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1. Seidemann K, Tiemann M, Schrappe M, Yakisan E, Simonitsch I, Janka-Schaub G, Dörffel W, Zimmermann M, Mann G, Gadner H, Parwaresch R, Riehm H, Reiter A: Short-pulse B-non-Hodgkin lymphoma-type chemotherapy is efficacious treatment for pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a report of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Group Trial NHL-BFM 90. Blood; 2001 Jun 15;97(12):3699-706
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Short-pulse B-non-Hodgkin lymphoma-type chemotherapy is efficacious treatment for pediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a report of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Group Trial NHL-BFM 90.
  • Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) accounts for approximately 10% of pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  • Previous experience from NHL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) trials indicated that the short-pulse B-NHL-type treatment strategy may also be efficacious for ALCL.
  • The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of this protocol for treatment of childhood ALCL in a large prospective multicenter trial and to define risk factors.
  • Extranodal manifestations were as follows: mediastinum, n = 28; lung, n = 13; skin, n = 16; soft tissue, n = 13; bone, n = 14; central nervous system, n = 1; bone marrow, n = 5.
  • After a cytoreductive prephase, treatment was stratified into 3 branches: patients in K1 (stage I and II resected) received three 5-day courses (methotrexate [MTX] 0.5 g/m(2), dexamethasone, oxazaphorins, etoposide, cytarabine, doxorubicin, and intrathecal therapy); patients in K2 (stage II nonresected and stage III) received 6 courses; patients in K3 (stage IV or multifocal bone disease) received 6 intensified courses including MTX 5 g/m(2), high-dose cytarabine/etoposide.
  • Events were as follows: progression during therapy, n = 2; progression or relapse after therapy, n = 20; second malignancy, n = 1.
  • It was concluded that short-pulse chemotherapy, stratified according to stage, is effective treatment for pediatric ALCL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Germany. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Infant. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Male. Prospective Studies. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure


2. Sandlund JT, Santana VM, Hudson MM, Onciu M, Head D, Murry DJ, Ribeiro R, Wallace D, Rencher R, Pui CH: Combination of dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and carboplatin is effective for advanced large-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of childhood. Cancer; 2008 Aug 15;113(4):782-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combination of dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and carboplatin is effective for advanced large-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of childhood.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the activity and toxicity of dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and carboplatin (DAC) combination therapy in children with newly diagnosed large-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and to estimate the event-free and overall survival rates achieved when DAC is incorporated into a conventional regimen.
  • METHODS: From 1991 to 1997, 20 boys and 5 girls aged 4.2 to 17.7 years who had stage III (according to the St. Jude staging system) (n = 21) or stage IV (n = 4) large-cell NHL were treated in this study.
  • DAC therapy was administered at the beginning of the induction phase in 2 sequential cycles and incorporated throughout a continuation phase (modified from the ACOP+ regimen, which features doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone) with doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dexamethasone.
  • The total duration of treatment was approximately 10 months.
  • RESULTS: DAC therapy yielded a response in 22 of 25 patients (88%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 68%-97%): complete remission in 13 cases (52%), and partial response in 9 (36%).
  • After additional treatment with doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dexamethasone, complete remission was attained in 18 patients (72%) and partial remission in 3 (12%).
  • The event-free survival rate (+/- the standard error [SE]) was 64% +/- 9% and the overall survival rate was 80% +/- 8% at 5 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicate that the DAC regimen is well tolerated and effective for pediatric patients with large-cell NHL.


