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1. Leitner Y, Shabat S, Boriani L, Boriani S: En bloc resection of a C4 chordoma: surgical technique. Eur Spine J; 2007 Dec;16(12):2238-42
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  • [Title] En bloc resection of a C4 chordoma: surgical technique.
  • The prognosis of aggressive benign and low-grade malignant tumors in the spine as in the limbs, seems to be mostly related to the feasibility of en bloc resection, while in the treatment of high-grade malignant tumors the protocols of treatment include the combination of chemotherapy, radiation and surgery.
  • In the cervical spine few cases are reported of resection, due not only to anatomical constraint, but also to the rarity of finding a tumor accomplishing the criteria of feasibility.
  • A case of double-approach vertebrectomy finalized to remove en bloc the body of C4 for a stage IA chordoma is reported.
  • The first stage was posterior, aiming to remove the posterior healthy elements by piecemeal technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Chordoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical / instrumentation. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Humans. Internal Fixators. Laminectomy / instrumentation. Laminectomy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neck / anatomy & histology. Neck / surgery. Neck Pain / pathology. Neck Pain / physiopathology. Neck Pain / surgery. Radiculopathy / etiology. Radiculopathy / physiopathology. Radiculopathy / surgery. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Spinal Fusion / instrumentation. Spinal Fusion / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17713796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2140125
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2. Kurbacher CM, Kurbacher JA, Cramer EM, Rhiem K, Mallman PK, Reichelt R, Reinhold U, Stier U, Cree IA: Continuous low-dose GM-CSF as salvage therapy in refractory recurrent breast or female genital tract carcinoma. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Apr;19(4 Suppl 2):23-6
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  • [Title] Continuous low-dose GM-CSF as salvage therapy in refractory recurrent breast or female genital tract carcinoma.
  • Adjuvant treatment with continuous low-dose GM-CSF has been shown to prolong survival of stage III/IV melanoma patients.
  • Data on continuous low-dose GM-CSF therapy in tumors other than prostate cancer are still lacking.
  • This pilot trial was initiated in order to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of continuous low-dose GM-CSF as salvage in various chemotherapy-refractory carcinomas.
  • Their malignancies included metastatic breast cancer, recurrent ovarian carcinoma, metastatic endometrial carcinoma, and recurrent squamous cell cancer of the cervix uteri.
  • Therapy was continued until progression or refusal by the patient.
  • Notably, 6 of 7 responders but only 1 of 8 patients with disease progression developed leukocytosis during therapy.
  • Therefore, we conclude that continuous low-dose GM-CSF has substantial activity in heavily pretreated patients with either metastatic breast cancer or female genital tract cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Pilot Projects. Recombinant Proteins. Salvage Therapy


3. Nogueira-Rodrigues A, do Carmo CC, Viegas C, Erlich F, Camisão C, Fontão K, Lima R, Herchenhorn D, Martins RG, Moralez GM, Small IA, Ferreira CG: Phase I trial of erlotinib combined with cisplatin and radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical squamous cell cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Oct 1;14(19):6324-9
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  • [Title] Phase I trial of erlotinib combined with cisplatin and radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical squamous cell cancer.
  • PURPOSE: This phase I trial was aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose and related toxicity of erlotinib (E) when administered concurrently with standard chemoradiation (CRT) for cervical cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In a modified Fibonacci design, the study aimed to study three cohorts of at least three patients receiving escalating doses of erlotinib (50/100/150 mg) combined with cisplatin (40 mg/m(2), weekly, 5 cycles) and radiotherapy (external beam 4,500 cGy in 25 fractions, followed by 4 fractions/600 cGy/weekly of brachytherapy) in squamous cell cervical carcinoma patients, stage IIB to IIIB.
  • Patients presented median age 47 (36-59), stage IIB (46.2%) and IIIB (53.8%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: E+CRT is feasible to locally advanced squamous cell cervical cancer and is well tolerated.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a combination of erlotinib, cisplatin, and pelvic radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brachytherapy / methods. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Erlotinib Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiation Oncology / methods. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18829516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Quinazolines; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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4. Hiura M, Nogawa T, Matsumoto T, Yokoyama T, Shiroyama Y, Wroblewski J: Long-term survival in patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis with systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Aug;20(6):1000-5
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  • [Title] Long-term survival in patients with para-aortic lymph node metastasis with systematic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to assess modified radical hysterectomy including systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with para-aortic lymph node (PAN) metastasis in endometrial carcinoma and to identify the multivariate independent prognostic factors for long-term survival during the past 10 years.
  • METHODS: Between December 1987 and December 2002, we performed modified radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy including systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy and peritoneal cytology in 284 endometrial carcinoma patients according to the classification of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (stage IA, n = 66; stage IB, n = 96; stage IC, n = 33; stage IIA, n = 5; stage IIB, n = 20; stage IIIA, n = 28; stage IIIC, n = 28; and stage IV, n = 8) who gave informed consents at our institute.
