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1. Danesi DT, Arcangeli G, Cruciani E, Altavista P, Mecozzi A, Saracino B, Orefici F: Conservative treatment of invasive bladder carcinoma by transurethral resection, protracted intravenous infusion chemotherapy, and hyperfractionated radiotherapy: long term results. Cancer; 2004 Dec 1;101(11):2540-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conservative treatment of invasive bladder carcinoma by transurethral resection, protracted intravenous infusion chemotherapy, and hyperfractionated radiotherapy: long term results.
  • BACKGROUND: Organ preservation has been investigated in patients with muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma over the past decades as an alternative to radical cystectomy.
  • The majority of studies reported that trimodal schedules, including transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB), radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy, are a feasible and safe organ-sparing approach without deferring the survival probability.
  • However, to the authors' knowledge the best combination of RT and chemotherapy has yet to be well defined.
  • The current study evaluated the long-term results of a schedule of concurrent cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) administered as protracted intravenous infusions (PVI) during hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) with organ-sparing intent in patients with infiltrating transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCCB).
  • After a complete TURB and bladder mapping, 42 of 77 patients underwent 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy.
  • Six to 8 weeks after RCT, patient response was evaluated by computed tomography scan, urine cytology, and TURB.
  • No significant difference was observed for the different prognostic factors with the exception of stage of disease (T2 [95.7%] vs. T3-T4a [80.0%]; P = 0.04).
  • The observed toxicity, mainly hematologic, was higher among the patients who received induction chemotherapy compared with the patients who did not receive induction chemotherapy, even though the difference was not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combined treatment appeared to provide high response rates and can be offered as an alternative option to radical cystectomy in selected patients who refuse or are unsuitable for surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cystectomy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 American Cancer Society
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1252-3 [16145384.001]
  • (PMID = 15481058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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2. Gillitzer R, Hampel C, Wiesner C, Hadaschik B, Thüroff J: Single-institution experience with primary tumours of the male urethra. BJU Int; 2008 Apr;101(8):964-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Single-institution experience with primary tumours of the male urethra.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess primary tumours of the urethra in males.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our database from 1986 to 2006 for primary tumours of the male urethra; nine patients with primary tumours of the urethra were analysed and follow-up information was obtained.
  • RESULTS: Three patients had tumours of the prostatic urethra, two of which had proliferating focal inflammation and one a low-grade, superficial urothelial cancer.
  • Six patients had carcinoma of the bulbar or penile urethra, including two with previous local percutaneous radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
  • One patient had adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary carcinoma of the male urethra is a rare entity.
  • Local surgical tumour control is essential for long-term survival, but the extent of surgery depends on tumour location and stage.
  • Multimodal therapy might be required to obtain an optimum oncological outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Epidemiologic Methods. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18070169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. Tanaka H, Masuda H, Komai Y, Yokoyama M, Iwai A, Numao N, Sakai Y, Saito K, Fujii Y, Kobayashi T, Kawakami S, Kihara K: [Primary adenocarcinoma of the female urethra treated by multimodal therapy]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Jan;55(1):43-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary adenocarcinoma of the female urethra treated by multimodal therapy].
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor surrounding the urethra, which invaded to the vesical triangle and the anterior vaginal wall.
  • Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were elevated, but squamous cell carcinoma antigen and prostate specific antigen were within normal limits.
  • First, the patient received local chemoradiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy using a fluoropyrimidine drug TS-1 and cisplatin.
  • The tumor markers declined to within normal limits after this preoperative therapy.
  • The final diagnosis was urethral adenocarcinoma, pT4N0, Stage IV.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19227213.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Michaelson MD, Shipley WU, Heney NM, Zietman AL, Kaufman DS: Selective bladder preservation for muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Br J Cancer; 2004 Feb 9;90(3):578-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Selective bladder preservation for muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.
  • Invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder is traditionally treated with radical cystectomy.
