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1. Vassilakopoulos TP, Angelopoulou MK, Siakantaris MP, Kontopidou FN, Dimopoulou MN, Barbounis A, Grigorakis V, Karkantaris C, Anargyrou K, Chatziioannou M, Rombos J, Boussiotis VA, Vaiopoulos G, Kittas C, Pangalis GA: Prognostic factors in advanced stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: the significance of the number of involved anatomic sites. Eur J Haematol; 2001 Nov-Dec;67(5-6):279-88
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in advanced stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: the significance of the number of involved anatomic sites.
  • BACKGROUND: Advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is curable by conventional chemotherapy in 60--70% of patients.
  • The pretreatment identification of a sizeable subgroup of patients with sufficiently low failure-free survival (FFS) to be eligible for investigational treatment is necessary.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with advanced HL, defined as Ann Arbor stage (AAS) IB, IIB, III or IV, treated with anthracycline-based regimens.
  • RESULTS: We identified 277 patients with a median age of 32 yr (14--78), 57% of whom were males.
  • Most patients had nodular sclerosis (64%) and mixed cellularity (26%) histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11872075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0902-4441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
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2. Perz JB, Giles C, Szydlo R, O'Shea D, Sanz J, Chaidos A, Wagner S, Davis J, Loaiza S, Marin D, Apperley J, Olavarria E, Rahemtulla A, Lampert I, Naresh K, Samson D, MacDonald D, Kanfer EJ: LACE-conditioned autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma: treatment outcome and risk factor analysis in 67 patients from a single centre. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2007 Jan;39(1):41-7
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  • [Title] LACE-conditioned autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma: treatment outcome and risk factor analysis in 67 patients from a single centre.
  • High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a recognized treatment option for patients with relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • We have analysed 67 patients who underwent ASCT after LACE (lomustine (CCNU), cytarabine (Ara-C), cyclophosphamide, etoposide) conditioning for relapsed (n=61) or primary refractory (n=6) Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The 100-day treatment-related mortality was 3%.
  • With a median follow-up of 67 months (range 3.3-161.0) the probabilities of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 5 years were 68 and 64%, respectively.
  • In multivariate analysis mixed cellularity classical or lymphocyte-depleted classical histology subtype and haemoglobin level of 10 g/dl or less at the time of ASCT were identified as risk factors for worse OS, whereas stage III or IV disease at diagnosis and disease status at ASCT other than complete or partial remission predicted inferior PFS.
  • LACE followed by ASCT is an effective treatment for the majority of patients with chemosensitive relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma and a proportion of chemorefractory patients also benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. Transplantation Conditioning
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17115062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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3. Bang SM, Cheong JW, Yang WI, Hahn JS: An unusual case of spontaneous remission of Hodgkin's disease after a single cycle of COPP-ABV chemotherapy followed by infectious complications. Yonsei Med J; 2005 Jun 30;46(3):425-30
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  • [Title] An unusual case of spontaneous remission of Hodgkin's disease after a single cycle of COPP-ABV chemotherapy followed by infectious complications.
  • Advanced Hodgkin's disease is usually treated with six or more cycles of combination chemotherapy.
  • Spontaneous regression of the cancer is very rarely reported in patients with Hodgkin's disease.
  • We present an unusual case of a patient with Hodgkin's disease who experienced complete remission with a single cycle of chemotherapy, followed by pneumonia.
  • The case was a 36-year-old man diagnosed with stage IVB mixed cellularity Hodgkin's disease in November 2000.
  • After treatment with one cycle of COPP-ABV (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, doxorubicin, bleomycin, and vinblastine) chemotherapy without bleomycin, the patient developed interstitial pneumonia and was cared in the intensive care unit (ICU) for two months.
  • Follow-up chest computerized tomography (CT), performed during the course of ICU care, revealed markedly improved mediastinal lymphomatous lesions.
  • Furthermore, follow-up whole body CT and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed complete disappearance of the lymphomatous lesions.
  • This report is followed by a short review of the literature on spontaneous regression of Hodgkin's disease.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of spontaneous remission of Hodgkin's disease in Korea.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Pneumonia / complications. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15988816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CVPPABO protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 22
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2815821
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4. Linck D, Lentini G, Tiemann M, Fauser AA, Parwaresch R, Basara N: Sequential application of chemotherapy and monoclonal CD 20 antibody: successful treatment of advanced composite-lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Feb;46(2):285-8
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  • [Title] Sequential application of chemotherapy and monoclonal CD 20 antibody: successful treatment of advanced composite-lymphoma.
  • We describe successful treatment of a 38-year-old patient with composite lymphoma stage IV(A), who presented with multifocal enlarged lymph nodes.
  • The lymph node histology showed classic morphologic features of Hodgkin's disease, mixed cellularity subtype and follicular B-cell lymphoma.
  • The areas of Hodgkin's disease demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for CD30 and CD20 in the Hodgkin's cells.
  • Restaging after chemotherapy showed radiological partial remission, but biopsy confirmed persisting follicular B-cell lymphoma without bone marrow infiltration and no evidence of Hodgkin's disease.
  • He was treated with monoclonal CD 20-antibody (Rituximab) 10 mg/kg weekly for eight consecutive weeks due to marked positivity of CD 20-antigen in follicular lymphoma cells.
