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1. Romanini A, Manca G, Pellegrino D, Murr R, Sarti S, Bianchi F, Alsharif A, Orlandini C, Zucchi V, Castagna M, Gandini D, Salimbeni G, Ghiara F, Barachini P, Mariani G: Molecular staging of the sentinel lymph node in melanoma patients: correlation with clinical outcome. Ann Oncol; 2005 Nov;16(11):1832-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular staging of the sentinel lymph node in melanoma patients: correlation with clinical outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine the debated prognostic significance of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity in melanoma patients' sentinel lymph node (SLN) negative by conventional histopathology (PATH).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with primary stage I-II cutaneous melanoma underwent radioguided sentinel lymphadenectomy.
  • Their SLNs were assessed for tyrosinase (Tyr) and melanoma antigens recognized by T-cells (MART-1) mRNA expression using RT-PCR, in parallel with hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry.
  • Tyr and MART-1 expression in the SLNs were correlated with PATH assay results, standard prognostic factors, time to progression and overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR is more sensitive than PATH to detect SLN metastases and it is a reliable predictor of disease relapse in stage I-II melanoma patients.

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  • (PMID = 16107497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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2. Soffietti R, Rudā R, Mutani R: Management of brain metastases. J Neurol; 2002 Oct;249(10):1357-69
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  • Brain metastases occur in 20-40% of patients with cancer and their frequency has increased over time.
  • Lung, breast and skin (melanoma) are the commonest sources of brain metastases, and in up to 15% of patients the primary site remains unknown.
  • Contrast-enhanced MRI is the gold standard for the diagnosis.
  • There are no pathognomonic features on CT or MRI that distinguish brain metastases from primary malignant brain tumors or nonneoplastic conditions: therefore a tissue diagnosis by biopsy should be always obtained in patients with unknown primary tumor before undergoing radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • Some factors are prognostically important: a high Performance Status, a solitary brain metastasis, an absence of systemic metastases, a controlled primary tumor and a younger age.
  • Symptomatic therapy includes corticosteroids to reduce vasogenic cerebral edema and anticonvulsants to control seizures.
  • The combination of surgery and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is superior to WBRT alone for the treatment of single brain metastasis in patients with limited or absent systemic disease and good neurological condition.
  • WBRT alone is the treatment of choice in patients with single brain metastasis not amenable to surgery or radiosurgery, and with an active systemic disease, and in patients with multiple brain metastases.
  • The response rate of brain metastases to chemotherapy is similar to the response rate of the primary tumor and extracranial metastases, some tumor types being more chemosensitive (small cell lung carcinoma, breast carcinoma, germ cell tumors).
  • New radiosensitizers and cytotoxic or cytostatic agents, and innovative technique of drug delivery are being investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy. Humans. Neurosurgery. Prognosis. Radiosurgery. Radiotherapy. Thromboembolism / therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12382150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5354
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anticonvulsants
  • [Number-of-references] 134
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3. Rossi CR, Foletto M, Mocellin S, Pilati PL, Campana L, Rubello D, Lise M: TNF-based limb perfusion for cutaneous melanoma in transit metastases: suggestions for modification of the perfusional schedule. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2003 Dec;22(4 Suppl):103-7
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  • [Title] TNF-based limb perfusion for cutaneous melanoma in transit metastases: suggestions for modification of the perfusional schedule.
  • Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) is currently considered the standard treatment for melanoma patients with extensive in-transit disease, and L-PAM, combined or not with TNF, represents the most active drug.
  • Thirty-seven stage III patients underwent TNF-based limb perfusion, 22 with bulky disease, 15 with recurrences after perfusion with L-PAM.
  • The impact of disease burden, temperature, perfusion duration was assessed on tumor response.
  • No significant statistical difference for tumor response were seen for disease burden, ILP temperatures and duration.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Extremities / pathology. Female. Humans. Hyperthermia, Induced. Male. Melphalan / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Sep;25(3):preceding table of contents. Ribello, D [corrected to Rubello, D]
  • (PMID = 16767915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
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4. Ahn HJ, Na II, Park YH, Cho SY, Lee BC, Lee GH, Koh JS, Lee YS, Shim YS, Kim YK, Kang HJ, Ryoo BY, Yang SH: Role of adjuvant chemotherapy in malignant mucosal melanoma of the head and neck. Oral Oncol; 2010 Aug;46(8):607-11
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  • [Title] Role of adjuvant chemotherapy in malignant mucosal melanoma of the head and neck.
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and prognostic factors in malignant mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (HNMM).
  • Thirty-two patients with mucosal melanoma of the head and neck who received local treatment with or without adjuvant chemotherapy were reviewed.
  • Clinicopathologic parameters including anatomic sites, gender, age (60 vs.>60years), stage, level of invasion, p53 and MDM2 [murine double minute 2] expressions, performance status, and adjuvant chemotherapy were evaluated.
  • The patients' median age was 62years, and 16 (50%) received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Predictors of poor survival according to univariate analysis were level of invasion and anatomic location of the primary tumor.
  • Patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy had prolonged survival (p=0.002), which was also shown in the multivariate Cox regression model (HR, 0.24; p=0.014).
  • Our analysis suggests a significant role of adjuvant chemotherapy and different patterns of p53 and MDM2 expression in HNMM relative to cutaneous melanomas.
  • However, since this study is retrospective and observational, with a small sample size, further studies are needed to confirm the definitive role of adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant mucosal melanoma of the head and neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20615750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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5. Négrier S, Fervers B, Bailly C, Beckendorf V, Cupissol D, Doré JF, Dorval T, Garbay JR, Vilmer C: [Standards, Options and Recommendations (SOR): clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of cutaneous melanoma. Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer]. Bull Cancer; 2000 Feb;87(2):173-82
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  • [Title] [Standards, Options and Recommendations (SOR): clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of cutaneous melanoma. Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Standards, Options et Recommandations (SOR) pour la prise en charge des patients atteints de mélanome cutané.
  • CONTEXT: The "Standards, Options and Recommendations" (SOR) project, started in 1993, is a collaboration between the Federation of the French Cancer Centres (FNCLCC), the 20 French Cancer Centres and specialists from French Public Universities, General Hospitals and Private Clinics.
  • The main objective is the development of clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of health care and outcome for cancer patients.
  • The methodology is based on literature systematic review and critical appraisal by a multidisciplinary group of experts, with feedback from specialists in cancer care delivery.
  • OBJECTIVES: To develop clinical practice guidelines according to the definitions of Standards, Options and Recommendations for the management of patients with cutaneous melanoma.
  • Once the guidelines were defined, the document was submitted for review to national and international independent reviewers and to the medical committees of the 20 French Cancer Centres.
  • RESULTS: The main recommendations for the management of cutaneous melanoma (CM) are:.
  • 1) The primary prevention of melanoma is based on a reduction in exposure to ultraviolet rays (solar or artificial).
  • 2) The diagnosis of CM requires the surgical removal and histological examination of the lesion (standard).
  • 3) The pathological report must include the diagnosis of primary malignant melanoma, the maximum thickness of the tumour in millimeters (Breslow), the clearance of surgical margins, the level of invasion (Clark), the presence and extension of regression and the presence of any ulceration (standard).
  • 4) The standard treatment of a primary melanoma without lymph node involvement is based on surgery that must ensure adequate margins depending on the thickness of the tumour (standard, level of evidence B).
  • 5) After surgery of a stage I melanoma, there is no indication for additional treatment outside a prospective therapeutic study (standard, level of evidence B, French Consensus Conference).
  • 6) For a local recurrence without node involvement, in the absence of other metastases, surgical excision is the standard treatment.
  • There is no indication for additional treatment outside a prospective therapeutic study (standard, level of evidence B).
  • 8) There is no standard therapeutic strategy for metastatic melanoma.
  • Conventional palliative treatment is chemotherapy with dacarbazine (level of evidence B).
  • Clinical surveillance and self-detection are indicated in all cases throughout life (standard).
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 10705288.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4551
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Guideline; Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
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6. Tarhini AA, Kirkwood JM, Tawbi H, Gooding WE, Islam MF, Agarwala SS: Safety and efficacy of arsenic trioxide for patients with advanced metastatic melanoma. Cancer; 2008 Mar 1;112(5):1131-8
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  • [Title] Safety and efficacy of arsenic trioxide for patients with advanced metastatic melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Arsenic trioxide (ATO) cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction has been demonstrated with numerous cancer cell lines, including human melanoma.
  • METHODS: A second-line, phase 2, single-arm study of ATO was conducted in patients with inoperable American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage IV melanoma.
  • One cycle consisted of a loading dose of 0.32 mg/kg/day for 4 days in Week 1, followed by 0.25 mg/kg/day twice per week for 6 weeks, followed by 1 week of rest, at which time response assessment was performed.
  • All had stage IV melanoma including M1a (2 patients), M1b (6 patients), and M1c (13 patients) disease.
  • One patient had metastatic choroidal melanoma and 20 patients had cutaneous melanoma.
  • Twenty patients had received prior therapy.
  • Possible treatment-related grade 3 of 4 toxicities (using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria) included 1 case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and 1 case of elevated lactate dehydrogenase.
  • Four patients did not complete the first cycle of therapy and were not evaluable for response.
  • Among 17 evaluable patients, 1 patient (6%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0-29%) achieved a partial response lasting 7 months, and 10 patients (59%) had disease stabilization after at least 1 cycle, but all eventually developed disease progression.
  • The median time to disease progression was 17 weeks (95% CI, 11-38 weeks) and the median survival was 13 months (95% CI, 12-26 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: ATO as tested in the current trial was found to be well tolerated and had limited activity in patients with metastatic melanoma.
  • The application of this agent in combination with either chemotherapy or agents that target recognized critical signaling and antiapoptotic pathways of melanoma has not yet been performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Choroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use. Oxides / toxicity. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [ErratumIn] Cancer. 2013 Feb 15;119(4):924
  • (PMID = 18286511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA121973
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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7. Fujii K, Goto A, Matsunaga Y, Hasegawa Y, Sukawa Y, Suzuki K, Yonezawa K, Abe T, Itoh A, Shinomura Y, Iimura Y, Hasegawa N, Nakamura H, Yoshida Y: [Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus--detection of circulating tumor cells]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Aug;37(8):1539-43
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  • [Title] [Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus--detection of circulating tumor cells].
  • Primary malignant melanoma of esophagus (PMME) is a rare tumor; therefore, the prognostic factors, predictive factors, and difference in biological behaviors of cutaneous melanoma and primary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma remain uncertain.
  • Although we did not adopt a standard therapeutic strategy, we performed surgical resection, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy either alone or in combination; all procedures resulted in poor outcomes.
  • A 67-year-old woman presented with a swallowing disorder.
  • An esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed, leading to diagnosis of PMME.
  • According to the Japanese Classification of Esophageal Cancer, the pathological stage was T1b, ly0, v0, N0, M0, stage I .
  • After subtotal esophagectomy, adjuvant chemotherapy was performed, but the malignant melanoma relapsed in the mediastinum and the patient died 10 months after diagnosis.
  • We serially monitored the patient using several new modalities, including PET/CT, metabolites of melanin: 5-S-CD, and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to identify the melanoma-specific gene.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case in which CTCs in PMME were detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Recurrence. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20716882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Hayes AJ, Clark MA, Harries M, Thomas JM: Management of in-transit metastases from cutaneous malignant melanoma. Br J Surg; 2004 Jun;91(6):673-82
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  • [Title] Management of in-transit metastases from cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In-transit metastases from cutaneous malignant melanoma (cutaneous or subcutaneous deposits between the primary melanoma and regional lymph nodes) represent late-stage disease, and their treatment should be tailored accordingly.
  • This article reviews the pathology, clinical significance and treatment options for in-transit disease from melanoma.
  • METHODS: An initial Medline search was undertaken using the keywords 'melanoma and in-transit' and 'melanoma and non-nodal regional recurrence'.
  • The method of treatment should be tailored to the extent of cutaneous disease.
  • The first line of treatment remains complete excision with negative histopathological margins.
  • Carbon dioxide laser therapy is valuable for multiple small cutaneous deposits.
  • Systemic chemotherapy has response rates of about 25 per cent and is reserved for patients for whom surgery is no longer feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Amputation. Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion. Humans. Laser Therapy / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Risk Factors. Terminology as Topic

