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1. Kamiński B, Kobiorska-Nowak J, Bień S: [Distant metastases to nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses, from the organs outside the head and neck]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2008;62(4):422-5
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  • [Title] [Distant metastases to nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses, from the organs outside the head and neck].
  • At that time, the correct diagnosis requires only to compare the pathology report from the primary biopsy, with the biopsy from the lump in the head and neck.
  • The metastases to nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are very rare and usually localized within the maxillary sinus.
  • MATERIAL: 4 cases, out of 46 all distant metastases to the head and neck region, localized in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, diagnosed and treated in Dept. of ORL H&N surgery, Holy Cross Cancer Centre, from 2001 to 2007.
  • Case I. F. 71 years; the metastasis of colonic carcinoma to the sphenoid sinus as a first symptom of the disease).
  • The palliative Rtg-therapy was applied, and patient died in 2 months after diagnosis was established.
  • Case II. M. 69 y with metastasis of kidney cancer (Ca clarocellulare) to the nasal cavity, during a palliative stage of the disease due to multiple lung metastases.
  • Patient was treated with multiple courses of chemotherapy due to generalization of the disease.
  • Cases III. F. 50 years in palliative stage of the breast cancer, with metastases to the bones and hepar and with metastasis to the maxillary sinus.
  • Received palliative Rtg. therapy on the region of metastasis.
  • Died in 5 months after diagnosis of maxillary sinus metastasis.
  • Case IV. F. 54 years in palliative stage of the colonic cancer, with multiple metastases to the lungs and hepar; with metastasis to the maxillary sinus.
  • During hemotherapy a symptoms of tumor of the maxillary sinus appeared, confirmed as a metastasis.
  • The palliative Rtg-therapy on the region of metastasis.
  • Died in 18 months, after diagnosis of maxillary sinus metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of metastases from distant organs, to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is miserable.
  • In the majority of distant metastases to the nose and paranasal sinuses, the palliative therapy is the only possible option of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / secondary. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Poland. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18837216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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2. Fitzek MM, Thornton AF, Varvares M, Ancukiewicz M, Mcintyre J, Adams J, Rosenthal S, Joseph M, Amrein P: Neuroendocrine tumors of the sinonasal tract. Results of a prospective study incorporating chemotherapy, surgery, and combined proton-photon radiotherapy. Cancer; 2002 May 15;94(10):2623-34
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors of the sinonasal tract. Results of a prospective study incorporating chemotherapy, surgery, and combined proton-photon radiotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The authors report the results of a prospective study of patients with malignant neuroendocrine tumors of the sinonasal tract who received multimodality treatment incorporating high-dose proton-photon radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Nineteen patients with olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) or neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) were treated between 1992 and 1998 on a prospective study.
  • Four patients had Kadish Stage B disease, and 15 patients had Kadish Stage C disease.
  • Patients received chemotherapy with 2 courses of cisplatin and etoposide followed by high-dose proton-photon radiotherapy to 69.2 cobalt-Gray equivalents (CGE) using 1.6-1.8 CGE per fraction twice daily in a concomitant boost schedule.
  • Two further courses of chemotherapy were given to responders.
  • RESULTS: Of 19 patients, 15 patients were alive at the time of this report with a median follow-up of 45 months (range, 20-92 months).
  • The 5-year local control rate of initial treatment was 88%.
  • Acute toxicity of chemotherapy was tolerable, with no patient sustaining more than Grade 3 hematologic toxicity.
  • Thirteen patients showed a partial or complete response to chemotherapy.
  • One patient developed unilateral visual loss after the first course of chemotherapy; otherwise, visual preservation was achieved in all patients.
  • Four patients who were clinically intact developed radiation-induced damage to the frontal or temporal lobe by magnetic resonance imaging criteria.
  • Two patients showed soft tissue and/or bone necrosis, and one of these patients required surgical repair of a cerebrospinal fluid leak.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and high-dose proton-photon radiotherapy is a successful treatment approach for patients with ONB and NEC.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 12173330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 21239
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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3. Gabriele AM, Airoldi M, Garzaro M, Zeverino M, Amerio S, Condello C, Trotti AB: Stage III-IV sinonasal and nasal cavity carcinoma treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Tumori; 2008 May-Jun;94(3):320-6
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  • [Title] Stage III-IV sinonasal and nasal cavity carcinoma treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To report the dosimetric data and clinical outcomes of patients with advanced neoplasm of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity, treated by three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: Between 2000 and 2005, 31 consecutive patients were treated for locally advanced tumors of paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity.
  • The primary tumor was located as follows: maxillary sinus 15 (48.4%); ethmoid sinus 10 (32.3%); nasal cavity 6 (19.3%).
  • The patients were separated in two groups according to the modality of treatment: group A included 21 patients treated with postoperative three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy; group B included 10 patients treated with radical three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy.
