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1. Lada PE, Taborda B, Sánchez M, Tommasino J, Rosso FF, Gramática L, Alecha Gil J, Echenique Elizondo M: [Adenosquamous and squamous carcinoma of the gallbladder]. Cir Esp; 2007 Apr;81(4):202-6
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  • [Title] [Adenosquamous and squamous carcinoma of the gallbladder].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma adenoescamoso y epidermoide de la vesícula biliar.
  • INTRODUCTION: Squamous and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder have poor prognosis.
  • Because these tumors are silent in the initial stage, they are generally diagnosed in advanced stages.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: We performed a retrospective observational study of five patients with squamous or adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Pathologic analysis revealed epidermoid carcinoma in two patients and adenosquamous carcinoma in three patients.
  • Two patients were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In both histological types of gallbladder carcinoma, treatment depends on the grade of local and regional invasion and tumor spread at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17403356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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2. Pavithran K, Prabhash K, Hazarika D, Doval DC: Neuroendocrine carcinoma of gallbladder: report of 2 cases. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2005 Feb;4(1):144-6
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine carcinoma of gallbladder: report of 2 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder is rare.
  • Its best treatment is not known.
  • The two patients underwent revision surgery followed by chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Both patients tolerated the second stage surgery well, which was followed by chemotherapy with paclitaxel, ifosphamide and cisplatin for 6 cycles.
  • They were treated this way for 8 months and 12 months post treatment, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A proper diagnosis of neuroendocrine carcinoma is made often after surgery.
  • As it is a slow growing tumor and not very chemotherapeutically, sensitive surgery offers the best local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy. Cholecystectomy / methods. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15730940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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3. Julka PK, Puri T, Rath GK: A phase II study of gemcitabine and carboplatin combination chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2006 Feb;5(1):110-4
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  • [Title] A phase II study of gemcitabine and carboplatin combination chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder have advanced, unresectable tumor at the time of presentation and face a dismal prognosis in the absence of a standard palliative chemotherapy regimen.
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined chemotherapy of gemcitabine and carboplatin in 20 patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The criteria of eligibility included chemonaive patients with unresectable gallbladder cancer, bidimensionally measurable disease, Zubrod's performance status < or = 2, and adequate major organ function.
  • RESULTS: In this group of 20 patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma 6 were men and 14 women, with a median age of 55 years.
  • The stage of the tumor at presentation was IVB in 14 patients (70%), IVA in 3 (15%) and III in 3 (15%).
  • The median time to progression of the tumor was 33.8 weeks, and 1-year survival rate of the patients was 43.3%.
  • CONCLUSION: With mild toxicity, combined chemotherapy of gemcitabine and carboplatin is effective in the treatment of advanced gallbladder carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16481295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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4. Kayahara M, Nagakawa T: Recent trends of gallbladder cancer in Japan: an analysis of 4,770 patients. Cancer; 2007 Aug 1;110(3):572-80
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  • [Title] Recent trends of gallbladder cancer in Japan: an analysis of 4,770 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer is the most common cancer of the biliary tract and has a particularly high incidence in Chile, Japan, and northern India.
  • Many Japanese surgeons have reported that aggressive surgery improves the outcome of patients with gallbladder cancer.
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether there were any changes over time in the incidence, therapeutic approach, stage at diagnosis, or prognosis of gallbladder cancer in an unselected, community-based series of patients in Japan.
  • METHODS: In total, 4,774 patients with gallbladder cancer were analyzed between 1988 and 1997 based on data from the Biliary Tract Cancer Registration Committee of the Japanese Society of Biliary Surgery.
  • RESULTS: Survival was related closely to surgical stage, with 5-year survival rates of 77% for patients with stage I disease, 60% for patients with stage II disease, 29% for patients with stage III disease, 12% for patients with stage IVA disease, and 3% for patients with stage IVB disease.
  • Stratifying patients by stage according to the Japanese Society of Biliary Surgery classification showed that women maintained a survival advantage over men among patients with stage I and II disease.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy did not provide a survival benefit.
  • CONCLUSIONS: For this study, the authors evaluated the gallbladder cancer trends in Japan.
  • The Classification of Biliary Tract Carcinoma proposed by the Japanese Society of Biliary Surgery reflected the prognosis of patients with gallbladder cancer.
  • The data did not support any advantage for aggressive surgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Further analysis of operative procedures will be necessary to determine conclusively whether there is any survival advantage from aggressive surgery in patients with advanced gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / epidemiology. Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17594719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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5. Hezel AF, Zhu AX: Systemic therapy for biliary tract cancers. Oncologist; 2008 Apr;13(4):415-23
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  • [Title] Systemic therapy for biliary tract cancers.
  • Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are invasive carcinomas that arise from the epithelial lining of the gallbladder and bile ducts.
  • These include intrahepatic, perihilar, and distal biliary tree cancers as well as carcinoma arising from the gallbladder.
  • Complete surgical resection offers the only chance for cure; however, only 10% of patients present with early-stage disease and are considered surgical candidates.
  • Among those patients who do undergo "curative" resection, recurrence rates are high; thus, for the majority of BTC patients, systemic chemotherapy is the mainstay of their treatment plan.
  • Patients with unresectable or metastatic BTC have a poor prognosis, with a median overall survival time of <1 year.
  • Despite a paucity of randomized phase III data, a consensus on first-line systemic therapy is emerging.