  • Patients with PLN metastasis received adjuvant chemotherapy, and adjuvant radiation was not part of our institutional protocol.
  • RESULTS: The overall incidence of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis assessed by systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was 12.0% (34/284) in stages I to IV endometrial carcinoma, and incidences of PLN and PAN metastases were 9.2% (26/284) and 7.4% (21/284), respectively.
  • Univariate analysis of prognostic factors revealed that International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics clinical stage (P < 0.0001), histological finding (P = 0.0292), myometrial invasion (P < 0.0001), adnexal metastasis (P < 0.0001), lymphovascular space invasion (P < 0.0001), tumor diameter (P = 0.0108), peritoneal cytology (P = 0.0001), and retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001) were significantly associated with 10-year overall survival.
  • Survival was not associated with age (P = 0.1558) or cervical involvement (P = 0.1828).
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that surgery with systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy could improve long-term survival in patients with PAN metastasis, although there are only 21 patients with PAN metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / secondary. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Endometrial Neoplasms / mortality. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Aorta, Abdominal. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20683408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Gorchev G, Kornovski Ia: [Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2003;42(6):21-4
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  • [Title] [Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Roliata na neoadiuvantnata khimioterapiia pri lechenieto na bolni v IIIB stadiĭ rak na matochnata shiĭka.
  • In the present study we have evaluated the response rate (clinical and histological) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), which consist of 3 courses of Bleomycin, Cisplatina, Ifosfamid every 21 days.
  • Twelve patients in stage IIIB cervical cancer were submitted to NAC and 12 (control group)--received standart pelvic radiation to whole pelvis--52 Gy.
  • We have analyzed disease free survival (DFS) of different subgroups, according to second-line treatment and histopathological findings (lymph node metastases) of the operated patients.
  • The results were compared to these of other authors in order to determine the role and place of NAC in the treatment of IIIB cervical cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging


6. Manusirivithaya S, Chareoniam V, Pantusart A, Isariyodom P, Srisomboon J: Comparative study of bulky stage IB and IA cervical cancer patients treated by radical hysterectomy with and without neoadjuvant chemotherapy: long-term follow-up. J Med Assoc Thai; 2001 Nov;84(11):1550-7
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  • [Title] Comparative study of bulky stage IB and IA cervical cancer patients treated by radical hysterectomy with and without neoadjuvant chemotherapy: long-term follow-up.
  • One hundred and ninety patients with bulky (> 3 cm) stage IB and IIA cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy between 1991 and 1994 at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital were reviewed to determine whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with MVAC (Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Adriamycin, Cisplatin) improved survival.
  • In conclusion, although NAC can decrease the tumor size and produce a high response rate, it does not improve survival in bulky stage IB and IIA cervical cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Hysterectomy. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery. Vinblastine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


7. Kornovskiĭ Ia, Gorchev G, Balev S, Ivanova F: [Flow cytometric DNA analysis and neoadjuvant chemotherapy of cervix cancer (stage IB2-IIIB)]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2004;43(3):37-41
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  • [Title] [Flow cytometric DNA analysis and neoadjuvant chemotherapy of cervix cancer (stage IB2-IIIB)].
  • [Transliterated title] Floutsitometrichen DNK-analiz i neoadiuvantna khimioterapiia pri rak na matochnata shiĭka (IB2-IIIB stadiĭ).
  • The purpose of the present study is to determine the predictive role of the data of flowcytometric DNA-analysis--aneuploidity DNA-index, proliferative index in patients with squamous cervical cancer who was given chemotherapy as a initial treatment.
  • The data of 12 patients in stage IB2-IIIB, who were divided into two groups according to the second-line treatment--surgery of definitive radiotherapy, were analysed.
  • These data were correlated with the respond of the tumor to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (clinical and histopathological) as well as other factors such as stage, size of tumor lesion, grading disease free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Ploidies

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  • (PMID = 15341256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0324-0959
  • [Journal-full-title] Akusherstvo i ginekologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Akush Ginekol (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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8. Peters WA 3rd, Liu PY, Barrett RJ 2nd, Stock RJ, Monk BJ, Berek JS, Souhami L, Grigsby P, Gordon W Jr, Alberts DS: Concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy compared with pelvic radiation therapy alone as adjuvant therapy after radical surgery in high-risk early-stage cancer of the cervix. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Apr;18(8):1606-13
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  • [Title] Concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy compared with pelvic radiation therapy alone as adjuvant therapy after radical surgery in high-risk early-stage cancer of the cervix.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether the addition of cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CT) to pelvic radiation therapy (RT) will improve the survival of early-stage, high-risk patients with cervical carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with clinical stage IA(2), IB, and IIA carcinoma of the cervix, initially treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, and who had positive pelvic lymph nodes and/or positive margins and/or microscopic involvement of the parametrium were eligible for this study.
  • Patients in each group received 49.3 GY RT in 29 fractions to a standard pelvic field.