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15164434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Ranson M, Hersey P, Thompson D, Beith J, McArthur GA, Haydon A, Davis ID, Kefford RF, Mortimer P, Harris PA, Baka S, Seebaran A, Sabharwal A, Watson AJ, Margison GP, Middleton MR: Randomized trial of the combination of lomeguatrib and temozolomide compared with temozolomide alone in chemotherapy naive patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jun 20;25(18):2540-5
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  • [Title] Randomized trial of the combination of lomeguatrib and temozolomide compared with temozolomide alone in chemotherapy naive patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate tumor response, pharmacodynamic effects, and safety of a combination of lomeguatrib (LM), an O6-methylguanine DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) inactivator, and temozolomide (TMZ), TMZ alone, and LM/TMZ after disease progression on TMZ alone in patients with advanced melanoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with unresectable stage III or IV cutaneous melanoma who had no prior systemic chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive either 40 to 80 mg LM and 125 mg/m2 TMZ or 200 mg/m2 TMZ on days 1 through 5 of each 28-day treatment cycle.
  • Drugs were administered orally for up to six cycles of treatment.
  • Patients on TMZ alone were offered LM/TMZ at progression, if fit enough to receive treatment.
  • Unexpectedly, analysis of tumor biopsies showed rapid recovery of MGMT after LM/TMZ with 40 mg/d LM.
  • Tumor response rates were 13.5% with LM/TMZ and 17.3% with TMZ alone.
  • Median time to disease progression was 65.5 days for LM/TMZ and 68 days for TMZ.
  • All treatments were well tolerated, although hematologic and gastrointestinal adverse events were common.
  • To maintain MGMT depletion in tumor dosing of LM needs to be continued beyond that of TMZ.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / antagonists & inhibitors. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Purines. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17577032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Purines; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; S79265T71M / lomeguatrib
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10. Winnepenninckx V, Van den Oord JJ: Gene expression profiling of primary cutaneous melanoma. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg; 2007;69(1):23-45
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling of primary cutaneous melanoma.
  • Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma (CMM) is the most malignant skin tumour in humans, the incidence of which is rising rapidly in most fair-skinned populations, without apparent decline in mortality.
  • CMM arises from melanocytes in the epidermis, and proceeds through discrete steps of tumor-progression that consist histologically of the radial growth phase (RGP), vertical growth phase (VGP) and metastatic phase.
  • The prognosis of patients with VGP melanoma depends on several clinical and histological parameters; the latter include thickness, mitotic activity, presence or absence of ulceration and regression, and pattern of lymphocytic host response.
  • To obtain insight in the molecular mechanisms of tumor progression in CMM, and in search of new prognostic markers, we performed global gene-expression profiling using 44K oligonucleotide micro-arrays on a unique retrospective series of 83 frozen primary MM with VGP, 9 metastases and 23 benign nevi.
  • Unsupervised analysis allowed us o identify clusters of melanoma patients with different outcome based on their gene expression profile only.
  • The large majority of the 254 enes was correlated with thickness, thereby stressing the importance of thickness in he prognosis of CMM.
  • This signature was validated on a separate series of melanoma patients, and proved to have a predictive accuracy comparable to what can be obtained by tumour thickness and ulceration.
  • On an immunohistochemical level, we identified 8 new markers that may help in the prognostication of melanoma patients; three of these markers, i.e. the mini-chromosome maintenance (mcm) proteins mcm3, 4 and 6, hat are involved in DNA-replication, had independent prognostic value.
  • Additionally, upervised analysis showed similarities in gene expression profile between primary CMM and their metastases.
  • In conclusion, our data provide new information regarding the molecules that are operative in the progression of CMM.
  • CMM is notorious for its resistance to chemotherapy, and disseminated CMM is a uniformly fatal disease.
  • As several of the progression-related genes, encode molecules that have been the target of established or xperimental cancer therapies, our results may hopefully contribute to the treatment of end-stage CMM-patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17427873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-6469
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandelingen - Koninklijke Academie voor Geneeskunde van België
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh. K. Acad. Geneeskd. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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11. Martín-Algarra S, Espinosa E, Rubió J, López López JJ, Manzano JL, Carrión LA, Plazaola A, Tanovic A, Paz-Ares L: Phase II study of weekly Kahalalide F in patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Eur J Cancer; 2009 Mar;45(5):732-5
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  • [Title] Phase II study of weekly Kahalalide F in patients with advanced malignant melanoma.
  • This phase II clinical trial evaluated the antitumour response of Kahalalide F (KF) 650 microg/m(2) given as a 1-h weekly infusion in advanced malignant melanoma patients, both untreated and those who relapsed or progressed after one line of systemic therapy.
  • Of 24 enrolled patients (median age, 55 years; range, 28-89), 14 patients had been previously treated with chemotherapy or biological therapy.
  • No RECIST responses occurred; five chemotherapy-naïve patients with cutaneous melanoma had disease stabilisation for > or = 3 months; median progression-free survival was 1.7 months (95% CI, 1.2-1.9 months); and median overall survival was 10.8 months (95% CI, 5.0-upper limit not reached).
  • The most common laboratory toxicities were non-cumulative increase of transaminases (ALT/AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT).
  • KF was a well-tolerated and safe chemotherapy regimen.
  • Despite a favourable safety profile, this trial was closed after the first stage because of the lack of objective response in patients with malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Depsipeptides / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19186051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0852
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Depsipeptides; 149204-42-2 / kahalalide F
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12. Tarhini AA, Agarwala SS: Cutaneous melanoma: available therapy for metastatic disease. Dermatol Ther; 2006 Jan-Feb;19(1):19-25
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  • [Title] Cutaneous melanoma: available therapy for metastatic disease.
  • Survival of melanoma varies widely by stage, from a potentially highly curable disease when detected in early stages, to a disease with dismal prognosis when it reaches advanced inoperable stages.
  • Stage IV melanoma defines distant metastasis and continues to comprise an ominous prognosis, with a median survival of 6-9 months.
  • Currently, there is no therapeutic agent known to prolong survival in patients with metastatic melanoma.
  • Therapeutic approaches studied in metastatic melanoma include chemotherapy, biochemotherapy, nonspecific immune adjuvants, cancer-specific vaccines, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies, and specific immunostimulants.
  • Chemotherapy with single-agent dacarbazine is the only United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA)-approved chemotherapy agent for metastatic melanoma.
  • Immunological approaches have yielded the only newly US-FDA-approved agent for metastatic disease in 30 years, high-dose bolus IL-2, based on durable responses in some patients with metastatic melanoma, but with associated high toxicity rate and cost.
  • A number of novel therapeutic agents are undergoing active clinical investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / mortality. Salvage Therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cancer Vaccines / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16405566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1396-0296
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interleukin-2
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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13. von Euler H, Sadeghi A, Carlsson B, Rivera P, Loskog A, Segall T, Korsgren O, Tötterman TH: Efficient adenovector CD40 ligand immunotherapy of canine malignant melanoma. J Immunother; 2008 May;31(4):377-84
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  • [Title] Efficient adenovector CD40 ligand immunotherapy of canine malignant melanoma.
  • Cutaneous canine melanomas are usually benign in contrast to human malignant melanoma.
  • Surgery and to a lesser extent radiotherapy and chemotherapy are widely adopted treatments but are seldom curative in advanced stages.
  • The similarities between human and canine melanoma make spontaneous canine melanoma an excellent disease model for exploring novel therapies.
  • Herein, we report the first 2 adenovector CD40L immunogene (AdCD40L) treatments of aggressive canine malignant melanoma.
  • Case no. 1 was an advanced stage III oral melanoma that was cured from malignant melanoma with 2 intratumor AdCD40L injections before cytoreductive surgery.
  • After treatment, the tumor tissue was infiltrated with T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes suggesting immune activation.
  • This dog survived 401 days after the first round of gene therapy and was free of melanoma at autopsy.
  • Case no. 2 had a conjunctival malignant melanoma with a rapid progression.
  • One hundred and twenty days after start of gene therapy and 60 days after the last injection, the tumor had regressed dramatically, and the dog had a minimal tumor mass and no signs of progression or metastasis.
  • Our results indicate that AdCD40L immunogene therapy is beneficial in canine malignant melanoma and could be considered for human malignant melanoma as well.
  • [MeSH-major] CD40 Ligand / immunology. CD40 Ligand / therapeutic use. Conjunctival Neoplasms / veterinary. Dog Diseases / therapy. Immunotherapy, Active. Melanoma / veterinary. Mouth Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18391758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-9557
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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14. Daud A, Valkov N, Centeno B, Derderian J, Sullivan P, Munster P, Urbas P, Deconti RC, Berghorn E, Liu Z, Hausheer F, Sullivan D: Phase II trial of karenitecin in patients with malignant melanoma: clinical and translational study. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Apr 15;11(8):3009-16
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of karenitecin in patients with malignant melanoma: clinical and translational study.
  • PURPOSE: A phase II trial of the novel camptothecin karenitecin (BNP1350) was conducted to determine its efficacy and tolerability in patients with metastatic melanoma.
  • Patients were biopsied to determine topoisomerase expression at baseline and response to therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had metastatic melanoma with up to three prior chemotherapy and/or any number of immunotherapy regimens.
  • Treatment consisted of an i.v. infusion of 1 mg/m(2) karenitecin daily for 5 days with cycles repeated every 3 weeks.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsies were done before treatment and on day 3 to determine topoisomerase expression from patients' tumors.
  • Most patients (72%) had stage M1C disease and were previously exposed to chemotherapy (56%).
  • One patient had a complete response after 11 months of therapy.
  • Karenitecin has significant activity in metastatic melanoma.
  • Melanoma metastases express high levels of topoisomerase I.
  • We did not observe any compensatory increase in topoisomerase II upon treatment with karenitecin.
  • [MeSH-major] Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Melanoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anemia / chemically induced. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Fatigue / chemically induced. Female. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Survival Analysis. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome. Vomiting / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 15837755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 82533
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 24R60NVC41 / cositecan; EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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15. Schmid-Wendtner MH, Berking C, Baumert J, Schmidt M, Sander CA, Plewig G, Volkenandt M: Cutaneous melanoma in childhood and adolescence: an analysis of 36 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2002 Jun;46(6):874-9
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  • [Title] Cutaneous melanoma in childhood and adolescence: an analysis of 36 patients.
  • Analysis of data of 6931 patients with cutaneous melanoma seen at the Department of Dermatology and Allergology at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich between 1977 and 1998 identified 36 patients in whom cutaneous melanomas developed during childhood or adolescence (age <18 years).
  • Thirty-one patients presented with nonmetastatic primary melanomas and 5 patients presented with metastatic melanoma.
  • Tumor thickness ranged from 0.24 to 7.0 mm, with a median of 1.29 mm (mean, 1.67 mm).
  • All patients with primary melanomas received surgical therapy; patients with metastatic disease received chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or both.
  • Similar to experience in adult patients, survival strongly correlated with tumor thickness and clinical stage at the time of diagnosis.
  • The data emphasize that a high index of suspicion for cutaneous melanoma is needed by clinicians assessing melanocytic lesions in children and adolescents for early diagnosis.
  • Reduction of the melanoma mortality rate in children and adolescents will be achieved through identification of patients at increased risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Medical Records. Nevus / congenital. Nevus / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12063484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0190-9622
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Zalaudek I, Ferrara G, Argenziano G, Ruocco V, Soyer HP: Diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous melanoma: a practical guide. Skinmed; 2003 Jan-Feb;2(1):20-31; quiz 32-3
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous melanoma: a practical guide.
  • During the past decades, a number of new scientific evidences have been provided allowing a better understanding of the nature of cutaneous melanoma.
  • New scientific methods, such as dermoscopy, have been shown to improve the diagnostic accuracy of pigmented skin lesions and early recognition of melanoma.
  • Aggressive approaches for the surgical treatment of melanoma have been shown to be useless and have been replaced by more conservative surgical protocols and by sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • In the advanced stage of melanoma, new chemotherapy protocols and immunotherapy have been proposed, whereas the role of vaccines is still under investigation.
  • In this review, the authors present an up-to-date overview of the epidemiologic, clinical, histopathologic, and therapeutic aspects of melanoma that can be used as a practical guide for the management of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Risk Factors


17. Pellegrino D, Bellina CR, Manca G, Boni G, Grosso M, Volterrani D, Desideri I, Bianchi F, Bottoni A, Ciliberti V, Salimbeni G, Gandini D, Castagna M, Zucchi V, Romanini A, Bianchi R: Detection of melanoma cells in peripheral blood and sentinel lymph nodes by RT-PCR analysis: a comparative study with immunohistochemistry. Tumori; 2000 Jul-Aug;86(4):336-8
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  • [Title] Detection of melanoma cells in peripheral blood and sentinel lymph nodes by RT-PCR analysis: a comparative study with immunohistochemistry.
  • The presence of lymph node metastases is the best prognostic factor for predicting relapse or survival in melanoma patients.
  • It has been demonstrated that melanoma metastases spread through the first lymph node(s) draining the tumor (sentinel lymph node, SN) to the lymphatic system and that detection of melanoma cells in peripheral blood directly correlates with prognosis in melanoma.
  • To identify lymph node metastases and circulating melanocytes, we developed a single-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) for detection of two melanoma-specific markers: the tyrosinase gene, which encodes an enzyme associated with melanin synthesis, and melanoma antigen-related T-cells, which are present in tumor infiltrating T-lymphocytes.
  • This method detects two tumor cells in a background of 10(7) lymphocytes.
  • Thirty patients with stage I-IV cutaneous melanoma entered the study.
  • Blood samples were taken preoperatively, one month after excision of the primary melanoma lesion and the SN or total lymphadenectomy, and before the start of chemotherapy and every three months thereafter in metastatic patients.
  • The preliminary results indicate that RT-PCR for melanoma markers is a sensitive and valuable method for the detection of micrometastases and for early diagnosis and staging of melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Monophenol Monooxygenase / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. T-Lymphocytes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11016721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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18. Arrue I, Saiz A, Ortiz-Romero PL, Rodríguez-Peralto JL: Lupus-like reaction to interferon at the injection site: report of five cases. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Dec;34 Suppl 1:18-21
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  • [Title] Lupus-like reaction to interferon at the injection site: report of five cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Interferon therapy at the injection sites has been related to different cutaneous lesions including erythema and induration as the most frequent ones.
  • While the glycoprotein induces fatigue, fever and is even believed to precipitate autoimmune disorders such as type I diabetes, thyroid disease and systemic lupus erythematosus, a lupus erythematosus-like histologic reaction at the interferon injection site has never been reported.
  • To our knowledge, a microscopic self-resolving lesion mimicking lupus erythematosus at the injection site of interferon has not been described.
  • RESULTS: We report five cases of cutaneous lesions at the inoculation site of interferon with a histopathologic lupus erythematosus-like pattern.
  • Three of them were receiving interferon alfa therapy because of a malignant melanoma and the other two patients were receiving interferon beta-1b for multiple sclerosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multiple cutaneous lesions related to interferon at the injection site have been reported, but none of them with a histologic lupus-like presentation.
  • In this study we describe five cases in which interferon therapy has induced a resolutive cutaneous lesion mimicking lupus erythematous.
  • This peculiar microscopic pattern has been previously described once before, but interpreted as cutaneous mucinosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Eruptions / etiology. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Interferon-beta / adverse effects. Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous / diagnosis. Skin / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Injections, Subcutaneous. Interferon beta-1b. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins

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  • (PMID = 17997732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 145155-23-3 / Interferon beta-1b; 77238-31-4 / Interferon-beta; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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19. Crott R: Cost effectiveness and cost utility of adjuvant interferon alpha in cutaneous melanoma: a review. Pharmacoeconomics; 2004;22(9):569-80
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  • [Title] Cost effectiveness and cost utility of adjuvant interferon alpha in cutaneous melanoma: a review.
  • Although interferon alpha (IFN) has been approved since 1995 in the US as adjuvant therapy for high-risk melanoma patients, its cost effectiveness and economic value have only been recently addressed.
  • There are very few papers that address the overall cost and cost components of treating melanoma patients, all of them focusing on the US.
  • These studies showed the large cost of treatment of stage III and IV patients (around $US40,000-60,000 [1997/8 values]).
  • Chemotherapy and adjuvant immunomodulators comprised a large part of this cost.
  • Cost-effectiveness studies performed for the US, Spain and Italy have been largely based on the results of the pivotal Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 1684 trial using high-dose (10-20 Megaunits [MU]/m(2)) IFN in mainly stage III patients.
  • Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for adjuvant IFN versus observation from these studies fall in the range of $US13,000-40,000 per life-year gained (1998 values), depending on the time horizon, discount rate and cost of IFN, with an extrapolated life-gain over lifetime ranging between 1.9 and 3 years.
  • Only one study, the French Cooperative Melanoma Group trial in stage IIA/B patients, used low-dose (3 MU(2)) IFN and yielded a quite favourable incremental cost effectiveness ratio (cost per life-year gained) ranging from $US12,954 over 5 years (survival gain 3 months) to $US1,544 over a lifetime (extrapolated survival gain 2.6 years) [1995 values].
  • Although these results could be seen as supporting the more widespread use of adjuvant IFN in melanoma, it should be stressed that they were based on the only two positive clinical trials out of a total of ten.
  • The eight negative high-dose (HDI) and low-dose (LDI) IFN trials have failed to show an impact on survival (HDI: ECOG 1690 and North Central Cancer Treatment Group [NCCTG]; LDI: ECOG 1690, WHO-16, UK Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research [UKCCRC] and Austrian, Scottish and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer trials).
  • A definitive appraisal of the cost effectiveness of IFN in melanoma patients will have to await these results and their economic analyses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / economics. Interferon-alpha / economics. Melanoma / economics. Skin Neoplasms / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Health Care Costs. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Quality of Life. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15209526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-7690
  • [Journal-full-title] PharmacoEconomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacoeconomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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20. Erdei E, Torres SM: A new understanding in the epidemiology of melanoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2010 Nov;10(11):1811-23
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  • [Title] A new understanding in the epidemiology of melanoma.
  • The incidence of melanoma is continuing to increase worldwide.
  • UV exposure is a known risk factor for melanoma.
  • Geographic location is known to influence UV exposure and the distribution of the incidence of melanoma.
  • Furthermore, epidemiologic data suggest that gender and genetics may influence the distribution of melanoma on the body surface and histopathologic characteristics of the lesion.
  • This article describes what is known about the impact of gender, ethnicity and geography on the progression of melanoma.
  • Advanced-stage cutaneous melanoma has a median survival time of less than 1 year.
  • Surgical removal, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapies and a variety of immunotherapies have been utilized in the treatment of melanoma.
  • Current treatment strategies and the results of recent clinical trials are also discussed in this article.

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  • (PMID = 21080806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM088021-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K12 GM088021; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K12 GM088021-01; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K12GM088021
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS263920; NLM/ PMC3074354
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21. Ribas A, Kirkwood JM, Atkins MB, Whiteside TL, Gooding W, Kovar A, Gillies SD, Kashala O, Morse MA: Phase I/II open-label study of the biologic effects of the interleukin-2 immunocytokine EMD 273063 (hu14.18-IL2) in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. J Transl Med; 2009;7:68
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  • [Title] Phase I/II open-label study of the biologic effects of the interleukin-2 immunocytokine EMD 273063 (hu14.18-IL2) in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: To explore the biological activity of EMD 273063 (hu14.18-IL2), a humanized anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody fused to interleukin-2 (IL2), in patients with unresectable, stage IV cutaneous melanoma as measured by induction of immune activation at the tumor site and in peripheral blood.
  • Peripheral blood was analyzed for T cell and natural killer cell phenotype and frequency, as well as levels of soluble IL2 receptor (sIL2R), IL10, IL6, tumor necrosis factor alpha and neopterin.
  • Biopsies of tumor metastasis were performed prior to therapy and at day 10 of the first 2 cycles to study lymphocyte accumulation by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Treatment was generally well tolerated and there were no study drug-related grade 4 adverse events.
  • Best response on therapy was stable disease in 2 patients.
  • There were no objective tumor regressions by standard response criteria.
  • There was evidence of increased tumor infiltration by T cells, but not NK cells, in most post-dosing biopsies, suggesting recruitment of immune cells to the tumor site.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Cytokines / therapeutic use. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Area Under Curve. Biopsy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Half-Life. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19640287.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / EMD 273063 antibody, human; 0 / Interleukin-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2724499
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22. Tas F, Kurul S, Camlica H, Topuz E: Malignant melanoma in Turkey: a single institution's experience on 475 cases. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Dec;36(12):794-9
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma in Turkey: a single institution's experience on 475 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the characteristics and the clinical outcomes of patients with cutaneous melanoma in Turkey.
  • METHODS: The medical records of patients between 1991 and 2003 at Institute of Oncology were retrieved from the cancer registry.
  • RESULTS: Of the 475 adult cases with complete staging procedure, the incidence of localized (stages I-II) disease was 301 (63.4%), and followed by node involved (stage III) and metastatic (stage IV) disease with the incidence of 117 (24.6%) and 57 (12.0%), respectively.
  • In cases with early/node negative stage, stage distribution was identical.
  • The superficial spreading type was the commonest histology (52.2%).
  • The Breslow thickness distributed equally, whereas tumor invasion aggregated mainly at Clark level III and IV.
  • In cases with the node involved stage, the majority of patients had only one lymph node involved.
  • Overall survival was significantly negatively correlated with male (P<0.001), advanced stages (P<0.001) and old ages (P=0.005).
  • The five-year survival rates of patients with stages I-II and III disease were 63.6% and 36.6%, respectively.
  • Nodular histology subtype, deeper Breslow tumor depth, extensive invasion, presence of ulceration, advanced stage, presence of relapse, being male and elderly patient, presence of visceral recurrence, and high mitotic activity were found to be associated with poor prognosis for overall survival in localized disease.
  • Unresponsiveness to chemotherapy, visceral metastasis, multiple metastases and not given chemotherapy were the poor prognostic factors for overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17060409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Bhattacharya N, Mukherjee KL, Chettri MK, Banerjee T, Bhattacharya S, Ghosh A, Bhattacharya M: A unique experience with human pre-immune (12 weeks) and hypo-immune (16 weeks) fetal thymus transplant in a vascular subcutaneous axillary fold in patients with advanced cancer: a report of two cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2001;22(4):273-7
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  • [Title] A unique experience with human pre-immune (12 weeks) and hypo-immune (16 weeks) fetal thymus transplant in a vascular subcutaneous axillary fold in patients with advanced cancer: a report of two cases.
  • BACKGROUND: The successful development of fetal cell/tissue transplantation in adults has resulted in the possibility of eventual therapeutic solutions with a variety of intractable diseases.
  • Successful fetal tissue transplant in adults has raised the hope of future effective gene transplant and its manipulation prospects to combat many diseases including hemopathies, inborn errors of metabolism, immunodeficiencies and even cancer and AIDS.
  • MATERIALS AND METHOD: Two cases of advanced cancer were treated with fetal (pre-immune 12 weeks and hypo-immune 16 weeks) thymus transplants in subcutaneous vascular axillary folds, which were removed after one month.
  • RESULTS AND ANALYSIS: Patient I was suffering from non-Hodgkins lymphoma (Ann Arbor Stage IV) and was receiving cyclophosphomide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone after a course of radiotherapy; she developed leucopenia (2.400/cmm), which improved after receiving a 16-week human fetal thymic graft.
  • The leucopenia was eventually over-corrected and the leucocyte count reached 44,000/cmm within a month, which was reversed after the thymus was taken out.
  • Patient 2 was suffering from breast duct carcinoma (T4, N2, M0,) with estrogen, progesterone, and epidermal growth factor negative status, and was treated with modified radical mastectomy and axillary clearance followed by chemotherapy with cyclophosphomide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil for six cycles.
  • In this case the peripheral leucocyte count did not show appreciable variation as in the first case.
  • CONCLUSION: Pre-immune and hypo-immune human fetal thymic transplant is not rejected in patients suffering from advanced cancer within one month (observation period).
  • Thymic lymphocyte shedding in the correction of leucopenia in the background of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma may have many therapeutic implications.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Fetal Tissue Transplantation. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Thymus Gland / transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Axilla. Female. Humans. Leukopenia / etiology. Leukopenia / therapy. Lymphocyte Count


24. Akimov MA, Gershanovich ML: [Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of modern first, second, and third line regimes of chemotherapy in patients with disseminated cutaneous melanoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2001;47(4):428-35
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  • [Title] [Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of modern first, second, and third line regimes of chemotherapy in patients with disseminated cutaneous melanoma].
  • The effectiveness and side-effects of various chemotherapy (CT) regimens were compared in 157 patients (74 males and 80 females, aged 23-79) with disseminated skin melanoma (DSM).
  • Most cases had multiple metastases to the skin and subcutaneous fat tissue, regional lymph nodes (59-69%), lung (14-38%) and liver (13-36%); to other sites--82 (52%).
  • DTIC was employed as first-line treatment in 71%.
  • DBDT (cisplatin, DTIC, BCNU, tamoxifen) was used in 42 patients: as first-line--13 (31%), second-line--21 (50%) and third-line (following the first two regimens in cases refractory to treatment or those with response-based evidence of tumor progression)--8 (19%).
  • Similar results were recorded in the group where 69% were given CT as second- and third-line treatment.
  • Combined treatment with prospidin+ CCNU + BCNU seems to offer more advantage.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11710284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia
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25. Vetter CS, Lieb W, Bröcker EB, Becker JC: Loss of nonclassical MHC molecules MIC-A/B expression during progression of uveal melanoma. Br J Cancer; 2004 Oct 18;91(8):1495-9
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  • [Title] Loss of nonclassical MHC molecules MIC-A/B expression during progression of uveal melanoma.
  • Uveal melanoma differs from cutaneous melanoma with respect to aetiology, metastatic behaviour and immune biology.
  • The notion that loss of classical MHC class I molecules in uveal melanoma lesions is associated with an improved prognosis suggests that NK cells act as the predominant cells responsible for immune surveillance of this tumour.
  • Consequently, immune escape mechanisms of uveal melanoma should impair the innate immunity.
  • MIC+ tumours were characterised by a NKG2D+ infiltrate, which was absent in MIC- lesions subsequent to chemoimmune therapy.
  • Strikingly, MIC-A/B expression in metastatic lesions was observed subsequent to chemotherapy with fotemustine in one case.
  • In summary, MIC/NKG2D interactions seem to be involved in the immune surveillance of primary uveal melanomas, whereas for metastatic tumours this ligand/receptor system seems not to be relevant, thus, suggesting an immune selection of MIC negative tumour cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Uveal Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD57 / metabolism. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunity, Cellular. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ligands. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K. Receptors, Immunologic / metabolism. Receptors, Natural Killer Cell. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15381927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD57; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / KLRK1 protein, human; 0 / Ligands; 0 / MHC class I-related chain A; 0 / MICB antigen; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / Receptors, Natural Killer Cell
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2409941
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26. Muggiano A, Mulas C, Fiori B, Liciardi G, Pintus M, Tanca L, Tedde A, Turno R, Desogus A: Feasibility of high-dose interferon-alpha2b adjuvant therapy for high-risk resected cutaneous melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2004 Apr;14(2):S1-7
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  • [Title] Feasibility of high-dose interferon-alpha2b adjuvant therapy for high-risk resected cutaneous melanoma.
  • The Kirkwood high-dose interferon-alpha2b adjuvant therapy in high-risk-of-recurrence melanoma patients (stage IIb-III) demonstrated a benefit in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) (three trials out of three) and overall survival (OS) (two trials out of three).
  • This problem is the most limiting of this treatment.
  • The aim of the study was to check these results and the feasibility of this treatment using the original Kirkwood schedule of 52 weeks, with appropriate dose modification, until unacceptable toxicity or progression of disease.
  • From 23rd February 1998 until 29th July 2002, 26 patients were treated (mean age 45 years; range 25-70) with high-dose interferon-alpha2b adjuvant therapy.
  • All patients were in stage IIB/III of the new American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification.
  • The patients lost to follow-up refused to continue therapy for toxicity related treatment: one of them was disease free, whereas one was relapsed.
  • Among the patients, the maximal DFS is, at the time of writing, 59 months.
  • Now our attention is on therapy tolerability.
  • As a result of these reported toxicities, of 23 patients evaluable with regard to the protocol, 12 underwent dose reductions, six suspended treatment for disease progression, eight delayed treatment for toxicity, two interrupted treatment indefinitely for unacceptable toxicity or refused treatment, two refused to continue, two patients had no delay in treatment and three did not receive any delay or dose reduction.
  • Of three patients still in therapy, just one has so far received a delay in treatment.
  • Overall, only four patients (17%) interrupted therapy for toxicity related events, whereas 83% continued with the expected program: 52 weeks of therapy with appropriate dose modifications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Tolerance. Feasibility Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Recurrence. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15057049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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27. Loquai C, Nashan D, Metze D, Beiteke U, Rüping KW, Luger TA, Grabbe S: [Imiquimod, pegylated interferon-alpha-2b and interleukin-2 in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma metastases]. Hautarzt; 2004 Feb;55(2):176-81
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  • [Title] [Imiquimod, pegylated interferon-alpha-2b and interleukin-2 in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Imiquimod, pegyliertes Interferon-alpha-2b und Interleukin-2 in der Behandlung kutaner Melanommetastasen.
  • The immune system plays an important role in the defense against malignant melanoma.
  • After intralesional injections of these cytokines into cutaneous melanoma metastases, regression has been observed.
  • In view of its immunomodulating effects, imiquimod appears as an additional promising therapeutic option for treatment of malignant tumors.
  • In a case report, we present combined therapy with intralesional IL-2, pegylated IFN-alpha-2b and topical imiquimod 5% cream for disseminated cutaneous metastatic malignant melanoma stage IIIa.
  • This therapy achieved an almost complete remission.
  • In a treatment period of eight months, side effects remained tolerable.
  • After the end of therapy, no disease progression occurred during 11 months follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Interferon Inducers / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recombinant Proteins. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 14968329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 43K1W2T1M6 / interferon alfa-2b; P1QW714R7M / imiquimod
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28. Raizer JJ, Hwu WJ, Panageas KS, Wilton A, Baldwin DE, Bailey E, von Althann C, Lamb LA, Alvarado G, Bilsky MH, Gutin PH: Brain and leptomeningeal metastases from cutaneous melanoma: survival outcomes based on clinical features. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Apr;10(2):199-207
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  • [Title] Brain and leptomeningeal metastases from cutaneous melanoma: survival outcomes based on clinical features.
  • Brain metastases (BM) are among the most devastating and debilitating complications of melanoma.
  • This retrospective study was conducted to gain a better understanding of patient and disease characteristics that have the greatest impact on overall survival in melanoma patients with BM; therapeutic interventions were also assessed.
  • The records of all patients diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma and BM who were seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1991 and 2001 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • A variety of factors, including age at diagnosis of stage IV disease, gender, race, disease stage at diagnosis, presence of BM at diagnosis of stage IV disease, neurologic symptoms, radiographic findings, number of BM, status and site(s) of extracranial metastasis, and treatment modalities, were analyzed for correlation with overall survival using univariate and multivariate Cox regression models.
  • On univariate analysis, seven patient and disease characteristics were significantly associated with poorer survival: age > 65 years, extracranial metastases, BM at stage IV diagnosis, neurologic symptoms, four or more BM, hydrocephalus, and leptomeningeal metastases.
  • Of these, age, extracranial metastasis, neurologic symptoms, and number of BM were significantly associated with poorer survival in a multivariate analysis.
  • Multivariate analysis of treatment modalities suggested that patients who had surgery, radiosurgery, or chemotherapy with temozolomide had improved survival outcomes, although this analysis has limitations.
  • The prognostic factors identified in this retrospective study should be considered when making treatment decisions for patients with BM and used as stratification factors in future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