  • In this review, we discuss the clinical experience with systemic treatment of BTC, focusing on the rationale for a first-line regimen as well as future directions in the field.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18448556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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6. André T, Reyes-Vidal JM, Fartoux L, Ross P, Leslie M, Rosmorduc O, Clemens MR, Louvet C, Perez N, Mehmud F, Scheithauer W: Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in advanced biliary tract carcinoma: a phase II study. Br J Cancer; 2008 Sep 16;99(6):862-7
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  • [Title] Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in advanced biliary tract carcinoma: a phase II study.
  • Advanced biliary tract carcinomas (BTCs) are often diagnosed at an advanced/metastatic stage and have a poor prognosis.
  • This international phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of GEMOX as first-line therapy in patients with advanced BTCs.
  • The objective response rate was 20.5% in patients with non-gallbladder cancers (9/44 patients) and 4.3% in patients with gallbladder cancers (1/23).
  • Grade 3/4 toxicities included thrombocytopenia (14.9% of patients), alanine aminotransferase elevation (13.4%), anaemia (10.4%), neutropenia (11.9%) and pain (1 1.9%).
  • In this study, GEMOX demonstrated activity in non-gallbladder carcinoma, but poor activity in gallbladder carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. International Agencies. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19238628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; gemcitabine-oxaliplatin regimen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2538748
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7. Ishikawa T, Horimi T, Shima Y, Okabayashi T, Nishioka Y, Hamada M, Ichikawa J, Tsuji A, Takamatsu M, Morita S: Evaluation of aggressive surgical treatment for advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2003;10(3):233-8
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  • [Title] Evaluation of aggressive surgical treatment for advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: An aggressive approach is required to resect advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Therefore, an extended surgical procedure often brings about a poor surgical outcome.
  • To test whether an aggressive surgical treatment can improve the survival rate for primary advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder, 59 patients with stage IV primary gallbladder carcinoma were studied.
  • METHODS: Patients were divided into three treatment groups for the survival analysis: group A (resectional surgery, n = 29), group B (low-dose cis-diamminedichloroplatinum-II and 5-fluorouracil therapy, n = 10), and group C (exploratory laparotomy, other treatment modalities, or no treatment, n = 20).
  • Also, there was no significant difference in the survival rate between the patients resected with distant metastasis (group A2) and chemotherapy cases (group B).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that radical surgery should be performed for patients with no distant metastasis, and that chemotherapy might be a useful alternative treatment for patients with distant metastasis in advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cholecystectomy / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 14605981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Iyer RV, Gibbs J, Kuvshinoff B, Fakih M, Kepner J, Soehnlein N, Lawrence D, Javle MM: A phase II study of gemcitabine and capecitabine in advanced cholangiocarcinoma and carcinoma of the gallbladder: a single-institution prospective study. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Nov;14(11):3202-9
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  • [Title] A phase II study of gemcitabine and capecitabine in advanced cholangiocarcinoma and carcinoma of the gallbladder: a single-institution prospective study.
  • AIM: To determine the clinical benefit response (CBR), time to tumor progression (TTP), overall survival, and effect on quality of life (QOL) of gemcitabine and capecitabine in patients with advanced biliary cancer.
  • All patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire and Pancreatic Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-C30-PAN 26) questionnaire on day 1 of each cycle.
  • The two-stage design required 17 patients to evaluate the confirmed response at nine weeks.
  • Four out of seven patients with CBR had no decline in QOL with chemotherapy.
  • There were no treatment-related deaths.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine and capecitabine at this dose and schedule are well tolerated and effective and may offer clinical benefit and maintain QOL in patients with advanced biliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Capecitabine. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17705089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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9. Alberts SR, Sande JR, Foster NR, Quevedo FJ, McWilliams RR, Kugler JW, Fitch TR, Jaslowski AJ: Pemetrexed and gemcitabine for biliary tract and gallbladder carcinomas: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) phase I and II Trial, N9943. J Gastrointest Cancer; 2007;38(2-4):87-94
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  • [Title] Pemetrexed and gemcitabine for biliary tract and gallbladder carcinomas: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) phase I and II Trial, N9943.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and efficacy of pemetrexed and gemcitabine in patients with either biliary tract or gallbladder carcinoma.
  • A median of three cycles of treatment was given.
  • Six-month survival was 55% and the median survival was 6.6 months (95% confidence interval 5.4-8.7 months) with a median time to progression of 3.8 months (2.4-5.4).
  • CONCLUSION: The addition of pemetrexed to fixed-dose-rate gemcitabine, in a biweekly schedule, did not enhance the activity of gemcitabine in patients with biliary tract or gallbladder carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Guanine / administration & dosage. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pemetrexed. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19023677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-6628
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointest Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-25224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35119; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35267; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35269; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35448; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37404; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-45450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-52352; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-60276; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35431
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glutamates; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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10. Hejna M, Zielinski CC: Nonsurgical management of gallbladder cancer: cytotoxic treatment and radiotherapy. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2001 Aug;1(2):291-300
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  • [Title] Nonsurgical management of gallbladder cancer: cytotoxic treatment and radiotherapy.
  • Carcinoma of the gallbladder is a rare tumor entity.
  • Apart from surgical intervention, there is no therapeutic measure with curative potential.
  • Therefore, patients with advanced--i.e., unresectable or metastatic-disease present a difficult problem to clinicians, whether to choose a strictly symptomatic treatment or expose the patient to the side effects of potentially ineffective treatment.
  • Since there is no standard therapy for advanced gallbladder cancer, patients should be offered the opportunity to participate in controlled clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 12113034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-7140
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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11. Sasson AR, Hoffman JP, Ross E, Meropol NJ, Szarka CE, Freedman G, Pinover W, Pingpank JF, Eisenberg BL: Trimodality therapy for advanced gallbladder cancer. Am Surg; 2001 Mar;67(3):277-83; discussion 284
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  • [Title] Trimodality therapy for advanced gallbladder cancer.
