
  • Forty six percent of all cases underwent surgery alone, 39% underwent treatment which included pelvic RT, and 17% underwent treatment which included chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy improved overall survival, but made little difference in distant relapse rates.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stage Ia cases treated by surgery alone have a low risk of relapse and need not be offered adjuvant systemic therapy or pelvic radiation.
  • Patients with Ib, Ic, II, and III have significantly lower pelvic failure rates if treated with pelvic radiation, but still have a high distant failure rate.
  • Systemic therapy did not significantly improve distant relapse-free survival, but did extend overall survival.
  • Stage IV patients usually died within 6 months with a few responding to systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Demography. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10785473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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38. Eltabbakh GH, Mount SL: Laparoscopic surgery does not increase the positive peritoneal cytology among women with endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Feb;100(2):361-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic surgery does not increase the positive peritoneal cytology among women with endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to find if uterine manipulation at the time of laparoscopic hysterectomy among women with endometrial carcinoma increases the incidence of malignant cells in the peritoneal washings.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study including women with clinical stage I endometrioid endometrial carcinoma undergoing laparoscopic surgery between 07/01/2000 and 07/01/2004.
  • Two sets of peritoneal washings were obtained, one before and one after the insertion of the Pelosi uterine manipulator.
  • The two sets of washings were blindly reviewed by the same cytopathologist for the presence of malignant cells.
  • The procedure was converted to laparotomy in 3 (7.6%) patients after obtaining the two sets of washings.
  • The preoperative tumor grades were: G1: 22 (52.4%), G2: 12 (28.6%), and G3: 8 (19.0).
  • No patients had positive washings after the insertion of the uterine manipulator if the washings were negative before the insertion.
  • The surgical stages were: IA: 14 (33.3%), IB: 12 (28.6%), IC: 7 (16.7%), IIA: 1 (2.4%), IIB: 1 (2.4%), IIIA: 4 (9.5%), IIIB: 1 (2.4%), IIIC: 1 (2.4%), and IV: 1 (2.4%).
  • Twenty-nine patients received no postoperative treatment, 2 received chemotherapy, 3 received Megace, and 9 received radiation therapy.
  • Two patients had tumor recurrence, and one patient died secondary to her disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that uterine manipulation at the time of laparoscopic hysterectomy does not increase the incidence of positive peritoneal cytology among women with endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Seeding. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16185754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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