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3. Bakri YN, Ezzat A, Akhtar, Dohami, Zahrani: Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Pregnancy considerations. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2000 May;90(1):87-91
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. Pregnancy considerations.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the pregnancy association and malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary with regard to its effects on tumor prognosis.
  • STUDY DESIGN: : Seventy-five patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital-Research Center (KFSH-RC) Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 1976 and December 1992, were reviewed.
  • Data was retrieved from the medical records and the database of ovarian tumor pathology.
  • Patients with tumor/pregnancy association were identified and correlation with obstetrical outcome and tumor prognosis analyzed.
  • Patients who conceived after treatment were identified and their reproductive outcome described.
  • RESULTS: Malignant germ cell tumor was associated with pregnancy in a group of ten patients.
  • Possible tumor effects upon pregnancy in this group included operative delivery by caesarean section (n=3), mid-trimester termination (n=2), spontaneous abortion (n=1).
  • Four patients had normal vaginal birth with no apparent tumor effects upon pregnancy.
  • Pregnancy did not seem to influence the tumor prognosis of pure dysgerminoma (n=6), however, two patients with non-dysgerminomatous germ cell tumor (one endodermal sinus tumor and one immature teratoma) died of rapidly progressive disease during the second trimester.
  • Two patients with advanced (stage IIIC) disease concurrent with pregnancy (one pure dysgerminoma and one mixed germ cell tumor), had normal fetal outcomes and achieved long-term survival.
  • Amongst the 22 patients who planned to conceive after conservative surgery, with or without post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy, 12 conceived (12/22) and achieved a total of 20 pregnancies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that, (1) The association of pure dysgerminoma and pregnancy did not adversely affect the tumor prognosis or fetal outcome.
  • However, the question remains as to whether pregnancy worsened the prognosis of non-dysgerminomatous germ cell tumors. (2) Recent platinum-based regimens of multiagent chemotherapy for germ cell tumors did not seem to affect fertility potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Reproductive History

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  • (PMID = 10767517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
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4. Nishio S, Ushijima K, Fukui A, Fujiyoshi N, Kawano K, Komai K, Ota S, Fujiyoshi K, Kamura T: Fertility-preserving treatment for patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2006 Aug;32(4):416-21
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  • [Title] Fertility-preserving treatment for patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fertility preservation influences the clinical outcome in patients with malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (MGCTO).
  • Thirty-five patients were included in the study, 14 with immature teratoma, 11 with dysgerminoma, eight with endodermal sinus tumor, and two with mixed germ cell tumor.
  • Twenty-three patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I (Ia, 11; Ib, 2; Ic, 10), one had stage II, seven had stage III, and four had stage IV disease.
  • RESULTS: Five patients with stage III or IV disease received radical surgery.
  • As the adjuvant treatment, 30 patients received chemotherapy, while five patients did not receive any chemotherapy.
  • She was 13 years old with a stage IV endodermal sinus tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of the stage of the disease, conservative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for MGCTO can achieve a favorable outcome in terms of survival and fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16882268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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5. Patterson DM, Rustin GJ: Controversies in the management of germ cell tumours of the ovary. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Sep;18(5):500-6
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  • [Title] Controversies in the management of germ cell tumours of the ovary.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ovarian germ cell tumours are rare, but curable at all stages of disease.
  • Malignant transformation of mature teratomas may be predicted by preoperative squamous cell antigen and tumour size.
  • Patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors.
  • There is a hint that high-dose chemotherapy may play a role in relapsed patients.
  • Many clinicians still advocate adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I nondysgerminomatous tumours of grade 2 and above despite good evidence that surveillance is a safe option, and increasing concerns about life-threatening long-term effects of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 16894300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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6. El-Lamie IK, Shehata NA, Abou-Loz SK, El-Lamie KI: Conservative surgical management of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: the experience of the Gynecologic Oncology Unit at Ain Shams University. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2000;21(6):605-9
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  • [Title] Conservative surgical management of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: the experience of the Gynecologic Oncology Unit at Ain Shams University.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of extended surgical staging in patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors in the presence of cisplatinum-based combination chemotherapy.