  • The median radiation dose to the planning target volume was 60 Gy (range, 56-63) for patients who underwent complete surgical resection and 68 Gy (range, 64-70) for those who did not have tumor resection or patients with residual disease.
  • No patient developed radio-induced blindness; 4 patients underwent enucleation as part of radical surgery.
  • The prognosis depends on localization, tumor stage and treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Ethmoid Sinus. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18705398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Kim JG, Sohn SK, Kim DH, Baek JH, Jeon SB, Chae YS, Lee KB, Park JS, Sohn JH, Kim JC, Park IK: Phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Br J Cancer; 2005 Nov 14;93(10):1117-21
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  • [Title] Phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
  • In total, 37 patients with stage III or IV SCCHN were enrolled on the study.
  • The chemotherapy consisted of two cycles of intravenous cisplatin of 80 mg m(-2) on day 1 and oral capecitabine 825 mg m(-2) twice daily from day 1 to day 14 at 3-week intervals.
  • The radiotherapy (1.8-2.0 Gy 1 fraction day(-1) to a total dose of 70-70.2 Gy) was delivered to the primary tumour site and neck.
  • The primary tumour sites were as follows: oral cavity (n=6), oropharynx (n=11), hypopharynx (n=8), larynx (n=3), nasopharynx (n=6), and paranasal sinus (n=3).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Disease Progression. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16251869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361495
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5. Samant S, Robbins KT, Vang M, Wan J, Robertson J: Intra-arterial cisplatin and concomitant radiation therapy followed by surgery for advanced paranasal sinus cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2004 Aug;130(8):948-55
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  • [Title] Intra-arterial cisplatin and concomitant radiation therapy followed by surgery for advanced paranasal sinus cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the long-term efficacy of a combined regimen of intra-arterial high-dose cisplatin chemotherapy and concomitant radiation therapy followed by organ-sparing surgery when possible in the treatment of advanced paranasal sinus cancer.
  • Patients Nineteen patients with advanced paranasal sinus malignancies with a minimum follow-up of 2 years.
  • Malignancies included 14 squamous cell carcinomas (74%), 2 adenocarcinomas (10%), 2 adenoid cystic carcinomas (10%), and 1 undifferentiated carcinoma (5%).
  • Intervention Treatment consisted of preoperative radiation therapy (2.0 Gy/fraction per day; total dose, 50 Gy in 5 weeks) given concomitantly with 3 to 4 weekly infusions of intra-arterial cisplatin (150 mg/m(2) per week) and systemic sodium thiosulfate neutralization.
  • The regimen included planned surgery performed approximately 8 weeks after completion of radiation therapy.
  • One patient died of myocardial infarction during treatment.
  • No other treatment-limiting toxic effect was noted.
  • Except for cataract in 2 patients, no visual loss developed.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the advanced stage and unfavorable nature of cancer in this cohort, our results indicate that this regimen holds promise and merits further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Ethmoid Sinus / pathology. Ethmoid Sinus / surgery. Maxillary Sinus / pathology. Maxillary Sinus / surgery. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted. Surgical Procedures, Operative
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Prospective Studies. Radiation Dosage. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15313865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Hoppe BS, Nelson CJ, Gomez DR, Stegman LD, Wu AJ, Wolden SL, Pfister DG, Zelefsky MJ, Shah JP, Kraus DH, Lee NY: Unresectable carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses: outcomes and toxicities. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Nov 1;72(3):763-9
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  • [Title] Unresectable carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses: outcomes and toxicities.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term outcomes and toxicity in patients with unresectable paranasal sinus carcinoma treated with radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between January 1990 and December 2006, 39 patients with unresectable Stage IVB paranasal sinus carcinoma were treated definitively with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (n = 35, 90%) or with radiotherapy alone (n = 4, 10%).
  • Patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (n = 18, 46%), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (n = 12, 31%), or conventional radiotherapy (n = 9, 23%) to a median treatment dose of 70 Gy.
  • Most patients received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy (n = 32, 82%) and/or concomitant boost radiotherapy (n = 29, 74%).
  • Nine patients developed neck relapses; however none of the 4 patients receiving elective neck irradiation had a nodal relapse.
  • In 13 patients acute Grade 3 mucositis developed.
  • Severe late toxicities occurred in 2 patients with radionecrosis and 1 patient with unilateral blindness 7 years after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (77 Gy to the optic nerve).
  • The only significant factor for improved local progression-free survival and overall survival was a biologically equivalent dose of radiation >/=65 Gy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment outcomes for unresectable paranasal sinus carcinoma are poor, and combined-modality treatment is needed that is both more effective and associated with less morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Nose Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Selection. Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Survival Analysis. Survivors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18395361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Platinum Compounds
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7. McKay SP, Shibuya TY, Armstrong WB, Wong HS, Panossian AM, Ager J, Mathog RH: Cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses and skull base. Am J Otolaryngol; 2007 Sep-Oct;28(5):294-301

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  • [Title] Cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses and skull base.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinus and skull base for factors that might predict clinical outcome.