  • Chemotherapy consisted of bolus cisplatin 70 mg/m(2) and a 96-hour infusion of fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m(2)/d every 3 weeks for four cycles, with the first and second cycles given concurrent to RT.
  • CONCLUSION: The addition of concurrent cisplatin-based CT to RT significantly improves progression-free and overall survival for high-risk, early-stage patients who undergo radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for carcinoma of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Pelvis / radiation effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10764420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35090; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38926; etc
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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9. Jacobson GM, Kamath RS, Smith BJ, Goodheart MJ: Thromboembolic events in patients treated with definitive chemotherapy and radiation therapy for invasive cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Feb;96(2):470-4
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  • [Title] Thromboembolic events in patients treated with definitive chemotherapy and radiation therapy for invasive cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Determine the incidence of and risk factors for thromboembolic events (TE) in patients treated with definitive chemoradiation for cervical cancer at our institution.
  • METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all patients with a diagnosis of invasive carcinoma of the cervix (FIGO Stage IB-IVA) treated with definitive chemoradiation at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) from July 2002 to December 2003.
  • All but one patient received 45 Gy to the pelvis followed by brachytherapy, IMRT, or conformal boost.
  • One patient received 39.6 Gy to the pelvis.
  • Cisplatin chemotherapy, 40 mg/m squared, was given weekly for 6 weeks.
  • Data were collected for FIGO stage, age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking history.
  • Log-rank tests were used to examine the association between time to TE and the variables FIGO stage and smoking status.
  • The association between time to TE and the continuous variables age and BMI was examined with Cox proportional hazards regression.
  • Eight patients (16.7%) developed a TE.
  • The associations were not statistically significant for stage (P = 0.72), smoking status (P = 0.72), age (P = 0.63) or BMI (P = 0.86).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We noted a high incidence of TE (16.7%) in patients treated at UIHC with chemoradiation for invasive cervical cancer.
  • We did not find a statistical association between age, stage, smoking history, or BMI and risk of TE in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Radiation Injuries / etiology. Thromboembolism / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Risk Factors


10. Sundar S, Horne A, Kehoe S: Cervical cancer. BMJ Clin Evid; 2008;2008
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  • [Title] Cervical cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women.
  • In the UK, incidence fell after introduction of the cervical-screening programme, to the current level of approximately 3200 cases and 1000 deaths a year.
  • Survival ranges from almost 100% 5-year disease-free survival for treated stage Ia disease to 5-15% in stage IV disease.
  • METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to manage early-stage cervical cancer?
  • What are the effects of interventions to manage bulky early-stage cervical cancer?
  • We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: HPV vaccine for preventing cervical cancer and conisation of the cervix for microinvasive carcinoma (stage Ia1), neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, or different types of surgery for treating early stage and bulky early stage cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Conization. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoradiotherapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19450324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-8526
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ clinical evidence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Clin Evid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Huang YW, Li MD, Liu FY, Li YF: [Analysis of clinical efficiency of treatment for 179 geriatric women with stage I or II cervical carcinoma]. Ai Zheng; 2002 Nov;21(11):1238-40
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  • [Title] [Analysis of clinical efficiency of treatment for 179 geriatric women with stage I or II cervical carcinoma].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Elderly women with cervical carcinoma have the features of poor prognosis and high incidence rate of complications.
  • This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic impact of surgery versus radiotherapy in old women with stage I and stage II cervical carcinoma and seek suitable treatment for such patients.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 179 elderly women with stage Ia to stage IIb cervical cancer were analyzed retrospectively.
  • One hundred and thirty-four cases underwent radical hysterectomy also received appropriate adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • Forty-five cases underwent radiation therapy received appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Geriatric patients with stage I and stage II cervical carcinoma should receive operation if possible and should receive adjuvant treatments according to personal conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Hysterectomy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12526224.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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12. Jacobson G, Lammli J, Zamba G, Hua L, Goodheart MJ: Thromboembolic events in patients with cervical carcinoma: Incidence and effect on survival. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 May;113(2):240-4
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  • [Title] Thromboembolic events in patients with cervical carcinoma: Incidence and effect on survival.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether thromboembolic events (TE) in cervical cancer patients are associated with survival by comparing the survival of patients with and without thromboembolic events over a seven year period.
  • METHODS: Utilizing a retrospective chart review we identified patients with any diagnosis of a TE, associated risk factors for TE development and overall survival.
  • We also collected clinico-pathological data including stage, histology, height, weight, smoking history, radiation and chemotherapy treatment data and the temporal relationship of the development of TE to the time of cancer diagnosis.
  • Data sources included the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC) Tumor Registry and the UIHC Gynecologic Oncology Tumor Data Base as well as a search of UIHC medical record data bases using ICD-9 codes to initially identify all patients diagnosed with cervical carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: In this study, the incidence of TE in cervical cancer patients was 11.7%.
  • We identified an association between TE and stage, chemotherapy, brachytherapy, and radiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The major findings of our study are a significant incidence of thromboembolism in patients with cervical cancer, and a significant decrease in survival in patients who experience thromboembolism at presentation or during treatment.