3. Pillon M, Di Tullio MT, Garaventa A, Cesaro S, Putti MC, Favre C, Lippi A, Surico G, Di Cataldo A, D'Amore E, Zanesco L, Rosolen A: Long-term results of the first Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology protocol for the treatment of pediatric B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIEOP LNH92). Cancer; 2004 Jul 15;101(2):385-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term results of the first Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology protocol for the treatment of pediatric B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (AIEOP LNH92).
  • BACKGROUND: Childhood B-cell lymphomas (B-NHLs) represent a group of aggressive malignancies that are amenable to high-intensity chemotherapy regimens.
  • In 1992, the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (AIEOP) initiated a prospective clinical trial involving the diagnosis and treatment of childhood B-NHL based on a well established strategy developed by the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster Group.
  • Disease staging was performed according to the St. Jude staging system, and treatment was assigned on the basis of risk group (R1, R2, or R3), which took into account disease stage and resectability and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels.
  • RESULTS: Of the 144 evaluable patients, 11 had Stage I disease, 35 had Stage II disease, 76 had Stage III disease, and 22 had Stage IV disease.
  • Multivariate analysis indicated that age > or = 10 years, disease histology other than Burkitt or Burkitt-like lymphoma, and LDH levels > or = 1000 international units per liter had negative prognostic value.
  • Analysis of the toxicity (according to the World Health Organization grading system) associated with 710 of the 748 chemotherapy cycles administered revealed 855 cases of Grade 3 or 4 toxicity, with 73% being cases of hematologic toxicity.
  • Toxic episodes were most common after the first chemotherapy cycle and were equally common in the R2 and R3 risk groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term follow-up of the current study (AIEOP LNH92) confirms the observation of a favorable outcome for patients with B-NHL treated with short, intensive chemotherapy regimens and raises the possibility that non-Burkitt or non-Burkitt-like histology and age > or = 10 years may have negative prognostic value for patients with childhood B-NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Italy. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15241838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Patte C, Auperin A, Gerrard M, Michon J, Pinkerton R, Sposto R, Weston C, Raphael M, Perkins SL, McCarthy K, Cairo MS, FAB/LMB96 International Study Committee: Results of the randomized international FAB/LMB96 trial for intermediate risk B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents: it is possible to reduce treatment for the early responding patients. Blood; 2007 Apr 1;109(7):2773-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of the randomized international FAB/LMB96 trial for intermediate risk B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents: it is possible to reduce treatment for the early responding patients.
  • A previous study (LMB89) of the French Society of Pediatric Oncology for childhood mature B-cell lymphoma (B-NHL) demonstrated a 92% 3-year event-free survival (EFS) for intermediate-risk group B defined as "non-resected" stage II/I and CNS-negative advanced-stage IIV/IV (70% of cases).
  • We performed the FAB/LMB96 trial to assess the possibility of reducing treatment in children/adolescents with intermediate-risk B-NHL without jeopardizing survival.
  • The analysis showed no significant effect of any of the treatment reductions on EFS and survival.
  • There was no interaction between the 2 treatment reductions or between each treatment reduction and LDH level or histologic subtypes (Burkitt/Burkitt-like or large B-cell).
  • Children/adolescents with intermediate-risk B-NHL who have an early response and achieve a complete remission after the first consolidation course can be cured with a 4-course treatment with a total dose of only 3.3 g/m2 cyclophosphamide and 120 mg/m2 doxorubicin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17132719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; MEVAP protocol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1852229
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5. Mora J, Filippa DA, Qin J, Wollner N: Lymphoblastic lymphoma of childhood and the LSA2-L2 protocol: the 30-year experience at Memorial-Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Cancer; 2003 Sep 15;98(6):1283-91
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  • [Title] Lymphoblastic lymphoma of childhood and the LSA2-L2 protocol: the 30-year experience at Memorial-Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
  • BACKGROUND: Until the 1970s, diffuse lymphoblastic lymphoma (DLBL) was considered incurable.
  • Patients with Stage I-II disease were treated for 2 years.
  • In 1980, the protocol was modified and patients with Stage III and IV disease were treated for 3 years.
  • In addition, before the modification, patients with Stage IV disease received a cumulative dose of 15,600 mg/m(2) of cyclophosphamide for 3 years; after 1980, these patients received the same dosage as the other patients (i.e., 8400 mg/m(2) for 2 years).
  • Radiation therapy initially was administered to all patients with bulky disease in the primary tumor site.
  • Until 1977, the dose of radiation was 20-55 grays (Gy); from 1977 to 1989, the dose was 20 Gy.
  • After the fifth year of completion of treatment, all patients were evaluated comprehensively every 2 years.
  • Seventeen patients developed a disease recurrence and 15 died of disease.
  • The OS and EFS rates for patients with Stages I-II disease (n = 8) were 87% and 87%, respectively, and the OS and EFS rates for patients with Stage III disease (n = 41) were 90% and 85%, respectively.
  • The OS and EFS for patients with Stage IVA disease (with bone marrow [BM] involvement of < 25%) (n = 19) were 79% and 73%, respectively, whereas the OS and EFS for patients with Stage IVB disease (BM involvement of > 25%) (n = 27) were 74% and 70%.
  • Of the 29 patients with Stage IV disease who were treated with the original protocol, 7 died of disease (1 of 8 patients with Stage IVA disease and 6 of 21 patients with Stage IVB disease).
  • Of the 17 patients with Stage IV disease who were treated with the modified protocol, 3 died of disease (2 of 11 patients with Stage IVA disease and 1 of 6 patients with Stage IVB disease).
  • Six patients developed secondary malignancies, four of whom died.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term EFS can be achieved in the majority of patients with widely disseminated pediatric DLBL.
  • Chemotherapy alone appears to be sufficient prophylaxis against disease recurrence in the central nervous system.
  • No disease-related or treatment-related deaths were reported to occur > 4.5 years after diagnosis in the current study.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11615
  • (PMID = 12973853.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; LSA2-L2 protocol
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6. Márky I, Björk O, Forestier E, Jónsson OG, Perkkiö M, Schmiegelow K, Storm-Mathiesen I, Gustafsson G, Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology: Intensive chemotherapy without radiotherapy gives more than 85% event-free survival for non-Hodgkin lymphoma without central nervous involvement: a 6-year population-based study from the nordic society of pediatric hematology and oncology. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Sep;26(9):555-60
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  • [Title] Intensive chemotherapy without radiotherapy gives more than 85% event-free survival for non-Hodgkin lymphoma without central nervous involvement: a 6-year population-based study from the nordic society of pediatric hematology and oncology.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognosis in childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has improved dramatically during recent decades.
  • The authors report the results from a 6-year population-based study of clinical characteristics and treatment results of NHL from the five Nordic countries.
  • METHODS: All children younger than 15 years of age at diagnosis with NHL diagnosed from 1995 to 2000 were stratified and treated according to immunophenotypic classification and stage of disease.
  • Patients with pre-B and T-cell NHL constituted 33%, B-cell NHL 53%, and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) 14%.
  • According to Murphy's classification, 14% had stage 1, 17% stage 2, 50% stage 3, and 19% stage 4 disease, 12 of whom (28%) had central nervous involvement (CNS) at diagnosis.
  • The 12 patients with CNS involvement at diagnosis had a significantly poorer outcome than stage 4 patients with CNS involvement (p-EFS = 50% vs. 90%, P < 0.01).
  • The 218 patients without CNS disease at diagnosis had a 5-year p-EFS of 88%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With modern intensive chemotherapy, more than 85% of NHL patients will achieve long-lasting first remission.
  • In the future, preventing death during induction and remission and improving therapy for patients with CNS disease would have a major impact on the overall p-EFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Finland / epidemiology. Humans. Iceland / epidemiology. Immunophenotyping. Incidence. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction. Scandinavian and Nordic Countries / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15342981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Duan YL, Zhang YH, Jin L, Yang J, Zhang R, Zhou CJ: [Clinical characteristics of 34 children with Hodgkin lymphoma and efficacy of treatment with chemotherapy plus low dose radiotherapy on involved sites]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Sep;48(9):698-702
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical characteristics of 34 children with Hodgkin lymphoma and efficacy of treatment with chemotherapy plus low dose radiotherapy on involved sites].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical features and to evaluate outcomes and to assess therapeutic effects in 34 children and adolescents with Hodgkin lymphoma treated with risk-adapted combination chemotherapy and low-dose, involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) in China.
  • METHOD: From January 2003 to April 2009, 34 hospitalized children with Hodgkin lymphoma were enrolled into the BCH-HL 2003 protocol (revised CCG 5942) in our hospital.
  • The 34 patients were treated according to the different risk factors in three treatment groups (standard, intermediate, and high risk), and received risk-adapted combination chemotherapy and IFRT.
  • RESULT: Of the 34 Hodgkin lymphoma patients, 28 were male and 6 were female.
  • The median age was 8.7 years (range from 4 years to 15 years) at the time of diagnosis.
  • The distribution for stage of disease was 0% for Stage I, 21% for Stage II, 35% for Stage III and 44% for Stage IV disease.
  • Two patients had early relapse after treatment was finished.
  • CONCLUSION: Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma in our study was more frequently seen in male school aged children.
  • Combined-modality therapy using risk-adapted chemotherapy with radiation is effective and well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21092533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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8. Hodgson DC, Hudson MM, Constine LS: Pediatric hodgkin lymphoma: maximizing efficacy and minimizing toxicity. Semin Radiat Oncol; 2007 Jul;17(3):230-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric hodgkin lymphoma: maximizing efficacy and minimizing toxicity.
  • Historically, both adult and childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) were treated with full-dose (35-45 Gy) extended-field radiation therapy (RT).
  • Although this treatment was the first to produce reliable disease control, the resulting late toxicity led pediatric oncologists to pioneer the use of combined chemotherapy and low-dose (15-25 Gy) involved-field RT for all stages of HL.
  • Currently, standard treatment of childhood HL is risk adapted; those with favorable risk disease typically receive 2 to 4 cycles of multi-agent chemotherapy with low-dose IFRT, whereas those with higher-risk disease receive more intensive chemotherapy before IFRT.
  • This approach produces long-term survival rates >90% while limiting exposure to anthracyclines, alkylators, and radiation to normal tissues.
  • In contrast to adult HL, IFRT remains an important component of the treatment of advanced-stage HL in pediatric patients.
  • Current clinical trials for children with HL aim to further segregate patients into risk strata such that those who are highly curable can receive less toxic therapy, whereas high-risk patients can receive augmented therapy.
  • Response-adapted therapy, in which overall treatment intensity is modified according to the initial response to chemotherapy, is emerging as a potential means of further reducing therapy for some while maintaining high cure rates.
  • The challenge is to refine therapy in a rare disease in which long-time intervals are necessary to observe an adequate number of events (treatment failure or late effects) to answer judicious questions.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Care Planning. Prognosis. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiation Injuries / prevention & control. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17591570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-4296
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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9. Dinand V, Malik A, Mohanty B, Chander B, Arya LS, Dawar R: Low apoptotic index & bak expression in EBV-associated childhood classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Indian J Med Res; 2009 Nov;130(5):526-32
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  • [Title] Low apoptotic index & bak expression in EBV-associated childhood classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Association of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is particularly high in low-income countries, and resistance to apoptosis might play a role in pathogenesis and survival.
  • Thus this study was undertaken on Indian children with classical Hodgkin lymphoma to assess the significance of bcl-2, bak and p53 expression, and apoptotic index in relation with EBV status and treatment outcome with chemotherapy alone.
  • Bcl-2, bak, p53, Ki67 and latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) were detected by immunohistochemistry in pre-treatment lymph node biopsies.
  • Advanced stage showed a borderline association with bcl-2 expression in >25 per cent of tumour cells and p53 negative tumours.
  • INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: EBV detection in children with classical Hodgkin lymphoma was associated with significant lower bak expression and with lower spontaneous apoptosis of H-RS cells suggesting that EBV-LMP1 might downregulate bak pro-apoptotic protein. this needs to be substantiated further.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Med Res. 2009 Nov;130(5):504-5 [20090096.001]
  • (PMID = 20090100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0971-5916
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAK1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein
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10. Büyükpamukçu M, Varan A, Akyüz C, Atahan L, Ozyar E, Kale G, Köksal Y, Kutluk T: The treatment of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma: improved survival in a developing country. Acta Oncol; 2009;48(1):44-51
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  • [Title] The treatment of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma: improved survival in a developing country.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, treatment regimens, and outcome of children with Hodgkin lymphoma in a developing country over a period of 34 years.
  • METHODS: This paper retrospectively evaluates the treatment and prognosis of 614 children with Hodgkin lymphoma disease between 1971 and 2005.
  • All patients were treated with chemotherapy, and also received radiotherapy.
  • There were 165, 185, 145, and 119 patients in stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively.
  • Histopathologic subtypes were mixed cellularity (344 patients), nodular sclerosis (90), lymphocytic predominance (62), lymphocytic depletion (46), unclassified types (69), and nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (3).
  • Overall (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 83 and 60%, though OS rates varied according to chemotherapy protocol; age; presence of B symptoms, leukocytosis, anemia, and extranodal involvement; and stage at diagnosis.
  • Over the years, the median age of patients increased, as did the frequency of the nodular sclerosing type of disease.
  • The increase in the median age and in the frequency of the nodular-sclerosing type are thought to be related to the development status of Turkey.
  • The ABVD protocol yielded the best survival rates and should be used for treatment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / mortality. Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Turkey / epidemiology. Young Adult