  • MATERIALS & METHODS: 16 patients aged between 13 and 40 years (mean 20.5) diagnosed and treated for malignant ovarian germ cell tumors at the Gynecologic Oncology Unit.
  • RESULTS: Six patients were diagnosed with dysgerminoma, six with immature teratoma and four with endodermal sinus tumor.
  • Only seven cases were primarily managed at the unit and were subjected to proper surgical staging as required by FIGO (two in each of the stages IC, IIC and IIIA and one in stage IV).
  • However, the remaining nine cases were referred to the unit, six after having unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and no surgical staging, one patient after total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH+BSO), and one with recurrent dysgerminoma in the retroperitoneum and mediastinum following suboptimal treatment.
  • None of these cases were surgically re-explored and all including the first six cases were given the standard BEP chemotherapy for 4-6 courses (mean 5.8).
  • All patients are alive without any evidence of disease recurrence except for one patient with a stage IIIA immature teratoma who had a local and distant recurrence and is undergoing second-line chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In view of the high chemosensitivity and curability of ovarian germ cell tumors and their occurrence in young patients, every effort should be made to preserve one ovary and the uterus for future reproduction even in advanced cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Egypt. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11214621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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9. Pectasides D, Pectasides E, Kassanos D: Germ cell tumors of the ovary. Cancer Treat Rev; 2008 Aug;34(5):427-41
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • PURPOSE: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCTS) are rare but curable at all stages of disease.
  • METHODS: We performed a literature search in the PubMed of almost all relevant articles concerning MOGCTs on pathology, prognostic factors, surgery, post-operative therapy and late effects of therapy.
  • RESULTS: Prognostic factors include stage, amount of residual tumor, histologic type and raised tumor markers.
  • For patients with early stage disease, cure rates approach 100%, while for those with advanced-stage disease are at least 75%.
  • Appropriate surgical treatment for patients where fertility needs to be preserved consists in laparotomy with unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (USO) and resection of all visible disease.
  • For patients with advanced-stage disease, the role and the extent of debulking surgery remain controversial despite its routine use.
  • However, it is suggested a benefit from minimal residual disease at completion of primary surgical cytoreduction with both non-platinum and platinum-based chemotherapy regimens.
  • Second-look surgery clearly is not indicated in patients with early stage non-dysgerminoma or in all patients with dysgerminoma.
  • Three courses of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) is the current standard adjuvant chemotherapy and four courses of BEP are recommended in case of bulky residual tumor after surgery.
  • There is a hint that high-dose chemotherapy may play a role in relapsed patients.
  • The majority of MOGCTs patients who undergo fertility-sparing surgery and chemotherapy retain their gonadal and reproductive function.
  • There is an increasing concern about life-threatening long-term effects of treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: MOGCTs are rare neoplasms that affect girls and young women and have excellent prognosis at all stages of disease with optimal therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Global Health. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18378402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 129
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10. Quero-Hernández A, Estrada-Correa R, Tenorio-Rodríguez H, Alvarez-Solís RM: [Malignant germ cell ovarian tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome]. Cir Cir; 2007 Mar-Apr;75(2):81-5
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  • [Title] [Malignant germ cell ovarian tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de células germinales de ovario: características clínicas, y resultados del tratamiento.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian malignant neoplasms in young girls and teenagers are unusual.
  • The most frequent histological subtypes found are those derived from germ cells.
  • The biological course of this heterogeneous group of neoplasm is unpredictable.
  • The main clinical symptom is chronic abdominal pain and palpable abdominal tumor.
  • Treatment has been improved with combined modality therapy.
  • We present treatment results of the germ cell subtype of malignant ovarian tumors.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed from the medical records of 16 ovarian germ cell patients in order to analyze clinical characteristics, type of surgery performed and chemotherapy, as well as final treatment results.
  • RESULTS: Mean age was 13.8 years, and the left ovary was affected in 75% of cases.
  • Stage distribution was as follows: stage I, one patient diagnosed with choriocarcinoma; stage II, three cases (19%); stage III, 10 cases; and 2 cases in stage IV.