  • Deaths in these patients were overwhelmingly related to progressive cancer rather than the TE itself, suggesting that this adverse prognostic event may be related to aggressive tumor biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Thromboembolism / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / blood

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  • (PMID = 19251310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Denschlag D, Gabriel B, Mueller-Lantzsch C, Tempfer C, Henne K, Gitsch G, Hasenburg A: Evaluation of patients after extraperitoneal lymph node dissection for cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):658-64
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  • [Title] Evaluation of patients after extraperitoneal lymph node dissection for cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The presence of nodal metastases is an important prognostic factor in patients with cervical cancer.
  • To adjust our therapy to the anatomic extent of the disease, we performed a surgical staging with extraperitoneal lymph node dissection (EPLND).
  • The goal of our study was to evaluate the clinical outcome and side effects of the combined treatment approach of EPLND and either radical hysterectomy in case of early stage cervical cancer (FIGO Ia/b and IIa) and negative nodes, or pelvic radiotherapy/extended field radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy in case of positive nodes or advanced stage cervical cancer (FIGO IIb, III, and IVa).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine patients with primarily diagnosed invasive cervical cancer underwent EPLND.
  • The value of this procedure as a diagnostic tool for evaluating the extent of disease was determined.
  • Additionally, treatment-related complications and clinical outcomes were monitored.
  • According to the results of EPLND, radical hysterectomy was abandoned due to histopathologically confirmed lymph node involvement by frozen section in 11 out of 36 patients with early stage cervical cancer (31%).
  • Only in the group of patients who received EPLND followed by radical hysterectomy, 2 out of 25 patients (8%) developed a severe ileus postoperatively (WHO Grade 3 toxicity).
  • The treatment approach of combined EPLND followed by radio- and chemotherapy was without major complications (WHO Grade 3 or 4 toxicity).
  • Performing the Cox proportional regression analysis, in contrast to clinical FIGO staging (P = 0.24; ns), lymph node involvement was the only significant independent predictor for overall survival (P = 0.04).
  • CONCLUSION: Our data support the approach of pretherapeutic surgical staging by performing EPLND as a diagnostic tool with a low complication rate.
  • This allows an individualized treatment for cervical cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate


14. Kurbacher CM, Cramer EM, Rhiem K, Mallmann PK, Cree IA: A pilot trial of chronic low-dosegranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy in patients with intensively pretreated breast or female genital tract cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):2537

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  • [Title] A pilot trial of chronic low-dosegranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy in patients with intensively pretreated breast or female genital tract cancer.
  • : 2537 Background: Prolonged low-dose (PLD) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) treatment which stimulates dendritic cell differentiation has been successfully used in patients (pts) with stage III-IV melanoma.
  • However, data of PLD GM-CSF therapy in other tumors are still lacking.
  • METHODS: 16 pts failing 2-7 prior (median, 4) chemotherapies were included with: metastatic breast cancer (MBC), n=6; recurrent ovarian carcinoma (ROC), n=8; metastatic endometrial carcinoma (MEC), n=1; recurrent cervical cancer (RCC, n=1).
  • The treatment was monitored by weekly whole blood cell counts (WBC).
  • Therapy was continued until progression or refusal by the pts.
  • Notably, 5 of 6 responders but only 1 of 7 pts with PD developed leukocytosis during therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: PLD GM-CSF exhibits substantial activity in heavily pretreated patients with either MBC or female genital tract cancer with mild leukocytosis being a potential predictor of response.

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  • (PMID = 28015241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Eifel PJ, Moughan J, Erickson B, Iarocci T, Grant D, Owen J: Patterns of radiotherapy practice for patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a patterns of care study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Nov 15;60(4):1144-53
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  • [Title] Patterns of radiotherapy practice for patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a patterns of care study.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the influence of research findings and evolving technology on the practice of radiotherapy in patients with carcinoma of the cervix.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiation oncology facilities were randomly selected from two strata: those that treated <500 and those that treated >/=500 new cancer patients annually.
  • Most estimates were based on the 383 patients who had received their initial therapy at a surveyed facility (excluding the 59 patients who were referred for brachytherapy only after initial treatment at another facility).
  • RESULTS: Overall, 40.5%, 25.4%, and 33.9% of patients had Stage IA-IIA, IIB, or IIIA-IVA disease, respectively.
  • We estimated that 27.5% of patients were treated at facilities that treated <==2 patients with intact cervical cancer annually; 43% were treated at facilities that treated <500 new patients annually.
  • Patients treated at small facilities were significantly more likely to have received a total dose to Point A of <80 Gy, to have had their treatment protracted to >70 days, and to have undergone adjuvant hysterectomy or chemotherapy.
  • In large facilities, radiotherapy was less likely to be protracted to >70 days in the 1996-1999 survey than in the 1992-1994 survey (p < 0.0001); however, in small facilities, treatment was more likely to be protracted than in the earlier survey (p = 0.06), contributing to increasing disparities between the treatments given in large and small facilities.