  • This treatment was well tolerated and final staging showed complete remission of the composite lymphoma.
  • This patient continues to be in remission 28 months after the end of the treatment.
  • In conclusion, in the very rare case of composite lymphoma a combination of chemotherapy and subsequent immunotherapy might be considered as a promising therapeutic option.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD20. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Lymphoid / pathology. Male. Neprilysin. Remission Induction / methods. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 15621815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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5. Chandra J, Naithani R, Singh V, Saxena YK, Sharma M, Pemde H: Developing anticancer chemotherapy services in a developing country: Hodgkin lymphoma experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Oct;51(4):485-8
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  • [Title] Developing anticancer chemotherapy services in a developing country: Hodgkin lymphoma experience.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reporting on how the cancer treatment facilities were developed at a medical college hospital in India and the profile and outcome of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) at this new center were the objectives of the study.
  • METHODS: Patients under 18 years with a diagnosis of HL were evaluated using abdominal ultrasonography, CT scan examination of chest, abdomen and pelvis and bone marrow examination.
  • Most patients were treated with combination chemotherapy.
  • Advanced disease (Stage IIb or more) was present in 83% cases.
  • Mixed cellularity was the commonest histological subtype (50.5%).
  • Primary therapy used was COPP in 29 (83%) cases.
  • Of the 34 patients who received treatment 30 showed initial good response to therapy.
  • Twenty-seven patients (80%) are surviving free of disease for a median follow up of 4.5 years (range 1.5-18 years).
  • Chemotherapy was well tolerated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric HL in India was characterized by advanced disease at presentation.
  • Mixed-cellularity was the predominant histological subtype.
  • An effective program was developed with initial attention to patients with HL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18636462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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6. Xicoy B, Ribera JM, Miralles P, Berenguer J, Rubio R, Mahillo B, Valencia ME, Abella E, López-Guillermo A, Sureda A, Morgades M, Navarro JT, Esteban H, GESIDA Group, GELCAB Group: Results of treatment with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine and highly active antiretroviral therapy in advanced stage, human immunodeficiency virus-related Hodgkin's lymphoma. Haematologica; 2007 Feb;92(2):191-8
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  • [Title] Results of treatment with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine and highly active antiretroviral therapy in advanced stage, human immunodeficiency virus-related Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) is considered the standard chemotherapy regimen for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), information on the results of this therapy in human immunodeficiency (HIV)-related HL is scarce.
  • We analyzed the results of the ABVD regimen and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with advanced stage, HIV-related HL.
  • Response to chemotherapy, overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were recorded.
  • The histologic subtype of HL was nodular sclerosis in 17 patients (27%), mixed cellularity in 25 (41%), lymphocyte depletion in 10 (16%) and non-specified in the remaining 10 (16%).
  • Twenty-one (34%) patients were in stage III and 41 (66%) in stage IV.
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced stage, HIV-related HL, treatment with ABVD together with HAART is feasible and effective.
  • This supports the concept that patients with HIV-related HL should be treated in the same way as immunocompetent patients if HAART, adequate supportive therapy and anti-infectious prophylaxis are given concomitantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17296568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ABVD protocol
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7. Duan YL, Zhang YH, Jin L, Yang J, Zhang R, Zhou CJ: [Clinical characteristics of 34 children with Hodgkin lymphoma and efficacy of treatment with chemotherapy plus low dose radiotherapy on involved sites]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Sep;48(9):698-702
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  • [Title] [Clinical characteristics of 34 children with Hodgkin lymphoma and efficacy of treatment with chemotherapy plus low dose radiotherapy on involved sites].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical features and to evaluate outcomes and to assess therapeutic effects in 34 children and adolescents with Hodgkin lymphoma treated with risk-adapted combination chemotherapy and low-dose, involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) in China.
  • METHOD: From January 2003 to April 2009, 34 hospitalized children with Hodgkin lymphoma were enrolled into the BCH-HL 2003 protocol (revised CCG 5942) in our hospital.
  • The 34 patients were treated according to the different risk factors in three treatment groups (standard, intermediate, and high risk), and received risk-adapted combination chemotherapy and IFRT.
  • RESULT: Of the 34 Hodgkin lymphoma patients, 28 were male and 6 were female.
  • The median age was 8.7 years (range from 4 years to 15 years) at the time of diagnosis.
  • The distribution for stage of disease was 0% for Stage I, 21% for Stage II, 35% for Stage III and 44% for Stage IV disease.
  • All patients had classical histology consisting of three different sub-discipline: 22 cases of mixed cellularity (64.7%).
  • The overall survival (OS) was 100% and the 5-year event-free survival was 94.1% with a median follow-up of (26.1 ± 16.3) months.
  • Two patients had early relapse after treatment was finished.
  • CONCLUSION: Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma in our study was more frequently seen in male school aged children.
  • Combined-modality therapy using risk-adapted chemotherapy with radiation is effective and well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21092533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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8. Hirmiz K, Foyle A, Wilke D, Burrell S, Brownstone R, Ago C, Pahil R, Couban S: Intracranial presentation of systemic Hodgkin's disease. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 Aug;45(8):1667-71
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  • [Title] Intracranial presentation of systemic Hodgkin's disease.
  • Intracranial involvement by Hodgkin's disease is rare.