  • We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who underwent surgical extirpation for stage III, stage IV, or recurrent carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Between 1991 and 1999 ten patients underwent surgical resection for advanced gallbladder cancer.
  • All patients received adjuvant therapy either pre- or postoperatively.
  • Radiotherapy was used in all patients and chemotherapy in 90 per cent of patients.
  • An additional patient with stage II disease initially was also treated surgically for a local recurrence.
  • Surgical management involved cholecystectomy and resection of various amounts of liver surrounding the gallbladder bed and regional lymphadenectomy.
  • Resection of recurrent disease included excision of all gross tumor.
  • We conclude that trimodality therapy in selected patients with stage III, IV, or recurrent carcinoma of the gallbladder is possible and may result in prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholecystitis / etiology. Chronic Disease. Female. Humans. Jaundice / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11270889.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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12. Eckel F, Schmid RM: Emerging drugs for biliary cancer. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs; 2007 Nov;12(4):571-89
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Emerging drugs for biliary cancer.
  • Biliary cancer comprise carcinoma of the gallbladder as well as the intrahepatic, hilar and extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage when potentially curative resection is not feasible.
  • Due to the lack of randomised Phase III studies, there is no standard regimen for chemotherapy in biliary cancer.
  • Recent investigations into the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in biliary carcinogenesis and tumour growth have contributed greatly to our understanding of biliary cancer.
  • Through a better understanding of these mechanisms, improved and more specific diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive strategies may be developed.
  • Although fluoropyrimidines and gemcitabine remain the backbone of routine chemotherapy in advanced disease, new agents such as epidermal growth factor receptor blockers and angiogenesis inhibitors may hold promise for improving the outcome for patients with biliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Design
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Industry. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17979600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7623
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on emerging drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Emerg Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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13. Kaman L, Behera A, Singh G, Nedounsejiane M: Radical surgery for incidental cancer gallbladder after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Trop Gastroenterol; 2009 Oct-Dec;30(4):233-6
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  • [Title] Radical surgery for incidental cancer gallbladder after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in the management of incidentally detected carcinoma gall bladder and establishment of a treatment protocol.
  • METHOD: Retrospective review of 7 patients with incidentally detected carcinoma gall bladder during and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for presumed benign disease.
  • Clinical and histopathological data, treatment and long term outcome of all seven patients were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Liver resection including the segments IVB and V was done in 5 patients and in 2 patients resection of a wedge of hepatic parenchyma of more than 2 cm thickness including the gall bladder bed was carried out.
  • Postoperatively, 2 patients developed fever and 1 patient had minimal altered blood in the nasogastric tube aspirate.
  • All 7 patients had disease of pathological stage II and beyond.
  • All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Re-exploration and aggressive resection with adjuvant chemotherapy for incidental carcinoma of the gallbladder is safe and offers hope for long term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20426289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-636X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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14. Dwary AD, Sharma A, Mohanti BK, Pal S, Garg P, Raina V, Shukla NK, Deo SV, Thulkar S, Sreenivas V: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing best supportive care (BSC), 5-FU plus folinic acid (FUFA) and, gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (Gem-Ox) in management of unresectable gallbladder cancer (GBC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4521

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing best supportive care (BSC), 5-FU plus folinic acid (FUFA) and, gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (Gem-Ox) in management of unresectable gallbladder cancer (GBC).
  • Surgery is the only curative treatment.
  • Unfortunately most patients present in advance and unresectable stage (median survival 3-4 months).
  • Chemotherapy regimens for GBC are not yet standardized.
  • Planned sample size was 81 to have type I & type II error probabilities of 0.05 & 0.2 respectively.
  • Secondary end points were to compare PFS in three arms and toxicity analysis of chemotherapy arms.
  • Inclusion criteria were: proven unresectable GBC, performance state ≤2, adequate bone marrow reserve and normal biochemical profile (bilirubin≤3 mg % & liver enzymes within 5 times of upper limit).
  • Patients in BSC group received symptomatic treatment without anticancer therapy.
  • Chemotherapy arms were generally well tolerated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Probably this is the first RCT confirming efficacy of chemotherapy (Gem-Ox) compared to BSC in improving OS and PFS in unresectable GBC.
  • Both chemotherapy arms were well tolerated.

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  • (PMID = 27962726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Sharma A, Bedi R, Shukla NK, Raina V, Mohanti BK, Deo SV, Bedi NS, Garg P, Thulkar S, Rath GK: Does chemotherapy improve survival in gall bladder cancer? J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):4202

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does chemotherapy improve survival in gall bladder cancer?
  • : 4202 Background: Carcinoma of gall bladder is 4<sup>th</sup> commonest cancer in females in Northern India.
  • Majority of patients present in advanced inoperable stage where median survival is between 3-6 months and treatment options are analgesics, biliary stents, or palliative chemotherapy.
  • Oxaliplatin, has demonstrated some activity in advanced adenocarcinoma of gall bladder (Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 2002:21; 142b).
  • To assess the impact of chemotherapy (5 FU, FA with or without Oxalipaltin) on survival this study was undertaken.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 109 gall bladder cancer patients were seen from November 2000 to September 2003.
  • Pain was the commonest presenting symptom seen in 96 ( 88%) patients, 55 ( 51%) patients had gall bladder stones, and 80 ( 72%) patients had metastaic disease.