  • The proportion of patients receiving chemotherapy as part of their initial treatment in 1996-1999 (34.6%) was not significantly different statistically from that in 1992-1994 (25.6%; p = 0.3).
  • However, in 1999, 63% of patients had received chemotherapy compared with 19%, 28%, and 26% in 1996, 1997, and 1998, respectively.
  • The details and confirmation of chemotherapy administration were rarely documented in the radiation oncology clinic notes and hospital records.
  • CONCLUSION: The sharp increase in the use of chemotherapy in 1999 suggested rapid application of the results from randomized trials.
  • The practice at small facilities appears to differ significantly from that at larger facilities in several respects, with a statistically significantly larger proportion of treatments at small facilities failing to meet current guidelines for optimal treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy / trends. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15519786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 56435
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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16. Hagen B, Skjeldestad FE, Halvorsen T, Strickert T, Tingulstad S, Lorenz E, Onsrud M: Primary treatment of cervical carcinoma. Ten years experience from one Norwegian health region. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2000 Dec;79(12):1093-9
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Primary treatment of cervical carcinoma. Ten years experience from one Norwegian health region.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the primary care of cervical carcinoma with regard to clinical and pathological factors, treatment decisions, complications and survival.
  • DESIGN: A historical cohort comprising all women hospitalized with invasive cervical carcinoma (n=293) during the period 1987-1996.
  • FIGO stage distribution was 62%, 15%, 18% and 5% in stages I, II, III and IV, respectively.
  • Early stage disease correlated with young age.
  • Histologic types were: squamous cell carcinoma 84%, adenocarcinoma 11%, adenosquamous carcinoma 4% and small cell/anaplastic carcinoma 1%.
  • Primary therapies were: surgery 188 women (64%), radiotherapy 99 women (34%), chemotherapy two women (0.7%); four women not treated (1.3%).
  • Five-year survival in stages IA, IB, II and III was 100%, 88%, 58% and 20%, respectively.
  • One-year survival in stage IV was 31%.
  • Median survival in stages III and IV according to curative or palliative aim of treatment was 20 and 6 months, respectively (p<0.005).
  • CONCLUSION: Satisfactory quality of diagnosis and therapy have been maintained through regional care for cervical cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11130094.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6349
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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17. McArdle O, Kigula-Mugambe JB: Contraindications to cisplatin based chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa. Radiother Oncol; 2007 Apr;83(1):94-6
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  • [Title] Contraindications to cisplatin based chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We conducted a prospective study to assess the eligibility of patients presenting with cervical cancer in the developing world for chemoradiotherapy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with biopsy proven cervical cancer were eligible.
  • Workup included history, examination, pre-treatment Karnofsky performance score, evaluation under anaesthesia to establish FIGO stage, complete blood count, renal and liver functions tests, HIV test and ultrasound of the abdomen and pelvis.
  • EXCLUSION CRITERIA: stage IA, stage IV, HIV status positive, Karnofsky performance score <60, age >70 years, hydronephrosis, haemoglobin <8 g/dL, white cell count <2,000/microL, platelets <100,000/microL, creatinine >97 micromol/L.
  • After workup, 47 patients (15.1%) were eligible for combined modality treatment and 190 (60.5%) were not eligible.
  • Application of a haemoglobin cut off point of 8 g/dL for cisplatin based chemotherapy resulted in the exclusion of 55 (17.4%) patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A small proportion of our patients with cervical cancer would benefit from chemoradiotherapy with concomitant cisplatin, illustrating the difficulties of applying "standard" treatment to the developing world.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Developing Countries. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa South of the Sahara. Aged. Anemia / etiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hydronephrosis / etiology. Middle Aged. Uganda

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  • (PMID = 17343939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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18. Srisomboon J, Phongnarisorn C, Suprasert P, Cheewakriangkrai C, Siriaree S, Charoenkwan K: A prospective randomized study comparing retroperitoneal drainage with no drainage and no peritonization following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for invasive cervical cancer. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2002 Jun;28(3):149-53
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  • [Title] A prospective randomized study comparing retroperitoneal drainage with no drainage and no peritonization following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for invasive cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postoperative morbidity and lymphocyst formation in invasive cervical cancer patients undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHPL) with no drainage and no peritonization compared with retroperitoneal drainage and peritonization.
  • METHODS: Between July 1999 and May 2000, 100 patients with stage IA-IIA cervical cancer undergoing RHPL in Chiang Mai University Hospital were prospectively randomized to receive either no peritonization and no drainage (Group A = 48 cases) or retroperitoneal drainage and peritonization (Group B = 52 cases).
  • RESULTS: Both groups were similar regarding age, size and gross appearance of tumor, tumor histology and stage.