  • Mean number of chemotherapy cycles (cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin) was 4, and 85% of patients survived >2 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical procedure was conservative and a favorable outcome was observed for the chemotherapy cycles.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Mexico / epidemiology. Ovariectomy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17511902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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11. Billmire D, Vinocur C, Rescorla F, Cushing B, London W, Schlatter M, Davis M, Giller R, Lauer S, Olson T, Children's Oncology Group (COG): Outcome and staging evaluation in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in children and adolescents: an intergroup study. J Pediatr Surg; 2004 Mar;39(3):424-9; discussion 424-9
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  • [Title] Outcome and staging evaluation in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in children and adolescents: an intergroup study.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to perform an evaluation of outcome and the role of surgical staging components in malignant germ cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary in children and adolescents.
  • METHODS: From 1990 to 1996, 2 intergroup trials for malignant GCT were undertaken by Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) and Children's Cancer Study Group (CCG).
  • Stage I-II patients were treated with surgical resection and 4 cycles of standard dose cisplatin (100 mg/m2/cycle), etoposide, and bleomycin (PEB) chemotherapy.
  • Stage III-IV patients were treated with surgical resection and randomly assigned to chemotherapy with PEB or high-dose cisplatin (200 mg/m2/cycle) with etoposide and bleomycin (HDPEB).
  • Patients unresectable at diagnosis had second-look operation after 4 cycles of chemotherapy if residual tumor was seen on imaging studies.
  • An analysis of outcome data, operative notes, and pathology reports in girls with ovarian primary site was done for this report.
  • RESULTS: There were 131 patients with ovarian primary tumors of 515 entered on these studies.
  • Six-year survival rate was stage, I 95.1%; stage II, 93.8%; stage III, 98.3%; stage IV, 93.3%.
  • Surgical omissions resulting in protocol noncompliance resulted from failure to biopsy bilateral nodes (97%), no omentectomy (36%), no peritoneal cytology (21%), no contralateral ovary biopsy (59%).
  • More aggressive procedure than recommended by guidelines included total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in 6 patients and retroperitoneal node dissection in 10 patients.
  • Correlation of gross operative findings with pathology results was carried out for ascites, lymph nodes, implants, omentum, and contralateral ovary.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric ovarian malignant GCT (stages I-IV) have excellent survival with conservative surgical resection and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15017564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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12. Lee KH, Lee IH, Kim BG, Nam JH, Kim WK, Kang SB, Ryu SY, Cho CH, Choi HS, Kim KT, Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group: Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Jan;19(1):84-7
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of Korean women: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.
  • We evaluated the clinicopathologic characteristics of malignant germ cell tumors in the ovaries of South Korean women and determined the prognostic factors affecting recurrence.
  • The distribution of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage was as follows: 128 cases (65.3%) in stage I, 27 cases (13.8%) in stage II, 39 cases (19.9%) in stage III, and 2 cases (1.0%) in stage IV.
  • Histologically, immature teratoma was the most common tumor type (n = 68), followed by dysgerminoma (n = 54), endodermal sinus tumor (n = 38), mixed form (n = 24), and choriocarcinoma (n = 12).
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was administered in 166 patients, and the most common regimen was bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (n = 120).
  • Recurrence was observed in 13 patients (6.8%) and was influenced by the stage of the tumor and patient age (>40 years).
  • The results of this study demonstrate that most malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in Korean women are detected in the early stage and have excellent survival outcomes with conservative operation and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Korea. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19258947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Investigator] Lee JK; Park JJ; Cha MS; Kim JH; Lee JM; Park SY; Kim SC; Lee SK
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13. Göbel U, Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Haas RJ, Schmidt P, Harms D: Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence. GPOH MAKEI and the MAHO study groups. Ann Oncol; 2000 Mar;11(3):263-71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Germ-cell tumors in childhood and adolescence. GPOH MAKEI and the MAHO study groups.
  • In mature and immature teratoma the treatment is surgical.
  • The risk of recurrence can be estimated from the parameters primary site (with the coccygeal tumors being most at risk), histological grade of immaturity and completeness of the primary resection including the adjacent organ of origin (coccyx, ovary, testis etc.).
  • In case of a microscopically complete tumor resection there is no role for adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy irrespective of the histological grade of immaturity.
  • Malignant germ-cell tumors (GCT) account for 2.9% of all malignant tumors of children younger than 15 years of age.