11. Stefan DC, Stones D: How much does it cost to treat children with Hodgkin lymphoma in Africa? Leuk Lymphoma; 2009 Feb;50(2):196-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] How much does it cost to treat children with Hodgkin lymphoma in Africa?
  • Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a common B-cell childhood neoplasm and it has a higher incidence in the 0-14 year age group in developing countries compared to developed countries.
  • Treatment achieves a cure rate of about 80%.
  • To determine the direct costs of treatment of HL in South Africa and to propose a more cost-effective approach to investigation and treatment for children diagnosed with HL in Africa, tumor registry data for 138 children with HL from two South African hospitals were analysed retrospectively.
  • The cost of treatment for stage 2 disease was calculated, including investigations and chemotherapy.
  • Stage 2 was the most common stage seen, and ABVD protocol was the most common protocol used.
  • The total cost of diagnosing, staging, treating with chemotherapy and following up a child with stage 2 HL for 2 years post-therapy was ZAR 53178.20 = USD 6647.27 = EUR 4431.51.
  • Follow-up expenditure was much higher than initial chemotherapy costs.
  • The major factors driving the cost for the whole group of 138 patients were as follows: stage, radiologic imaging, radiotherapy, second-line chemotherapy, hospitalisation and febrile neutropenia.
  • The total cost of treatment of HL is affordable for first world countries, but it remains expensive for developing countries, especially in Africa where the GDP is often under USD 2000 per head.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / economics. Hodgkin Disease / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Leuk Lymphoma. 2009 Feb;50(2):152-3 [19235011.001]
  • (PMID = 19197725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Küpeli S, Varan A, Demir H, Aydin B, Yüce A, Büyükpamukçu M: Association of Helicobacter pylori and childhood lymphoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 May;29(5):301-4
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  • [Title] Association of Helicobacter pylori and childhood lymphoma.
  • We aimed to estimate the frequency of association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with abdominal, gastric, or intestinal involvement and Helicobacter pylori in childhood.
  • Between February 2003 and June 2006, we evaluated 15 children with newly diagnosed NHL who were diagnosed and treated at the Pediatric Oncology Department of Hacettepe University.
  • Patients who were given chemotherapy previously or who received H. pylori eradication therapy were excluded from the study.
  • Six had stage IV characteristics, whereas another 9 patients had stage III disease.
  • Ten had high-grade B-cell lymphoma.
  • First patient had T-cell lymphoma and stage IV disease with involvement in stomach, mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes, and bone marrow.
  • The second one had anaplastic large cell lymphoma exclusively in abdominal lymph nodes.
  • Last patient had Burkitt lymphoma and stage IV disease, with primary tumor localization in abdominal lymph nodes, liver, and kidneys.
  • We did not find any positive test results in the other 12 patients with intestinal, stomach, or abdominal disease.
  • Preliminary results of our study suggest that H. pylori may not be the responsible agent for NHL involved the abdomen in childhood.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Helicobacter Infections / epidemiology. Helicobacter pylori / isolation & purification. Lymphoma, B-Cell / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Recurrence. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Treatment Outcome. Turkey / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17483706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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13. Lee WS, Chan TL, Koh MT, Ariffin WA, Lin HP: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome presenting as childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Singapore Med J; 2001 Nov;42(11):530-3
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  • [Title] Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome presenting as childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Two children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) as the presenting illness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are described.
  • In the first case, an 18-month-old boy with stage IV, high-grade,T-cell NHL, the diagnosis of underlying AIDS was suspected only when he developed recurrent and profound opportunistic infection during chemotherapy.
  • She was later found to be sero-positive for HIV during pre-chemotherapy screening.
  • As the prevalence of HIV infection continues to increase, HIV infection should be considered in the differential diagnoses of childhood hepatosplenomegaly and thrombocytopenia, and as a possible underlying cause of childhood cancer, especially NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / etiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11876380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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14. Link MP, Devidas M, Murphy SB, Behm FG, Hutchison R: Favorable treatment outcome of children with early stage large B-cell and anaplastic large cell lymphomas. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):8500

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  • [Title] Favorable treatment outcome of children with early stage large B-cell and anaplastic large cell lymphomas.
  • : 8500 Background: The non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) of childhood are heterogeneous.
  • METHODS: We conducted a trial (POG 9219) for stage I and II NHL which accrued 396 children between 1992 and 1999.
  • One hundred fifty-six (40%) had large cell lymphoma.
  • All patients received nine weeks of chemotherapy including vincristine 1.5mg/m2 weekly for seven doses; doxorubicin 40mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide 750mg/m2 on days 1, 22 and 43; and prednisone 40mg/m2 daily for 28 days during the first 4 weeks and on days 43-47.
  • Only one patient with DLBCL developed recurrent disease and died.
  • At 5 years, the projected event-free survival (EFS) is 98 % (SE 3%), and the overall survival (OS), 98 % (SE 3%).
  • Nine patients with ALCL (T=5; null=4) failed treatment: three failed induction, and six relapsed from complete remission, but were effectively salvaged.
  • The projected 5 year EFS for early stage ALCL is 84 % (SE 7%) (DLBCL versus ALCL, p-value 0.02); the OS, 100%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nine weeks of modest intensity chemotherapy are sufficient for children with early stage DLBCL.