  • TREATMENT: 50 patients received only analgesics, simple cholecystectomy was done in 16, radical cholecystectomy in 15, and 13 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy without or with (9 patients) FUFA.
  • Oxaliplatin based palliative chemotherapy (FOLFOX or Oxaliplatin FUFA as reported earlier ASCO 2002:21; 142b or Oxaliplatin and Capecitabine) were used in 21 patients, and 5 patients received FUFA.
  • Any form of anti cancer treatment improved survival.
  • Median survival for patients who received no treatment versus palliative chemotherapy versus surgery followed by adjuvant treatment was 3, 5, and 10 months respectively ( p=0.0000).
  • Median survival for patients who received any form of chemotherapy versus no chemotherapy was 10 versus 4 months ( p=0.03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that patients receiving chemotherapy adjuvant or palliative had superior survival compared to others.
  • Oxaliplatin based chemotherapy FOLFOX in particular may be superior to others as palliative chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 28013941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Lepistö A, Kivistö S, Kivisaari L, Arola J, Järvinen HJ: Primary sclerosing cholangitis: outcome of patients undergoing restorative proctocolecetomy for ulcerative colitis. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2009 Oct;24(10):1169-74
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  • Ductal changes in MRI suggesting a diagnosis of PSC occurred in 21 (72%) of them.
  • One carcinoma of the gallbladder was found in MRI.
  • Compared to stage in peroperative biopsies taken at proctocolectomy, PSC stage increased in four (13%) patients, decreased in 15 (50%), and remained unchanged in 11 (37%).
  • Of the 68, six patients have, to date, developed cholangiocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Progression of PSC in patients with minor ductal changes at the time of restorative proctocolectomy is unlikely.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anastomosis, Surgical. Biopsy. Cholangiocarcinoma / complications. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Colonic Pouches. Female. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver Function Tests. Liver Transplantation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome. Ursodeoxycholic Acid / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19636573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid
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17. Kresl JJ, Schild SE, Henning GT, Gunderson LL, Donohue J, Pitot H, Haddock MG, Nagorney D: Adjuvant external beam radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy in the management of gallbladder carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Jan 1;52(1):167-75
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  • [Title] Adjuvant external beam radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy in the management of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: This study was performed to evaluate the outcome of patients with gallbladder cancer who received postoperative concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Curative resection followed by adjuvant combined modality therapy with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy was attempted in 21 consecutive gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) patients at the Mayo Clinic from 1985 through 1997.
  • EBRT fields encompassed the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes (median dose of 54 Gy in 1.8-2.0-Gy fractions).
  • One patient received 15 Gy intraoperatively after EBRT.
  • One patient had Stage I disease, and 20 had Stage III-IV disease.
  • The 5-year survival rate of patients with Stage I-III disease was 65% vs. 0% for those with Stage IV disease (p < 0.02).
  • Five-year local control rates were 100% for the 6 patients who received total EBRT doses >54 Gy (microscopic residual, 3 patients; gross residual, 1 patient; negative but narrow margins, 2 patients) vs. 65% for the 15 who received a lower dose (3, gross residual; 2, microresidual; 10, negative margins).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with completely resected (negative margins) GBC followed by adjuvant EBRT plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy had a relatively favorable prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of 64%.
  • Both tumor stage and extent of resection seemed to influence survival and local control.
  • More aggressive measures using current cancer therapies and integration of new cancer treatment modalities will be required to favorably impact on the poor prognosis of patients with Stage IV or subtotally resected GBC.
  • Additional investigation leading to earlier diagnosis is warranted, because most patients with GBC present with advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11777635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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18. Malik IA: Clinicopathological features and management of gallbladder cancer in Pakistan: a prospective study of 233 cases. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2003 Aug;18(8):950-3
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features and management of gallbladder cancer in Pakistan: a prospective study of 233 cases.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gallbladder cancer is common in Pakistan and has an extremely poor prognosis.
  • Treatment is primarily surgical.
  • Chemotherapy is frequently used in patients with advanced disease.
  • This study was performed to evaluate and compare the clinicopathological features and management of gallbladder cancer in Pakistani patients, with particular emphasis on factors that influence survival.
  • METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-three patients with histologically proven gallbladder cancer were studied.
  • Information was prospectively collected on demographic features, clinical and laboratory findings at the time of presentation, influence of therapy, and survival.
  • The majority (69%) had a history of symptomatic gallbladder disease.
  • Most had abnormal hepatic function tests and 58% had elevated carcinoma embryonic antigen levels.
  • Stage (P < 0.001), jaundice (P = 0.01) and palpable mass (P = 0.02) were statistically significant variables.
  • However, on multivariate analysis, tumor node metastases (TNM) stage was the only factor influencing survival.
  • Median survival of the patients was 44 months for patients with stage I disease, 23 months for stage II, 17 months for stage III and 6 months for stage IV.
  • Most patients presented at an advanced stage of disease and had an extremely poor prognosis.
  • Systemic therapy did not provide any survival benefit.
  • The TNM stage remains the most important factor influencing survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Liver Function Tests. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pakistan / epidemiology. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12859725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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19. Gold DG, Miller RC, Haddock MG, Gunderson LL, Quevedo F, Donohue JH, Bhatia S, Nagorney DM: Adjuvant therapy for gallbladder carcinoma: the Mayo Clinic Experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Sep 1;75(1):150-5
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy for gallbladder carcinoma: the Mayo Clinic Experience.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy on gallbladder carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed the records from consecutive patients who underwent R0 resection of gallbladder carcinoma between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 2004.