  • RESULTS: Of 73 patients with anterior skull base malignancies, squamous cell carcinoma was the most prevalent-30 patients or 41%.
  • Twenty-three patients underwent craniofacial surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Seven patients, deemed unresectable or not willing to have surgery, were treated with standard radiation protocols often with chemotherapy.
  • Although 3- and 5-year survival of tumors free of sphenoid sinus, dura, retromaxillary, and ptyerygoid space, and orbit treated with surgery showed no significant difference to those patients with involvement, their median time of survival was increased for all anatomical regions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Squamous cell carcinoma of the sinus invading the skull base carries a very poor prognosis regardless of treatment modality.
  • Surgery with adjunctive radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy offers a survival advantage over nonsurgical methods, but treatment should be individualized weighing prognostic factors, such as age, stage, and anatomical extension with morbidity of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Skull Base Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prevalence. Proportional Hazards Models. Quality of Life. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17826529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Menon S, Pai P, Sengar M, Aggarwal JP, Kane SV: Sinonasal malignancies with neuroendocrine differentiation: case series and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Jan-Mar;53(1):28-34
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  • Based on their neuroendocrine differentiation they can be sub categorized into sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC), sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC), esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC).
  • The clinical treatment and follow- up data were retrieved from the case files in available cases.
  • All cases of SNUC and SNEC were of high grade and stage whereas 50% of ENB cases were of grade II but high stage tumors.
  • Most of the SNUC and SNEC patients had been treated with multimodality treatment regimens including upfront chemotherapy followed by surgery and loco- regional radiation.
  • In contrast, ENB patients had undergone surgical extirpation followed by radiation therapy in majority of cases.
  • With limited follow-up data, it was observed that four out of five SNUC patients and three out of four SNEC patients developed either loco-regional (three of SNUC and two of SNEC) or distant metastasis (one patient each of SNUC and SNEC).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20090218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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9. Preś K, Pośpiech L, Krecicki T, Nadolska B, Kubacka M, Zatoński T, Jabłonka A, Piechnik-Resler D, Jankowska-Konsur A: [Malignant neoplasm of nose and paranasal sinuses in Lower Silesia in years 1992-2001]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(11-12):797-800
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  • [Title] [Malignant neoplasm of nose and paranasal sinuses in Lower Silesia in years 1992-2001].
  • Malignant neoplasms of the nose and paranasal sinuses occur rarely but due to late diagnosis and poor treatment effects still remain a serious problem.
  • The aim of the study was the analysis of all nose and paranasal sinus neoplasms treated at Lower Silesia in the years 1992-2001.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the years 1992-2001 in Lower Silesia region there were 182 patients treated for malignant nose and paranasal sinus tumors.
  • Principal management was combined therapy--surgery with radiotherapy in 84% of the cases.
  • Radiotherapy alone was performed in 8.8% and chemotherapy as palliative treatment in 7.1%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Unsatisfactory results of treatment are an effect of a high advanced stage of the tumor while diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / epidemiology. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17427494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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10. Daele JJ, Vander Poorten V, Rombaux P, Hamoir M: Cancer of the nasal vestibule, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. B-ENT; 2005;Suppl 1:87-94; quiz 95-6
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  • [Title] Cancer of the nasal vestibule, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
  • The usual clinical presentation of sinonasal tumours includes symptoms that are indistinguishable from inflammatory sinus disease, namely nasal airway obstruction, pain, and epistaxis.
  • Computed tomography is the most reliable and informative imaging tool for evaluating the cancers of the paranasal sinuses.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging is essential for tumour mapping because of the excellent tissue characterisation and the possibility of differentiating between neoplasms and retained secretions.
  • A wide variety of histologies may be encountered, although squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) is the most common.
  • The response of sinonasal tract tumours to radiation therapy varies with the stage and histology of the tumour.
  • Management of these tumours requires a multimodal approach, involving surgery, radiation therapy and, increasingly in recent years, chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16363270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1781-782X
  • [Journal-full-title] B-ENT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] B-ENT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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11. Katz TS, Mendenhall WM, Morris CG, Amdur RJ, Hinerman RW, Villaret DB: Malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Head Neck; 2002 Sep;24(9):821-9
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  • [Title] Malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of radiation therapy in patients with nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between October 1964 and July 1998, 78 patients with malignant tumors of the nasal cavity (48 patients), ethmoid sinus (24 patients), sphenoid sinus (5 patients), or frontal sinus (1 patient) were treated with curative intent by radiation therapy alone or in the adjuvant setting.