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  • (PMID = 28014540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Mottl H, Bajciova V, Nemec J, Al Shemmari S, Al Awadi S: High survival rate in childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma without CNS involvement: results of BFM 95 study in Kuwait. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Mar;20(2):103-10
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  • [Title] High survival rate in childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma without CNS involvement: results of BFM 95 study in Kuwait.
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) in children are the second most common malignant tumors in Kuwait.
  • Five children were treated by NHL BFM 90 protocol, 7 pts received NHL BFM 95 scheme, and 9 children underwent therapy abroad or according to different types of protocols.
  • Seven patients diagnosed with NHL--group B: 3 children with Burkitt lymphoma (B-cell NHL) and group A: 4 children with lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-cell NHL)--were treated from October 1995 to September 2000 in the Kuwait Cancer Control Centre according to NHL BFM 95 protocol.
  • Group B consisted of 2 girls and 1 boy; median age at diagnosis was 4 years 8 months, 2 pts classified as stage II and 1 pt as stage III.
  • Group A included 1 girl and 3 boys; median age at diagnosis was 5 years 8 months, 1 pt classified as stage III and 3 pts as stage IV.
  • In group B all 3 pts are in 1st CR; in group A 3 pts are in 1st CR and 1 pt having Li-Fraumani syndrome died after the 3rd relapse of disease during therapy.
  • Treatment results of NHL BFM 95 study in our small group of patients are very optimistic.
  • Six patients are in 1st CR and one died due to progression of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Burkitt Lymphoma / mortality. Burkitt Lymphoma / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Infant. Kuwait / epidemiology. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, B-Cell / surgery. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, T-Cell / surgery. Male. Mesna / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Survival Rate. Thioguanine / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage


16. Attarbaschi A, Mann G, Dworzak M, Trebo M, Urban C, Fink FM, Horcher E, Reiter A, Riehm H, Gadner H, Austrian Cooperative Study Group: Malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of childhood and adolescence in Austria--therapy results between 1986 and 2000. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2002 Dec 30;114(23-24):978-86

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of childhood and adolescence in Austria--therapy results between 1986 and 2000.
  • Between 1986 and 2000 183 Austrian children and adolescents with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and mature B-cell acute leukemia (B-ALL) were enrolled in 3 consecutive studies of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) Group.
  • In trial NHL-BFM 86, patients were stratified according to the histologic subtype and clinical stage.
  • In the succeeding studies NHL-BFM 90 and 95, treatment stratification was additionally based on the speed of tumor response to therapy and for children with B-cell NHL/B-ALL also on the pre-therapeutic serum lactic dehydrogenase level.
  • Patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma (mainly with T-cell phenotypes) had an excellent prognosis with an ALL-type chemotherapy regimen (n = 49; relapse, n = 1), whereas an intensive, short-pulse therapy delivered within a 2- to 4-month period was found to be highly efficacious in children with B-cell NHL/B-ALL (n = 114; relapse, n = 6; progression, n = 5).
  • Patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) who were treated with similar alternating short courses of multi-agent chemotherapy had a less good outcome (n = 20; relapse, n = 6, progression, n = 3).
  • Children with B-cell NHL and B-ALL who failed initial therapy also had a dismal prognosis (10/11 patients died).
  • Local radiotherapy as a part of lymphoma therapy was completely abandoned in study NHL-BFM 90 and surgical interventions were confined to specific situations such as complete resection in localized B-cell NHL and ALCL, diagnostic biopsy and second-look operation.
  • In conclusion, our results showed that the BFM treatment strategy for lymphoblastic lymphoma and B-cell NHL/B-ALL was highly successful in the majority of patients; however, optimal treatment for children with ALCL has not yet been defined.
  • As a consequence, larger trials at an international level are necessary to find new prognostic markers that might define more precisely those patients who need further intensification of first-line treatment or novel therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Male. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12635465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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17. Krawczuk-Rybak M, Solarz E, Gadomski J, Matysiak M, Wołczyński S: [Spermato- and steroidogenesis in young men treated for non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphoma during childhood]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2006 Jul-Sep;10(3 Pt 1):623-30
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  • [Title] [Spermato- and steroidogenesis in young men treated for non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphoma during childhood].
  • INTRODUCTION: Chemo- and radiotherapy induce testicular damage leading to long-time or irreversible infertility.
  • AIM: To investigate testicular function (spermato- and steroidogenesis) in adolescents and young men cured of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • Patients with NHL and HL in clinical stage I and IIb, presented normal values of all analyzed parameters.
  • 2. The treatment for HL in IIb, IIIb, IV clinical stage with increasing number of therapeutic protocols, especially together with radiotherapy, led to gonadal dysfunction (increase of FSH, decrease of inhibin B values).
  • Treatment for HL of higher clinical stage leads to gonadal dysfunction, especially of spermatogenesis.
  • 2. The treatment for NHL essentially does not have a gonadotoxic effect.
  • 3. The cryopreservation of sperm before starting the treatment should be especially offered to young men with HL.
  • [MeSH-major] Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Gonadotropins, Pituitary / blood. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Infertility, Male / etiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Spermatogenesis / drug effects. Spermatogenesis / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 17317893.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadotropins, Pituitary; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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18. Mora J, Filippa DA, Thaler HT, Polyak T, Cranor ML, Wollner N: Large cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of childhood: Analysis of 78 consecutive patients enrolled in 2 consecutive protocols at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Cancer; 2000 Jan 1;88(1):186-97
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  • [Title] Large cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of childhood: Analysis of 78 consecutive patients enrolled in 2 consecutive protocols at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
  • BACKGROUND: The authors report a study of pediatric patients with advanced diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL) who were treated with 2 consecutive regimens, LSA2-L2 and LSA4, over a 25-year-period at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.
  • They also describe a comparative analysis of two subgroups retrospectively identified as having CD30 positive (+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and CD30 negative (-) DLCL.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this study represents the longest follow-up on the largest series of uniformly treated pediatric DLCL patients reported to date.
  • METHODS: A total of 78 consecutive patients were treated for Stage III/IV DLCL.
  • RESULTS: A disease free survival rate of 72% in patients with advanced stage DLCL using the LSA2-L2 and LSA4 regimens.
  • Of the 78 treated patients, 56 are alive and without evidence of disease with a median follow-up of 120 months (range, 24-312 months).
  • Of 52 patients for whom immunophenotypic data were available, 28 had disease of B-cell lineage, 24 had disease of T-cell/null phenotype, 19 were CD30+ (36.
  • 5%), 18 had disease of T-cell phenotype, and 1 had disease of B-cell lineage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The CD30- DLCL cases mostly were of B-cell lineage, had a small risk of treatment failure, and did not develop a recurrence off therapy.
  • Based on the findings of the current study, the authors propose that T-cell CD30+ ALCL be addressed in the future according to equal dose intensity regimens in induction therapy, as is done for B-cell lymphomas; prolonged periods of maintenance chemotherapy, as is done for T-cell lymphoblastic lymphomas; and no central nervous system prophylaxis beyond the induction period unless other recognized risk factors are present.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / complications. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