  • An alternative approach using selective bladder-preservation techniques incorporates transurethral resection of bladder tumours, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
  • The most important predictor of response is stage, with significantly higher long-term survival in patients with T2 disease.
  • Another important positive predictor of complete response to therapy is the ability of the urologic oncologist to remove all visible tumour through a transurethral approach prior to initiation of radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy. Neoplasm Staging. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Hydronephrosis / complications. Morbidity. Patient Selection. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 14760367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 23
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2409604
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5. Tamura N, Aoki Y, Fujita K, Tanaka K: Stage IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva managed with primary chemoradiation. Int J Clin Oncol; 2005 Apr;10(2):148-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stage IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva managed with primary chemoradiation.
  • We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IVa (T3N2M0) squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.
  • Because the urethra was surrounded by a vulvar tumor, she was managed with primary chemoradiation in an attempt to spare the morbidity associated with exenterative vulvar surgery.
  • Treatment was given as a planned split course, consisting of two separate courses of 23.8 Gy each.
  • During the 4 days of chemotherapy infusion, the radiation was administered in two daily fractions of 1.7 Gy each, given at least 6 h apart.
  • There was no treatment break due to adverse effect, and a pathological complete response was achieved in the primary tumor and the lymph nodes.
  • Chemoradiation therapy should be considered as an option in patients with locally advanced vulvar cancer to avert the need for exenterative surgery, and to preserve sexual, gastrointestinal, and urinary function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15864703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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6. Tazi K, Moudouni S, Karmouni T, Koutani A, Hachimi M, Lakrissa A: [Epidermoid carcinoma of the male urethra]. Prog Urol; 2000 Sep;10(4):600-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Epidermoid carcinoma of the male urethra].
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the male urethra is exceptional, as all urethral tumours represent less than 1% of urinary tract tumours.
  • Treatment depends on the stage and site of the lesion, but the prognosis remains very poor despite aggressive treatment, including mutilating resection surgery with or without associated radiotherapy.
  • However, the current hope for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra resides in radiotherapy-chemotherapy combination protocols based on the results obtained in squamous cell cancers of the oesophagus and anus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Urethral Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 11064906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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7. Ouzaid I, Hermieu JF, Dominique S, Fernandez P, Choudat L, Ravery V: Management of adenocarcinoma of the female urethra: case report and brief review. Can J Urol; 2010 Oct;17(5):5404-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of adenocarcinoma of the female urethra: case report and brief review.
  • INTRODUCTION: We present a case of a differentiated adenocarcinoma of the female urethra, which caused dysuria and voiding dysfunction.
  • RESULTS: An ultrasound-guided biopsy showed a urethral carcinoma.
  • A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a high-stage tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Urethral carcinoma is a rare malignancy.
  • Advanced disease should be treated with a multimodality of options including neoadjuvant radiotherapy given concomitantly with chemotherapy followed by surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Urethral Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Urethral Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pelvic Exenteration. Treatment Outcome. Urologic Surgical Procedures / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20974039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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8. Hamasaki T, Kondo Y, Ogata Y, Yoshida K, Kimura G, Shimizu H, Nishimura T: Advanced carcinoma of the prostatic urethra in a patient with marked response to chemotherapy, leading to preservation of the bladder. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb;15(1):109-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advanced carcinoma of the prostatic urethra in a patient with marked response to chemotherapy, leading to preservation of the bladder.
  • Pathological examination diagnosed poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma of the urethra with broad prostatic permeation.
  • Random bladder biopsies showed no malignancy, but a second TUR-P revealed urothelial carcinoma in the prostate and bladder neck.
  • Computed tomography (CT) showed lymph node metastases from para-aortic to right/left external iliac and left obturator nodes, so clinical stage T3N2M0 carcinoma of the prostatic urethra was diagnosed.
  • Given the presence of lymph node metastases, neoadjuvant chemotherapy using cisplatin 70 mg/m(2), ifosfamide 1.2 g/m(2) and docetaxel 70 mg/m(2) (PIT) was considered.