  • Patients had either Stage I (T1-T2N0M0) or Stage II (T3N0M0 or T1-T3N1M0) disease.
  • Patients undergoing adjuvant therapy received 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy (median dosage, 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions).
  • Adverse prognostic factors and the effect of adjuvant treatment on overall survival (OS) were evaluated.
  • On univariate analysis, no adverse prognostic factors for OS reached statistical significance, but trends were noted for Stage N1 vs. N0 (p = .06), Nx vs. N0 (p = .09), Stage T3 vs. T1-T2 (p = .06), and histologic findings other than adenocarcinoma (p = .13).
  • However, a significantly greater percentage of patients receiving adjuvant chemoradiotherapy had Stage II disease (p <.001).
  • In the multivariate Cox model, increasing T and N category and histologic findings other than adenocarcinoma were significant predictors of decreased OS.
  • CONCLUSION: After adjusting for the stage parameters and histologic findings, our data suggest that adjuvant chemoradiotherapy might improve OS for patients with gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / mortality. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19297105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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20. Sakai A, Tsuji Y, Kikuchi O, Jinno A, Tanabe W, Terashima Y, Maeda Y, Doi A, Hata T, Yamamoto N, Aoyama I, Arai O, Kiyosuke Y, Katayama S, Hirao K, Miyoshi M, Mouri H, Matsueda K, Yamamoto H: [Marked effect of combination chemotherapy with tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil potassium and gemcitabine on a suspected case of pancreas cancer or gallbladder cancer metastasis to bone: further diagnosis of disseminated carcinomatosa of bone marrow recurrence after the 23 years of gastric cancer operation by autopsy findings]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Mar;35(3):529-32
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  • [Title] [Marked effect of combination chemotherapy with tegafur-gimeracil-oteracil potassium and gemcitabine on a suspected case of pancreas cancer or gallbladder cancer metastasis to bone: further diagnosis of disseminated carcinomatosa of bone marrow recurrence after the 23 years of gastric cancer operation by autopsy findings].
  • A 70-year-old woman who underwent proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer (poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma) of Stage IIIB at age 46 visited our hospital April 2004 because of exacerbated pain by movement in the buttocks since November 2003.
  • She showed multiple bone metastasis by CT (computerized tomography).
  • Pancreas cancer or gallbladder cancer was suspected by CT, and a high tumor marker score (CA19-9 18,625 U/mL, DUPAN-II 15,000 U/ mL elevations were acknowledged).
  • Although her symptoms were severe with performance status (PS) 4, she was administered combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin.
  • After 2 cycle therapy, her PS was improved to 2, but the tumor markers had elevated.
  • So we changed the chemotherapy menu to S-1 and gemcitabine.
  • Her tumor markers lowered and PS was improved to 1.
  • There was a remarkable response to this chemotherapy, and the result of CT and bone scintigraphy suggested that her bone metastasis was improved.
  • Because of hematologic relapse due to DIC at 1 year after the first treatment, she was readmitted to our hospital and later died.
  • The autopsical result revealed recurrence of gastric cancer 23 years post-operatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Autopsy. Female. Gastrectomy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Radionuclide Imaging. Tegafur / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18347411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pyridines; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; UA8SE1325T / gimeracil
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21. Sugita H, Hirota M, Ichihara A, Furuhashi S, Kihara S, Shimada S: Combined chemotherapy of irinotecan and low-dose cisplatin (I/low-P) against metastatic biliary tract cancer. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2006;13(5):463-7
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  • [Title] Combined chemotherapy of irinotecan and low-dose cisplatin (I/low-P) against metastatic biliary tract cancer.
  • There is no established or effective standard therapy for metastatic biliary tract cancer, resulting in poor prognosis.
  • Recently, we performed combination chemotherapy of irinotecan and low-dose cisplatin (I/low-P) for three consecutive patients with metastatic biliary tract cancer.
  • The regimen of I/low-P therapy consisted of irinotecan (60 mg/m(2)) and low-dose cisplatin (6 mg/m(2)), administered by intravenous infusion weekly or biweekly.
  • Survival times were more than 20 months, 10 months, and 13 months, respectively.
  • These outcomes suggest that I/low-P therapy is safe and may be worth trying as a first-line chemotherapy for patients with metastatic biliary tract cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17013724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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22. Hada M, Horiuchi T, Shinji H: [A case report of unresectable gallbladder cancer that responded remarkably to the combination of thalidomide, celecoxib, and gemcitabine]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Feb;33(2):259-61
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  • [Title] [A case report of unresectable gallbladder cancer that responded remarkably to the combination of thalidomide, celecoxib, and gemcitabine].
  • Gallbladder cancer is an asymptomatic disease in the early stage and no therapeutic measure is available except surgical intervention.
  • The prognosis for patients with advanced,i.e., unresectable or metastatic disease is dismal, with median survival usually being less than 6 months if not treated with chemotherapy.
  • To date, chemotherapy for gallbladder cancer has been limited by the absence of agents with effective cytotoxic activity.
  • Thalidomide has been shown to have antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory effects, including the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and tumor necrosis factor alpha.
  • These events may contribute to cell transformation and tumor progression.
  • Antiangiogenesis represents a significant new strategy for cancer treatment.
  • Here we show a case of unresectable gallbladder cancer with remarkable improvement in CA19-9 and prolongation of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Celecoxib. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Prognosis. Pyrazoles / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Sulfonamides / administration & dosage. Thalidomide / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16484869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib
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23. Shimada Y, Matsumoto G, Baba H, Tsurta K, Okamoto A: [Two cases of advanced gallbadder cancer with para-aortic lymph node metastasis responding to intra-aortic infusion of gemcitabine and low-dose CDDP/5-FU]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Sep;32(9):1347-50
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  • [Title] [Two cases of advanced gallbadder cancer with para-aortic lymph node metastasis responding to intra-aortic infusion of gemcitabine and low-dose CDDP/5-FU].