  • There was no difference between groups in respect of operative time, need for blood transfusion, intraoperative complications, hospital stay, number of nodes removed, nodal metastases, and need for adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Routine retroperitoneal drainage and peritonization after RHPL for invasive cervical cancer can be safely omitted.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Drainage. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 12214830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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19. Takac I, Ursic-Vrscaj M, Repse-Fokter A, Kodric T, Rakar S, Mozina A, Smrkolj S, Primic-Zakelj M, Strzinar V, Vakselj A, Arko D: Clinicopathological characteristics of cervical cancer between 2003 and 2005, after the introduction of a national cancer screening program in Slovenia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2008 Sep;140(1):82-9
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological characteristics of cervical cancer between 2003 and 2005, after the introduction of a national cancer screening program in Slovenia.
  • OBJECTIVE: An organized cervical cancer (CC) screening program was introduced in Slovenia in 2003.
  • They were stratified for stage, tumor characteristics and treatment methods according to gynecologic examination attendance in the last 5 years preceding the diagnosis of CC (attenders vs. nonattenders).
  • Squamous cell carcinoma was present in 378 women (84.0%), adenocarcinoma in 45 (10.0%), adenosquamous carcinoma in 24 (5.3%) and other types in 3 women (0.7%).
  • Attenders were significantly more frequently diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma than nonattenders (chi-square=5.13; P<0.05).
  • Attenders were significantly more frequently diagnosed in stage IA than in stage IB (chi-square=22.35; P<0.01).
  • Similarly, in attenders stage I was significantly more frequent than stage II (chi-square=18.81; P<0.01).
  • Surgery was performed in 282 women (62.7%), radiotherapy in 158 (35.1%), symptomatic therapy in 9 (2.0%) and chemotherapy alone in 1 (0.2%) woman.
  • In attenders, surgery alone was the most frequent treatment method (chi-square=91.18; P<0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: Only in attenders a significant redistribution of CC stages in favor of early stages is observed, and in these women more conservative and less extensive treatment methods could be applied.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology


20. Suprasert P, Srisomboon J, Charoenkwan K, Siriaree S, Cheewakriangkrai C, Kietpeerakool C, Phongnarisorn C, Sae-Teng J: Twelve years experience with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in early stage cervical cancer. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2010 Apr;30(3):294-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Twelve years experience with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in early stage cervical cancer.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcome, prognostic factors and complications of early stage cervical cancer patients treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHPL).
  • The medical records of cervical cancer patients undergoing RHPL at Chiang Mai University Hospital over 12 years, between January 1995 and December 2006 were reviewed.
  • The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma (67%) followed by adenocarcinoma (23%).
  • The distribution of FIGO staging was: stage IA 8.7%; stage IB 15.8%; stage IB1 61%; stage IB2 6.2%; and stage IIA 8.5%.
  • A total of 66.5% of patients underwent RHPL without adjuvant treatment; 12.1% received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Stage IB2/IIA, non-squamous cell carcinoma, nodal involvement and positive vaginal margins were independent, significant, poor prognostic factors.
  • It was concluded that early stage cervical cancer patients treated with RHPL have long-term favourable outcome with minimal morbidity.
  • Stage IB2 and IIA, non-squamous cell carcinoma, nodal and vaginal involvement were independent adverse prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Connective Tissue / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20373935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-6893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Wu K, Zhang WH, Zhang R, Li H, Bai P, Li XG: [Analysis of postoperative complications of radical hysterectomy for 219 cervical cancer patients]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2006 Apr;28(4):316-9
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  • [Title] [Analysis of postoperative complications of radical hysterectomy for 219 cervical cancer patients].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the causes and therapeutic approaches for the complications of radical hysterectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer patients.
  • The stages were: 26 stage IA (17 stage IA1 and 9 stage IA2) (11.9%); 142 stage IB (78 stage IB1, 64 stage IB2) (64.8%); 40 stage IIA (18.3%) and 3 stage IIB (1.4%).
  • RESULTS: a total of 49 patients (22.4%) developed postoperative complications.
  • The postoperative complication incidence in the patients who had preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy through intra-arterial catheter or radical radiotherapy in the other hospitals were 50.0% (2/4) and 100.0% (1/1), which were higher than that of the patients treated primarily in our hospital (21.3%, 25.3%) though without statistically significant difference among the groups.
  • Of 52 patients who had previous abdominal surgery history, 13 developed posoperative complications, there was no significant difference between the patients with or without previous abdominal surgery history.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Hysterectomy / adverse effects. Lymph Node Excision. Urinary Retention / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


22. Lu KH, Burke TW: Early cervical cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2000 Jun;1(2):147-55
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Early cervical cancer.
  • Early cervical cancer includes a broad range of disease, from clinically undetectable microinvasive cancer to large, bulky tumors that replace the entire cervix.
  • Further subgrouping of this category is therefore necessary to define the optimal treatment approach for individual cases.
  • The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system stratifies stage I tumors into two broad categories, stage IA (microinvasive) and stage IB (gross tumor).
  • Management of women with stage IA disease is controversial.
  • Stage IB1 cervical cancer is managed by either radical surgery or radiotherapy with equivalent recurrence and survival rates.