29. Mikhnin AE, Barchuk AS, Wagner RI, Anisimov VV: [Influence of growth rates of local recurrences and in-transit metastases on survival of patients with cutaneous melanoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2004;50(5):557-61
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  • [Title] [Influence of growth rates of local recurrences and in-transit metastases on survival of patients with cutaneous melanoma].
  • The growth rates of local recurrences and in-transit metastases of skin melanoma were assessed in 271 patients.
  • Median growth rate in the course of chemotherapy was 0.02 a day--1 which corresponded to a doubling time of 34.7 days.
  • Median survival time for patients with local recurrences and in-transit metastases was 22.6 months, 12-month survival--70.1%, 5-year--19.6% and 10-year--9.9%.
  • Growth rate appeared to be the most significant prognostic factor; similarly important were tumor volume, relapse-free interval, tumor mitotic rate, site and number of recurrences.
  • The following additional characteristics of tumor growth rate have been suggested: maximum growth rate and doubling time limit, to assess the rates of secondary tumor focus development.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15715096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia
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30. Stadler R, Luger T, Bieber T, Köhler U, Linse R, Technau K, Schubert R, Schroth K, Vakilzadeh F, Volkenandt M, Gollnick H, Von Eick H, Thoren F, Strannegård O: Long-term survival benefit after adjuvant treatment of cutaneous melanoma with dacarbazine and low dose natural interferon alpha: A controlled, randomised multicentre trial. Acta Oncol; 2006;45(4):389-99
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  • [Title] Long-term survival benefit after adjuvant treatment of cutaneous melanoma with dacarbazine and low dose natural interferon alpha: A controlled, randomised multicentre trial.
  • In a prospective, controlled, randomised, multicentre study 252 patients with totally resected cutaneous melanoma (248 in stage II-III and 4 in stage IV) were either treated with two doses of dacarbazine (DTIC) followed by a 6-month treatment with 3 MU thrice weekly of highly purified natural interferon-alpha (n = 128; arm A) or received no adjuvant treatment (n = 124; arm B).
  • Treatment was well tolerated.
  • After a median follow-up of 8.5 years ITT analysis showed that the difference in survival was statistically significant with respect to melanoma-related deaths (HR = 0.65, CI = 0.46-0.97, p = 0.022) and close to significance with respect to overall survival (HR 0.71, CI 0.49-1.00, p = 0.052).
  • The risk reduction of melanoma-associated death, calculated by Cox proportional hazards modelling, after adjusting for identified predictive variables, was almost 50% (p = 0.002).
  • The overall efficacy of the treatment appeared to be mainly attributable to effects observed in patients with deep and/or metastasizing tumours (HR 0.60, CI 0.40-0.90, p = 0.013).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Oncol. 2006;45(4):369-72 [16760171.001]
  • (PMID = 16760174.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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31. Gershanovich ML, Akimov MA: [Chemoimmunotherapy with dacarbazine and aranose combined with interferon-alpha in disseminated cutaneous melanoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2004;50(2):179-83
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  • [Title] [Chemoimmunotherapy with dacarbazine and aranose combined with interferon-alpha in disseminated cutaneous melanoma].
  • Aranoza and dacarbazine (DTIC) monotherapy and in combinations with aranoza and interferon-alpha (IPHN-alpha) as well as DTIC and IPHN-alpha was given to 175 patients (89 males and 86 females, aged 23-78) with disseminated skin melanoma.
  • The best results were reported in cases heretofore untreated with cytostatic drugs.
  • Total response (complete or partial remission) was recorded in 63% vs. 4.5% (p < 0.05) of patients who had received chemotherapy.
  • In cases of aranoza+ IPHN-alpha treatment, complete and partial remission was reported in metastasis of the skin, subcutaneous fat, peripheral, retroperitoneal and abdominal (mesenteric) lymph nodes and lungs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / immunology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / immunology. Methylnitrosourea / analogs & derivatives. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Female. Glycosides / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunologic Factors / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15176220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycosides; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / aranoza; 684-93-5 / Methylnitrosourea; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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32. La Porta CA: Perspectives in melanoma treatment with signal transduction. Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents; 2002 May;2(3):371-85
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  • [Title] Perspectives in melanoma treatment with signal transduction.
  • Data from all parts of the world show a rising incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • Early stage melanoma is curable but once metastatic it is almost uniformly fatal.
  • Systemic therapy for advanced melanoma includes chemotherapy, either with dacarbazine alone or a multiagent combination chemotherapy, and biological therapy with recombinant interferon-alpha and/or interleukine-2.
  • However none of these treatments options has produced long-term control of the disease except on rare occasion.
  • In the present review, new strategies in the treatment of malignant melanoma that are now under investigations are discussed.
  • Such new strategies might could be open new perspectives avoiding the toxicity of the conventional treatments too.
  • Melanoma is the most immunogenic tumor among all tumor neoplasia.
  • The feature has led to test several immunological strategies for manipulating immune responses in order to induce tumor growth control in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / physiopathology. Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunotherapy

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  • (PMID = 12678738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1568-0118
  • [Journal-full-title] Current medicinal chemistry. Anti-cancer agents
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 173
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33. Meier S, Baumert BG, Maier T, Wellis G, Burg G, Seifert B, Dummer R: Survival and prognostic factors in patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma. Onkologie; 2004 Apr;27(2):145-9
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  • [Title] Survival and prognostic factors in patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma.
  • AIM: We wanted to determine the factors influencing survival in a retrospective review of patients with melanoma brain metastases to permit more specific recommendations regarding therapy.
  • Information on potential prognostic factors (age, sex, location of the primary tumor, Clark level, Breslow index, histological type, number of brain metastases, stage at initial diagnosis, location of brain metastases, and therapy) was collected from the medical records of 100 patients treated between 1966 and 2002.
  • RESULTS: The overall median survival time was 4.8 months, with 6-month, 1-year and 2-year survival percentages of 36, 14 and 5%, respectively.
  • Univariate analysis indicated that survival correlated significantly with radiotherapy (partial and whole brain), surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, chemotherapy, Clark level and Breslow index.
  • Treatment with temozolomide (p = 0.052) and number of brain metastases (p = 0.07) failed to be statistically significant.
  • Multivariate analysis confirmed radiotherapy (partial and whole brain), surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, chemotherapy and the location of brain metastases as independent and significant prognostic factors of survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy, chemotherapy and especially surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery seem to significantly prolong survival, as shown by multivariate analysis.
  • Treatment with temozolomide will possibly play an important role in the future management of patients with brain metastases from cutaneous melanoma, but further prospective studies to verify this assumption are urgently needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / mortality. Melanoma / secondary. Risk Assessment / methods. Skin Neoplasms / mortality. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy. Prognosis. Radiosurgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 15138346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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34. Sciubba JJ: Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2001;2(4):239-51
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  • [Title] Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.
  • Oral cancer is an important health issue.
  • The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades.
  • In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year.
  • Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer.
  • Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption.
  • These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given.
  • Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly improved 5-year survival rate when compared with more advanced stage III and IV lesions.
  • Surgical management of this disease remains the mainstay of treatment.
  • Other therapies include radiation and chemotherapy options that may be used adjunctively and palliatively.
  • Following treatment, it is important to understand the significant risks of second primary cancers developing within the upper aerodigestive tract as a result of field cancerization.
  • The most important message is that early detection of the asymptomatic early stage oral cancer translates in general terms to satisfactory clinical outcome and cure in most patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Verrucous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / surgery. Carcinoma, Verrucous / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Leukoplakia, Oral / diagnosis. Leukoplakia, Oral / pathology. Leukoplakia, Oral / surgery. Leukoplakia, Oral / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Palatal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Palatal Neoplasms / pathology. Palatal Neoplasms / surgery. Palatal Neoplasms / therapy. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Tongue / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / surgery. Tongue Neoplasms / therapy. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 11705251.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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35. Wang Y, Cen Y, Li Z: [Therapeutic result of operation combined with large-dose of roferon-A for cutaneous malignant melanoma]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jan;21(1):37-9
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic result of operation combined with large-dose of roferon-A for cutaneous malignant melanoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of operation with large-dose of Roferon-A for cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • METHODS: From January 1998 to December 2005, thirty-three patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma were treated.
  • In 33 patients, nine patients identified as clinical-stage I received singly enlarged-resection to the primary lesion and performed split-thickness skin graft dermoplasty or adjacent skin flap repair; twenty-three patients identified as clinical-stage II received enlarged-resection to the primary lesion and performed proximal lymphaden scavenge as well as received split-thickness skin graft dermoplasty; and one patient identified as clinical-stage III received palliative resection to the primary lesion.
  • RESULTS: There are no recidivation in the 9 patients of clinical-stage I.
  • There are 1 recidivation and 1 quit in all the 23 patients of clinical-stage II.
  • One patient of clinical-stage III died after 18 months of operation.
  • CONCLUSION: The operation combined with large-dose of Roferon-A after operation was a more effective way to treat cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Recombinant Proteins. Skin Transplantation. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17305002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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36. Quaglino P, Mortera C, Osella-Abate S, Barberis M, Illengo M, Rissone M, Savoia P, Bernengo MG: Electrochemotherapy with intravenous bleomycin in the local treatment of skin melanoma metastases. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Aug;15(8):2215-22
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  • [Title] Electrochemotherapy with intravenous bleomycin in the local treatment of skin melanoma metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) combines chemotherapy and electroporation to increase drug uptake.
  • Its role in cutaneous melanoma metastasis treatment is not well defined; indeed, few studies have been reported, without complete follow-up data.
  • AIM: To prospectively evaluate clinical activity and tolerability of ECT with i.v. bleomycin, and to analyze the response increase associated to repeated sessions, in the largest series of cutaneous melanoma metastases reported to date (n = 233).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 14 stage III relapsed/refractory patients were enrolled according to European Standard Operating Procedures of Electrochemotherapy (ESOPE) guidelines and treated under general sedation using the Cliniporator(TM) pulse generator.
  • RESULTS: A response was obtained in 13/14 patients (93%) after the first ECT, with a complete regression (CR) in 7 (50%).
  • The local tumor control rate was 74.5% at 2 years.
  • CONCLUSION: ECT is a safe procedure, easily performed in terms of toxicities and cost-effectiveness ratios, and constitutes a therapeutic tool for relapsed/refractory cutaneous melanoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Electrochemotherapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18498012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin
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37. Eigentler TK, Mügge LO, Bembenek A, Garbe C: [Cutaneous melanoma]. Hautarzt; 2007 Oct;58(10):885-97; quiz 898
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  • [Title] [Cutaneous melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Kutanes Melanom.
  • While the incidence of cutaneous melanoma (CM) continues to rise steadily, the mortality has stabilized.
  • Risk factors for the development of CM are UV light exposure and individual characteristics relating to pigmentation, and especially the number of melanocytic nevi.
  • The most important prognostic factor in CM is the vertical thickness of the primary tumor in the histological specimen.
  • Excision of the primary tumor with adequate safety margins is the treatment of choice.
  • In the case of a tumor 1.0 mm or more thick biopsy of the sentinel node is recommended.
  • Interferon-alpha is currently the only adjuvant therapy shown to have significant benefit in prospective randomized trials.
  • When distant metastases are present treatment is palliative and is aimed primarily at achieving tumor remission by operative, radiological, and pharmacological means.
  • Dacarbazine is considered the standard drug for systemic treatment.
  • Follow-up depends on the initial tumor parameters and the current stage of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / surgery. Palliative Care. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin / pathology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17973138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha
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38. Atzpodien J, Terfloth K, Fluck M, Reitz M: Cisplatin, gemcitabine, and treosulfan in relapsed stage IV cutaneous malignant melanoma patients. Br J Cancer; 2007 Nov 19;97(10):1329-32
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  • [Title] Cisplatin, gemcitabine, and treosulfan in relapsed stage IV cutaneous malignant melanoma patients.
  • To evaluate the efficacy of cisplatin, gemcitabine, and treosulfan (CGT) in 91 patients with pretreated relapsed AJCC stage IV cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • Patients in relapse after first-, second-, or third-line therapy received 40 mg m(-2) intravenous (i.v.) cisplatin, 1000 mg m(-2) i.v. gemcitabine, and 2500 mg m(-2) i.v. treosulfan on days 1 and 8.
  • Cisplatin, gemcitabine, and treosulfan therapy was repeated every 5 weeks until progression of disease occurred.
  • Four patients (4%) showed a partial response; 15 (17%) patients had stable disease; and 72 (79%) patients progressed upon first re-evaluation.
  • Patients with partial remission or stable disease exhibited a median overall survival of 11 months (2-year survival rate, 36%), while patients with disease progression upon first re-evaluation had a median overall survival of 5 months (2-year survival rate, 0%).
  • Treatment with CGT was efficient in one-fifth of the pretreated relapsed stage IV melanoma patients achieving disease stabilisation or partial remission with prolonged but limited survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Busulfan / analogs & derivatives. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17971774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; CO61ER3EPI / treosulfan; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360238
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39. Hernando JJ, Park TW, Kübler K, Offergeld R, Schlebusch H, Bauknecht T: Vaccination with autologous tumour antigen-pulsed dendritic cells in advanced gynaecological malignancies: clinical and immunological evaluation of a phase I trial. Cancer Immunol Immunother; 2002 Mar;51(1):45-52
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  • Dendritic cell (DC)-based therapy has proven to be effective in patients with malignant lymphoma, melanoma, and renal and prostate carcinoma.
  • Three patients showed stable disease lasting 25 to 45 weeks, and five experienced tumour progression within the first 14 weeks.
  • KLH- and tumour lysate-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions were observed in six and one patient, respectively.
  • Tumour antigen-stimulated interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in one patient was consistent with a T(H) type 1 cytokine bias.
  • The treatment was safe, well tolerated, immunologically active and except for local cutaneous hypersensitivity devoid of significant adverse effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / therapy. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy. Vaccination
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigen Presentation. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Female. Hemocyanin / immunology. Humans. Hypersensitivity, Delayed / etiology. Immunocompetence. Immunologic Memory. Interferon-gamma / secretion. Lymphocyte Activation / immunology. Middle Aged. Th1 Cells / immunology. Th1 Cells / secretion. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11845259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-7004
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; 9013-72-3 / Hemocyanin; FV4Y0JO2CX / keyhole-limpet hemocyanin
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40. Murayama K, Takita H, Kiyohara Y, Shimizu Y, Tsuchida T, Yoneya S: [Melanoma-associated retinopathy with unknown primary site in a Japanese woman]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Mar;110(3):211-7
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  • [Title] [Melanoma-associated retinopathy with unknown primary site in a Japanese woman].
  • BACKGROUND: We report the clinical features of the first case of a Japanese person with melanoma-associated retinopathy.
  • After one month of treatment, she still complained of photopsia in her right eye.
  • A full-field electroretinogram demonstrated a negative-type electroretinogram (ERG) waveform with attenuation of the b-wave amplitude in the right eye.
  • The lymph nodes on the right side of her neck were examined and the diagnosis was made of metastic cutaneous melanoma with unknown primary site; her visual dysfunction was diagnosed as melanoma-associated retinopathy.
  • The retinal inflammation improved after steroid treatment, but her visual dysfunction remained.
  • Chemotherapy and an immunotherapy regimen was begun, but 36 months later she died of metastatic melanoma in the lungs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A woman treated for uveitis without any prior systemic and ocular diseases was diagnosed with melanoma-associated retinopathy and metastatic melanoma in the cervical lymph nodes of unknown primary origin.
  • The first ocular symptoms were photopsia and blurred vision, not night blindness.
  • ERG was useful for diagnosing this rare ocular condition in an early stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Retinal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16562510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-0203
  • [Journal-full-title] Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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41. Health Quality Ontario: Extracorporeal photophoresis: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser; 2006;6(6):1-82
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  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of extracorporeal photophoresis (ECP) for the treatment of refractory erythrodermic cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and refractory chronic graft versus host disease (cGvHD).
  • BACKGROUND: CUTANEOUS T CELL LYMPHOMA: Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a general name for a group of skin affecting disorders caused by malignant white blood cells (T lymphocytes).
  • Cutaneous T cell lymphoma is relatively uncommon and represents slightly more than 2% of all lymphomas in the United States.
  • The relative frequency and disease-specific 5-year survival of 1,905 primary cutaneous lymphomas classified according to the World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) classification (Appendix 1).
  • Cutaneous T cell lymphoma has an annual incidence of approximately 0.4 per 100,000 and it mainly occurs in the 5(th) to 6(th) decade of life, with a male/female ratio of 2:1.
  • Mycosis fungoides is an indolent lymphoma with patients often having several years of eczematous or dermatitic skin lesions before the diagnosis is finally established.
  • Early in the disease biopsies are often difficult to interpret and the diagnosis may only become apparent by observing the patient over time.
  • Most patients will live normal lives and experience skin symptoms without serious complications.
  • A particular syndrome in these patients involves erythroderma (intense and usually widespread reddening of the skin from dilation of blood vessels, often preceding or associated with exfoliation), and circulating tumour cells.
  • CHRONIC GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a treatment used for a variety of malignant and nonmalignant disease of the bone marrow and immune system.
  • The procedure is often associated with serious immunological complications, particularly graft versus host disease (GvHD).
  • Of the patients with extensive disease, approximately 60% will respond to treatment and eventually be able to discontinue immunosuppressive therapy.
  • The remaining patients will develop opportunistic infection, or require prolonged treatment with immunosuppressive agents.
  • The extent of involvement varies significantly from mild involvement limited to a few patches of skin to severe involvement of numerous organ systems and profound immunodeficiency.
  • The most commonly involved tissues are the skin, liver, mouth, and eyes.
  • Patients with limited disease have localized skin involvement, evidence of liver dysfunction, or both, whereas those with more involvement of the skin or involvement of other organs have extensive disease.
  • TREATMENT:   CUTANEOUS T CELL LYMPHOMA: The optimal management of MF is undetermined because of its low prevalence, and its highly variable natural history, with frequent spontaneous remissions and exacerbations and often prolonged survival.
  • Nonaggressive approaches to therapy are usually warranted with treatment aimed at improving symptoms and physical appearance while limiting toxicity.
  • Given that multiple skin sites are usually involved, the initial treatment choices are usually topical or intralesional corticosteroids or phototherapy using psoralen (a compound found in plants which make the skin temporarily sensitive to ultraviolet A) (PUVA).
  • Repeated courses are usually required which may lead to an increased risk of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • "Second line" therapy for early stage disease is often topical chemotherapy, radiotherapy or total skin electron beam radiation (TSEB).
  • Treatment of advanced stage (IIB-IV) MF usually consists of topical or systemic therapy in refractory or rapidly progressive SS.
  • Bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation have been used to treat many malignant hematologic disorders (e.g., leukemias) that are refractory to conventional treatment.
  • Reports on the use of these procedures for the treatment of CTCL are limited and mostly consist of case reports or small case series.
  • CHRONIC GRAFT VERSUS HOST DISEASE: Patients who develop cGvHD require reinstitution of immunosuppressive medication (if already discontinued) or an increase in dosage and possibly addition of other agents.
  • The current literature regarding cGvHD therapy is less than optimal and many recommendations about therapy are based on common practices that await definitive testing.
  • Numerous salvage therapies have been considered in patients with refractory cGvHD, including ECP.
  • Due to uncertainty around salvage therapies, Bhushan and Collins suggested that ideally, patients with refractory cGvHD should be entered into clinical trials.
  • Two Ontario expert consultants jointly estimated that there may be approximately 30 new erythrodermic treatment resistant CTCL patients and 30 new treatment resistant cGvHD patients per year who are unresponsive to other forms of therapy and may be candidates for ECP.
  • Extracorporeal photopheresis is a procedure that was initially developed as a treatment for CTCL, particularly SS.
  • The lymphocyte layer is treated with methoxsalen (a drug that sensitizes the lymphocytes to light) and exposed to UVA, following which the lymphocytes are returned to the patient.
  • Photosensitization is achieved by administering methoxsalen to the patient orally 2 hours before the procedure, or by injecting methoxsalen directly ino the leucocyte rich fraction.
  • The latter approach avoids potential side effects such as nausea, and provides a more consistent drug level within the machine.
  • In general, from the time the intravenous line is inserted until the white blood cells are returned to the patient takes approximately 2.5-3.5 hours.
  • For CTCL, the treatment schedule is generally 2 consecutive days every 4 weeks for a median of 6 months.
  • For cGvHD, an expert in the field estimated that the treatment schedule would be 3 times a week for the 1(st) month, then 2 consecutive days every 2 weeks after that (i.e., 4 treatments a month) for a median of 6 to 9 months.
  • REGULATORY STATUS: The UVAR XTS Photopheresis System is licensed by Health Canada as a Class 3 medical device (license # 7703) for the "palliative treatment of skin manifestations of CTCL."
  • It is not licensed for the treatment of cGvHD.

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  • (PMID = 23074497.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ontario health technology assessment series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ont Health Technol Assess Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3379535
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42. Wang W, Edington HD, Rao UN, Jukic DM, Land SR, Ferrone S, Kirkwood JM: Modulation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 and 3 signaling in melanoma by high-dose IFNalpha2b. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Mar 01;13(5):1523-31
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  • [Title] Modulation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 and 3 signaling in melanoma by high-dose IFNalpha2b.
  • PURPOSE: The Janus-activated kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway of IFN signaling is important to immunoregulation and tumor progression.
  • STAT1 plays a prominent role in the effector immune response, whereas STAT3 is implicated in tumor progression and down-regulation of the response to type I IFNs.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated STAT1 and STAT3 jointly as mediators of IFNalpha effects in the setting of a prospective neoadjuvant trial of HDI, in which tissue samples were obtained before and after 20 doses of HDI therapy.
  • RESULTS: HDI was found to up-regulate pSTAT1, whereas it down-regulates pSTAT3 and total STAT3 levels in both tumor cells and lymphocytes.
  • Higher pSTAT1/pSTAT3 ratios in tumor cells pretreatment were associated with longer overall survival (P = 0.032).
  • The pSTAT1/pSTAT3 ratios were augmented by HDI both in melanoma cells (P = 0.005) and in lymphocytes (P = 0.022).
  • CONCLUSION: IFNalpha2b significantly modulates the balance of STAT1/STAT3 in tumor cells and host lymphocytes, leading to up-regulation of TAP2 and augmented host antitumor response.
  • The pSTAT1/pSTAT3 ratio in tumor cells at baseline may serve as a useful predictor of clinical outcome in cutaneous melanoma; the modulation of this ratio may serve as a predictor of therapeutic effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. STAT1 Transcription Factor / drug effects. STAT3 Transcription Factor / drug effects. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / drug effects. ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Recombinant Proteins. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17332298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCATS NIH HHS / TR / UL1 TR000005
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 3; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / STAT1 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; 145892-13-3 / TAP2 protein, human; 43K1W2T1M6 / interferon alfa-2b
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43. Petrescu I, Condrea C, Alexandru A, Dumitrescu D, Simion G, Severin E, Albu C, Albu D: Diagnosis and treatment protocols of cutaneous melanoma: latest approach 2010. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2010 Sep-Oct;105(5):637-43
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment protocols of cutaneous melanoma: latest approach 2010.
  • Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive skin malignancies with increasing rate of incidence in the latest decades.
  • New imaging technique plays an important role in melanoma management: dermoscopy and computer dermoscopy, ultrasound, MRI, CT, PET and PET/CT.
  • Due to the dermoscopy and lesion diagnosis in early stages the increasing number of curative melanoma are registered.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy became a compulsory phase for patients with tumor thickness > 1 mm.
  • Serological biomarkers proved to be a necessary investigation for melanoma diagnosis, follow-up and treatment response.
  • Current TNM melanoma staging is based on AJCC classification since 2001 witch includes new elements like histopathologic ulceration in stage I and II and lymph node micro- and macrometastases in stage III.
  • Treatment protocols include surgical tumor excision with only 1-2 cm safety margins and radical lymphadenectomy is performed after positive sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • The adjuvant treatment in advanced stages including chemotherapy, unspecific immunotherapy and interferon offers poor results regarding free disease terms rate of survival.
  • The advanced therapeutic procedure like golden nanospheres and gene therapy are recently studied and represent an alternative for future treatment of melanoma.
  • Follow-up protocols have a great importance for detection of the melanoma recurrences and include clinical, serological and imaging evaluation.
  • Despite all new knowledge and technological support the advanced stage melanoma management still remain an unsolved problem.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Early Detection of Cancer. Humans. Incidence. Medical Oncology / trends. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors. Romania / epidemiology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21141087.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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44. Hancock BW, Wheatley K, Harris S, Ives N, Harrison G, Horsman JM, Middleton MR, Thatcher N, Lorigan PC, Marsden JR, Burrows L, Gore M: Adjuvant interferon in high-risk melanoma: the AIM HIGH Study--United Kingdom Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research randomized study of adjuvant low-dose extended-duration interferon Alfa-2a in high-risk resected malignant melanoma. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jan 1;22(1):53-61
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  • [Title] Adjuvant interferon in high-risk melanoma: the AIM HIGH Study--United Kingdom Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research randomized study of adjuvant low-dose extended-duration interferon Alfa-2a in high-risk resected malignant melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate low-dose extended duration interferon alfa-2a as adjuvant therapy in patients with thick (> or = 4 mm) primary cutaneous melanoma and/or locoregional metastases.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial involving 674 patients, the effect of interferon alfa-2a (3 megaunits three times per week for 2 years or until recurrence) on overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was compared with that of no further treatment in radically resected stage IIB and stage III cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • RESULTS: The OS and RFS rates at 5 years were 44% (SE, 2.6) and 32% (SE, 2.1), respectively.
  • Subgroup analysis by disease stage, age, and sex did not show any clear differences between interferon-treated and control groups in either OS or RFS.
  • However, there were 50 withdrawals (15%) from interferon treatment due to toxicity.
  • CONCLUSION: The results from this study, taken in isolation, do not indicate that extended-duration low-dose interferon is significantly better than observation alone in the initial treatment of completely resected high-risk malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Affect / drug effects. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Fatigue / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jan 1;22(1):7-10 [14665612.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2004 Jan 1;22(1):11-4 [14665613.001]
  • (PMID = 14665609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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45. Daryanani D, Plukker JT, de Jong MA, Haaxma-Reiche H, Nap R, Kuiper H, Hoekstra HJ: Increased incidence of brain metastases in cutaneous head and neck melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2005 Apr;15(2):119-24
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  • [Title] Increased incidence of brain metastases in cutaneous head and neck melanoma.
  • The incidence of cutaneous melanoma is increasing, and 10-20% of these melanomas are located in the head and neck region.
  • The incidence of brain metastases, risk factors and outcome were analysed for melanomas originating in the head and neck region.
  • During the period 1965-2000, 324 patients [152 females (47%), 172 males (53%)] were treated for cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck.
  • The patients were staged according to the 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system.
  • Twenty six (8%) head and neck patients, compared with 5.2% of extremity/truncal patients, developed brain metastases (confidence interval, 0.058-0.108; P<0.05).
  • The 26 head and neck patients (four Stage I, 10 Stage II and 12 Stage III) had a median age of 46 years (range, 16-79 years) and developed brain metastases after a median follow-up of 24 months (range, 4-75 months).
  • The patients were treated with steroids, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination of these.
  • Risk factors identified for the development of brain metastases from head and neck melanoma were a younger age, male gender, Breslow thickness greater than 4 mm and increased mitotic rate.
  • The incidence of brain metastases is significantly higher in patients with cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck (8%) compared with those with extremity/truncal melanoma (5.2%).
  • The prognosis is still extremely poor with current therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Regression Analysis. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis


46. Sondak VK: Adjuvant therapy for melanoma. Cancer J; 2001 Jul-Aug;7 Suppl 1:S24-7
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy for melanoma.
  • Patients with deep primaries (> or = 4 mm) or regional lymph node involvement often require adjuvant therapy in addition to surgery to successfully treat melanoma.
  • Randomized trials of IFN-alpha adjuvant therapy have demonstrated statistically significant improvements in disease-free and overall survival rates, leading to approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration of the use of 1 year of intensive IFN-alpha2b following surgical resection of high-risk disease.
  • A study comparing high-dose IFN with the ganglioside vaccine GMK was terminated early when the Data Safety Monitoring Committee concluded that the high-dose IFN treatment arm was associated with highly significantly improved relapse-free and overall survival.
  • Studies of IFN-alpha in stage I and II melanoma are reviewed.
  • In addition to adjuvant therapy with IFN-alpha, various other treatment strategies appear promising.
  • Adjuvant vaccine therapy may be useful for treatment of cutaneous melanoma.
  • Polyvalent melanoma vaccines are discussed as a potential adjuvant therapy.
  • Finally, nonrandomized preliminary studies suggest that postoperative radiation to the neck or axilla after radical lymph node dissection may decrease regional recurrence rates in node-positive patients, supporting the selective use of radiation therapy for melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / radiotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Interferon-gamma / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 11504282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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47. Krejcí K, Zadrazil J, Tichý T, Horák P, Ciferská H, Hodulová M, Zezulová M, Zlevorová M: [Merkel cell skin carcinoma]. Klin Onkol; 2010;23(4):210-7
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  • [Title] [Merkel cell skin carcinoma].
  • Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumour of the skin.
  • It affects predominantly elderly Caucasian males on sun-exposed areas of the skin.
  • The incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma has been rising in recent years and is more dramatic than the increased incidence of cutaneous melanoma.
  • More than one-third of Merkel cell carcinoma patients will die from this cancer, making it twice as lethal as melanoma.
  • The malignant transformation of Merkel cells is currently thought to be related to an infection with Merkel cell polyomavirus.
  • In the early stage the discreet clinical picture may be contrary to extensive microscopic invasion and this seemingly benign appearance can delay diagnosis or increase the risk of insufficient tumour excision.
  • The diagnosis is definitely confirmed by histological evaluation and immunohistochemical tests.
  • The mainstay of therapy is radical excision of the tumour and adjuvant radiotherapy targeted at the site of primary incidence and local draining lymph nodes.
  • The efficacy of different chemotherapy protocols in Merkel cell carcinoma is limited and the median survival rate is measured in months.
  • In the future, prophylaxis with vaccination against Merkel cell polyomavirus will hopefully be possible in high-risk patients, as well as therapeutic usage of antisense oligonucleotides or microRNAs, eventually complete Merkel cell carcinoma elimination by affecting the tumour suppressor gene Atonal homolog 1 expression.
  • The staging of the tumour at time of diagnosis is the most important prognostic factor.
  • In this respect, the importance of preventative skin inspection in high-risk immunocompromised patients must be stressed and suitable therapy must be indicated in suspected lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20806818.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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48. Moarbess G, El-Hajj H, Kfoury Y, El-Sabban ME, Lepelletier Y, Hermine O, Deleuze-Masquéfa C, Bonnet PA, Bazarbachi A: EAPB0203, a member of the imidazoquinoxaline family, inhibits growth and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in T-cell lymphomas and HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Blood; 2008 Apr 1;111(7):3770-7
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  • Imiquimod is an immune response modifier currently used as a topical treatment of genital warts, basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous metastasis of malignant melanoma, and vascular tumors.
  • We developed more efficient killers from the same family of compounds that can induce apoptosis without the prominent pro-inflammatory response associated with imiquimod.
  • Using potentially achievable concentrations of EAPB0203, we demonstrate inhibition of cell proliferation, G2/M cell- cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis in HTLV-I-transformed and HTLV-I-negative malignant T cells and fresh ATL cells, whereas normal resting or activated T lymphocytes were resistant.
  • EAPB0203 treatment significantly down-regulated the antiapoptotic proteins c-IAP-1 and Bcl-XL and resulted in a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic release of cytochrome c, and caspase-dependent apoptosis.
  • Moreover, in HTLV-I-transformed cells only, EAPB0203 treatment stabilized p21 and p53 proteins but had no effect on NF-kappaB activation.
  • These results support a potential therapeutic role for EAPB0203 in ATL and HTLV-I-negative T-cell lymphomas, either as a systemic or topical therapy for skin lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. G2 Phase / drug effects. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Quinoxalines / pharmacology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aminoquinolines / adverse effects. Aminoquinolines / pharmacology. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Cytochromes c / metabolism. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / metabolism. Humans. Inflammation / chemically induced. Inflammation / metabolism. Inflammation / pathology. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins / metabolism. Jurkat Cells. Lymphocyte Activation / drug effects. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / antagonists & inhibitors. bcl-X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18218850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / EAPB0203; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Quinoxalines; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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49. Mohr P, Weichenthal M, Hauschild A: Adjuvant therapy in melanoma. Onkologie; 2003 Jun;26(3):227-33
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy in melanoma.
  • Despite intensive research and numerous clinical trials on the adjuvant treatment of patients with high-risk cutaneous melanoma, the issue is still controversial.
  • The effect of interleukin-2 in the adjuvant treatment of malignant melanoma is not yet clearly defined.
  • Combined treatment modalities like bio-chemotherapy are still to be analyzed in controlled clinical trials, and results of new studies with active specific immunization (vaccination) will only be available within the next years.
  • Only interferon alpha (IFN alpha) has shown reproducible superiority over observation for high-risk melanoma patients in large prospective randomized trials with respect to disease-free survival (DFS) and partially for overall survival (OS).
  • These studies resulted in the approval of IFN alpha for the adjuvant treatment of malignant melanoma in many countries.
  • The question whether high-dose IFN has shown enough superiority over observation with respect to OS based on one negative and two positive trials to make it the standard therapy in stage IIb,c and stage III melanoma patients still remains unanswered.
  • In conclusion, interferon is the cornerstone of adjuvant therapy in high-risk melanoma today, but the optimal dosage and duration of treatment are still to be defined.
  • Patients with high-risk malignant melanoma should preferentially be treated in prospective randomized multicenter trials to give more detailed data for treatment recommendations.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 12845206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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50. Rao UN, Ibrahim J, Flaherty LE, Richards J, Kirkwood JM: Implications of microscopic satellites of the primary and extracapsular lymph node spread in patients with high-risk melanoma: pathologic corollary of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial E1690. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Apr 15;20(8):2053-7
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  • [Title] Implications of microscopic satellites of the primary and extracapsular lymph node spread in patients with high-risk melanoma: pathologic corollary of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Trial E1690.
  • PURPOSE: To correlate the presence of extracapsular spread (ECS) of regional nodal metastases, and micrometastasis near the primary tumor, with disease outcome in the intergroup study E1690 in relation to the impact of recombinant interferon-alfa (rIFN alpha)-2b.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: E1690 included 642 patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IIB or III cutaneous melanoma.
  • Patients were randomized into high- and low-dose rIFN alpha-2b treatment arms and an observation arm.
  • Evaluation of the primary tumor included notations regarding ulceration, mitotic activity, thickness, microscopic satellites (MS), and nodal ECS on a standardized pathology form.
  • RESULTS: Ulceration, mitotic activity, thickness, and size of tumor-bearing lymph nodes did not show a statistically significant correlation with either OS or RFS across all treatment arms.
  • Ulceration, mitotic activity, thickness, and number of positive lymph nodes had no significant effect on OS in this subset study (univariate or multivariate Cox analysis).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging. Recombinant Proteins. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Analysis. Ulcer

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  • (PMID = 11956265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14028; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA39229; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA66636
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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51. Singer M, Mutch MG: Anal melanoma. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2006 May;19(2):78-87
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  • [Title] Anal melanoma.
  • Anal melanoma is rare and aggressive malignancy.
  • Unlike cutaneous melanoma, anal melanoma has no known risk factors.
  • Surgical excision remains the cornerstone of therapy.
  • There are no long-term survivors of stage II or III disease; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment remain crucial.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy, interferon, and radiation may offer some benefit.