  • After chemotherapy, CT showed complete response (CR) of all lymph nodes.
  • Pathological findings of surgical specimens showed no residual carcinoma in the prostatic urethra or lymph nodes, although prostatic adenocarcinoma was recognized.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Hyperplasia / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20087614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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9. Koontz BF, Lee WR: Carcinoma of the urethra: radiation oncology. Urol Clin North Am; 2010 Aug;37(3):459-66

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoma of the urethra: radiation oncology.
  • Urethral cancer is a rare but aggressive neoplasm.
  • Early-stage distal lesions can be successfully treated with a single modality.
  • Results for definitive radiotherapy using either or both external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy have shown excellent cure rates in men and women.
  • Advanced tumors, however, have poor outcomes with single modality treatment.
  • Results have been improved using a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, chiefly 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Urethral Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20674700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-318X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Rogers LJ, Howard B, Van Wijk L, Wei W, Dehaeck K, Soeters R, Denny LA: Chemoradiation in advanced vulval carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 May;19(4):745-51
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  • [Title] Chemoradiation in advanced vulval carcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Vulval carcinoma is uncommon, affecting approximately 2 per 100,000 women annually.
  • The treatment of choice is radical vulvectomy and inguinal lymph node dissection.
  • Advanced vulval carcinomas involve midline structures (such as clitoris, urethra, or anus) and/or adjacent pelvic organs or bone, and adequate excision may require urinary diversion, colostomy, or pelvic exenteration.
  • Less morbid and less mutilating therapeutic alternatives have been investigated, particularly chemoradiation, which has shown success in the management of anal carcinomas.
  • This is a retrospective study of the GSH's experience of the use of chemoradiation as primary therapy for women with advanced vulval carcinoma.
  • Other prognostic factors for survival were performance status and tumor stage.
  • Performance status, age, and tumor stage were also associated with survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19509582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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11. Lerner SP, Colen J, Shen S: Prostatic biology, histologic patterns and clinical consequences of transitional cell carcinoma. Curr Opin Urol; 2008 Sep;18(5):508-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prostatic biology, histologic patterns and clinical consequences of transitional cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current fund of knowledge about prostatic transitional cell carcinoma and the implications for diagnostic and management strategies particularly as they relate to radical cystectomy.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Prostatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is present in up to 48% of patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy.
  • Transurethral resection biopsies of the prostatic urethra are a sensitive means of detecting prostatic TCC and whole-mount step sectioning is the most accurate method for determining the presence and extent of prostatic TCC.
  • Prostatic TCC may affect prognosis independent of the primary bladder tumor stage.
  • Preoperative detection of prostatic TCC enables accurate staging and treatment planning, including assessment of the risk of cancer at the apical urethral margin and the risk of a second primary tumor of the retained urethra, all of which factor into decision-making around urinary diversion and urethrectomy.
  • Recognition of true T4a stage requires consideration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the need for extended pelvic and iliac lymphadenectomy in order to optimize an integrated treatment strategy.
  • SUMMARY: Prostatic involvement with TCC in patients with bladder cancer is a common event.
  • In patients with recurrent high-grade nonmuscle invasive cancer and patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy, a thorough assessment of the prostatic urethra and stroma is imperative for accurate staging and treatment planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cystectomy. Humans. Male. Urethra / pathology. Urethra / surgery. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urethral Neoplasms / surgery


12. Uchio EM, Linehan WM, Figg WD, Walther MM: A phase I study of intravesical suramin for the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol; 2003 Jan;169(1):357-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase I study of intravesical suramin for the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • PURPOSE: Suramin is a polysulfonated naphthylurea that inhibits proliferation and DNA synthesis of transitional cell carcinoma cell lines.
  • Its large molecular size and negative charge inhibit bladder absorption, making suramin an excellent candidate for intravesical chemotherapy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intravesical suramin treatment was administered in 9 patients with histologically identified transitional cell carcinoma (Tcis, Ta or T1) in whom at least 1 course of standard intravesical chemotherapy (bacillus Calmette-Guerin, thiotepa or mitomycin C) had failed.