  • Patients with gallbadder cancer associated with remarkable lymph node involvement along the para-aortic region are usually excluded from therapeutic plans because of their oppressive outlook.
  • We experienced two patients with Stage IV gallbadder cancer who had undergone intra-aortic infusion chemotherapy and experienced its tumoricidal effects.
  • By keeping the tip of the catheter in the aorta at the Th 9-10 level, we intended to improve the efficiency of drug delivery to both primary lesion and para-aortic metastatic lymph nodes.
  • The anti-cancer drugs employed were gemcitabine (day 3, 9, 1,000 mg/m2/30 min) and low-dose CDDP (day 1-5, day 8-12, 5 mg/30 min) combined with 5-FU (day 1-5, day 8-12, 250 mg/24 h).
  • Day 15-21 was the treatment-free time for recovery from drug toxicities.
  • The evidence on CT scans or cholangiography revealed remarkable regression of both primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes, or resolution of the biliary obstruction.
  • The survival periods from the induction of the treatment were 12 and 14 months, respectively.
  • Thus intra-aortic infusion chemotherapy may be beneficial for the treatment of gallbladder cancer associated with para-aortic lymph node involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aorta. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16184939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CF regimen
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24. Rachamalla R, Malamud S, Grossbard ML, Mathew S, Dietrich M, Kozuch P: Phase I dose-finding study of biweekly irinotecan in combination with fixed doses of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin, gemcitabine and cisplatin (G-FLIP) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer or other solid tumors. Anticancer Drugs; 2004 Mar;15(3):211-7
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  • [Title] Phase I dose-finding study of biweekly irinotecan in combination with fixed doses of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin, gemcitabine and cisplatin (G-FLIP) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer or other solid tumors.
  • This phase I trial was initiated based on encouraging clinical data with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/leucovorin (LV), gemcitabine and cisplatin (G-FLIP) in the therapy of solid tumors.
  • Treatment consisted of biweekly (once every 14 days) cycles of sequential gemcitabine 500 mg/m, irinotecan per dose escalation schedule, bolus 5-FU 400 mg/m and LV 300 mg on day 1 followed by a 24-h 5-FU infusion 1500 mg/m, followed by cisplatin 35 mg/m on day 2.
  • Twenty-three patients were enrolled (13 men/10 women) with the following cancers: 11 pancreatic, five gallbladder, three squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, one hepatocellular carcinoma, one melanoma, one gastric, and one breast cancer.
  • Dose-limiting toxicity consisting of grade 3 nausea/vomiting despite aggressive anti-emetic therapy occurred in one patient at dose level 1 and three patients at dose level 3.
  • Of 18 patients evaluable for response, one complete response (pancreatic) and eight partial responses (three gallbladder, two pancreatic, two head and neck, and one breast) were attained.
  • Median time to disease progression among all 23 patients enrolled to the phase I portion of the trial was 20.5 weeks (range 4-37).
  • We conclude that G-FLIP is a novel outpatient chemotherapy regimen with acceptable toxicity at the maximum tolerated irinotecan dose of 120 mg/m.
  • The phase II trial of G-FLIP using an irinotecan dose of 120 mg/m for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer is ongoing.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15014353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 7673326042 / irinotecan; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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25. Tewari M, Kumar V, Mishra RR, Kumar M, Shukla HS: Is there a role for cholecystectomy in gallbladder carcinoma discovered to be unresectable for cure at laparotomy? World J Surg; 2008 Dec;32(12):2683-7
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  • [Title] Is there a role for cholecystectomy in gallbladder carcinoma discovered to be unresectable for cure at laparotomy?
  • BACKGROUND: Palliative operative resection in patients with locally advanced cancer of the gallbladder (GBC) found not to be amenable to radical resection for cure at exploration has received little attention.
  • Of these, 30 patients (group I) with GBC (T(3-4),N(0-1),M(0)) treated with cholecystectomy +/- biliary bypass were selected and compared with equal number of controls matched for age (+/-5 years), sex, histopathology, stage, residence, and postoperative chemotherapy who underwent biopsy +/- biliary bypass only (group II) followed by chemotherapy during the same period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. India. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] World J Surg. 2008 Dec;32(12):2688-9 [18850247.001]
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  • (PMID = 18836852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Schelman W, Morgan-Meadows S, Bailey H, Holen K, Thomas JP, Eickhoff J, Brandon H, Oliver K, Alberti D, Wilding G: A phase I trial of gemcitabine in combination with patupilone in patients with advanced solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Sep;62(4):727-33
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  • INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy regimens including gemcitabine in combination with microtubule inhibitors such as docetaxel and paclitaxel have wide clinical application.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients received a total of 99 courses of treatment on study.
  • Hematologic toxicity in the first cohort required a modification of the protocol to decrease the gemcitabine dose.
  • There was also one treatment-related death due to neutropenic infection.
  • Four patients, one each with pancreatic cancer, esophageal carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma, experienced a partial response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Epothilones / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18172649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epothilones; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; UEC0H0URSE / epothilone B
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27. Hong YS, Lee J, Lee SC, Hwang IG, Choi SH, Heo JS, Park JO, Park YS, Lim HY, Kang WK: Phase II study of capecitabine and cisplatin in previously untreated advanced biliary tract cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2007 Aug;60(3):321-8
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  • [Title] Phase II study of capecitabine and cisplatin in previously untreated advanced biliary tract cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Biliary tract cancer is one of the most aggressive and chemotherapy-refractory tumors.