  • In patients with extensive tumor growth, metastatic disease or secreting intracranial tumors a delayed tumor resection after preoperative chemotherapy is preferable.
  • In these patients malignant non-seminomatous GCT may be diagnosed clinically due to the increased serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of the tumor markers AFP and/or beta-HCG.
  • Current risk adapted treatment protocols containing cisplatinum allow long-term remissions in about 80% including patients with bulky or metastatic tumors.
  • In the cisplatinum era the prognostic factors like histology, primary site of the tumor and initial tumor stage have partly lost their former impressive significance in infants and children.
  • On the other hand the completeness of the primary tumor resection according to oncological standards has been established as the most powerful prognostic parameter superior to tumor marker levels or primary site of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 10811491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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14. Lu KH, Gershenson DM: Update on the management of ovarian germ cell tumors. J Reprod Med; 2005 Jun;50(6):417-25
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  • [Title] Update on the management of ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • Malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary are rare.
  • In contrast to epithelial ovarian cancer, malignant germ cell tumors occur primarily in girls and young women.
  • In a girl or young woman who presents with a pelvic mass, a gynecologist must consider the diagnosis of an ovarian germ cell tumor in the initial workup.
  • Elevated tumor markers may assist in determining the diagnosis preoperatively.
  • Appropriate intraoperative decision making is crucial to adequately treat and stage the cancer without compromising future fertility.
  • For patients with stage I dysgerminoma or stage I low grade immature teratoma, no additional chemotherapy is indicated.
  • However, patients with stage I disease of other germ cell histologies, as well as advanced-stage disease of all germ cell histologies, require adjuvant treatment with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fertility. Germinoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16050566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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15. Suita S, Shono K, Tajiri T, Takamatsu T, Mizote H, Nagasaki A, Inomata Y, Hara T, Okamura J, Miyazaki S, Kawakami K, Eguchi H, Tsuneyoshi M, Committee for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area: Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan. J Pediatr Surg; 2002 Dec;37(12):1703-6
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the prognostic factors and optimal treatments for malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) in childhood.
  • The prognostic factors and treatments were assessed based on the 5-year survival rate. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Stage: 100% for stage I (n = 54), 75.0% for stage II (n = 4), 67.3% for stage III (n = 14), and 54.8% for stage IV (n = 33); Unknown: n = 12. (2) Primary site: 93.4% for the testis (n = 52), 86.7% for the ovary (n = 31), 56.9% for the sacrococcygeal (n = 21), and 60.6% for others (n = 12); unknown: n = 1. (3) Surgical intervention for primary tumor: 100% for stage I with a complete resection (n = 53), 78.4% for stage III, IV with a complete resection (n = 26), and 33.3% for stage III, IV with an incomplete resection (n = 21). (4) Type of chemotherapy for the stage III and IV: 83.9% for the PVB (cisplatin, vinblastin, bleomycin; n = 13), 66.7% for the VAC (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide; n = 6), and 47.1% for other regimens (n = 25).
  • CONCLUSIONS: An early stage, a diagnosis under 1 year of age and a primary site in the gonads were favorable prognosis factors, whereas histologic findings of choriocarcinoma and liver or lung metastasis were unfavorable.
  • Radical complete resection alone is a sufficient treatment for localized MGCT.
  • The PVB regimen is optimal chemotherapy for advanced MGCT; however, high-risk cases still may require more aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2003 Sep;170(3):1040 [12926414.001]
  • (PMID = 12483635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Patterson DM, Murugaesu N, Holden L, Seckl MJ, Rustin GJ: A review of the close surveillance policy for stage I female germ cell tumors of the ovary and other sites. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jan-Feb;18(1):43-50
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  • [Title] A review of the close surveillance policy for stage I female germ cell tumors of the ovary and other sites.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors are rare but very curable at all stages of disease.
  • There is good evidence that surveillance for stage I dysgerminomas is a safe option although many centers worldwide still advocate adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IA nondysgerminomatous tumors, despite the significant risk of developing long-term treatment side effects.
  • Here, we review the safety of our ongoing surveillance program of all stage IA female germ cell tumors.