  • RESULTS: The 9 patients underwent 54 treatments with suramin.
  • Plasma suramin concentration after treatment was 1.9 to 38.0 microg.
  • /ml. and was not related to treatment dose.
  • Complications included self-limited bladder spasms (less than 24 hours) in 4 of 54 treatments (7%) and new or worsening vesicoureteral reflux in 3 ureters (17%).
  • Another patient who was treated after the Foley balloon was inflated in the urethra experienced bladder spasms, skin flushing and fever (39C).
  • Mean bladder capacity before and after treatment was 600 and 540 ml., respectively.
  • At followup 7 patients had stage Ta tumors and 2 had carcinoma in situ.
  • /ml was defined as a safe treatment parameter with acceptable plasma concentrations and minimal side effects.
  • Phase II studies are needed to assess the antitumor activity of suramin in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Suramin / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12478189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6032D45BEM / Suramin
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13. Gómez Díaz ME, Castaño González-Coto D, Cuervo Calvo J, Muruamendiaraz Fernández V: [Cancer of the female urethra. Report of a new case a review of the literature]. Arch Esp Urol; 2002 Jun;55(5):568-71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cancer of the female urethra. Report of a new case a review of the literature].
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the main features of female urethral cancer, the only genitourinary neoplasm with a predilection for women, the ratio being 4:1.
  • Female urethral cancer is an uncommon neoplasm that accounts for only 0.02% of all cancers found in women.
  • METHODS: A case of female urethral cancer in a 52-year-old woman is presented.
  • RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Female urethral cancer is an uncommon neoplasm.
  • The clinical pathologic stage is the best predictor of the disease-free survival rate.
  • For patients with Ta-2N0M0 tumors, multimodality therapy may not be required.
  • For patients with T3-4N0M0 tumors, the best results are obtained with multimodal radiation and chemotherapy with surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12174428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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14. Metwalli AR, Kamat AM: Controversial issues and optimal management of stage T1G3 bladder cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2006 Aug;6(8):1283-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Controversial issues and optimal management of stage T1G3 bladder cancer.
  • The management of T1G3 bladder cancer is controversial.
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin intravesical therapy with a maintenance regimen is recommended for solitary T1G3 tumors.
  • The timing of radical cystectomy for these patients is controversial, but early recurrence during intravesical therapy is an indication for radical cystectomy.
  • Multifocal disease, concomitant carcinoma in situ and disease in the prostatic urethra and bladder neck also suggest aggressive disease and cystectomy should be considered in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16925494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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15. Irani J: [Management of Ta, T1, and in situ bladder carcinoma: what is new?]. Prog Urol; 2008 May;18 Suppl 5:S94-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Management of Ta, T1, and in situ bladder carcinoma: what is new?].
  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge des carcinomes Ta, T1, et in situ de vessie: quoi de neuf ?
  • Since a recent time, some changes were made in the management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • New prognosis markers appear such as lamina propria invasion microstaging and prostatic urethra involvement.
  • Immediate postoperative instillation of chemotherapy decreases the risk of recurrence in patients with stage Ta T1 bladder cancer.
  • Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) appears to be the treatment of choice for the management of carcinoma in situ, and is superior to Mitomycin C in reducing tumor recurrence in high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • In addition, intravesical BCG significantly reduces the risk of progression after transurethral resection in patients with nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer who receive maintenance treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Age Factors. Aged. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Cystoscopy. Female. Humans. Male. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care. Prognosis. Reoperation. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Urinary Bladder / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18585634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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16. Divrik RT, Sahin AF, Yildirim U, Altok M, Zorlu F: Impact of routine second transurethral resection on the long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed pT1 urothelial carcinoma with respect to recurrence, progression rate, and disease-specific survival: a prospective randomised clinical trial. Eur Urol; 2010 Aug;58(2):185-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of routine second transurethral resection on the long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed pT1 urothelial carcinoma with respect to recurrence, progression rate, and disease-specific survival: a prospective randomised clinical trial.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of routine second TUR on the long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed pT1 urothelial carcinoma.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred ten newly diagnosed T1 bladder cancer patients were prospectively randomised to two groups between January 2001 and January 2005.