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  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 1999 Apr 29;340(17):1341-8 [10219070.001]
  • [Cites] Dis Colon Rectum. 1999 Sep;42(9):1203-8 [10496563.001]
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  • (PMID = 20011314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2780102
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Melanoma / abdominoperineal resection / anal / malignancy / wide local excision
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52. Naylor MF, Chen WR, Teague TK, Perry LA, Nordquist RE: In situ photoimmunotherapy: a tumour-directed treatment for melanoma. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Dec;155(6):1287-92
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  • [Title] In situ photoimmunotherapy: a tumour-directed treatment for melanoma.
  • We report a new immunological treatment for advanced cutaneous melanoma which combines laser stimulation with topical application of a toll-like receptor agonist.
  • This treatment, in situ photoimmunotherapy (ISPI), provides an alternative to traditional therapies for melanoma patients with cutaneous metastases.
  • A 6-week cycle of ISPI is carried out on cutaneous metastases located in a designated 20 x 20 cm treatment area: 2 weeks of pretreatment with twice-daily topical applications of imiquimod (5% cream under plastic occlusion), with a laser treatment session at week 2 and again at week 4.
  • Two patients with late-stage melanoma were treated with ISPI.
  • Patient 1 had the primary tumour and local metastases on the left arm, as well as metastatic tumours in the lungs [American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage IV].
  • Patient 2 had a head and neck melanoma with multiple local metastases (AJCC stage IIIC), which had failed repeated attempts at surgical resection and high-dose radiation therapy.
  • Patient 1 is now free of all clinically detectable tumours (including the lung metastases) >20 months after the first treatment cycle.
  • These two cases demonstrate that ISPI can clear local tumour and trigger beneficial systemic responses, with a side-effect profile that compares favourably with other treatments for advanced melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Melanoma / therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. Toll-Like Receptors / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infrared Rays / therapeutic use. Laser Therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17107404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016478
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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53. Lee HS, Song HH, Jeong JH, Shin CG, Choi SU, Lee C: Cytotoxicities of enniatins H, I, and MK1688 from Fusarium oxysporum KFCC 11363P. Toxicon; 2008 Jun 1;51(7):1178-85
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  • Enniatins (ENs) H, I, and MK1688 and beauvericin (BEA) were purified from concentrated chloroform extracts of Fusarium oxysporum KFCC 11363P submerged cultures using HPLC, and their in vitro cytotoxicities were evaluated against four human carcinoma cell lines (lung, A549; ovarian, SK-OV-3; skin melanoma, SK-MEL-2; and colon, HCT15) using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) method.
  • ENs I and MK1688 inhibited the growth of cancer cell lines most strongly and had similar cytotoxic effects on the tested human cancer cell cultures.
  • The cytotoxicity of ENs I and MK1688 was three- to fourfold higher than that of BEA and EN H.
  • When cultivated in Fusarium-defined medium (FDM), the concentrations of ENs and BEA produced in F. oxysporum KFCC 11363P decreased in the following order: EN MK1688 (0.81 g/L) >EN I (0.55 g/L) >BEA (0.17 g/L) > EN H (0.16 g/L).
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Humans. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18394672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-0101
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Depsipeptides; 0 / enniatins; 26S048LS2R / beauvericin
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54. Gaudy C, Richard MA, Folchetti G, Bonerandi JJ, Grob JJ: Randomized controlled study of electrochemotherapy in the local treatment of skin metastases of melanoma. J Cutan Med Surg; 2006 May-Jun;10(3):115-21
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  • [Title] Randomized controlled study of electrochemotherapy in the local treatment of skin metastases of melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Electrochemotherapy (ECT) combines intralesional injections of bleomycin with electroporation (EP), which permeabilizes tumor cells and thus increases the bleomycin efficacy at the tumor site.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess whether EP therapy improves the local control of skin metastases of melanoma by intralesional bleomycin.
  • The secondary objective was to evaluate tolerance of the treatments.
  • PATIENTS: Patients with at least two measurable skin metastases of melanoma that were previously untreated, either in stage III with in-transit melanoma skin metastases or stage IV with no efficacy of systemic chemotherapy on these metastases.
  • DESIGN: A prospective internally controlled study with randomization of melanoma skin metastases in each individual to intralesional injections of bleomycin alone or to intralesional injections of bleomycin with EP.
  • The primary end point was the rate of complete local response per treated melanoma skin metastasis at week 12, and the secondary end point was tolerance.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-four melanoma skin metastases were treated in 12 patients (8 stage IV patients under chemotherapy and 4 stage III patients free of other treatment).
  • A local complete response was obtained in 36% (11 of 30) of melanoma skin metastases treated with bleomycin + EP and only in 8% (2 of 24) of melanoma skin metastases treated with bleomycin alone (p = .016).
  • All patients (12 of 12) reported discomfort during the EP procedure, including local pain for 9 patients (75%) at the treatment site and muscle spasm with myoclonia in 3 cases (25%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: EP increases the effect of intralesional bleomycin and improves the rate of local control in melanoma skin metastases without inducing a more systemic effect.
  • This local treatment could be useful in a palliative strategy in patients with melanoma skin metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Electroporation. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17241586.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin
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55. Kudriavtsev DV, Kudriavtseva GT, Mardynskiĭ IuS: [Adjuvant chemotherapy as a component of complex treatment for skin melanoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2008;54(2):170-7
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  • [Title] [Adjuvant chemotherapy as a component of complex treatment for skin melanoma].
  • The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy as a component of complex treatment for skin melanoma and that of combined treatment alone was compared.
  • 502 patients were given combined treatment including intensive preoperative irradiation of primary foci (STD-19Gy, TTD-50 Gy, 5 days), their extended excision with or without lymphadenectomy and postoperative irradiation of regional lymph nodes.
  • Combined treatment was administered to 124 patients; additional adjuvant chemotherapy--5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, vincristine and cyclophosphamide (4 components)--200; neo- and adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin (2 components)--106; cisplatin, doxorubicin and dacarbazine (3 components)--29.
  • Forty-three patients receiving individualized chemotherapy were not included in the study.
  • Five-year actuarial survival in combined treatment group was 69.2 +/- 4.4% (M +/- m), 4-component therapy--58.2 +/- 3.6%, 2 components--68.7 +/- 4.9% and 3 components--80.0 +/- 8.3% (p > 0.2); 5-year recurrence-free survival- 68.1 +/- 4.4%, 57.5 +/- 3.6%; 63.1 +/- 5.0% and 60.9 +/- 10.0% respectively.
  • No significant differences were found as far as a correlation was concerned between actuarial survival and recurrence-free one, on the one hand, and tumor stage, depth and extent of invasion, on the other.
  • Hence, no beneficial effect of said adjuvant chemotherapeutic measures on combined treatment for locally-advanced skin melanoma was found.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18522165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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56. Wenzel J, Uerlich M, Haller O, Bieber T, Tueting T: Enhanced type I interferon signaling and recruitment of chemokine receptor CXCR3-expressing lymphocytes into the skin following treatment with the TLR7-agonist imiquimod. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Apr;32(4):257-62
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  • [Title] Enhanced type I interferon signaling and recruitment of chemokine receptor CXCR3-expressing lymphocytes into the skin following treatment with the TLR7-agonist imiquimod.
  • INTRODUCTION: Imiquimod (Aldara) is an immune response modifier approved for the topical treatment of external genital and perianal warts which can mediate regression of several cutaneous malignancies [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen's disease, actinic keratosis, and metastasis of malignant melanoma].
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present study we analyzed the expression of MxA, a protein specifically induced by type I IFNs during topical imiquimod treatment in several patients suffering from different cutaneous malignancies (BCC, cutaneous metastasis of melanoma, and breast cancer), and characterized the inflammatory infiltrate, along with the expression of chemokine receptor CXCR3, by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Treatment with the TLR7-agonist imiquimod induced a significant lesional lymphocytic inflammation, associated with strong expression of MxA, indicating the induction of type I IFN signaling.
  • The extent of lesional MxA staining closely correlated with the number of infiltrating T lymphocytes and the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3, characteristic for Th1-biased immune responses.
  • DISCUSSION: Our in vivo results suggest an important role for TLR7-induced production of type I IFN, which links innate and adaptive immunity and promotes specific Th1-biased cellular immune response capable of eliminating cutaneous malignancies.
  • MxA appears to be a valuable parameter to demonstrate IFN-type I expression in imiquimod therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Interferon Type I / immunology. Lymphocytes / immunology. Membrane Glycoproteins / agonists. Receptors, Cell Surface / agonists. Receptors, Chemokine / immunology. Skin / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / drug effects. Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / immunology. Female. Humans. Melanoma / immunology. Melanoma / secondary. Receptors, CXCR3. Signal Transduction. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Toll-Like Receptor 7. Toll-Like Receptors

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  • (PMID = 15769273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / CXCR3 protein, human; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Receptors, CXCR3; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 0 / TLR7 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 7; 0 / Toll-Like Receptors; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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57. Thies A, Pfüller U, Schachner M, Horny HP, Molls I, Schumacher U: Binding of mistletoe lectins to cutaneous malignant melanoma: implications for prognosis and therapy. Anticancer Res; 2001 Jul-Aug;21(4B):2883-7
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  • [Title] Binding of mistletoe lectins to cutaneous malignant melanoma: implications for prognosis and therapy.
  • However, no data concerning the three mistletoe lectins (MLs) and the spread of malignant melanoma have been published.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The binding status of ML-I, -II and -III was histochemically assessed in 100 malignant melanomas and correlated with metastasis in a 10 year follow-up period.
  • CONCLUSION: Since ML-I is specific for galactose, high density galactose expression in malignant melanoma is a predictor of poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / metabolism. Lectins / metabolism. Melanoma / metabolism. Plant Preparations. Plant Proteins. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Toxins, Biological / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Life Tables. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2

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  • (PMID = 11712781.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Lectins; 0 / Plant Preparations; 0 / Plant Proteins; 0 / Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2; 0 / Toxins, Biological; 0 / mistletoe lectin I; 0 / ribosome inactivating protein, Viscum
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58. Grange F, Vitry F, Granel-Brocard F, Lipsker D, Aubin F, Hédelin G, Dalac S, Truchetet F, Michel C, Batard ML, Baury B, Halna JM, Schmutz JL, Delvincourt C, Reuter G, Dalle S, Bernard P, Danzon A: Variations in management of stage I to stage III cutaneous melanoma: a population-based study of clinical practices in France. Arch Dermatol; 2008 May;144(5):629-36
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  • [Title] Variations in management of stage I to stage III cutaneous melanoma: a population-based study of clinical practices in France.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe current management of cutaneous melanoma (CM) and identify factors accounting for disparities.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective population-based study using survey of cancer registries and pathology laboratories, and questionnaires to physicians.
  • PATIENTS: Incident cases of patients with stage I to stage II (hereinafter, stage I-II) tumors staged according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging guidelines and nodal stage III CM in 2004.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Modalities of diagnosis and excision, surgical margins, sentinel lymph node biopsy, adjuvant therapies and surveillance procedures, and their variations according to age, sex, residence, location of primary CM, Breslow thickness, type of physicians, modalities of decisions, and health care patterns.
  • RESULTS: Clinical stage I-II CMs (n = 710 cases) slightly predominated in females (53%), with a lower mean Breslow thickness (1.4 mm) than in males (1.9 mm).
  • Adjuvant therapies (mainly low-dose interferon) were proposed in 53% of thick CMs (>1.5 mm), depending on the patient's age and geographical region.
  • Stage III nodal CMs (n = 89 cases) predominated in males (62%).
  • After lymphadenectomy, adjuvant therapies (including high-dose interferon in 32% of cases and chemotherapies in 24% of cases) were proposed in 68% of cases, depending on the patient's age and geographical region.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dermatology / methods. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. France. Humans. Interferons / administration & dosage. Interferons / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Population Surveillance / methods. Retrospective Studies. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2008 May;144(5):664-5 [18490596.001]
  • (PMID = 18490589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
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59. Yamamoto T, Nakai K, Matsumura A: Boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma. Cancer Lett; 2008 Apr 18;262(2):143-52
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  • [Title] Boron neutron capture therapy for glioblastoma.
  • Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) theoretically allows the preferential destruction of tumor cells while sparing the normal tissue, even if the cells have microscopically spread to the surrounding normal brain.
  • The tumor cell-selective irradiation used in this method is dependent on the nuclear reaction between the stable isotope of boron ((10)B) and thermal neutrons, which release alpha and (7)Li particles within a limited path length (-9 microm) through the boron neutron capture reaction, (10)B(n,alpha)(7)Li.
  • Recent clinical studies of BNCT have focused on high-grade glioma and cutaneous melanoma; however, cerebral metastasis of melanoma, anaplastic meningioma, head and neck tumor, and lung and liver metastasis have been investigated as potential candidates for BNCT.
  • Improved tumor-targeting boron compounds and optimized administration methods, improved boron drug delivery systems, development of a hospital-based neutron source, and/or other combination modalities will enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of BNCT in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Boron / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Forecasting. Humans. Photons / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 18313207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] N9E3X5056Q / Boron
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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60. Bütter A, Hui T, Chapdelaine J, Beaunoyer M, Flageole H, Bouchard S: Melanoma in children and the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy. J Pediatr Surg; 2005 May;40(5):797-800
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  • [Title] Melanoma in children and the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: The rarity of pediatric melanoma prompted our review of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and associated prognosis.
  • METHODS: A chart review from 1989 to 2004 revealed 12 cases of cutaneous melanoma.
  • Variables analyzed included demographics, site, histology, tumor characteristics, nodal status, and distant metastasis (TMN status), SLNB and/or therapeutic lymph node dissection (TLND), adjuvant treatment, disease-free survival, and overall survival.
  • RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 8.5 years with 7 of 12 patients younger than 10 years (range, 0.3-17.9 years).
  • Site distribution was the extremity (7), trunk (4), and head and neck (1).
  • All patients had wide local excision and primary closure or skin graft.
  • Only patients diagnosed after 2000 with melanomas thicker than 1 mm were offered SLNB (extremity = 2, trunk = 1, head and neck = 1).
  • Disease-free survival and overall survival by stage were stage I (n = 2, 3.9 years, 100%), stage II (n = 6, 7.7 years, 83%), stage III (n = 4, 2.6 years, 75%), and stage IV (n = 0).
  • A stage II patient with negative SLNB, adjuvant chemotherapy, and interferon died 26 months after diagnosis, and a stage III patient with clinically and pathologically positive nodes after TLND died 15 months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although a negative SLNB does not guarantee a favorable prognosis, its increasing use will further define its role in pediatric melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Infant. Interferons / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15937817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 9008-11-1 / Interferons
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61. Besaratinia A, Pfeifer GP: Biological consequences of 8-methoxypsoralen-photoinduced lesions: sequence-specificity of mutations and preponderance of T to C and T to a mutations. J Invest Dermatol; 2004 Dec;123(6):1140-6
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  • [Title] Biological consequences of 8-methoxypsoralen-photoinduced lesions: sequence-specificity of mutations and preponderance of T to C and T to a mutations.
  • Psoriatic patients undergoing psoralen plus ultraviolet radiation (PUVA) therapy are susceptible for squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the skin.
  • Both treatments were significantly mutagenic as they increased the cII mutant frequency up to 3.7-fold over background, and produced different mutational spectra from that derived spontaneously (p<0.01), but not from one another.
  • The signature of induced mutations, i.e., T to C transitions and T to A transversions with significant site-specificities, i.e., adjacent to T bases at the 3'-neighboring side and to pyrimidines at the 5'-neighboring side, was more pronounced after PUVA-II treatment.
  • Also, the overall mutations occurring at T bases with the same site-specificities were more prevalent after PUVA-II treatment.
  • We conclude that PUVA-induced mutagenesis is initiated by PUVA-I treatment and subsequently, augmented by PUVA-II treatment, leaving a unique mutational signature on the cII transgene.
  • The signature mutations of PUVA are discernible in the p53 mutational spectrum in PUVA-treated patients but complex exposure to other therapeutic/environmental carcinogens also leads to the frequent occurrence of other types of mutations in this population.
  • [MeSH-major] Methoxsalen / toxicity. PUVA Therapy. Point Mutation / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. Cell Line. DNA Adducts / drug effects. DNA Adducts / radiation effects. Databases, Genetic. Fibroblasts / cytology. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Fibroblasts / radiation effects. Mice. Molecular Sequence Data. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15610526.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES06070
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Adducts; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; U4VJ29L7BQ / Methoxsalen
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62. Cebon J, Jäger E, Shackleton MJ, Gibbs P, Davis ID, Hopkins W, Gibbs S, Chen Q, Karbach J, Jackson H, MacGregor DP, Sturrock S, Vaughan H, Maraskovsky E, Neumann A, Hoffman E, Sherman ML, Knuth A: Two phase I studies of low dose recombinant human IL-12 with Melan-A and influenza peptides in subjects with advanced malignant melanoma. Cancer Immun; 2003 Jul 16;3:7
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  • [Title] Two phase I studies of low dose recombinant human IL-12 with Melan-A and influenza peptides in subjects with advanced malignant melanoma.
  • Subjects had evaluable stage III or IV melanoma which expressed Melan-A by RT-PCR or immunohistochemistry.
  • Therapy was well tolerated, the main adverse event being influenza-like symptoms.
  • Immunological monitoring included the evaluation of cutaneous reactions and assays for antigen-specific T-cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Interleukin-12 / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Proteins / therapeutic use. Peptide Fragments / therapeutic use. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Viral Matrix Proteins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / adverse effects. Antigens, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Cancer Vaccines / adverse effects. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Hypersensitivity. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Influenza A virus / chemistry. Injections, Intravenous. Injections, Subcutaneous. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12862418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1424-9634
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Viral Matrix Proteins; 0 / influenza virus membrane protein (58-66); 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12
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63. Teppone M, Avakyan R: Extremely high-frequency therapy in oncology. J Altern Complement Med; 2010 Nov;16(11):1211-6
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  • [Title] Extremely high-frequency therapy in oncology.
  • OBJECTIVE: This article represents a review of the literature, mainly from Russian sources, dealing with the therapeutic application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter band applied to experimental and clinical oncology.
  • METHOD: At the early stage of these studies, efficacy and safety of millimeter electromagnetic radiation (extremely high frequency [EHF]) was proved for various types of malignant tumors.
  • The majority of the further studies demonstrated the high efficacy and safety of millimeter wave radiation in treating patients suffering from both benign and malignant tumors.
  • RESULTS: Developments led to treatment on skin melanoma, cancer of the ear-nose-throat, bowel and breast cancer, cancer of the uterus, lung, and stomach, solid tumors, as well as lymphoma.
  • The main indications for this therapy are (1) preparation prior to radical treatment;.
  • (2) prevention and treatment of side-effects and complications from chemotherapy and radiotherapy;.
  • (3) prevention of metastases, relapses, and dissemination of the tumor;.
  • (4) treatment of the paraneoplastic syndrome; and (5) palliative therapy of incurable patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the fact that not all mechanisms underlying effects of EHF therapy are known as yet, this therapeutic modality has been shown to have great potential in clinical oncology from studies performed in Eastern Europe and Russia.