19. Qi L, Cazares L, Johnson C, de Alarcon P, Kupfer GM, Semmes OJ: Serum protein expression profiling in pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Aug;51(2):216-21
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  • [Title] Serum protein expression profiling in pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognosis for children with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with a risk adjusted combination of radiation therapy and multi-drug chemotherapy has markedly improved.
  • There remains a group of patients whose disease either recurs or does not respond to therapy.
  • However, profiling for the purpose of staging and defining prognostic characteristics of childhood diseases is not well studied.
  • The current stage-based risk assignment of HL cannot predict the patients within a risk group that are destined to recur or do not respond to therapy.
  • Thus, a need exists to develop new methodologies to better stratify the risk classification of pediatric HL.
  • PROCEDURE: We have completed a preliminary project to identify characteristic serum protein peaks determined by protein expression profiling in serum of 22 subjects with HL, 13 with stage II HL and 9 with stage III or IV.
  • CONCLUSION: These data lay the basis for prospective studies to identify protein expression profiles useful for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment stratification, and the follow-up of minimal residual disease.

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  • (PMID = 18421715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85067; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA98543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / alpha 1-Antitrypsin
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20. Bence Z, Kovács G, Jakab Z, Csóka M, Müller J: [Lymphomas in adolescents: are childhood lymphoma therapy protocols suitable for this patient group?]. Magy Onkol; 2008 Dec;52(4):357-62
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  • [Title] [Lymphomas in adolescents: are childhood lymphoma therapy protocols suitable for this patient group?].
  • The centres of the Hungarian Paediatric Oncology Network annually take care of 250-300 new patients with childhood cancer, every tenth of them suffering from lymphoma.
  • The aim of our work was to analyse the data of the adolescents (14-19 years) with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), comparing their survival rates with younger patients under fourteen and with the international data.
  • In the group of HL the distribution of patients according to the stage was similar in younger and older patients.
  • In the NHL group 55% of the children younger than 14, and 72% of the patients older than 14 years old had advanced stage disease (stage III or IV).
  • In both groups the patients received chemotherapy according to the current paediatric protocols.
  • As a conclusion, survival rates of the adolescents do not differ significantly from the parameters of the patients under fourteen, so the therapy protocols used for childhood lymphomas are suitable for the treatment of the lymphomas appearing at the age of 14-19 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality

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  • (PMID = 19068463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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21. Neth O, Seidemann K, Jansen P, Mann G, Tiemann M, Ludwig WD, Riehm H, Reiter A: Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in childhood and adolescence: clinical features, treatment, and results in trials NHL-BFM 86 and 90. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2000 Jul;35(1):20-7
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  • [Title] Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in childhood and adolescence: clinical features, treatment, and results in trials NHL-BFM 86 and 90.
  • BACKGROUND: Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (PBLL) is a rare subtype of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  • The purpose of our study was to investigate frequency and clinicopathological features of PBLL in children and to test prospectively the efficacy of an ALL-type therapy for treatment of these patients.
  • PROCEDURE: From October, 1986, to March, 1995, 1,075 patients up to 18 years of age suffering from all kinds of NHL were registered in the two consecutive multicenter studies NHL-BFM 86 and 90.
  • Twenty-one PBLL patients were treated according to a BFM-ALL-type protocol: an eight-drug induction over 9 weeks was followed by an 8-week consolidation including methotrexate 5 g/m(2) x4.
  • Patients in stages I and II continued with maintenance up to a total therapy duration of 24 months, whereas patients in stages III and IV received an additional eight-drug intensification and cranial radiotherapy (12 Gy for prophylaxis) after consolidation.
  • Six PBLL patients were treated according to the BFM-protocol for B-NHL, stratified according to stage and tumor load and consisiting of two to six 5-day courses of chemotherapy.
  • Twenty-one PBLL patients had nodal disease, 6 patients had subcutaneous manifestations, and 8 patients had bone marrow disease (<25% blasts).
  • With a median follow-up time of 4.
  • 25 years, the estimated probability for event-free survival (pEFS) at 10 years for the total group was 0.73 (SE 0.10).
  • CONCLUSIONS: PBLL accounts for 2.5% of childhood NHL.
  • An ALL-type therapy strategy appears to be superior to a short-pulse B-NHL protocol.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Austria / epidemiology. B-Lymphocytes. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Infant. Male. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prospective Studies. Registries. Survival Analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 10881003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; PVDA protocol
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22. Porcaro AB, D'Amico A, Novella G, Curti P, Ficarra V, Antoniolli SZ, Martignoni G, Matteo B, Malossini G: Primary lymphoma of the kidney. Report of a case and update of the literature. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2002 Mar;74(1):44-7
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  • [Title] Primary lymphoma of the kidney. Report of a case and update of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report on a case of primary renal lymphoma (PRL) and update the literature concerning this topic.
  • RESULTS: The neoplasm was assessed as primary renal non-Hodgkin high grade lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell type.
  • Unfortunately, 5 weeks later the patient was lost since missing chemotherapy and follow-up.
  • The disease usually affects adults with an average age of 60 years and slight male preponderance; however it has also been reported in childhood.
  • Several histogenetic theories of the disease have been postulated since the kidney does not normally contain lymphoid tissue.
  • Investigators reported many classes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma which include large, small, intermediate and mixed cell types with high, intermediate or low grade histologies.
  • The neoplastic lymphoid cells may express both B and T immunoblastic phenotypes, primary renal Hodgkin lymphoma has also been reported.
  • The disease may present with progressive renal failure of either oliguric or non oliguric type.
  • Imaging studies in diagnosing and staging primary renal lymphomas include ultrasound examination (US) and computed tomography (CT); there are also some reports of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • Total body bone scan and bone marrow biopsy will complete disease clinical staging.
  • Up to now, there are no standard treatment modalities for this entity since the small number of cases reported.
  • Multidrug chemotherapy is mandatory for high grade lymphoma and when the disease is diagnosed preoperatively.
  • High dose chemotherapy in the future may offer a curative approach in primary bilateral renal disease and without end-stage renal disease.
  • Prognosis may be improved by early detection of disease and by performing systemic chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 12053451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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23. Eldar AH, Futerman B, Abrahami G, Attias D, Barak AB, Burstein Y, Dvir R, Gabriel H, Horovitz J, Kapelushnik J, Kaplinsky H, Miskin H, Sthoeger D, Toren A, Vilk-Revel S, Weintraub M, Yaniv I, Linn S, Arush MB: Burkitt lymphoma in children: the Israeli experience. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Jun;31(6):428-36