  • All patients (groups 1 and 2) received the first instillation of intravesical chemotherapy within 24h after the initial resection.
  • Of these patients, eight had upper-stage (pT2) disease.
  • Only 5 of the 30 patients in group 1 died of cancer compared to 11 of the 35 patients in group 2 (p=0.038).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cystectomy / methods. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Reoperation. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Urethra

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Aug;58(2):191-2 [20427121.001]
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Aug;58(2):193-4 [20418013.001]
  • (PMID = 20303646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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17. Amling CL: Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer. Curr Probl Cancer; 2001 Jul-Aug;25(4):219-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer.
  • Bladder cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer in American men, accounting for more than 12,000 deaths annually.
  • Currently, cigarette smoking is by far the most common cause of bladder cancer, although occupational exposure to arylamines has been implicated in the past.
  • Initial radiologic evaluation usually includes the excretory urography (intravenous pyelography), although further evaluation of the renal parenchyma with ultrasound or computed tomography scanning has been advocated by some.
  • These radiologic studies are unable to provide adequate bladder imaging, and thus cystoscopy is required for the diagnosis of bladder cancer.
  • Superficial tumors consist of papillary tumors that are mucosally confined (Ta), papillary or sessile tumors extending into the lamina propria (T1), and carcinoma in situ, which occurs as "flat" mucosal dysplasia, which can be focal, diffuse, or associated with a papillary or sessile tumor.
  • Most superficial tumors can be stratified into high- or low-risk groups depending on tumor stage, grade, size, number, and recurrence pattern.
  • It is important to identify those tumors at risk for recurrence or progression so that adjuvant intravesical therapies can be instituted.
  • Most are given intravesically on a weekly basis, although many studies suggest that a single instillation immediately after transurethral resection may be as good as a longer course of therapy.
  • Although all of these drugs have toxicity, they usually are well tolerated.
  • Intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an immunotherapeutic agent that when given intravesically is very effective in the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Compared with controls, BCG has a 43% advantage in preventing tumor recurrence, a significantly better rate than the 16% to 21% advantage of intravesical chemotherapy.
  • In addition, BCG is particularly effective in the treatment of carcinoma in situ, eradicating it in more than 80% of cases.
  • In contrast to intravesical chemotherapy, BCG has also been shown to decrease the risk of tumor progression.
  • Unfortunately, adverse effects associated with this prolonged therapy may limit its widespread applicability.
  • In those patients at high risk in whom BCG therapy fails, intravesical interferon-alpha with or without BCG may be beneficial in some.
  • Photodynamic therapy has also been used but is limited by its toxicity.
  • In patients who progress or do not respond to intravesical therapies, cystectomy should be considered.
  • With the development of orthotopic lower urinary tract reconstruction to the native urethra, the quality of life impact of radical cystectomy has been lessened.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Immunotherapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ABO Blood-Group System. Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Photochemotherapy. Risk Factors. Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11514784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-0272
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABO Blood-Group System; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 179
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18. Startsev V, Pouline I: Adjuvant therapy in different risk-groups of patients with superficial bladder cancer. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2005 Jun;77(2):93-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy in different risk-groups of patients with superficial bladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We assessed and compared the outcomes of two different courses of adjuvant therapy to patients with superficial bladder TCC.
  • METHODS: The study included 142 patients (28 women and 114 men with a median age of 58.5 years) with newly diagnosed bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) between October 2002 and October 2003.
  • Pathological findings showed pTa stage in 20 (14.1%), pT1G1-2 in 99 (69.7%), pT1G3 in 15 (10.6%) and pTis in 3 (2.1%) cases; we additionally examined prostate specimens after TURP.