  • There were 25 squamous cell carcinomas, 14 undifferentiated carcinomas, 31 minor salivary gland tumors (adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma), 8 esthesioneuroblastomas, and 1 transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Forty-seven patients were treated with irradiation alone, 25 with surgery and postoperative irradiation, 2 with preoperative irradiation and surgery, and 4 with chemotherapy in combination with irradiation with or without surgery.
  • RESULTS: The 5-year actuarial local control rate for stage I (limited to the site of origin; 22 patients) was 86%; for stage II (extension to adjacent sites (eg, adjacent sinuses, orbit, pterygomaxillary fossa, nasopharynx; 21 patients) was 65%; and for stage III (destruction of skull base or pterygoid plates, or intracranial extension; 35 patients) was 34%.
  • Of the 67 (86%) patients who were initially seen with node-negative disease, 39 (58%) received no elective neck treatment, and 28 (42%) received elective neck irradiation.
  • Of the 39 patients who received no elective neck treatment, 33 (85%) did not experience recurrence in the neck compared with 25 (89%) of 28 patients who received elective neck irradiation.
  • Most patients who received elective neck irradiation (57%) had stage III disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy may result in improved local control, absolute survival, and complications when compared with radiation therapy alone.
  • Elective neck irradiation is probably unnecessary for patients with early-stage disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blindness / etiology. Blindness / prevention & control. Cause of Death. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Osteoradionecrosis / etiology. Postoperative Care. Preoperative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 24: 821-829, 2002
  • (PMID = 12211046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Xie GF, Cao KJ, Li Y, Huang PY: [Impact of dose boost in skull base on recurrence of stage T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Oct;24(10):1246-8
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  • [Title] [Impact of dose boost in skull base on recurrence of stage T4 nasopharyngeal carcinoma].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The recurrence rate in skull base is high for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with cavernous sinus or/and sphenoid sinus involvement.
  • This study was conducted to explore the impact of dose boost in skull base on the recurrence in skull base and survival of NPC patients with cavernous sinus or/and sphenoid sinus involvement.
  • METHODS: A total of 120 stage T4 NPC patients with cavernous sinus or/and sphenoid sinus involvement proved by histopathology and computed tomography (CT) were treated in our hospital from Oct.
  • The irradiation dose was (71.55+/-3.09) Gy in nasopharynx and (58.95+/-6.16) Gy in neck.
  • Of the 120 patients, 27 received irradiation (6-10 Gy) in skull base after radiotherapy (boost group), 93 did not receive irradiation in skull base (control group).
  • Fifty-three patients, 41 in control group and 12 in boost group, received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for 1-3 cycles.
  • The median disease-freely survival time was longer in boost group than in control group (60 months vs. 30 months).
  • CONCLUSION: Dose boost in skull base can reduce the recurrence of stage T4 NPC in skull base and tends to enhance the disease-freely survival rate for NPC patients with cavernous sinus or/and sphenoid sinus involvementû it is recommended to such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16219141.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes
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13. Castro G, Snitcovsky IM, Gebrim EM, Diz MD, Nadalin W, Federico MH: Patients (pts) with stage IV, non-metastatic advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) submitted to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCR) present with manageable toxicity. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):8228

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  • [Title] Patients (pts) with stage IV, non-metastatic advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) submitted to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCR) present with manageable toxicity.
  • METHODS: In this phase IV trial, previously untreated pts with locoregionally advanced, unresectable, HNSCC received 70 Gy, 200 cGy/d concurrent with cisplatin 100 mg/m<sup>2</sup> on days 1, 22 and 43.
  • Eligibility criteria included a histological proof of SCC, from oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or paranasal sinus; stage III/IV, M0 (AJCC, 2002); age 18-70 yrs; ECOG-PS 0-2; adequate organ function; measurable disease; assigned informed consent.
  • Pain (rate 0-10) and nutritional status were evaluated before and after treatment.
  • 11 pts completed radiation therapy (median time 64 d); median number of chemotherapy cycles: 2.
  • Pain score decreased by 3±3 after treatment (95%CI 1-5, p=0.007; paired t-test).
  • CCR is a feasible treatment strategy in this group of pts of locoregionally advanced HNSCC.

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  • (PMID = 28016852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Hameed S, Jamshed A, Hussain R, Ali M, Iqbal H, Majeed U, Shah MA: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or chemoradiation for locally advanced nasal and paranasal sinus tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6055

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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or chemoradiation for locally advanced nasal and paranasal sinus tumors.
  • : 6055 Background: The treatment of locally advanced nasal and paranasal sinus tumors is controversial.
  • The disease is chemosensitive and there is increasing interest in the use of chemotherapy with radiation in this group of patients.
  • Our aim was to determine survival in patients with locally advanced nasal and paranasal sinus tumors treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy or chemoradiation (RT/CRT).