  • Although only curative treatment modality is surgery, most patients are not suitable for surgery due to advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis.
  • Thus most patients with biliary tract cancer are possible candidates for palliative chemotherapy.
  • We performed a phase II study of combination chemotherapy with capecitabine and cisplatin in these patients to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of the regimen.
  • METHODS: Patients with previously untreated metastatic, recurrent, or inoperable biliary tract cancer were enrolled.
  • Response was assessed for every two cycles of chemotherapy and treatment was stopped when tumor had progressed or stable with no further response.
  • Fifteen patients (46.9%) had gallbladder cancer, 13 (40.6%) had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and 4 (12.5%) had extrahepatic biliary cancer.
  • The median time to progression was 3.5 months (95% CI, 1.3-5.8), and the median overall survival was 12.4 months (95% CI, 6.3-18.5) after the median follow-up duration of 9.5 months (4.8-26.1 months).
  • A total of 108 cycles of chemotherapy was delivered.
  • There was no treatment-related death.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination chemotherapy of capecitabine and cisplatin demonstrated a promising antitumor activity with mild toxicity profile in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recurrence. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17143602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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28. Abou-Alfa GK, Rowinsky EK, Patt YZ, Schwartz GK, Kelsen DP, Sharma S, Siegel E, Becerra CR, Eckhardt SG, Feit K, De Jager R, O'Reilly EM: A Phase II study of intravenous exatecan administered daily for 5 days, every 3 weeks to patients with biliary tract cancers. Am J Clin Oncol; 2005 Aug;28(4):334-9
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  • A multicenter phase II study to determine the antitumor activity of exatecan was conducted in patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Patients with 0 to 1 prior chemotherapy regimens, adequate major organ function, and metastatic disease were eligible.
  • A Simon optimal 2-stage design was employed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Area Under Curve. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Half-Life. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Topoisomerase I Inhibitors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16062073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; 0 / exatecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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29. Soepenberg O, Dumez H, Verweij J, Semiond D, deJonge MJ, Eskens FA, ter Steeg J, Selleslach J, Assadourian S, Sanderink GJ, Sparreboom A, van Oosterom AT: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of oral irinotecan given once daily for 5 days every 3 weeks in combination with capecitabine in patients with solid tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Feb 1;23(4):889-98
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were treated from day 1 with irinotecan capsules given once daily for 5 consecutive days (50 to 60 mg/m2/d) concomitantly with capecitabine given twice daily for 14 consecutive days (800 to 1,000 mg/m2); cycles were repeated every 21 days.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were enrolled and received 155 cycles of therapy (median, five cycles; range, one to 18 cycles).
  • With irinotecan 60 mg/m2/d and capecitabine 2 x 800 mg/m2/d, grade 3 delayed diarrhea in combination with grade 2 nausea (despite maximal antiemetic support) and grade 3 anorexia and colitis, were the first-cycle dose-limiting toxicities in two of six patients, respectively.
  • Confirmed partial responses were observed in two patients with gallbladder carcinoma and in one patient with melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Capecitabine. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15681535.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 7673326042 / irinotecan; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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30. Yildirim Y, Akcali Z, Bilezikci B, Ozyilkan O: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: a case report. Tumori; 2005 Sep-Oct;91(5):440-2
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  • [Title] Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: a case report.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originating from the stomach is a relatively rare entity.
  • There are theories regarding the development of this rare tumor, but its exact pathogenesis remains obscure.
  • Due to the advanced stage at the time of diagnosis in most of these cases, the prognosis is generally poor.
  • In the case presented here, dissemination of the tumor to the transverse colon, gallbladder and omentum was present at diagnosis.
  • Despite the tumor's advanced stage, complete remission was achieved after six courses of adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-flourouracil and cisplatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


31. Rajagopalan V, Daines WP, Grossbard ML, Kozuch P: Gallbladder and biliary tract carcinoma: A comprehensive update, Part 1. Oncology (Williston Park); 2004 Jun;18(7):889-96
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  • [Title] Gallbladder and biliary tract carcinoma: A comprehensive update, Part 1.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma and carcinoma of the bile ducts are relatively rare cancers in the United States.
  • These cancers are often diagnosed in an advanced stage due to their nonspecific symptomatology and until recently have been associated with a dismal prognosis.
  • Recent advances in imaging and surgical techniques along with emerging options in palliative chemotherapy have improved the outlook in these cancers.
  • While complete surgical resection remains the only hope of cure in both these cancers, palliative biliary decompression and chemotherapy result in substantial improvement in quality of life.
  • In part 2, which will appear next month, we will review palliative care and systemic therapy in gallbladder and biliary tract carcinomas, as well as the use of liver transplantation in the treatment of cholangiocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15255172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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32. Jain G, Samaiya A, Mohindra N, Patel K: Bone metastases as the initial presentation of carcinoma of gall bladder: a rarity. Indian J Surg; 2009 Feb;71(1):35-7

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  • [Title] Bone metastases as the initial presentation of carcinoma of gall bladder: a rarity.
  • Distant metastases are rare form of presentation of carcinoma gall bladder.
  • Investigation showed metastatic adenocarcinoma in the head of humerus and the primary was found in the gall bladder.
  • She received local radiotherapy for bone metastases and undergoing systemic chemotherapy.
  • Carcinoma gall bladder is a common abdominal malignancy, mostly presenting in advanced stage with abdominal symptoms and obstructive jaundice.