  • The main criteria for adjuvant treatment were: grade, number and location of the tumor in the bladder The group of patients (group A) with G3 and multicentric lesions, localized at the lower third of the bladder, underwent BCG-therapy according the conventional schedule (60 patients, 42.3%).
  • In group B (82 patients, 57.7%) patients underwent local chemotherapy (Thiotepa 80 mg p/week or Doxorubicin 50 mg p/week), started within 24 hours after operation.
  • A second-look TURBT was performed within 6 weeks of treatment course in both groups.
  • Adjuvant therapy was continued in all patients, except four patients with G3 and two patients with T2 stage who underwent more aggressive treatment (4 cystectomies and 2 external beam radiotherapy).
  • We switched 16 patients in group B with recurrent cancer to BCG treatment.
  • Nobody of TURP-operated patients had recurrence in the distal part of urethra, and toxicity level of TURP-operated patients was not worse than in the whole patients cohort (not more than grade II).
  • CONCLUSION: BCG adjuvant therapy demonstrated good results in the treatment of the recurrence of superficial TCC.
  • However, in patients with low recurrence risk we used chemotherapy successfully.
  • Patients with T1G3 tumors, being at high risk of residual, or even invasive, cancer, could be offered definitive therapy within a 1-year period.
  • Patients who underwent simultaneous TURP for relief of LUTS did not show cancer recurrences in the operated area or an higher toxicity of adjuvant treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16146269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa
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19. Das S, Tunuguntla HS: Balanitis xerotica obliterans--a review. World J Urol; 2000 Dec;18(6):382-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Many cases of BXO occurring after circumcision may be cases of secondary phimosis due to BXO not being recognized at the time of surgery.
  • Biopsy of the lesions is not essential in all cases and is indicated to differentiate from penile cancer and in atypical cases.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of BXO are very important in preventing the urological complications of the diseases such as urethral stricture.
  • Treatment of BXO depends on the anatomic location of the lesions and their extent and severity, together with the rapidity of progression of the disease process.
  • The treatment may vary from topical corticosteroids, laser vaporization in early cases to meatoplasty and urethroplasty in extensive cases.
  • Topical pharmacotherapy is useful in the early stages to reduce the initial symptoms and slow down the progression, but is not effective in all cases and is not the curative treatment of disease.
  • Meatal stenosis, phimosis, scar adhesions, fissures, erosions of glans and prepuce and involvement of the urethra are indications for surgical treatment.
  • Surgery seems to be the only treatment that can relieve the symptoms of advanced disease.
  • BXO involving anterior urethra can be treated by 2-stage urethroplasty or substitution urethroplasty.
  • The complete excision of the stricture and flap urethroplasty seems to be better than a 2-stage procedure.
  • However, at the present time, it is not possible to say that surgery can completely resolve this chronic and progressive disease.
  • Despite many reports in the literature of cases of BXO associated with squamous cell carcinoma, the etiologic relationship between the two conditions is uncertain.

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  • (PMID = 11204255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-4983
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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20. Giannarini G, Kessler TM, Thoeny HC, Nguyen DP, Meissner C, Studer UE: Do patients benefit from routine follow-up to detect recurrences after radical cystectomy and ileal orthotopic bladder substitution? Eur Urol; 2010 Oct;58(4):486-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The need for and intensity of follow-up to detect disease recurrence after radical cystectomy (RC) for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) remains a matter for debate.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective analysis of 479 patients with nonmetastatic bladder TCC receiving no neoadjuvant chemotherapy/radiation therapy and prospectively followed with a standardised protocol for a median 4.3 yr (range: 0.3-20.9) after RC at an academic tertiary referral centre.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) probability for asymptomatic and symptomatic recurrent patients were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
  • The effects of age, nerve-sparing surgery, pathologic tumour stage, lymph node status, adjuvant chemotherapy, mode of recurrence diagnosis, and recurrence site on survival were assessed with multivariable Cox regression models.