  • METHODS: Between August 2005 and August 2008, 21 patients with AJCC stage III or IV nasal and paranasal sinus tumors were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by RT/CRT in our institution.
  • Site of disease was nasal cavity 33% (7), ethamoid sinus 43% (9), maxillary antrum 19% (4), and frontal sinus in 5% (1) of patients.
  • Histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma 43% (9), undifferentiated carcinoma 29% (6), adenocarcinoma 19% (4), esthesioneuroblastoma in 9% (2) of patients.
  • Induction chemotherapy consisted of cisplatin 75 mg / metre<sup>2</sup> day 1 and gemcitabine 1 gm / metre<sup>2</sup> day 1 and 8 every three weeks.
  • Eighty-five percent (18/21) received 2 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (range 1-4 cycles) prior to radiotherapy.
  • Radiotherapy dose was 54 Gy - 70 Gy (median radiation dose 66 Gy).
  • RESULTS: Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy; complete in 19% (4), partial in 67% (14), no response/progression 14% (3).
  • Thirty-three percent (7/21) have failed treatment (local 3, regional 2, and distant metastasis in 2 patients).
  • Among treatment failures 2 patients were successfully salvaged; surgery for local recurrence in one patient and in the other case radiation was given for regional recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine cisplatin chemotherapy has good activity in nasal and paranasal sinus tumors.

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  • (PMID = 27961932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Lin CY, Chen HH, Chen HH, Fang SY, Tsai ST: Ethmoid sinus cancer: results of treatment with surgery and combined therapy. Acta Otolaryngol; 2004 Dec;124(10):1220-5
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  • [Title] Ethmoid sinus cancer: results of treatment with surgery and combined therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Ethmoid sinus cancer is a rare paranasal sinus malignancy.
  • Its characteristics include a low incidence rate, a great variety of histopathological types and multiple treatment modalities.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the outcome of a population of Asian patients with advanced ethmoid sinus cancers that had been treated with surgery plus combined therapy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 1989 and December 2002 inclusive, 19 newly diagnosed patients with ethmoid sinus cancers who had undergone surgical intervention were enrolled, T4 being the principal carcinoma stage (68.4%).
  • All participating cases proved to be node-negative and no evidence of any distant metastasis was detected at the time of diagnosis.
  • The major treatment modality was surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy.
  • All but 2 of the 13 patients with T4 cancer underwent craniofacial resection with pericranial flap reconstruction.
  • RESULTS: The estimated overall and disease-free survival rates 3 years post-treatment were 49.4% and 26.3%, respectively.
  • A total of 5/15 T3-T4 patients (33%) developed a neck metastasis, 3 of whom also suffered a distant metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ethmoid sinus cancer typically demonstrates a propensity for late diagnosis and poor prognosis.
  • This study confirms that craniofacial resection plus combined associated therapy is the optimal approach for the effective management of extensive ethmoid sinus tumors and is associated with an acceptable morbidity rate.
  • More aggressive disease management featuring prophylactic concurrent chemoradiotherapy including neck or elective neck dissection plus chemotherapy should be considered for T3-T4 patients as opposed to T1-T2 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Ethmoid Sinus. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15768822.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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16. Gorelick J, Ross D, Marentette L, Blaivas M: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: case series and review of the literature. Neurosurgery; 2000 Sep;47(3):750-4; discussion 754-5
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  • [Title] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: case series and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We report on four cases of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC), a relatively newly described clinicopathological entity of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
  • SNUC tends to present with advanced-stage disease, often with intracranial invasion, and requires an aggressive treatment approach that includes surgical resection.
  • All patients were noted to have masses in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses, with or without intracranial extension.
  • INTERVENTION: All four patients underwent multimodal treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy (60-65 Gy), and aggressive surgical resection via a combined bifrontal craniotomy and a subcranial approach to the anterior cranial fossa.
  • CONCLUSION: SNUC is a rare neoplasm with a poor prognosis despite an aggressive multimodal approach to treatment.
  • On the basis of our experience, we advocate radical resection as part of the initial combined therapy for patients who present with locally advanced, nonmetastatic disease but we suggest reserving surgery for patients with early brain invasion until there has been a radiographically proven central nervous system response to adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Female. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Frontal Lobe / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 10981763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-396X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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17. Guntinas-Lichius O, Kreppel MP, Stuetzer H, Semrau R, Eckel HE, Mueller RP: Single modality and multimodality treatment of nasal and paranasal sinuses cancer: a single institution experience of 229 patients. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 Mar;33(2):222-8
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  • [Title] Single modality and multimodality treatment of nasal and paranasal sinuses cancer: a single institution experience of 229 patients.
  • AIMS: To assess the single and multimodal treatment results and prognostic factors for sinonasal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), local control (LC), and disease-free survival (DFS) in 229 patients with sinonasal carcinoma treated from 1967 to 2003 were calculated.