  • We report a patient with Hodgkin's disease who had intracranial disease at presentation.
  • We also review the literature pertaining to intracranial Hodgkin's disease.
  • Using the key words "Hodgkin's disease" and "central nervous system (CNS) disease", we searched the Pubmed and Cancerlit databases.
  • References were systematically reviewed and data regarding the following variables was extracted: age, gender, signs and symptoms at presentation, histology of Hodgkin's disease, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, stage and treatment.
  • Only 36 cases of intracranial Hodgkin's disease were identified in the literature.
  • Intracranial Hodgkin's disease at presentation is even more uncommon with only 8 reported cases.
  • Most cases of intracranial involvement by Hodgkin's disease occur at the time of relapse.
  • The most common presenting feature of intracranial Hodgkin's disease is a cranial nerve palsy with brain parenchyma being the most common intracranial site of involvement.
  • Mixed cellularity histology is the most frequent subtype of Hodgkin's disease among these patients and the median survival following intracranial presentation is 46 months.
  • Treatment has varied extensively but includes whole brain radiation with or without combination chemotherapy.
  • Our literature review suggests that the prognosis is not dismal with appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15370222.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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9. Tsimberidou AM, Sarris AH, Medeiros LJ, Mesina O, Rodriguez MA, Hagemeister FB, Romaguera J, Pro B, McLaughlin P, Dang N, Cabanillas F: Hodgkin's disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: frequency, presentation and clinical outcome. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 May;41(5-6):535-44
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  • [Title] Hodgkin's disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: frequency, presentation and clinical outcome.
  • We report the frequency, presenting characteristics, progression-free survival, event-free survival, overall survival and AIDS-free survival of patients with previously untreated Hodgkin's disease (HD) in the setting of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • All available records were reviewed to determine presentation, clinical characteristics, treatment outcome, progression-free survival and overall survival.
  • We identified 887 patients with HD and 3,500 with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL).
  • Three patients had Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the time of HD diagnosis, and seven had B-symptoms.
  • Ann Arbor stage was I in one, II in three, III in four and IV in six patients.
  • Mixed cellularity histology was seen in eight, bone marrow involvement in five and extranodal disease in seven patients.
  • All patients received some antiretroviral therapy, but it was variable over the years.
  • With a median follow-up of 64 months for survivors, the projected 5-year progression-free survival was 64%, event-free survival 45%, overall survival 54% and AIDS-free survival 45%.
  • We conclude that in our referral patient population HIV infection is associated with preferential development of NHL rather than HD, which appears curable with standard treatment regimens.
  • Since HIV-related deaths exceed those caused by HD, future investigation should focus on integration of chemotherapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Incidence. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11378571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
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10. Iyengar P, Mazloom A, Shihadeh F, Berjawi G, Dabaja B: Hodgkin lymphoma involving extranodal and nodal head and neck sites: characteristics and outcomes. Cancer; 2010 Aug 15;116(16):3825-9
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  • [Title] Hodgkin lymphoma involving extranodal and nodal head and neck sites: characteristics and outcomes.
  • BACKGROUND: Most Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients present with disease in nodal regions.
  • However, in a small subset, disease develops in unique anatomic sites such as the head and neck area.
  • They reviewed the records for site of involvement, pathology, treatment, and survival.
  • Specifically, 10 of 34 patients had disease in the tonsils, 9 in the nasopharynx, 8 in the thyroid, 3 in the parotid, 2 in the adenoids, and 1 each in Waldeyer's ring and nasal antrum.
  • Median age at diagnosis was 31.5 years, average age at diagnosis was 38 years, and 22 of 34 were male; 23 had stage I or II disease.
  • Pathologically, 14 of 34 had the nodular sclerosis subtype, whereas 15 had mixed cellularity.
  • Twenty-nine of 34 had nodal neck disease at presentation.
  • Five of 34 received chemotherapy alone, 5 received radiation alone, and 24 received combination therapy.
  • The most commonly used chemotherapy regimens were ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) and MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone).
  • At last follow-up, 85% were disease-free.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HL of the head and neck is primarily diagnosed as early stage disease of men and of young to middle-aged individuals.
  • Chemotherapy and primary/adjuvant radiotherapy offer excellent local and systemic control.
  • The extent to which nodal disease is present in the neck does not alter outcomes when combined modality therapy is offered.
  • Despite the unique anatomic location of these lesions, standard HL protocols work effectively to promote disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20564093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Itoh K, Kinoshita T, Watanabe T, Yoshimura K, Okamoto R, Chou T, Ogura M, Hirano M, Asaoku H, Kurosawa M, Maeda Y, Omachi K, Moriuchi Y, Kasai M, Ohnishi K, Takayama N, Morishima Y, Tobinai K, Kaba H, Yamamoto S, Fukuda H, Kikuchi M, Yoshino T, Matsuno Y, Hotta T, Shimoyama M: Prognostic analysis and a new risk model for Hodgkin lymphoma in Japan. Int J Hematol; 2010 Apr;91(3):446-55
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  • [Title] Prognostic analysis and a new risk model for Hodgkin lymphoma in Japan.
  • The Japan Clinical Oncology Group conducted two multicenter phase II trials in 200 patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in the 1990s.
  • Five-year overall survival (OS) among these 167 patients was 88.3%, including 89.2% among nodular sclerosis and 82.2% among mixed cellularity cases.