  • In patients with tumors less than 4 cm in diameter, the decision between radical surgery and radiotherapy is guided by patients' overall health and treatment preferences.
  • Radiation therapy is preferred for women who may not tolerate radical surgery.
  • We always prefer primary radiation therapy for patients with tumors larger than 4 cm in diameter.
  • Recent data convincingly demonstrate that the addition of cisplatin-based chemotherapy significantly improves overall survival rates in cervical cancer patients who undergo radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunotherapy, Active. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 12057052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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23. Zanetta G, Gabriele A, Vecchione F, Landoni F, Isimbaldi G: Unusual recurrence of cervical adenosquamous carcinoma after conservative surgery. Gynecol Oncol; 2000 Mar;76(3):409-12
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual recurrence of cervical adenosquamous carcinoma after conservative surgery.
  • The use of less radical procedures for the treatment of early cervical cancers is gaining interest among physicians and young patients.
  • After a polypectomy, a young patient had a diagnosis of stage Ia(2) cervical adenosquamous carcinoma in 1995.
  • In 1998, at the 13th week of gestation, she had a diagnosis of a pelvic mass.
  • The mass was a recurrence of carcinoma involving the myometrium, just underneath the peritoneum.
  • She received chemotherapy postoperatively and remains alive without evidence of disease.
  • The recurrence of cervical cancer is traditionally regarded as an issue concerning the cervix, the parametria, or the lymph nodes.
  • When the uterus is preserved we must also consider the possibility of a recurrence involving the corpus.
  • With wider acceptance of limited therapeutic approaches we must be prepared for the detection of previously unknown patterns of recurrence and the follow-up modalities must be consequently adapted.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / secondary. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Conization. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pregnancy. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10684719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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24. Nishimura N, Hachisuga T, Saito T, Kawarabayashi T: Subsequent endometrial carcinoma with adjuvant tamoxifen treatment in Japanese breast cancer patients. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2001 Jul-Aug;11(4):272-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Subsequent endometrial carcinoma with adjuvant tamoxifen treatment in Japanese breast cancer patients.
  • This study aimed to detail the clinicopathologic features of endometrial carcinomas that developed in Japanese patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer patients.
  • Ten endometrial carcinomas in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients were collected from two medical centers.
  • The endometrial carcinomas included two stage Ia, four stage Ib, two stage Ic and two stage IIIc.
  • Deep cervical invasion was recognized in one case.
  • The cell types comprised nine endometrioid adenocarcinomas and one serous carcinoma.
  • Two patients with retroperitoneal lymph node metastases died of endometrial cancer.
  • One patient developed a contralateral breast cancer during tamoxifen treatment.
  • No patient died of breast cancer.
  • We did not demonstrate a higher frequency of either high-grade tumors or unfavorable histologic subtypes in tamoxifen-treated Japanese breast cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / etiology. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / etiology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Japan. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 11520364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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25. Paulino AC, Wen BC, Brown CK, Tannous R, Mayr NA, Zhen WK, Weidner GJ, Hussey DH: Late effects in children treated with radiation therapy for Wilms' tumor. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Mar 15;46(5):1239-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late effects in children treated with radiation therapy for Wilms' tumor.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the frequency and types of late effects in children receiving radiation therapy (RT) for Wilms' tumor.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1968 to 1994, 55 children received megavoltage RT at our institution as part of treatment for Wilms' tumor.
  • There were 25 female and 17 male patients with a median age at diagnosis of 48 months (range, 7-126 months).
  • There were 12 Stage I, eight Stage II, 15 Stage III, six Stage IV, and one Stage V patient.
  • All patients received chemotherapy; the most common agents were actinomycin-D/vincristine/adriamycin in 13 and actinomycin-D/vincristine in 18.
  • RESULTS: Of 42 patients, 13 (31.0%) did not have late effects of treatment.
  • The number of patients who developed muscular hypoplasia, limb length inequality, kyphosis, and iliac wing hypoplasia were seven (16.7%), five (11.9%), three (7.1%), and three (7.1%), respectively.
  • Median time to development of scoliosis was 102 months, with a range of 16-146 months.
  • Only one of 12 Group A patients developed scoliosis.
  • Of 23 patients, five irradiated within 10 days of surgery and one of 19 irradiated after 10 days developed bowel obstruction (p = 0.09, log rank test).
  • Three patients developed hypertension with normal blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels; another patient had chronic renal insufficiency in a nonirradiated kidney.
  • One patient developed diffuse interstitial pneumonitis.
  • Four patients developed benign neoplasms; three were in the RT field (two osteochondroma, one lipoma) and one outside (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II).
  • There were three second malignancies (chronic myelogenous leukemia at 9 years, osteosarcoma at 11 years, and breast cancer at 25 years after initial diagnosis of nephroblastoma); both solid malignancies occurred in the RT field.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Late effects of therapy were seen in more than two thirds of children treated for Wilms' tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Fertility / radiation effects. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Intestine, Small / radiation effects. Kidney Diseases / etiology. Kyphosis / etiology. Male. Muscles / radiation effects. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Puberty, Delayed / etiology. Scoliosis / etiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 10725637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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26. Kesic V: Fertility after the treatment of gynecologic tumors. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2008;178:79-95
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  • [Title] Fertility after the treatment of gynecologic tumors.