  • Thirty-seven patients (median age 26, range 14-48 years) with stage I disease were referred to Mount Vernon and Charing Cross Hospitals between 1981 and 2003.
  • Patients underwent surgery and staging followed by intense surveillance, which included regular tumor markers and imaging.
  • Relapse rates for stage IA nondysgerminomatous tumors and dysgerminomas were 8 of 22 (36%) and 2 of 9 (22%), respectively, plus one patient with mature teratoma and glial implants also relapsed; 10 of these 11 patients (91%) were successfully cured with platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • The overall disease-specific survival of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors was 94%.
  • We have confirmed again that surveillance of all stage IA ovarian germ cell tumors is very safe and that the outcome is comparable with testicular tumors.
  • We question the need for potentially toxic adjuvant chemotherapy in nondysgerminoma patients who have greater than 90% chance of being salvaged with chemotherapy if they relapse later.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Population Surveillance. Prognosis. Risk Management. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17466047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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17. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Wessalowski R, Pathmanathan R, Harms D, Göbel U: Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors. Klin Padiatr; 2002 Jul-Aug;214(4):173-8
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  • [Title] Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors are rare tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ cell component such as granulosa, Sertoli or Leydig cells.
  • Among these, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) constitute the largest subgroup of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors during childhood and adolescence.
  • In local disease (FIGO stage I), the beneficial role of tumor-ovarectomy is well established.
  • In contrast, life expectancy in patients with advanced JGCT (FIGO stage >/= II) is short even after complete tumor resection.
  • The current literature provides only limited and inconclusive data regarding the value of adjuvant chemotherapy in such patients with advanced disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Therefore, we analyzed the patients with FIGO stage >/= II JGCT who were prospectively documented as follow-up patients of the German MAKEI trials for non-testicular germ cell tumors and received the recommended cisplatin-based chemotherapy in an adjuvant setting.
  • Three patients were stage IIc, one stage IIIa, and three stage IIIc.
  • Two patients received laparoscopic tumor resection, which was incomplete in both.
  • All patients received 4 or 6 cycles of adjuvant cisplatin-based three-agent chemotherapy in analogy to the current therapeutic concept applied in malignant germ cell tumors.
  • One patient with a large tumor and multiple peritoneal metastases additionally received 40 Gy abdominal irradiation.
  • RESULTS: All patients achieved complete clinical remission after initial surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • One patient developed a metachronous tumor of the contralateral ovary after 126 months follow-up and is still alive but currently in therapy of another recurrence.
  • Another patient suffered a tumor recurrence after 12 months but achieved a second complete remission with cisplatin chemotherapy after a follow-up of currently 4 months.
  • One patient achieved complete clinical remission but suffered a diffuse peritoneal tumor recurrence with massive ascites and finally died as a result of tumor progression.
  • In summary, at the time of this report 6 of 7 patients are alive after a median of 47 (15 - 138) months.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis clearly demonstrates that advanced JGCT can be successfully treated with surgery followed by adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, this study reveals encouraging therapeutic perspectives in these otherwise fatal tumors that merit further investigation in a prospective cooperative trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12165898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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18. De Backer A, Madern GC, Oosterhuis JW, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Hazebroek FW: Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Apr;46(4):459-64
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  • [Title] Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian germ cell tumors are rare in childhood.
  • The aim of this study is to review clinical presentation, management, and outcome in a two-center series of girls with ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • PROCEDURE: The records of 66 patients (median age 9 years) with histologically proven ovarian germ cell tumor (either benign or malignant), treated over a 44-year-span, were reviewed.
  • Most patients (52) were stage I, 4 were stage II, 6 stage III, and 1, with liver metastases, stage IV.
  • Sixteen patients had an emergency operation for tumor torsion.
  • Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was the most frequently performed procedure (n = 46), and ovarian-sparing tumorectomy was performed in 9 patients (one bilaterally).
  • Surgical removal of the tumor with or without the ovary and/or adnex was the sole treatment in 55 patients, chemotherapy was administered in 10 and radiotherapy + chemotherapy in one.
  • Two patients, with malignant disease, died.