  • Seven unfavorable prognostic factors for OS on univariate analysis were male, B symptoms, clinical stage of III or IV, elevated serum LDH, elevated alkaline phosphatase, elevated beta2-microglobulin, and pathological subtype (mixed cellularity and lymphocyte depletion).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / mortality. Models, Statistical
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, B-Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / mortality. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Multicenter Studies as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / statistics & numerical data. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20198461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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12. Fadoo Z, Belgaumi A, Alam M, Azam I, Naqvi A: Pediatric lymphoma: a 10-year experience at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Jan;32(1):e14-8
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  • [Title] Pediatric lymphoma: a 10-year experience at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan.
  • SUMMARY: Lymphoma is the third most common childhood malignancy.
  • Less information is available on this disease and its outcome from our country.
  • A retrospective study was carried out at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi on children (<15 y) diagnosed with lymphoma from 1998 to 2007.
  • Fifty-one children were diagnosed as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  • Most common histopathologic subtype of NHL was Burkitt lymphoma (55%).
  • Abdominal mass was the main presenting feature of Burkitt and diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
  • T-lymphoblastic lymphoma presented mainly as mediastinal mass.
  • Ten children died, 4 secondary to tumor lysis syndrome, 5 because of disease progression, and 1 with chemotherapy-induced toxicity.
  • One-third of the patients left without treatment.
  • Seventeen children were diagnosed as Hodgkin lymphoma with mixed cellularity as the commonest subtype (65%).
  • Overall survival of children with NHL and Hodgkin lymphoma was 62% and 94%, respectively.
  • A greater proportion of NHL, advanced stage, and profound male preponderance were observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20051771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Toubai T, Ota S, Onodera M, Baba U, Fujisawa F, Miura Y, Toyoshima N, Tanaka J, Asaka M, Imamura M: [Evaluation of bone marrow involvement by FDG-PET for refractory Hodgkin lymphoma treated by unrelated allogeneic bone marrow transplantation]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2003 Jul;44(7):446-50
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of bone marrow involvement by FDG-PET for refractory Hodgkin lymphoma treated by unrelated allogeneic bone marrow transplantation].
  • A 23-year-old female patient was diagnosed as having Hodgkin lymphoma (mixed cellularity type, clinical stage III B) in September 2000.
  • She underwent ABVD chemotherapy and irradiation of a mediastinal lesion, resulting in complete remission.
  • However, the disease reoccurred three month after the completion of initial treatment.
  • She received re-induction chemotherapy but did not achieve complete remission.
  • Skin GVHD was detected at the same time and she was treated with steroid hormones, resulting in improvement.
  • Aggravation of the disease was revealed and she died from progression of the disease on day 120.
  • FDG-PET is useful for the monitoring disease status and for determining the optimal timing of various treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / radionuclide imaging. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Hodgkin Disease / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Tomography, Emission-Computed. Transplantation, Homologous


14. Thompson LD, Fisher SI, Chu WS, Nelson A, Abbondanzo SL: HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic study of 45 cases. Am J Clin Pathol; 2004 May;121(5):727-38
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  • [Title] HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic study of 45 cases.
  • We retrospectively analyzed 45 cases of HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma (HIV-HL).
  • HIV-HL generally is a disease of young white men (mean age, 40.1 years) who acquired HIV infection by homosexual or bisexual behavior (68%), intravenous drug use (24%), and/or blood transfusion (8%).
  • Morphologic classification of nodal biopsy specimens (2001 World Health Organization criteria) included 15 mixed cellularity Hodgkin lymphomas (MCHLs), 14 nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphomas (NSHLs), 9 lymphocyte depleted Hodgkin lymphomas (LDHLs), and 7 classic Hodgkin lymphomas, type not further categorized.
  • The Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells expressed positive immunoreactivity with fascin (30/30 [100%]), CD30 (35/37 [95%]), CD15 (32/36 [89%]), bcl-X(L) (25/31 [81%]), bcl-2 (15/29 [52%]), CD20 (4/34 [12%]), bcl-6 (3/28 [11%]), and Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (32/33 [97%]) and were nonreactive for CD138/syndecan-1.
  • At diagnosis, most patients (n = 27) had high-stage disease (IV(E)) associated with an aggressive course (16% 5-year survival).
  • LDHL behaved more aggressively than MCHL and NSHL (15% vs 40%, 5-year survival, respectively), as did disease with a sarcomatoid pattern (11% 5-year survival).
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy proved efficacious in a minority of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology


15. Harris MA, Radford JA, Deakin DP, James RD, Swindell R, Cowan RA: Limited field radiotherapy for early stage, infra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin's lymphoma. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2004 Feb;16(1):53-7
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  • [Title] Limited field radiotherapy for early stage, infra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • AIMS: To analyse the treatment outcome for patients with stage I and II infra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Twenty-five out of 33 patients received radiotherapy alone, three out of 33 patients received minimal initial chemotherapy (MIT) (4 weeks VAPEC B) and five patients received six cycles of ChlVPP EVA hybrid chemotherapy before radiotherapy.
  • Fifteen of the 33 patients were stage IA, 15 were IIA, 1 was IB and 2 were IIB.