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  • [Title] Burkitt lymphoma in children: the Israeli experience.
  • BACKGROUND: We analyzed the results of the French-American-British-LMB 96 protocol performed in 9 centers in Israel on 88 patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated from 2000 to 2005.
  • PROCEDURE: The majority of the patients was male (63/88, 72%), with a median age of 8.9 years (range, 2.5 to 20 y).
  • Fifty (57%) patients were classified as Burkitt lymphoma, 5 (5.7%) as Burkitt-like lymphoma, 22 (25%) as diffuse large B cell (DLBC), and 9 (10.2%) as Burkitt leukemia with over 25% of their bone marrow (BM) involved.
  • Initial disease sites included the abdomen in 43%, head and neck in 45%, and mediastinum in 7%.
  • Stage I: 9.1%; stage II: 28.4%; stage III: 45.5%, stage IV: 17%.
  • RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 3 years (12 mo to 7.6 y), the Kaplan-Meier for event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) according to whole group treatment was 88.6% and 90.9%, group A was 100% and 100%; group B was 89.9% and 92.8%; and group C was 78.6% and 78.6%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In nonresected mature B-cell lymphoma of childhood and adolescence with no BM or CNS involvement, a 93% cure rate can be achieved, similar to the French-American-British/LMB 96 trial.
  • Patients with primary DLBC mediastinal mass had a significantly reduced OS, indicating the need for a different therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Burkitt Lymphoma / drug therapy. Burkitt Lymphoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Israel. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19648792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Körholz D, Kluge R, Wickmann L, Hirsch W, Lüders H, Lotz I, Dannenberg C, Hasenclever D, Dörffel W, Sabri O: Importance of F18-fluorodeoxy-D-2-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for staging and therapy control of Hodgkin's lymphoma in childhood and adolescence - consequences for the GPOH-HD 2003 protocol. Onkologie; 2003 Oct;26(5):489-93
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  • [Title] Importance of F18-fluorodeoxy-D-2-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for staging and therapy control of Hodgkin's lymphoma in childhood and adolescence - consequences for the GPOH-HD 2003 protocol.
  • The prognosis for children and adolescents with Hodgkin's lymphoma is excellent.
  • However, many patients will show secondary malignancies 15-30 years after the initial diagnosis, which appears to be connected with the intensity of treatment during primary disease.
  • In the GPOH-HD 95 trial, the indication for radiotherapy was limited to patients who did not show a complete remission after chemotherapy, as determined radiographically.
  • In the future protocol, the indication for radiotherapy in patients with early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma should be further refined by using FDG-PET for evaluating the response to chemotherapy.
  • Furthermore, in patients at an advanced stage of the disease, it should be determined if sequential FDG-PET research during chemotherapy can separate patients into subgroups with an excellent or a poor prognosis.
  • This article gives a review of the current literature on FDG-PET in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and outlines the consequences for future protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Glucose / metabolism. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome. Whole-Body Counting