  • The 64 survivors are now between 8 months and 44 years after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With a recurrence rate of 4.5% and a mortality rate of 3%, this series confirms the excellent prognosis for girls with ovarian germ cell tumor (GCT).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16206211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Rajbhandari S, Shrestha B, Karki A: Diagnostic dilemma of an unusual pelvic mass in a young girl. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc; 2007 Oct-Dec;46(168):199-202
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  • Dysgerminoma of ovary is the most common germ cell tumor, accounting for 50% of all germ cell tumor cases.
  • It is rare to find both ovaries to be involved in germ cell tumors.
  • The prognosis of patients with malignant germ cell has improved significantly over the last two decades after the introduction of chemotherapy specially cisplatin.
  • The only exceptions are stage 1, grade 1, immature teratoma and stage 1A dysgerminoima who are followed up after surgery without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Normal ovarian functions and fertility can be retained in most patients by following the conservative surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18340374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2715
  • [Journal-full-title] JNMA; journal of the Nepal Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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22. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • The latter case had a dermoid cyst in the contralateral ovary.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • According to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system, 4 cases were stage I tumors, 3 cases were stage III tumors, and 4 cases were stage IV tumors.
  • Seven patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy followed by chemotherapy; 1 patient had a total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy; one had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy, and one had a right salpingo-oophorectomy with appendectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • Four of 5 patients who died of disease had either stage III or IV tumors and 3 of 5 patients who are alive without evidence of disease have stage I tumors.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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23. Li H, Hong W, Zhang R, Wu L, Liu L, Zhang W: Retrospective analysis of 67 consecutive cases of pure ovarian immature teratoma. Chin Med J (Engl); 2002 Oct;115(10):1496-500
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  • [Title] Retrospective analysis of 67 consecutive cases of pure ovarian immature teratoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the development regularity, treatment methods and prognosis of ovary immature teratoma (POIT).
  • There were 31 patients with stage I, 4 with stage II, 2 with stage III and 1 with stage IV lesions.
  • Unilateral adnexectomy was performed for stage I lesions.
  • From the 1980s, this was followed by four-cycles of combination chemotherapy (VAC, PVB or BEP x 3 cycles) as post-operative adjuvant therapy.
  • Combined chemotherapy and multiple operations were performed for advanced and recurrent lesions.
  • Thirty-five patients who had early lesions (stage I and II) had a 5-year survival rate of 91.4% (32/35).
  • The chief prognostic factors for this disease are clinical stage, pathological grade and adequate treatment.
  • It is characterized by the fact that recurrent tumors may be converted back to mature ones as time goes on.
  • With chemotherapy, these is a good opportunity to rescue those patients with recurrent tumors.
  • At present, treatment of POIT gives the most satisfactory results among all malignant ovarian germ cell tumor types.
  • Tests of serum specific tumor markers (CA19-9, AFP, CA125, CEA) performed preoperatively or before chemotherapy and during follow-up have been found helpful in the evaluation of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Teratoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12490095.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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24. Hackethal A, Brueggmann D, Bohlmann MK, Franke FE, Tinneberg HR, Münstedt K: Squamous-cell carcinoma in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: systematic review and analysis of published data. Lancet Oncol; 2008 Dec;9(12):1173-80
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  • [Title] Squamous-cell carcinoma in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: systematic review and analysis of published data.
  • Up to a quarter of ovarian masses originate from germ cells, and many of these are mature cystic teratomas.
  • The secondary development of malignancy is a rare but well-known phenomenon in patients with ovarian teratomas.
  • Squamous-cell carcinoma accounts for 80% of secondary malignant transformations of ovarian teratomas.
  • We aimed to do an up-to-date systematic review of this rare malignant transformation.
  • Squamous-cell carcinoma in mature cystic teratoma was mainly found in women aged more than 50 years, with high concentrations of squamous-cell-carcinoma antigen and cancer antigen CA125, and with ovarian tumours more than 100 mm in size.
  • Patients with FIGO stage Ia tumours had better survival than those with more advanced disease.
  • Complete resection together with hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and lymphadenectomy for patients with advanced disease, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with an alkylating drug was associated with higher survival, radiotherapy was not.