  • Histological subtype was lymphocyte predominant (15/33), nodular sclerosis (11/33), mixed cellularity (4/33), lymphocyte-rich classical (1/33) and unclassifiable (2/33).
  • The median time to relapse was 37 months (range 7-65 months).
  • All five relapses had received radiotherapy alone and four were salvaged with chemotherapy.
  • There have been four second malignancies and one patient transformed to high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • No patient has died of Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of patients with infra-diaphragmatic stage I and II Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with limited-field radiotherapy, no patients died from uncontrolled disease.
  • The use of MIT may reduce the risk of relapse and obviate the need for conventional salvage chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Staging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chlorambucil / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14768756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; ChlVPP-EVA regimen; VAPEC-B protocol
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16. Alebouyeh M, Moussavi F, Haddad-Deylami H, Vossough P: Successful ambulatory treatment of Hodgkin's disease in Iranian children based on German-Austrian DAL-HD 85-90: single institutional results. Ann Oncol; 2005 Dec;16(12):1936-40
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  • [Title] Successful ambulatory treatment of Hodgkin's disease in Iranian children based on German-Austrian DAL-HD 85-90: single institutional results.
  • BACKGROUND: Hodgkin's disease (HD) accounts for 7.5% of childhood malignancies in Iran.
  • In order to minimize chemotherapy toxicity and avoid eventual hospitalization and psychological and financial burdens we have applied since 1988, for the first time in Iran, a treatment regimen based on subsequently revised DAL-HD 85-90 and later GPOH-HD 95 protocols.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the period 1988-2004, 40 children with HD received DAL/GPOH-HD-adapted treatment; 25 males (62.5%) and 15 females (37.5%) (male/female ratio 1.7; age 4-14 years, mean 8.8).
  • Staging was as follows: stage I; seven (17.5%); II, 11 (27.5%); III, 11 (27.5%); and IV, 11 (27.5%).
  • Histopathology: 22 patients had mixed cellularity (MC; 55%), 13 nodular sclerosis (32.5%), four lymphocyte predominance (LP; 10%) and one patient lymphocyte depletion (2.5%).
  • Stage IA and IIA patients (n = 15) received either OPA x2 (vincristine, prednisolone, doxorubicin) or OPPA x2 or OPEA x2 (vincristine, prednisolone, procarbazine and doxorubicin), the latter receiving etoposide instead of procarbazine, and applied to males.
  • Twenty nine patients (72.5%) received radiotherapy (20-25 Gy); four to the involved field (stage I), 25 to the upper mantel (stage II and also III with either residual or mediastinal mass) and three additionally to spleen and para-aortic lymph nodes.
  • Eleven patients received only chemotherapy.
  • Relapse occurred in eight patients (20%); seven stage IV (MC) and one stage IA (LP) with progression to IIIB.
  • Salvage chemotherapy consisted of MOPP/ABVD hybrid; six patients achieved a second sustained remission and three patients died: two due to relapse and progressive disease and the third one in CR, owing to thrombocytopenic hemorrhage and foudroyant pneumonia.
  • Aside from minor acute toxicities, three patients demonstrated azoospermia at the age of 18 years and one of these patients suffered non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a second malignancy.
  • Both received appropriate treatment and are over 10 years in CR.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The DAL/GPOH-HD-based treatment approach proved to achieve long-term sustained cure even in children with advanced HD disease.
  • The essentially outpatient diagnosis and treatment modus did not compromise the disease outcome, and was well tolerated and accepted by the patients and their parents.
  • The employed drugs are easily available and affordable.
  • This treatment approach is suitable for ambulatory use in developing countries.

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  • (PMID = 16157620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Ansell SM, Armitage JO: Management of Hodgkin lymphoma. Mayo Clin Proc; 2006 Mar;81(3):419-26
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  • [Title] Management of Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Approximately 7350 new cases of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are diagnosed annually in the United States.
  • The disease is composed of 2 distinct entities: the more commonly diagnosed classical HL and the rare nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL.
  • Classical HL includes the subgroups nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte depletion, and lymphocyte rich.
  • Selection of the appropriate therapy Is based on accurately assessing the stage of disease.
  • Patients with early-stage disease are treated with combined modality strategies using abbreviated courses of combination chemotherapy followed by Involved-field radiation therapy, whereas those with advanced-stage disease receive a longer course of chemotherapy without radiation therapy.
  • Although many patients respond well to initial therapies and have durable long-term remissions, a subset of patients has resistant disease and experiences relapse even after subsequent high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.
  • New therapies are clearly needed for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16529147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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18. Adu-Poku K, Thomas DW, Khan MK, Holgate CS, Smith ME: Langerhans cell histiocytosis in sequential discordant lymphoma. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Jan;58(1):104-6
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  • [Title] Langerhans cell histiocytosis in sequential discordant lymphoma.
  • B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the follicular subtype (grade 3/3) affecting the nasopharynx and breast, and containing foci of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, was diagnosed in a 56 year old white woman who was a longstanding heavy smoker.
  • Four years before this she had developed stage 1a mixed cellularity Hodgkin lymphoma affecting the right inguinal region, which was treated by irradiation and chemotherapy without recurrence.