  • Routine follow-up mostly detected lung metastases and urethral recurrences, while symptoms were predominantly the result of bone metastases and concomitant pelvic/distant recurrences.
  • Of 24 patients with urethral recurrences, 13 had carcinoma in situ (CIS).
  • Of these, 12 were successfully managed with urethra-sparing treatment, and 6 are still alive with no evidence of disease.
  • Routine follow-up appears particularly effective in early detection of urethral CIS, which can be treated conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy. Ileum / transplantation. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Reservoirs, Continent
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Oct;58(4):495-7 [20609511.001]
  • (PMID = 20541311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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21. Huguet J, Gaya JM, Sabaté S, Palou J, Villavicencio H: [Radical cystectomy in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer who fail BCG therapy]. Actas Urol Esp; 2010 Jan;34(1):63-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Radical cystectomy in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer who fail BCG therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Cistectomía radical en tumores vesicales no músculoinfiltrantes que fracasan al tratamiento con bacilo de Calmette-Guérin.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics and outcomes of patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) due to BCG failure.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-five (11%) of the 864 patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) at our center from 1989 to 2002 had received prior treatment with BCG.
  • Of these, 62 (65.2%) underwent RC due to relapsing, high-risk NMIBC or CIS despite BCG therapy.
  • A stage >or= pT2 tumor was reported in the cystectomy specimen in 17 (27%) of these patients, who were considered to have been understaged.
  • Median time from tumor diagnosis to tumor progression was 24 months (10th-90th percentile, 6-98 months).
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with high-risk NMIBCs who fail BCG therapy, RC should be performed before progression because survival is decreased when the RC specimen shows muscle-invasive disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy / methods. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20223134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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22. Martínez-Piñeiro JA, Martínez-Piñeiro L, Solsona E, Rodríguez RH, Gómez JM, Martín MG, Molina JR, Collado AG, Flores N, Isorna S, Pertusa C, Rabadán M, Astobieta A, Camacho JE, Arribas S, Madero R, Club Urológico Español de Tratamiento Oncológico (CUETO): Has a 3-fold decreased dose of bacillus Calmette-Guerin the same efficacy against recurrences and progression of T1G3 and Tis bladder tumors than the standard dose? Results of a prospective randomized trial. J Urol; 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1242-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: We determined if a third of the dose of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has the same efficacy than a standard dose for decreasing the risk of recurrence and progression after transurethral resection in patients with superficial high risk (stages T1G3 and carcinoma in situ) bladder cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 155 patients with a mean age +/- SD of 67 +/- 10.1 years with superficial bladder cancer, including stages T1G3 in 90, a Tis primary tumor in 23 and associated Tis disease in 42, were enrolled and randomly assigned to be treated after transurethral resection of all visible lesions with intravesical BCG, Connaught strain (weekly x 6 and fortnightly x 6 thereafter) with the standard dose of 81 mg or with the decreased dose of 27 mg.
  • Median time to recurrence was not attained in the standard dose arm and it was 63 months in the decreased dose arm.
  • Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to recurrence did not reveal differences between the 2 doses (p = 0.405).
  • Four patients (6.1%) with Tis had local extension into the prostatic urethra and ducts, including 3 (8.3%) treated with the standard dose and 1 (3.4%) treated with the decreased dose.
  • Median time to progression was not attained in either arm.
  • Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to progression did not differ significantly (p = 0.7997).
  • Subgroup analysis by patient age, tumor status, number, size and T stage (T1G3 vs Tis) did not differ significantly.
  • Mean disease specific survival +/- SE was 86.96 +/- 4.14 and 83.73 +/- 4.73 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a 3-fold decreased dose of intravesical BCG is as effective as the standard dose against progression in patients with high risk stages T1G3 and Tis superficial bladder carcinoma but with significantly less toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1960; author reply 1960-1 [16600806.001]
  • (PMID = 16145378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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