  • We make proposals for investigation and treatment of this rare disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Ovarian Neoplasms. Teratoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Young Adult

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  • [ErratumIn] Lancet Oncol. 2009 May;10(5):446
  • (PMID = 19038764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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25. He X, Lin B, Kong L, Zhang J: The potential mechanism of chemosensitive difference between 2 types of ovarian cancer. Saudi Med J; 2007 Jul;28(7):1044-9
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  • [Title] The potential mechanism of chemosensitive difference between 2 types of ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the potential molecular mechanism of chemosensitive difference between human malignant epithelial and germ cell tumor of the ovary by testing the expression of p53 (mutation), Bcl-2, topoisomerase II alpha (Topo II alpha).
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on paraffin embedded tumor tissue microarray from malignant epithelial (n=53) and germ cell tumor of the ovary (n=25) in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Second West China Hospital of Sichuan University, China from the year 2000 to 2004.
  • The expression of p53, Bcl-2 and Topo II alpha in the 2 types of ovarian cancer was compared and data were analyzed by student t test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Spearman rank correlation test.
  • RESULTS: The expression of p53 (mutation) in ovarian epithelial cancers (56.6%) was significantly higher than that in the malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (28%), whereas the expression of Bcl-2 and Topo II alpha had no significant difference between the 2 groups.
  • The expression of p53, Bcl-2 and Topo II alpha had no relationship with the Federation Internationale de Gynecologie Obstetrique (FIGO) stage.
  • The age, FIGO stage and the chemotherapy response were significantly different between the 2 groups.
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of p53 in ovarian cancer was related to chemosensitivity.
  • Our results suggest that p53 may have a role on the difference of chemosensitivity between human malignant epithelial and germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Carcinoma / genetics. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17603707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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26. Rzepka-Górska I, Błogowska A, Zajaczek S, Zielińska D: [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls]. Ginekol Pol; 2003 Sep;74(9):840-6
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  • [Title] [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls].
  • OBJECTIVE: Germ cell tumours are the most common ovarian tumours in childhood and adolescence.
  • This diverse group of tumours derives from germ cells.
  • DESIGN: The aim of this work is presentation of germ cell tumours in the material from our clinic with characteristic clinical features, the scope of operation and effects of many years of observation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated 109 girls with germ cell tumours of the ovary: 13 had malignant tumours: there were 7 patients with dysgerminomas, 2 with endodermal sinus tumour of the ovary, 3 with immature teratomas, 1 with carcinoma embryonale.
  • Most patients with dysgerminoma have stage I of disease and surgery is sufficient.
  • It must be suggested that patients of stage I who wish to preserve childbearing function may be treated with unilateral salpingoophorectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Monitoring of the treatment is connected with measurement of biochemical markers.
  • Some of these markers are useful for monitoring of response to therapy.
  • Cytological smears and biopsy specimens from the remaining ovary, peritoneum and subdiaphragmatic area should be obtained laparoscopically.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The sift ultrasonographic investigations can be helpful in the early diagnosis of germ cell tumours of the ovary in girls.
  • Fertility sparing operative treatment is preferred when karyotype is normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Dysgerminoma / therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Female. Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Gonadoblastoma / pathology. Gonadoblastoma / therapy. Gonadotropins / blood. Gonadotropins / genetics. Humans. Poland. Risk Factors. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14674134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gonadotropins
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27. Kdous M, Hachicha R, Gamoudi A, Boussen H, Benna F, Rahal K: [Pure dysgerminoma of the ovary. 12 case reports]. Tunis Med; 2003 Dec;81(12):937-43
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  • [Title] [Pure dysgerminoma of the ovary. 12 case reports].
  • Data from the files of 12 patients with pur ovarian dysgerminoma managed between January 1970 and december 1990 were evaluated.
  • Pur ovarian dysgerminoma accounts for 2% of all ovarian malignancies and 28% of malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Echography objective ovarian tumor in all cases.
  • Primary treatment was surgery followed by radiotherapy in 8 cases and chemotherapy in 2 cases.
  • 2 patients developed local recurrences were irradiated and 1 patient developed distant metastases was given chemotherapy in association to radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment of ovarian dysgerminoma remains controversial.
  • However, patients with stage la who desire further childbearing can be safely treated with unilateral adnexectomy.