  • Review of the original Hodgkin lymphoma histology demonstrated a small focus of Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
  • This is thought to be the first recorded case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis occurring in a sequential discordant lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / etiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / complications. Lymphoma, Follicular / complications. Neoplasms, Second Primary / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / complications. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15623497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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19. Büyükpamukçu M, Varan A, Akyüz C, Atahan L, Ozyar E, Kale G, Köksal Y, Kutluk T: The treatment of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma: improved survival in a developing country. Acta Oncol; 2009;48(1):44-51
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  • [Title] The treatment of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma: improved survival in a developing country.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, treatment regimens, and outcome of children with Hodgkin lymphoma in a developing country over a period of 34 years.
  • METHODS: This paper retrospectively evaluates the treatment and prognosis of 614 children with Hodgkin lymphoma disease between 1971 and 2005.
  • All patients were treated with chemotherapy, and also received radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: There were 452 males and 162 females with a median age of 8 years (2 to 21); 183 patients had B symptoms.
  • There were 165, 185, 145, and 119 patients in stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively.
  • Histopathologic subtypes were mixed cellularity (344 patients), nodular sclerosis (90), lymphocytic predominance (62), lymphocytic depletion (46), unclassified types (69), and nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (3).
  • Overall (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 83 and 60%, though OS rates varied according to chemotherapy protocol; age; presence of B symptoms, leukocytosis, anemia, and extranodal involvement; and stage at diagnosis.
  • Over the years, the median age of patients increased, as did the frequency of the nodular sclerosing type of disease.
  • The increase in the median age and in the frequency of the nodular-sclerosing type are thought to be related to the development status of Turkey.
  • The ABVD protocol yielded the best survival rates and should be used for treatment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / mortality. Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Turkey / epidemiology. Young Adult


20. Welzl-Hinterkörner E, Haefner M, Mengiardi B: Unilateral uveitis induced by a nonionic iodinated contrast agent. Am J Ophthalmol; 2003 Nov;136(5):958-60
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  • PURPOSE: To report recurrent unilateral uveitis after computed tomography (CT) enhanced by the contrast agent iopamidol.
  • METHODS: A 44-year-old man with a history of mixed-cellularity Hodgkin lymphoma, Stage I B (axillar, infraclavicular, subpectoral lymphomas) was under remission after chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Symptoms resolved with topical corticosteroid treatment within a week.
  • RESULTS: We observed recurrent unilateral uveitis after intravenously application of 150 ml of iopamidol for contrast-enhanced CT scans in a patient with lymphoma in remission.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Eye Diseases / chemically induced. Eye Diseases / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / radiography. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Retinal Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Retinal Hemorrhage / drug therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vitreous Body / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 14597069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; JR13W81H44 / Iopamidol
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21. Yahalom J: Favorable early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2006 Mar;4(3):233-40
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  • [Title] Favorable early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The category of favorable early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) includes patients with Ann Arbor stages I or II disease with no bulky disease or B symptoms.
  • The precise definition of favorable versus unfavorable early-stage disease may vary among American and European cooperative groups.
  • The overall 10-year survival rate of patients with favorable early-stage HL exceeds 90%.
  • Indeed, effective treatments for this group of patients have been available for more than 4 decades.
  • However, treatment strategies have radically changed over the past 15 years and focus now on maintaining the high cure rate while reducing the risk of treatment-related long-term morbidity.
  • The optimal treatment is still evolving, and more recently, reduction in the total amount of chemotherapy and in radiation field and dose has shown excellent results.
  • Combined modality therapy is the preferred treatment for patients with classical favorable early-stage HL (nodular sclerosis or mixed cellularity histology).
  • Patients with early-stage lymphocyte predominance HL are highly curable using involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) alone and do not require chemotherapy.
  • Classical favorable HL is also curable with radiotherapy alone or with chemotherapy alone, but larger fields and higher-dose radiation or longer chemotherapy is required compared with combined modality.
  • The freedom from treatment failure rate is significantly better with a combination of short chemotherapy and IFRT than with either chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone.
  • Although combined modality is the standard preferred treatment for favorable disease, radiation therapy alone or chemotherapy alone could be considered under special circumstances or as part of an investigational protocol.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16507270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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22. Niu Y, Shi YK, He XH, Feng FY, Zhou LQ, Gu DZ: [Combined-modality therapy for 150 cases of early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Aug;30(8):630-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Combined-modality therapy for 150 cases of early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of chemotherapy alone, radiotherapy alone and combined-modality therapy in the treatment for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL).
  • METHODS: From 1999 to 2002, totally 150 patients with stage I or II HL were treated in our hospital.
  • They were stratified into several groups based on initial treatment strategy: chemotherapy alone (CT group, n = 22), radiotherapy alone (RT group, n = 18), combined-modality therapy (CMT group, n = 109) and surgical resection (SR group, n = 1).
  • Chemotherapy regimens were mainly ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) and MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisone).
  • RESULTS: The pathological types included nodular sclerosis (NS, n = 84), mixed-cellularity (MC, n = 39), lymphocyte-predominant (LP, n = 23), lymphocyte-depleted (LD, n = 3) and nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's disease (NLPHD, n = 1).
  • There were 33 patients with complete response (CR), 109 with partial response (PR), 5 with stable disease (SD) and 3 with progressive disease (PD) after initial therapy.
  • The overall 7-yr survival rate was 89.3%, and treatment failure rate at 6 years was 18.8%.