  • RESULTS: 32% of the patients were operated only, 47% underwent multimodal therapy, and 20% were treated without operation.
  • Prognostic for DSS were M status (p<0.001), UICC stage (p<0.001), T classification (p=0.001), N status (p=0.002), intracranial tumor infiltration (p=0.008), infiltration of the pterygopalatine fossa (p=0.02), infiltration of the skull base (p=0.021), infiltration of the orbita (p=0.041), and the type of therapy (p<0.001): The 5-year DSS rate was 63% for patients operated only, 56% for all operated patients, 46% for patients undergoing surgery and radiotherapy, but only 21% for patients treated with radiotherapy+/-chemotherapy.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that T classification (p=0.042), N classification (p=0.035), M classification (p=0.007), UICC stage (p=0.038), and type of therapy (p=0.038) were independent prognostic factors for DSS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radical surgery is recommended for stage I/II sinonasal carcinomas.
  • Stage III/IV carcinomas still have a poor prognosis, but multimodal treatment seems to favor the outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17127030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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18. Kim BS, Vongtama R, Juillard G: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: case series and literature review. Am J Otolaryngol; 2004 May-Jun;25(3):162-6
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  • [Title] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: case series and literature review.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to understand the natural history and progression of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) to establish optimal management guidelines.
  • Staging was classified by the Kadish System with 7 patients presenting at stage C and 1 patient with stage B disease.
  • Four of these 5 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy, with 2 patients receiving it concurrently with chemotherapy (cisplatinum/5-fluorouracil).
  • One patient received surgery alone as definitive management.
  • Of the remaining 3 patients who did not receive surgical treatment, concurrent chemotherapy and radiation was used.
  • RESULTS: At last follow-up, 6 of the 8 patients were still alive (overall survival 75%) with mean survival time of 20.6 months.
  • However, only 2 of the 6 were alive and free of disease (disease-free survival 25%) with a mean disease-free survival time of 12.3 months.
  • Time to recurrence ranged from 3 to 30 months.
  • Two of the 4 patients with distant metastasis were found to have locoregional disease recurrence at the same time.
  • Time to metastasis ranged from 2 to 30 months.
  • Results also show that the 5 patients who received surgery are still alive with a mean survival time of 23 months at last follow-up.
  • Meanwhile, 1 of the 3 patients who received no surgical therapy is alive, with a mean survival time of 16.7 months in this group.
  • Although limited by small numbers, this study along with reported series in the past appear to suggest longer survival results with aggressive multimodality therapy, especially with the incorporation of complete surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15124164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Lajtman Z, Manestar D: A comparison of surgery and radiotherapy in the management of advanced pyriform fossa carcinoma. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci; 2001 Feb;26(1):59-61

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  • [Title] A comparison of surgery and radiotherapy in the management of advanced pyriform fossa carcinoma.
  • This retrospective study analyses the outcome of treatment of 61 patients with advanced carcinoma of the pyriform fossa.
  • Thirty-two patients (group 1) underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy and 29 patients (group 2) had induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy.
  • The local recurrence-free survival at 5 years from the completion of therapy for group 1 was 54%, compared to 61% for group 2.
  • Non-surgical therapy for advanced stage pyriform fossa cancer provides survival comparable with that achieved with the standard approach of surgery and postoperative radiotherapy.
  • But, however, despite the therapy, the outcome is poor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / surgery. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11298170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical otolaryngology and allied sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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20. Uchida D, Shirato H, Onimaru R, Endou H, Aoyama H, Tsuchiya K, Nishioka T, Homma A, Furuta Y, Fukuda S, Miyasaka K: Long-term results of ethmoid squamous cell or undifferentiated carcinoma treated with radiotherapy with or without surgery. Cancer J; 2005 Mar-Apr;11(2):152-6
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  • [Title] Long-term results of ethmoid squamous cell or undifferentiated carcinoma treated with radiotherapy with or without surgery.
  • PURPOSE: Ethmoidal malignant tumors, for which intensity-modulated radiotherapy is expected to improve outcome, consist of heterogeneous pathological types.
  • Reports about their outcome are influenced by the inclusion of favorable histology, such as adenocarcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • We investigated the long-term treatment outcome of squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus.
  • One (4%) had stage T2 disease, seven (28%) had stage T3, three (12%) had stage T4a, and 14 (56%) had stage T4b.
  • Radiation dose varied from 50.4 Gy in 16 fractions (50.4 Gy/16 Fr) to 65 Gy in 26 fractions with or without stereotactic boost irradiation.
  • Eleven patients received chemotherapy consisting mainly of platinum-based compounds.