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 14605468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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25. Won SC, Han JW, Kwon SY, Shin HY, Ahn HS, Hwang TJ, Yang WI, Lyu CJ: Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: A report from the Korean society of pediatric hematology-oncology. Ann Hematol; 2006 Nov;85(11):787-94
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  • [Title] Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: A report from the Korean society of pediatric hematology-oncology.
  • Recent development of stratified chemotherapeutic regimens has rapidly improved the survival rate of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of childhood.
  • We explored the use of high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (HDC/PBSCT) for children with either refractory or recurrent NHL, and we evaluated various factors influencing outcome of HDC/PBSCT.
  • Sex, stage at diagnosis, histologic subtype (lymphoblastic, Burkitt's, and large-cell lymphoma), LDH level at diagnosis, disease status at transplantation, and preparative regimens for HDC/PBSCT were explored.
  • In regard to the patients, six had Burkitt's lymphoma, 13 had lymphoblastic lymphoma, and 14 had large-cell lymphoma.
  • The EFS for Burkitt's, lymphoblastic, and large-cell lymphoma was 66.7+/-27.2, 50.5+/-14.8, and 82.1+/-11.7%, respectively.
  • In comparison with lymphoblastic and non-lymphoblastic lymphoma, the relative risk for lymphoblastic lymphoma was higher than the others (P = 0.037).
  • EFS between anaplastic large-cell and diffuse large-cell lymphoma was 100 and 55.6+/-24.9%, respectively (P = 0.106).
  • HDC/PBSCT is considered applicable to recurrent or refractory pediatric NHL patients safely and it could replace conventional chemotherapy.
  • In this study, children with CR status at the time of HDC/PBSCT showed higher survival rate.
  • However, refractory or recurrent lymphoblastic lymphoma patients showed dismal results.
  • Therefore, new therapeutic modalities may be needed for this group of NHL patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Korea. Male. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival. Survival Analysis. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Ann Hematol. 2007 Apr;86(4):309
  • (PMID = 16932891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Fadoo Z, Belgaumi A, Alam M, Azam I, Naqvi A: Pediatric lymphoma: a 10-year experience at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Jan;32(1):e14-8
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  • [Title] Pediatric lymphoma: a 10-year experience at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan.
  • SUMMARY: Lymphoma is the third most common childhood malignancy.
  • Less information is available on this disease and its outcome from our country.
  • A retrospective study was carried out at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi on children (<15 y) diagnosed with lymphoma from 1998 to 2007.
  • Fifty-one children were diagnosed as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  • Most common histopathologic subtype of NHL was Burkitt lymphoma (55%).
  • Abdominal mass was the main presenting feature of Burkitt and diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
  • T-lymphoblastic lymphoma presented mainly as mediastinal mass.
  • Ten children died, 4 secondary to tumor lysis syndrome, 5 because of disease progression, and 1 with chemotherapy-induced toxicity.
  • One-third of the patients left without treatment.
  • Seventeen children were diagnosed as Hodgkin lymphoma with mixed cellularity as the commonest subtype (65%).
  • Overall survival of children with NHL and Hodgkin lymphoma was 62% and 94%, respectively.
  • A greater proportion of NHL, advanced stage, and profound male preponderance were observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20051771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Krawczuk-Rybak M, Solarz E, Wysocka J, Wojtkowska M, Matysiak M, Gadomski A, Kazanowska B, Sega-Pondel D: [Testicular function in young men treated in prepubertal period for childhood malignancy]. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab; 2008;14(2):93-8
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  • [Title] [Testicular function in young men treated in prepubertal period for childhood malignancy].
  • INTRODUCTION: A complex anticancer treatment leads to different late effects e.g. gonadal damage in adulthood.
  • The information about gonadal function (steroido- and spermatogenesis) after the treatment in prepubertal period are ambiguous.
  • THE AIM OF STUDY: was to evaluate testicular function in young men (Tanner puberty stages IV and V) treated in prepubertal period for childhood malignancies.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In thirty-two pubertal and postpubertal male survivors of childhood cancer (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, ALL - 14, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, NHL - 6, Hodgkin lymphoma, HL and solid tumors - 4) testicular volume and serum FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and calculated quotient inhibin B:FSH were measured.
  • Controls were 15 healthy boys matched by age and Tanner stage.
  • The lowest values of inhibin B were found in HL (46,15+/-35,12 ng/l) and after ALL treatment (71,1+/-39,8 ng/l).
  • We did not observe differences in hormonal parameters after NHL treatment.
  • The inhibin B-to-FSH ratio was lower, especially after treatment for HL.
  • Anticancer therapy in prepubertal period may lead to disturbances in spermatogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Inhibins / metabolism. Neoplasms / therapy. Testicular Diseases / diagnosis. Testicular Diseases / etiology. Testis / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Biomarkers / metabolism. Child. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Male. Puberty / metabolism. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Spermatogenesis / drug effects. Spermatogenesis / radiation effects. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 18721495.001).
  • [ISSN] 2081-237X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / inhibin B; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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28. Winter SS, Holdsworth MT, Devidas M, Raisch DW, Chauvenet A, Ravindranath Y, Ducore JM, Amylon MD: Antimetabolite-based therapy in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report of POG study 9296. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Feb;46(2):179-86
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  • [Title] Antimetabolite-based therapy in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report of POG study 9296.
  • PURPOSE: A previous Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) study showed high incidence of secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in children treated for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or higher-stage lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • To prevent secondary neoplasms, induce prolonged asparagine depletion, and maintain high event-free survival (EFS) in children with newly diagnosed T-ALL or higher-stage non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL), we designed this pilot study to determine feasibility and safety of substituting methotrexate/mercaptopurine for teniposide/cytarabine and PEG-asparaginase for native asparaginase.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients were entered, 29 with T-ALL and 16 with higher-stage NHL.
  • Forty-two of 45 patients achieved complete remission (CR), and 27 completed the therapy in continuous CR.
  • Treatment consisted of 4-week induction then 6 weeks consolidation and ten 9-week maintenance cycles.
  • Therapy primarily comprised antimetabolites, anthracyclines, alkylating agents, and asparaginase.
  • Expected chemotherapy duration was 100 weeks.
  • RESULTS: Forty-two of 45 patients achieved CR, and 27 completed therapy.
  • Five-year EFS was 68.5% (SE 9.1%) for T-ALL and 81.3% (SE 9.8%) for NHL.
  • Five-year EFS was 73.1% (SE 6.8%) for the entire cohort.
  • No patients treated entirely on this study developed secondary neoplasms.
  • One patient taken off study for asparaginase toxicity was treated with multiagent therapy that contained teniposide, and died from secondary myelodysplasia (sMDS)/AML.
  • CONCLUSION: Substituting methotrexate/mercaptopurine for teniposide/cytarabine and PEG-asparaginase for native asparaginase in a dose-intensive regimen was feasible in children and young adults with newly diagnosed T-ALL or higher-stage NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Asparaginase / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Male. Pilot Projects. Remission Induction. Sepsis / etiology. Sepsis / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16007607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U10 CA5312; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA29139
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase
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29. Yariş N, Kutluk T, Yalçin B, Akyüz C, Büyükpamukçu M: Nasal-paranasal-oronasopharyngeal lymphomas in childhood: the role of staging system on prognosis. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Jul-Aug;17(5):345-53
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  • [Title] Nasal-paranasal-oronasopharyngeal lymphomas in childhood: the role of staging system on prognosis.
  • Most of the patients with nasal-paranasal and oropharyngeal-nasopharyngeal (NPONP) lymphomas had early-stage disease according to the Murphy system.
  • Treatment results were analyzed to see the effects of the staging in NPONP lymphomas.
  • Fifty-five children (median age 8 years, M/F: 4.5) with NPONP lymphoma were included in this study.
  • The survival rates were analyzed by grouping the patients according to the treatment and stages.
  • The disease was located in Waldeyer's ring, the sinonasal region, and the nasopharynx in 45.4, 27.3, and 27.3% of patients, respectively.
  • Thirty-nine patients had stage I or II disease according to the Murphy system.
  • When the TNM system was used, 92% of these patients were upstaged to stage III-IV.
  • Five-year event-free survival rates for Murphy stage I, II, and III disease were 66.7, 56.9, and 45.4%, respectively.
  • The rates for TNM stage III and IV patients were 64.3 and 43.8%.
  • Treatment protocols were intensified in most of the early-stage disease treated with modified LSA2-L2 regimen and better survival rates were obtained in these patients.
  • The intensification of the treatment by using intrathecal treatment and doxorubicin in patients with early-stage disease at NPONP location seems effective.
  • It should be revised to predict the prognosis and decision-making for treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2000 Oct-Nov;17(7):517-20 [11033725.001]
  • (PMID = 10914044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; LSA2-L2 protocol
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30. Alebouyeh M, Moussavi F, Haddad-Deylami H, Vossough P: Successful ambulatory treatment of Hodgkin's disease in Iranian children based on German-Austrian DAL-HD 85-90: single institutional results. Ann Oncol; 2005 Dec;16(12):1936-40
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  • [Title] Successful ambulatory treatment of Hodgkin's disease in Iranian children based on German-Austrian DAL-HD 85-90: single institutional results.
  • BACKGROUND: Hodgkin's disease (HD) accounts for 7.5% of childhood malignancies in Iran.
  • In order to minimize chemotherapy toxicity and avoid eventual hospitalization and psychological and financial burdens we have applied since 1988, for the first time in Iran, a treatment regimen based on subsequently revised DAL-HD 85-90 and later GPOH-HD 95 protocols.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the period 1988-2004, 40 children with HD received DAL/GPOH-HD-adapted treatment; 25 males (62.5%) and 15 females (37.5%) (male/female ratio 1.7; age 4-14 years, mean 8.8).
  • Staging was as follows: stage I; seven (17.5%); II, 11 (27.5%); III, 11 (27.5%); and IV, 11 (27.5%).
  • Stage IA and IIA patients (n = 15) received either OPA x2 (vincristine, prednisolone, doxorubicin) or OPPA x2 or OPEA x2 (vincristine, prednisolone, procarbazine and doxorubicin), the latter receiving etoposide instead of procarbazine, and applied to males.
  • Twenty nine patients (72.5%) received radiotherapy (20-25 Gy); four to the involved field (stage I), 25 to the upper mantel (stage II and also III with either residual or mediastinal mass) and three additionally to spleen and para-aortic lymph nodes.
  • Eleven patients received only chemotherapy.
  • Relapse occurred in eight patients (20%); seven stage IV (MC) and one stage IA (LP) with progression to IIIB.
  • Salvage chemotherapy consisted of MOPP/ABVD hybrid; six patients achieved a second sustained remission and three patients died: two due to relapse and progressive disease and the third one in CR, owing to thrombocytopenic hemorrhage and foudroyant pneumonia.
  • Aside from minor acute toxicities, three patients demonstrated azoospermia at the age of 18 years and one of these patients suffered non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a second malignancy.
  • HD occurred as a second malignancy in two patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Both received appropriate treatment and are over 10 years in CR.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The DAL/GPOH-HD-based treatment approach proved to achieve long-term sustained cure even in children with advanced HD disease.
  • The essentially outpatient diagnosis and treatment modus did not compromise the disease outcome, and was well tolerated and accepted by the patients and their parents.
  • The employed drugs are easily available and affordable.
  • This treatment approach is suitable for ambulatory use in developing countries.