  • The response rate of CMT group was superior to that of CT group, and the patients with nodular sclerosis or mixed-cellularity type had significantly lower risk of treatment failure (P = 0.009 and 0.019, respectively).
  • The multivariate analysis revealed that the treatment strategies affected the prognosis significantly.
  • The risk of failure of chemotherapy alone was 2.52 times higher than that of combined-modality therapy (P = 0.004).
  • CONCLUSION: Combined-modality therapy is more effective than chemotherapy alone or radiotherapy alone in the treatment for early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Though its acute adverse effects are more severe than that of chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone, it may reduce the risk of treatment failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Alopecia / chemically induced. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Male. Mechlorethamine / adverse effects. Mechlorethamine / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / adverse effects. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Procarbazine / adverse effects. Procarbazine / therapeutic use. Proportional Hazards Models. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vinblastine / adverse effects. Vinblastine / therapeutic use. Vincristine / adverse effects. Vincristine / therapeutic use. Young Adult


23. Coleman M, Kaufmann T, Nisce LZ, Leonard JP: Treatment of nonlaparotomized (clinical) stage I and II Hodgkin's disease patients by extended field and splenic irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Mar 15;46(5):1235-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of nonlaparotomized (clinical) stage I and II Hodgkin's disease patients by extended field and splenic irradiation.
  • PURPOSE: At the New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, patients with unequivocal clinical stage I and IIA Hodgkin's disease (HD) have been treated with mantle, splenic, and extended field radiation therapy (EFRT) (without surgical staging).
  • Patients with pathological or equivocal staging, "B" symptoms, bulk disease, history of previous chemotherapy, and/or Stage III or IV disease were excluded from our analysis.
  • There were 27 Stage IA and 67 Stage IIA patients.
  • All patients were treated to 3600 cGy with a 400 cGy boost to the involved field.
  • Nine of the relapses had nodular sclerosis histology, one had lymphocyte predominance, and none had mixed cellularity.
  • The median time to relapse was 38 months; mean time 42. 3 months.
  • All patients are alive, well and free of disease, including nine who received subsequent chemotherapy and one who underwent autotransplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy. Spleen

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  • (PMID = 10725636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 07968
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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24. O'Toole O, O'Hare A, Grogan L, Bolger C, Brett FM: 20 year old lady with a paraspinal mass. Brain Pathol; 2010 May;20(3):683-4
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  • [Title] 20 year old lady with a paraspinal mass.
  • A 20 year old female presented with a 4 month history of right upper limb pain and paraesthesias.
  • The radiological features and recent rapid growth were felt to be in keeping with a large plexiform neurofibroma.
  • The patient underwent emergency resection of the lesion and pathology revealed Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL)-mixed cellularity type.
  • A mediastinal mass was identified on further imaging and biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of HL-stage IV.
  • The patient is currently undergoing treatment with ABVD chemotherapy.
  • CNS-HL is extremely rare and may occur de novo or in association with systemic disease.
  • Lesions may be parenchymal or dural based and are usually intracranial with an increased risk of CNS involvement in HL-mixed-cellularity type as in our patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Spinal Canal / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology


25. Souza EM, Baiocchi OC, Zanichelli MA, Alves AC, Assis MG, Eiras DP, Dobo C, Oliveira JS: Impact of Epstein-Barr virus in the clinical evolution of patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma in Brazil. Hematol Oncol; 2010 Sep;28(3):137-41
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  • [Title] Impact of Epstein-Barr virus in the clinical evolution of patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma in Brazil.
  • INTRODUCTION: Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma (cHL) has been frequently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which can be found in a latent pattern in Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells.
  • Patients were only included in this study if they had (1) >18 years, (2) negative HIV serology, (3) undergone similar chemotherapy protocols, (4) paraffin blocks available with enough material for systematic review and histological reclassification and for detection of EBV in RS cells by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry and (5) clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial parameters available after a thorough chart review.
  • Mixed cellularity (MC) subtype was more common in EBV-related tumours (25.5%) (p=0.005).
  • There was no difference on age, gender, stage and the presence of B symptoms between the two groups.
  • The presence of EBV did not influence event free survival (EFS) (p=0.38) or overall survival (OS) (p=0.80) with a median follow-up of 80 months.
  • CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that the prevalence of EBV-related cHL in this Brazilian population is 52.5% and, that, the presence of EBV does not change the clinical evolution and OS of patients treated with similar chemotherapy protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / pathology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Hodgkin Disease / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brazil. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20128016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1069
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Belgaumi A, Al-Kofide A, Joseph N, Jamil-Malik R, Khafaga Y, Sabbah R: Hodgkin lymphoma in very young children: Clinical characteristics and outcome of treatment. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008 May;49(5):910-6
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  • [Title] Hodgkin lymphoma in very young children: Clinical characteristics and outcome of treatment.
  • In developed nations, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is rare in <5-year olds and represent a minority in developing countries.
  • This group had more boys, similar incidence of B-symptoms and stage distribution, less mediastinal involvement and bulky disease, and more mixed cellularity subtype than older children.
  • Treatment included chemotherapy (CT; n = 55), combined modality therapy (CMT; n = 12) and XRT only (n = 2).