  • CONCLUSION: Ethmoid squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma was diagnosed at advanced T stages and was treated with radiotherapy; these patients had a poorer outcome than patients with adenocarcinoma or adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • Prospective trials using advanced technology should be carefully compared with historical controls because pathological types can considerably influence the treatment results.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Ethmoid Sinus / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15969991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Yao M, Dornfeld KJ, Buatti JM, Skwarchuk M, Tan H, Nguyen T, Wacha J, Bayouth JE, Funk GF, Smith RB, Graham SM, Chang K, Hoffman HT: Intensity-modulated radiation treatment for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma--the University of Iowa experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Oct 1;63(2):410-21
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation treatment for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma--the University of Iowa experience.
  • PURPOSE: To review the University of Iowa experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From October 1999 to April 2004, 151 patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma were treated with IMRT for curative intent.
  • One patient was lost to follow-up 2 months after treatment and therefore excluded from analysis.
  • Of the remaining 150 patients, 99 were treated with definitive IMRT, and 51 received postoperative IMRT.
  • Sites included were nasopharynx, 5; oropharynx, 56; larynx, 33; oral cavity, 29; hypopharynx, 8; nasal cavity/paranasal sinus, 8; and unknown primary, 11.
  • None of the patients treated with postoperative IMRT received chemotherapy.
  • Of 99 patients who had definitive IMRT, 68 patients received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • One patient received induction cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but no concurrent chemotherapy was given.
  • The prescribed doses to CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3 in the definitive cohort were 70-74 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy, respectively.
  • For high-risk postoperative IMRT, the prescribed doses to CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3 were 64-66 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy, respectively.
  • For intermediate-risk postoperative IMRT, the prescribed doses to CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3 were 60 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy.
  • The median time from treatment completion to local-regional recurrence was 4.7 months (range, 1.8 to 15.6 months).
  • Only one marginal failure was noted in a patient who had extensive tonsil cancer with tumor extension into the orbit and cavernous sinus.
  • Patients with oropharyngeal cancer did significantly better than patients with oral cavity and laryngeal cancer, with a 2-year local-regional control rate of 98%, compared with 78% for oral cavity cancer and 85% for laryngeal cancer (p = 0.005).
  • There was no significant difference in local-regional control for patients who received postoperative radiation or definitive radiation (p = 0.339) and for patients who had chemotherapy or not (p = 0.402).
  • Neither T stage nor N stage had a significant effect on local-regional control (p = 0.722 and 0.712, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results have confirmed the effectiveness of IMRT in head-and-neck cancer.
  • More studies are necessary to further improve the outcomes of laryngeal cancer as well as oral cavity cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iowa. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure. Universities

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  • (PMID = 16168834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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22. Airoldi M, Garzaro M, Valente G, Mamo C, Bena A, Giordano C, Pecorari G, Gabriele P, Gabriele AM, Beatrice F: Clinical and biological prognostic factors in 179 cases with sinonasal carcinoma treated in the Italian Piedmont region. Oncology; 2009;76(4):262-9
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  • [Title] Clinical and biological prognostic factors in 179 cases with sinonasal carcinoma treated in the Italian Piedmont region.
  • OBJECTIVES: In spite of aggressive surgery and high-dose radiotherapy, the long-term survival of patients with sinonasal cancer remains disappointing.
  • Patients treated with surgery with or without radiotherapy had better survival (p < 0.01), while chemotherapy had a marginally favorable effect (p = 0.09).
  • The type of surgery and radiotherapy dose had no impact on survival; in contrast, there was a strong association between Ki-67 expression and microvessel density and overall survival (p < 0.05 and p = 0.039, respectively), while VEGF-C was a prognostic factor in SCC patients only (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In sinonasal cancer, tumor stage and histology have a clear impact on survival; surgery with or without radiotherapy represents the main choice of treatment for such tumors.
  • The proliferative index and angiogenesis show a major role in the natural history of this cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19258726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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23. Khademi B, Moradi A, Hoseini S, Mohammadianpanah M: Malignant neoplasms of the sinonasal tract: report of 71 patients and literature review and analysis. Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Dec;13(4):191-9
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  • BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to report the characteristics, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes of 71 cases of malignant neoplasms of the sinonasal tract and literature review and analysis of major report series.
  • Thirty-four patients were treated with surgery followed by a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 15 with surgery alone, 14 with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, six with radiotherapy alone, and two with surgery followed by radiotherapy.
  • The primary sites included were paranasal sinuses in 51 and nasal cavity in 20.
  • There were one case of stage I, 20 of stage II, 27 of stage III, and 23 of stage IV.
  • Local recurrence was the most frequent treatment failure.
  • On univariate analysis, cervical lymph nodes involvement, primary tumor size, histologic type, response to therapy, and stage of disease were independent prognostic factors for overall survival.
  • Local recurrence was the dominant treatment failure in nearly all series.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this review and by analyzing the large data collection of recent major reported series, we found that malignant neoplasms of the sinonasal tract tend to present at locally advanced stage, with a high frequency of local failure and a moderate to poor outcome.