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  • (PMID = 16157620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. Vaidya SJ, Payne GS, Leach MO, Pinkerton CR: Potential role of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in assessment of tumour response in childhood cancer. Eur J Cancer; 2003 Apr;39(6):728-35
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  • [Title] Potential role of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in assessment of tumour response in childhood cancer.
  • An early non-invasive indicator of tumour response to therapy would provide useful information regarding the effectiveness of therapy.
  • This might be a relevant prognostic factor in new patients and in phase II studies could facilitate recommendations at an early stage as to whether to continue treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Phosphorus. Protons. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Sarcoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12651196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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32. Capra M, Hewitt M, Radford M, Hayward J, Weston CL, Machin D, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group: Long-term outcome in children with Hodgkin's lymphoma: the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group HD82 trial. Eur J Cancer; 2007 May;43(7):1171-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VINBLASTINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcome in children with Hodgkin's lymphoma: the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group HD82 trial.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) HD82 was to establish the efficacy of chlorambucil/vinblastine/procarbazine/prednisolone (ChlVPP) in the treatment of childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma stages II-IV and radiotherapy (RT) alone in stage I patients.
  • METHODS: Treatment consisted of 35Gy involved-field RT for stage I and ChlVPP alone for stages II-IV.
  • Adjuvant RT (35Gy) was administered to those with bulky mediastinal disease.
  • RESULTS: Of the 358 patients, the 10-year EFS/OS per stage is I (65.4%/92.6%), II (80.0%/93.3%), III (68.8%/85.0%), IV (45.5%/72.7%).
  • The corresponding 20-year OS rates are similar with a combined (all stage) rate dropping from 89.3% to 89.0% over the decade.
  • CONCLUSION: Single modality treatment provided relatively low EFS at 10-years but comparable long-term OS, relative to contemporary published combined modality regimens, for stages I-III but not for stage IV patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Chlorambucil / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasms, Second Primary / mortality. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17379506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; ChlVPP protocol
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33. Yang CP, Hung JJ, Jaing TH, Lin KH, Lin DT, Lu MY, Liang DC, Chen SH, Liu HC, Hsiao CC, Shu SG, Chen JS, Chang TT, Chiou SS, Hsieh YL, Lin MT, Lee MT, Peng CT, Cheng SN, Chen RL, Chen BW, Lin KS: Treatment results of the TPOG-NHL92 protocols for childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in Taiwan: a report from the Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG). Acta Paediatr Taiwan; 2000 Jul-Aug;41(4):193-204

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment results of the TPOG-NHL92 protocols for childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in Taiwan: a report from the Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG)
  • A nation-wide chemotherapeutic trial for childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was conducted by the Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG).
  • Four TPOG-NHL92 protocols based on stage and histology were activated in 1992: TPOG-92LD (treatment duration: 8 months) was used for localized (stages I/II) NHL with any histology, 92LB (2 years), 92SNC (5 months), and 92LC (1 year) for advanced (stages III/IV) lymphoblastic (LB), small non-cleaved cell (SNC), and large cell (LC) lymphoma, respectively.
  • Stages I, II, III, and IV (including B-ALL) of the disease comprised 5%, 10%, 43%, and 42% of cases, respectively.
  • There were 176 patients eligible for evaluation of treatment results.
  • As of August 31, 1999, 26 patients relapsed, six died during remission, one patient developed secondary acute myelomonocytic leukemia, and 105 patients remained in continuous remission with a median remission duration of 49 months.
  • The 7-year EFS for stages I/II, III, and IV of the disease was 73%, 68.9%, and 50.3% (P = 0.0212), respectively.
  • We concluded that following the strategy of stratification of therapy, only disease stages had prognostic significance in this study.
  • More efforts are needed to improve our treatment results.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Paediatr Taiwan. 2000 Jul-Aug;41(4):175-6 [11021000.001]
  • (PMID = 11021005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1608-8115
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta paediatrica Taiwanica = Taiwan er ke yi xue hui za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Paediatr Taiwan
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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34. Das DK: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology diagnosis of small round cell tumors: value and limitations. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2004 Jul;47(3):309-18

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Small round cell tumors (SRCTs) are a group of malignancies (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, hepatoblastoma, nephroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, small cell anaplastic carcinoma, Ewing sarcomal peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, and desmoplastic small round cell tumor), characterized both cytologically and histologically by a predominantly small round to oval, and relatively undifferentiated cells.
  • Together they form a formidable group and an overwhelming majority of childhood malignancies.
  • The patients may present in later (inoperable) stage with huge intrathoracic and intraabdominal mass, when chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy may be the first or only line of treatment.
  • As a less invasive procedure fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has definite advantage over surgical excision biopsy to arrive at a tissue diagnosis before initiation of therapy.
  • Important cytomorphological features, which help in the identification of various SRCTs include completely dissociated cell population and lymphoglandular bodies (cytoplasmic fragments) in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), eosinophilicfibrillar material and Homer-Wright rosettes along with cellular processes in neuroblastoma, acinar formation in hepatoblastoma, blastema cells with tubular differentiation in nephroblastoma, tadpole shaped cells in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, extreme nuclear molding and perinuclear blue inclusion in small cell anaplastic carcinoma (SCAC), irregular, punched out and large cytoplasmic vacuolations due to glycogen in Ewing sarcoma, and sheets of undifferentiated small round cells surrounded by collageneous stroma in desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT).
  • Some of these features such as nuclear molding, rosette, and acinar formation are noticed in more than one type of SRCTs.
  • It is suggested that cytomorphological features along with one or more of the parameters such as special stains (cytochemistry), immunocytochemistry (ICC), electron microscopy (EM), tissue culture, DNA ploidy, karyotype and molecular analysis can increase the diagnostic accuracy of SRCTs.
  • However, these facilities may not be available in all the laboratories, especially in the developing countries, and even if available in a limited form, a tissue diagnosis has to be offered often by FNA cytology based on morphological features, as a life saving measure in seriously ill patients before the results of ancillary studies are finalized.

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  • (PMID = 16295413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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35. Krawczyk-Rybak M, Muszyńska-Rosłan K, Konstantynowicz J, Solarz E, Wołczynski S, Protas P: [Effect of anticancer treatment on leptin level, fat body mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM)]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2004 Apr-Jun;8(2 Pt 1):297-307
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  • [Title] [Effect of anticancer treatment on leptin level, fat body mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM)].
  • Leptin plays an important role in the metabolism of adipose tissue.
  • Considering that malignancy and its treatment cans affect normal development in childhood.
  • We analysed the correlations between serum leptin levels and body composition after anticancer treatment.
  • We studied 33 survivors (24 boys and 9 girls) who before our study, have been treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (n=23) and Hodgkin disease (n=10) after 7.15+/-3.5 years.
  • Anticancer treatment during childhood shows no influence on body mass index although the tendency to higher fat mass in pubertal boys and in post pubertal girls is observed.
  • 2. Leptin values depend on fat mass and do not relate directly to the pubertal stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adipose Tissue. Body Composition / drug effects. Body Composition / radiation effects. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Leptin / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Puberty

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  • (PMID = 15738606.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Leptin
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