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  • (PMID = 20973733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7708
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Altern Complement Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Busam KJ, Wolchok J, Jungbluth AA, Chapman P: Diffuse melanosis after chemotherapy-induced tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with metastatic melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2004 Mar;31(3):274-80
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  • [Title] Diffuse melanosis after chemotherapy-induced tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with metastatic melanoma.
  • Diffuse melanosis is a rare event associated with advanced metastatic malignant melanoma.
  • A 35-year-old woman with stage IV melanoma is presented, who developed slate bluish-gray to brown discoloration of her skin after chemotherapy-induced tumor lysis syndrome.
  • A number of studies were performed to re-evaluate possible mechanisms of melanosis.
  • Skin tissue was examined on routine hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections, Fontana stains, immunohistochemical studies with antibodies for Melan-A, gp100, tyrosinase, FXIIIa, and CD68, and by electron microscopy.
  • The main cell types found to contain melanin pigment were histiocytes and dendritic cells.
  • No melanoma cells were seen in the skin.
  • No increase in melanin pigment or number of melanocytes was seen in the epidermis.
  • A bone marrow biopsy contained melanophages but no melanoma cells.
  • Sequence analysis of the tumor's cDNA failed to identify any mutations in the tyrosinase gene, and no tyrosinase protein was detected in non-melanocytic cells, indicating that it was unlikely that a mutation had resulted in a secretory form of the protein.
  • These findings document that diffuse melanosis may result from tumor lysis, with release of melanosomes into the bloodstream.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Melanoma / secondary. Melanosis / etiology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Lysis Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 14984582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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65. Jahnke A, Makovitzky J, Briese V: Primary melanoma of the female genital system: a report of 10 cases and review of the literature. Anticancer Res; 2005 May-Jun;25(3A):1567-74
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  • [Title] Primary melanoma of the female genital system: a report of 10 cases and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary melanoma of the female genital system are extremely rare (2-3%).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients with primary melanoma of the female genital system treated from 1990-2003 at Rostock University Hospital, Germany.
  • Different treatments (sentinel node biopsy, inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, en bloc resection, adjuvant Interferon-alpha-therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy) are discussed.
  • The complicated classification is reduced to a clinical path for daily use (UICC stage and invasion depth of Breslow, Clark's level and Chung's level).
  • RESULTS: We report on 10 patients, aged 26 to 76 years, with primary melanoma of the female genital tract.
  • Seven women developed a vulvar melanoma and one woman a malignant melanoma of the cutaneous inguinal region, while another 2 women had an unusual primary location of the malignant melanoma, the cervico-vaginal region (n=1) and the left ovary (n = 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16033062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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66. Fink W, Zimpfer A, Ugurel S: Mucosal metastases in malignant melanoma. Onkologie; 2003 Jun;26(3):249-51
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  • [Title] Mucosal metastases in malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We present the case of a patient with malignant melanoma stage IV according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification and an unusual pattern of metastasis to the mucosa of the esophagus, the stomach, the bladder and the palatine tonsil.
  • CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old male patient with metastatic malignant melanoma of stage III (AJCC) was admitted for initiation of adjuvant therapy.
  • 4 months earlier a primary melanoma of the left upper leg had been excised and 2 months later the patient had undergone a left inguinal lymph node dissection revealing 2 metastatic lymph nodes.
  • He underwent a tonsillectomy and a lymphadenectomy which both revealed melanoma metastases.
  • Two cycles of dacarbazine (DTIC) chemotherapy were performed during which the patient developed cutaneous metastases, dyspepsia, and mild hematemesis.
  • A few weeks later the patient developed macroscopic hematuria.
  • RESULTS: This case presents common and uncommon sites of metastatic melanoma to the mucosa with the typical clinical manifestations in a single patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Tonsillar Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Male. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, Emission-Computed


67. von Felbert V, Córdoba F, Weissenberger J, Vallan C, Kato M, Nakashima I, Braathen LR, Weis J: Interleukin-6 gene ablation in a transgenic mouse model of malignant skin melanoma. Am J Pathol; 2005 Mar;166(3):831-41
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  • [Title] Interleukin-6 gene ablation in a transgenic mouse model of malignant skin melanoma.
  • Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been shown to inhibit the growth of early stage and to promote the proliferation of advanced stage melanoma cells in vitro.
  • In patients with metastasizing melanomas, highly increased IL-6 blood levels correlate with a poor response to chemotherapy and a worse overall prognosis, suggesting that IL-6 promotes melanoma progression in vivo.
  • Here, we analyzed the role of IL-6 in melanoma development and progression in a transgenic mouse model.
  • We bred IL-6-deficient mice with MT-ret transgenic animals predisposed for melanomas.
  • While MT-ret transgenic animals develop severe melanosis of the skin and subcutis and subsequent melanomas at an incidence of 80% during their first year of life, MT-ret mice devoid of IL-6 developed preneoplastic melanosis and consecutive melanomas significantly less frequently (47%; P < 0.05).
  • Immunoblot analysis revealed that ret transgene expression was not reduced in the skin of mice lacking IL-6, indicating that the observed decrease of melanoma incidence and of tumor sizes was not because of a down-regulation of transgene expression.
  • Taken together, these results indicate that IL-6 enhances both the development of melanoma precursor lesions and the subsequent growth of the resulting tumors in the MT-ret model of melanoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Interleukin-6 / genetics. Interleukin-6 / physiology. Melanoma / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biopsy. Blotting, Western. Cell Culture Techniques. Cytokines / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation. Genotype. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Inflammation. Lectins / metabolism. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Necrosis. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions. STAT3 Transcription Factor. Signal Transduction. Skin / pathology. Time Factors. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Transgenes

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  • (PMID = 15743795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Lectins; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / Stat3 protein, mouse; 0 / Trans-Activators; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1602365
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68. Feigl B, Faschinger C, Soyer P: Melanoma-associated retinopathy versus abnormal retinal function due to interferon-alpha/Isotretinoin therapy in cutaneous malignant melanoma. Ophthalmologica; 2000;214(4):271-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanoma-associated retinopathy versus abnormal retinal function due to interferon-alpha/Isotretinoin therapy in cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze whether an abnormal retinal function in patients with a cutaneous malignant melanoma was due to paraneoplastic retinopathy or due to isotretinoin or interferon-alpha.
  • METHODS: We studied 15 patients with malignant melanoma in stage IIa and IIb who are all participants in a randomized, multicentered, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing interferon-alpha/isotretinoin versus interferon-alpha/placebo performed by the Department of Dermatology, University of Graz.
  • In 1 patient the therapy was stopped because of electrophysiological and psychophysiological pathology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We postulate that in 1 of 15 patients, visual complaints are caused with a high probability by melanoma-associated retinopathy although, in the literature, isotretinoin is described to show similar effects on retinal function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Isotretinoin / adverse effects. Melanoma / drug therapy. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology. Retinal Diseases / chemically induced. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Color Perception. Double-Blind Method. Drug Therapy, Combination. Electroretinography. Female. Humans. Male. Night Blindness / etiology. Night Blindness / physiopathology. Prognosis. Visual Acuity. Visual Fields

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 10859510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-3755
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift fur Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
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69. Barrera MV, Herrera E: [Topical chemotherapy for actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancer: current options and future perspectives]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Oct;98(8):556-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Topical chemotherapy for actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancer: current options and future perspectives].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento quimioterápico tópico de la queratosis actínica y el cáncer cutáneo no melanoma: situación actual y perspectivas.
  • Actinic keratosis is currently considered not to be a precursor of squamous cell carcinoma but, rather, an initial stage of the disease.
  • Topical drugs are now becoming widely used in the therapeutic management of nonmelanoma skin cancer and its precursor lesions.
  • Here, we review the various topical drugs that are currently available and discuss their advantages and drawbacks.
  • Therapeutic options include retinoids, 5-fluoracil, diclofenac, imiquimod, and photodynamic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / drug therapy. Keratosis / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17919432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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70. Mu XC, Tran TA, Ross JS, Carlson JA: Topoisomerase II-alpha expression in melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2000 May;27(5):242-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topoisomerase II-alpha expression in melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma.
  • Malignant melanoma (MM) is considered to be a chemotherapy-refractory tumor.
  • New anti-cancer drugs (e.g. etoposide) that target DNA topoisomerases (e.g. topoisomerase II-alpha (topo IIalpha)) show activity against a wide variety of solid tumors.
  • The rate of topo IIalpha labeling in dysplastic melanocytic nevi, radial growth phase MM, vertical growth phase MM and metastatic MM revealed significant differences amongst groups and a positive covariance with advancing stage (means: 0.3, 0.5, 5, and 8 '+' cells/hpf, respectively; r=0.3, all p < or = 0.02).
  • Topo IIalpha labeling significantly correlated with increasing mitotic activity, depth of invasion and Clark's level, diminishing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, and poor outcome (all p < or = 0.01) in primary MM.
  • These findings indicate topo IIalpha as a potential therapeutic target and marker for MM.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of disseminated MM may allow for correlation with clinical response and enable selection of candidates sensitive for specific chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Melanoma / enzymology. Nevus, Pigmented / enzymology. Skin Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA-Binding Proteins. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10847549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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71. Pasquali S, Mocellin S: The anticancer face of interferon alpha (IFN-alpha): from biology to clinical results, with a focus on melanoma. Curr Med Chem; 2010;17(29):3327-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The anticancer face of interferon alpha (IFN-alpha): from biology to clinical results, with a focus on melanoma.
  • Alpha interferons (IFN) are type I IFNs that have pleiotropic effects on cell functions.
  • IFNs-alpha represent the cytokines exhibiting the longest record of use in clinical oncology for the treatment of over a dozen of cancer types, including some hematological malignancies and solid tumors.
  • Although targeted anticancer agents have recently replaced IFN-alpha in the treatment of certain hematological (e.g. chronic myeloid leukemia) and solid (e.g. renal cell carcinoma) malignancies, this cytokine is still used for the treatment of patients with specific tumor types, such as cutaneous melanoma.
  • Despite the intense work in preclinical tumor models and considerable experience in the clinical use of IFN-alpha, the mechanisms of action underlying tumor response is still a matter of open debate.
  • In this review we describe the evidence supporting the main mechanisms underlying IFN-alpha anticancer effects using both preclinical and clinical findings; moreover, we focus on the results of IFN-alpha for the treatment of patients with high-risk cutaneous melanoma, one of the malignancies most resistant to conventional chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon Type I / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic. Dendritic Cells / drug effects. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Humans. Mice. Recombinant Proteins

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  • (PMID = 20712571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-533X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Recombinant Proteins
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72. Chang JW: Cutaneous melanoma: Taiwan experience and literature review. Chang Gung Med J; 2010 Nov-Dec;33(6):602-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous melanoma: Taiwan experience and literature review.
  • Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Taiwan with an incidence rate of 0.65/100,000.
  • Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation is not associated with most Taiwanese melanoma cases.
  • Acral lentiginous melanoma comprises 58% of cutaneous melanoma.
  • Surgery, including resection of the primary melanoma, sentinel lymph nodes that may harbor microscopic metastasis, clinically abnormal lymph nodes, and selected distant metastases, is the most important treatment.
  • Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy has changed the clinical stage in 22.2% of our patients.
  • In the past, chemotherapy alone was the most common treatment modality for metastatic disease.
  • Recently biochemotherapy has been more commonly utilized to treat patients with metastatic melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 21199605.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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73. Terheyden P, Kortüm AK, Schulze HJ, Durani B, Remling R, Mauch C, Junghans V, Schadendorf D, Beiteke U, Jünger M, Becker JC, Bröcker EB: Chemoimmunotherapy for cutaneous melanoma with dacarbazine and epifocal contact sensitizers: results of a nationwide survey of the German Dermatologic Co-operative Oncology Group. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2007 Jul;133(7):437-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemoimmunotherapy for cutaneous melanoma with dacarbazine and epifocal contact sensitizers: results of a nationwide survey of the German Dermatologic Co-operative Oncology Group.
  • PURPOSE: To scrutinize published data from small mono-centric studies and case reports which implicated high response rates and promising survival times for a combination therapy consisting of epifocal dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and dacarbazine (DTIC) for metastasized melanoma.
  • This therapy merges the effects of an allergic contact dermatitis elicited at the site of a cutaneous metastasis, and systemic chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The objective response rate in stage III melanoma (n = 39) was 62%.
  • In contrast, only 9% objective responses were observed in 33 stage IV patients.
  • Interestingly, more than half of patients with objective remissions remained progression-free for more than 1 year irrespective of the stage of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Epifocal DNCB combined with DTIC is effective in patients with regionally metastasized melanoma not amenable to surgery or isolated limb perfusion, whereas in stage IV disease in spite of few durable remissions the addition of DNCB does not improve the therapeutic efficacy of DTIC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dinitrochlorobenzene / administration & dosage. Irritants / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Germany. Humans. Male. Melanoma. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17334785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Irritants; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; GE3IBT7BMN / Dinitrochlorobenzene
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