  • In a young woman with gynecologic cancer, preservation of fertility is possible.
  • Fertility-sparing surgery may be safe in early ovarian cancer of certain histological subtypes such as ovarian tumors of low malignant potential, malignant ovarian germ cell tumors, and ovarian sex cord stromal tumors.
  • For women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer who have early-stage disease, fertility-sparing surgery may be an option.
  • In some cases, fertility-sparing surgery may be followed by postoperative chemotherapy.
  • The concept of fertility-preserving surgery in early cervical cancer has been adopted by several leading centers worldwide as an option for stage Ia and small Ib disease without the presence of lymphovascular involvement.
  • Nonsurgical options such as hormonal therapy may be considered for women with early-stage, low-grade endometrial cancer.
  • Improvements in cancer cure rates and the development of conservative treatments mean that many young women with early gynecologic cancer can hope to start a new pregnancy after the treatment.
  • Patients are generally advised to wait 2 years after treatment for any malignancy before attempting pregnancy, but the optimal interval between cure and conception must be carefully determined by a multidisciplinary team including oncologist and obstetrician.
  • Gynecologic surgery and hemotherapy can have an impact not only on fertility, but also on the course of a next pregnancy (increased risk of miscarriage and premature delivery, etc.
  • Management of young women diagnosed with gynecologic cancer should be individualized, with the risk of conservative therapy balanced against the disadvantages of more radical treatment.
  • The alternatives to the traditional and standard radical procedures should be discussed, and the limitation of data regarding many conservative treatment options should be explained.
  • The patients should be aware that by accepting fertility-sparing treatment they are assuming a small but undefined risk for recurrence of the disease.
  • They need to know that these conservative therapeutic approaches are yet not considered "standard."
  • They may also consider ovarian tissue, oocyte, or embryo cryopreservation before definitive cancer therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Fertility / physiology. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Pregnancy Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18080446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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27. Chen Y, Xu H, Li Y, Wang D, Li J, Yuan J, Liang Z: The outcome of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy for cervical cancer: a prospective analysis of 295 patients. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2847-55
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  • [Title] The outcome of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy for cervical cancer: a prospective analysis of 295 patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: Cervical carcinoma is likely to become one of the most important indications for laparoscopic radical surgery.
  • The laparoscopic technique combines the benefits of a minimally invasive approach with established surgical principles.
  • In our institution, the laparoscopic radical hysterectomy and transperitoneal approach for lymphadenectomy have become the standard techniques for invasive cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: Between February 2001 and June 2007 we performed laparoscopic radical hysterectomies for cervical cancer in 295 patients.
  • The mean operation time was 162 min (range, 110-350), which included the learning curves of 3 surgeons.
  • The overall disease-free survival was 95.2% for Ia, 96.2% for Ib, 84.5% for IIa, 79.4% for IIb, 66.7% for IIIa, and 60.0% for IIIb.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy is a routine, effective treatment for patients with Ia2-IIb cervical carcinoma.
  • With more experience it is envisaged that IIb stage patients can be managed safely offering all the benefits of minimal surgery to the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hysterectomy. Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / secondary. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18649105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Ben-Shachar I, Pavelka J, Cohn DE, Copeland LJ, Ramirez N, Manolitsas T, Fowler JM: Surgical staging for patients presenting with grade 1 endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Mar;105(3):487-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical staging for patients presenting with grade 1 endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of surgical staging of patients presenting with grade 1 endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: The charts of all patients who presented for surgery for endometrial cancer between March 1997 and July 2003 were analyzed for demographic data, final tumor histology, grade, stage, and complications.
  • RESULTS: A total of 349 patients underwent surgical management for endometrial cancer.
  • Preoperatively, 181 (52%) were identified with grade 1 disease, with a mean age of 61 years (range 27-89).
  • Lymph node metastases were found in 3.9% of patients presenting with grade 1 endometrial cancer, and 10.5% had extrauterine spread (> IIb).
  • High-risk uterine features, including myometrial invasion more than 1/2, grade 3 lesions, high-risk histologic variants, and/or cervical involvement, were found in 26% of the patients.
  • No patients with stage Ia-IIb endometrioid cancer received adjuvant teletherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Four patients with low-risk uterine features were found to have extrauterine disease.
  • Twelve percent of patients received adjuvant therapy, and 17% avoided teletherapy and/or chemotherapy based on surgical staging.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical staging in patients presenting with grade 1 endometrial cancer significantly impacted postoperative treatment decisions in 29% of patients.
  • Omitting lymphadenectomy in patients presenting with grade 1 endometrial cancer may lead to inappropriate postoperative management.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aorta. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Dilatation and Curettage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvis

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  • (PMID = 15738013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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