  • For all other patients, radical surgery followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy for the advanced stages and recurrents dysgerminoma is the treatment of choice.
  • Prospective randomized clinical trials are needed for a well codified therapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Infertility, Female / etiology. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14986529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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28. Shen K, Lang J, Huang H: [Treatment of childhood genital malignancies]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2001 Jun;36(6):360-3
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  • [Title] [Treatment of childhood genital malignancies].
  • OBJECTIVE: To present the clinical profile and the result of treatment in childhood genital malignancies.
  • METHODS: Twenty seven childhood patients (< 12 years) with genital malignancies diagnosed and treated in Peking Union Medical College hospital were analyzed retrospectively focusing on the clinical characteristics and outcome of the treatment.
  • Of the 27 patients, 23 had ovarian malignancies including 21 (77.8%) germ cell tumor.
  • Four of the patients had extragonadal tumors with 2 endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina, and 2 embryonic rhabdomysarcoma.
  • In ovarian malignancies, abdominal mass and abdominal pain were main clinical features accounting for 77.8% and 74.1% respectively.
  • In vaginal malignancies, vaginal bleeding and polypoid tumor of the vagina were important clinical manifestations.
  • 91.3% (21/23) of the patients underwent only unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with preservation of contralateral ovary and the uterus.
  • Childhood genital malignancies were very sensitive to the chemotherapy.
  • Postoperative vincristine, actinomycine, cyclophosphamide (VAC) or cisplatine, vincristine, blyomycine (PVB) chemotherapy was individualized according to the tumor site, International Federation of Gynecology and obstetrics stage and histopathology.
  • Survival rate in our series was 71.4% during the follow-up time (mean 47.4 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary is the most common tumor in the childhood genital malignancies.
  • Principle of primary surgery is preservation of fertility and chemotherapy is also considered as a very important treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11783136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVB protocol; VAC protocol
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29. Terenziani M, D'Angelo P, Bisogno G, Boldrini R, Cecchetto G, Collini P, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Ilari I, Indolfi P, Inserra A, Piva L, Siracusa F, Spreafico F, Tamaro P, Lo Curto M: Teratoma with a malignant somatic component in pediatric patients: the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Apr;54(4):532-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Teratoma with a malignant somatic component in pediatric patients: the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Teratoma with a malignant somatic component (TMSC) is rare but described in adults, whereas information on pediatric presentation is sparse.
  • PROCEDURE: The Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica identified 14 cases of TMSC.
  • RESULTS: The series (9 female, 5 male) showed the following disease: testis (2), sacrococcygeal (3), ovary (3), retroperitoneum (3), mediastinum (2), and foot soft tissue (1).
  • Distribution of the somatic component was: carcinoma (4), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (1), neuroblastoma (3), rhabdomyosarcoma (3), rhabdomyosarcoma plus liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, neurogenic sarcoma (1), chondrosarcoma plus neuroectodermal sarcoma (1), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (1).
  • Three patients were in stage I, four in stage II, three in stage III, and four in stage IV.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis for germ cell tumors (GCTs) containing MSC is worse than that for GCTs.
  • The pediatric disease appears to be more heterogeneous in tumor site distribution and MSC histology than in adults.
  • Chemotherapy optimized for histology should include reagents directed to the somatic malignancy, if chemosensitive.
  • Malignant GCT warrants GCT-directed chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20049928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Matsushita H, Arai K, Fukase M, Takayanagi T, Ikarashi H: Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary after fertility-sparing surgery and successful pregnancy. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2010;69(4):221-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome of the ovary after fertility-sparing surgery and successful pregnancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Growing teratoma syndrome (GTS) is rare and is defined as an enlarging mature teratoma that arises during or after chemotherapy for a malignant germ cell tumor, with normalization of previously elevated serum tumor markers.
  • CASE: A 30-year-old nulliparous Japanese woman was diagnosed as having a stage IIIa immature teratoma.
  • After fertility-sparing surgery, she received 4 cycles of chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin.
  • Eight years after the initial surgery, a mass mimicking an adrenal tumor was resected laparoscopically.
  • Therefore, long-term follow-up of patients treated for ovarian immature teratoma should be mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20068327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-002X
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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