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Leuk Lymphoma. 2008 May;49(5):839-40 [18464101.001]
  • (PMID = 18464110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Al-Shemmari SH, Al-Humood S, Ameen R, Kamlesh S, Nemec J, Varghese A: Hodgkin's disease: Kuwait experience. Med Princ Pract; 2004 Jul-Aug;13(4):201-5
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  • [Title] Hodgkin's disease: Kuwait experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe histologic subtypes, clinical presentation and treatment outcome of Hodgkin's lymphoma in Kuwait.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Patients older than 15 years, diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma between 1980 and 1998, were included in this retrospective analysis.
  • Data were collected using a standardized form that included demographics, histologic subtypes, clinical presentation, stage, extranodal involvement, treatment modality and follow-up.
  • Dominant histologic subtypes were nodular sclerosis 65 (46.4%) and mixed cellularity 42 (30%).
  • Disease-free survival according to treatment groups were: radiotherapy alone 100%, chemotherapy alone 88%, and combined modality 65%.
  • The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of overall disease-free survival was 84%.
  • CONCLUSION: In the cohort of 137 patients with Hodgkin's disease the treatment with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy had a remarkable outcome.
  • However, evaluation of long-term treatment complications is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kuwait / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 15181324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-7571
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Princ Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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28. Saif MW, Hamilton JM, Allegra CJ: Varicella zoster meningitis preceeded by thrombophlebitis in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Leuk Lymphoma; 2000 Oct;39(3-4):421-6
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  • [Title] Varicella zoster meningitis preceeded by thrombophlebitis in a patient with Hodgkin's disease.
  • Varicella zoster (V-Z) infections are common among patients with hematological malignancies, particularly Hodgkin's disease (HD).
  • Most of V-Z infections occur in patients with HD during the remission period, who have mixed cellularity sub-type, with stage III disease and who have received combined chemo-radiation therapy.
  • The authors describe a case of HD who developed V-Z meningitis preceeded by superficial thrombophlebitis of upper extremities during the period of active chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / virology. Meningitis, Viral / chemically induced. Thrombophlebitis / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Herpes Zoster / chemically induced. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male

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  • (PMID = 11342324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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29. Osorio S G, Montenegro U C: [Lymphomas and HIV infection in a reference hospital of Santiago, Chile: 1990-2002: report of 14 cases and review]. Rev Chilena Infectol; 2007 Apr;24(2):117-24
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  • [Transliterated title] Linfomas asociados a infección por virus de inmunodeficiencia humana en un complejo hospitalario de la Región Metropolitana, Chile: 1990-2002. Reporte de 14 casos y revisión.
  • The association of HIV infection and lymphoma in patients attending at the South Health Metropolitan Reference Centre is presented.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyse its incidence, clinical and pathologic manifestations, treatment and outcome.
  • RESULTS: 14 cases were detected, 10 non Hodgkin lymphoma patients (7 with high malignancy and 50% in stages III-IVB) and 4 with Hodgkin lymphoma (3 with mixed cellularity, 2 in stage IVB).
  • Ten patients were classified under stage C3 of AIDS CDC criteria, the mean CD4 count was 139 cells/mm3 and mean CV was 5,32 log.
  • Eighty six percent of patients presented with unique or multiples lymphonodes, with predominance of advanced lymphoma stage.
  • Conventional CHOP chemotherapy was the treatment for high risk and extended non Hodgkin lymphomas and for extended Hodgkin lymphomas the ABVD protocol was administered.
  • Six patients received antiretroviral therapy, 4 simultaneously with chemotherapy.
  • Global mortality in this series was 71%, attributable to tumor disease per se or to sepsis.
  • Four patients survived (18 to 50 months) in complete remission, 2 non Hodgkin lymphomas and 2 Hodgkin lymphomas.
  • The low incidence of lymphoma and AIDS association and the high frequency of lymphomas with localized or generalized lymphonodes in this series are remarkable.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Chile / epidemiology. Female. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 17453069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0716-1018
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista chilena de infectología : órgano oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Chilena Infectol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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30. Axdorph U, Porwit-Macdonald A, Sjøberg J, Grimfors G, Bjørkholm M: T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma - diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. APMIS; 2002 May;110(5):379-90
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  • [Title] T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma - diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.
  • BACKGROUND: Morphologically, T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRB-NHL) may be indistinguishable from Hodgkin's disease (HD).
  • RESULTS: Twelve cases of TCRB-NHL were initially subclassified as HD (lymphocyte predominance 5, nodular sclerosis 3, and mixed cellularity 4).
  • Of these 12 TCRB-NHL patients, 6 were given radiotherapy alone, 5 MOPP/ABVD or similar combination chemotherapy, and one patient combined modality treatment.
  • Male sex (p<0.05) and inguinal involvement (p<0.001) were significantly more frequent when TCRB-NHL patients receiving HD treatment (n=12) were compared with the remaining patients with confirmed (conf) HD, while no significant differences were seen with regard to stage, bone marrow infiltration, splenomegaly or cause-specific survival.
  • Lymphoma cells in three samples stained positively for LMP-1.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Immunophenotyping / methods. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Proteins. T-Lymphocytes / cytology

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  • (PMID = 12076255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / LIM Domain Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / PDLIM7 protein, human; 0 / Poly(A)-Binding Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TIA1 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / GZMB protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Granzymes; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases
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