  • More effective local treatment for improving the local control and overall survival is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cobalt Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiography. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19795137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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24. Hanna E, DeMonte F, Ibrahim S, Roberts D, Levine N, Kupferman M: Endoscopic resection of sinonasal cancers with and without craniotomy: oncologic results. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Dec;135(12):1219-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the oncologic outcomes of patients with sinonasal cancer treated with endoscopic resection.
  • SETTING: Tertiary care academic cancer center.
  • PATIENTS: All patients with biopsy-proved malignant neoplasm of the sinonasal region who were treated with endoscopic resection between 1992 and 2007 were included in the study, and their charts were reviewed for demographics, histopathologic findings, treatment details, and outcome.
  • Of the 120 patients, 41% presented with previously untreated disease, 46% presented with persistent disease that had been partially resected, and 13% presented with recurrent disease after prior treatment.
  • The primary T stage was evenly distributed across all patients as follows: T1, 25%; T2, 25%; T3, 22%; and T4, 28%.
  • However, the T-stage distribution was significantly different between the EEA group and the CEA group.
  • Approximately two-thirds (63%) of the patients treated with EEA had a lower (T1-2) disease stage, while 95% of patients treated with CEA had a higher (T3-4) disease stage (P < .001).
  • The most common tumor types were esthesioneuroblastoma (17%), sarcoma (15%), adenocarcinoma (14%), melanoma (14%), and squamous cell carcinoma (13%).
  • Other, less common tumors included adenoid cystic carcinoma (7%), neuroendocrine carcinoma (4%), and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (2%).
  • Of the 120 patients, 50% were treated with surgery alone, 37% received postoperative radiation therapy, and 13% were treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
  • Our results suggest that, in well-selected patients and with appropriate use of adjuvant therapy, endoscopic resection of sinonasal cancer results in acceptable oncologic outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Craniotomy. Disease-Free Survival. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Ethmoid Sinus. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Nose Neoplasms / mortality. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20026819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Prasad ML, Busam KJ, Patel SG, Hoshaw-Woodard S, Shah JP, Huvos AG: Clinicopathologic differences in malignant melanoma arising in oral squamous and sinonasal respiratory mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2003 Aug;127(8):997-1002
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  • The oral melanomas were more likely to be detected in the early in situ or microinvasive stage (4 cases vs none, P =.008) and were more frequently amelanotic (14 vs 12, P =.049) than sinonasal melanomas.
  • Sinonasal melanoma showed vascular and deep tissue invasion more frequently than oral melanoma; however, no significant difference in disease-specific survival was noted (median survival, 2.8 years vs 3.0 years; 5-year survival, 37% vs 35%, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Respiratory Mucosa / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Mucosa / drug effects. Nasal Mucosa / pathology. Nasal Mucosa / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / mortality. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery


26. DeLaney TF: Clinical proton radiation therapy research at the Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center. Technol Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Aug;6(4 Suppl):61-6
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  • [Title] Clinical proton radiation therapy research at the Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center.
  • The Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center has a 230 MeV cyclotron from which proton beams are directed to two isocentric gantries, a stereotactic intracranial beam line, and an eye line.
  • The improved dose localization also reduces normal-tissue doses with an anticipated reduction in acute and late toxicity.
  • Clinical treatment protocols, developed to exploit the dosimetric advantages of protons over photons, have been grouped into two broad categories.
  • In the second, normal-tissue sparing with protons is designed to minimize acute and late toxicity.
  • Treatment of patients on clinical research protocols has been encouraged.
  • Patient treatments began on the first gantry in November 2001; on the eye line in April 2002; on the second gantry in May 2002; and on the stereotactic intracranial line in August 2006.
  • Dose-escalation studies have been completed for early stage prostate cancer (in conjunction with Loma Linda University) and sarcomas of the cervical spine/base of skull and thoracolumbosacral spine.
  • Protocols are in progress or development for carcinoma of the nasopharynx, paranasal sinus carcinoma, non-small-cell lung carcinoma, locally advanced carcinoma of the prostate, hepatocellular carcinoma, and pancreatic cancer.
  • Studies evaluating the use of protons for morbidity reduction include protocols for craniospinal irradiation in conjunction with systemic chemotherapy for medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma, pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma, other pediatric sarcomas, and accelerated, hypofractionated partial breast irradiation for T1N0 breast carcinomas.
  • Treatment of patients on these studies has often required the development of new treatment techniques (i.e., matching abutting fields for craniospinal irradiation), respiratory gating, and development of appropriate clinical infrastructure support (i.e., increase in availability of pediatric anesthesia) to allow appropriate treatment.
  • Results to date indicate that proton radiation therapy offers several potential treatment advantages to patients that can be studied in the setting of clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclotrons. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Protons / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17668954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0346
  • [Journal-full-title] Technology in cancer research & treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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