  • In presence of metastasis, the management is palliative and role of chemotherapy is limited for palliation symptoms.

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  • [Cites] Br J Surg. 1981 Mar;68(3):161-5 [7470817.001]
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  • (PMID = 23133106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-2068
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3452562
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bone metastases / Carcinoma gall bladder / Chemotherapy
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33. Abahssain H, Afchain P, Melas N, Ismaili N, Rahali R, Rabti HM, Errihani H: [Chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma]. Presse Med; 2010 Dec;39(12):1238-45
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  • [Title] [Chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Chimiothérapie dans le cancer de la vésicule biliaire.
  • Gallbladder cancer is an aggressive tumor.
  • Surgery is the standard treatment for localized stage but there is no standard treatment in metastatic or locally advanced disease.
  • Because of the rarity of bile tract cancer (BTC) and gallblader carcinoma (GBC), most studies have grouped all BTC and GBC together, and there are very few GBC-specific studies.
  • In addition, there is a paucity of randomized controlled studies in this disease with small numbers of patients and inclusion bias.
  • Adjuvant therapy after surgical resection is not validated.
  • Understanding the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis of GBC has opened the way for the use of targeted therapies.
  • This new treatment would improve survival and quality of life of our patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / mortality. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Capecitabine. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Leucovorin / adverse effects. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / adverse effects. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21074352.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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34. Malik IA, Aziz Z: Prospective evaluation of efficacy and toxicity of 5-fu and folinic acid (Mayo Clinic regimen) in patients with advanced cancer of the gallbladder. Am J Clin Oncol; 2003 Apr;26(2):124-6
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  • [Title] Prospective evaluation of efficacy and toxicity of 5-fu and folinic acid (Mayo Clinic regimen) in patients with advanced cancer of the gallbladder.
  • We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and folinic acid (Mayo Clinic regimen) in previously untreated patients with advanced gallbladder cancer.
  • Thirty patients with histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of gallbladder were enrolled on this trial.
  • All were symptomatic and had stage IV disease.
  • Treatment cycles were repeated every 28 days.
  • Only two patients (7%) achieved an objective response to therapy.
  • Median time to progression was 4.7 months, and median overall survival was 14.8 months.
  • Toxicity was moderate, and one treatment-related death occurred.
  • In conclusion, 5-FU and folinic acid (Mayo Clinic regimen) is ineffective in the management of patients with advanced gallbladder cancer, and further trials with this regimen are not recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leucovorin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12714880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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35. Duffy A, Capanu M, Abou-Alfa GK, Huitzil D, Jarnagin W, Fong Y, D'Angelica M, Dematteo RP, Blumgart LH, O'Reilly EM: Gallbladder cancer (GBC): 10-year experience at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC). J Surg Oncol; 2008 Dec 1;98(7):485-9
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  • [Title] Gallbladder cancer (GBC): 10-year experience at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC).
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in the US is 1.2/100,000.
  • This report examines the patterns of presentation, adjuvant treatment and survival of a large cohort of patients with GBC evaluated at MSKCC over a 10-year period.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients referred to MSKCC with a diagnosis of GBC between January 1995 and December 2005 was performed.
  • Patients were identified from the MSKCC cancer registry.
  • Information extracted included, demographics, clinical and pathological stage, surgical management, pathology, adjuvant and palliative therapy, date of relapse, death or last follow-up.
  • Date of diagnosis was defined as date of surgery or biopsy.
  • Pathology: 88% adenocarcinoma, 4% squamous, 3% neuroendocrine, 2% sarcoma.
  • 36.6% presented as AJCC Stage IV.
  • Of those who underwent curative resections (N = 123), 8 (6.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy, 8 (6.5%) chemoradiation alone and 8 (6.5%) both chemoradiation and systemic chemotherapy.
  • The median survival for those presenting with stage Ia-III disease was 12.9 months (95% CI 11.7-15.8 months) and 5.8 months (95% CI 4.5-6.7) for those presenting with stage IV disease.
  • The median survival for those who received adjuvant therapy was 23.4 months (95% CI 15.7-47).
  • Although we did not observe a survival benefit for those who received adjuvant therapy, the study did not have sufficient power to address this question.
  • In addition, the number of patients who received adjuvant therapy was small with marked heterogeneity in clinical and therapeutic details, precluding any definitive conclusions being drawn.
  • Prospective randomized trials of adjuvant therapy are needed in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholecystectomy. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Hepatectomy. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma / mortality. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18802958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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36. Endo I, Masunari H, Sugita M, Morioka D, Tanaka K, Togo S, Sekido H, Yoshida T, Shimada H: [Indications for combined resection and reconstruction of the hepatic artery in biliary tract carcinoma]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2001 Nov;102(11):820-5

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  • [Title] [Indications for combined resection and reconstruction of the hepatic artery in biliary tract carcinoma].
  • More than 10 years have passed since hepatic artery resection was first performed for the treatment of biliary tract cancer.
  • The safety of this procedure has been established with the introduction of the microsurgery technique.
  • However, the benefits of and indications for this treatment have not yet been clarified.
  • Twenty-three patients underwent vascular resection (portal vein in 7, portal vein + hepatic artery in 9, hepatic artery in 7) among 114 resected patients with biliary tract cancer in our institution.
  • The curative resection rate was 88.9% in hilar bile duct cancer.
  • However, it was less than 50% in other carcinomas.
  • Cumulative 5-year survival rates of vascular resection patients with hilar bile duct cancer, lower bile duct cancer, gallbladder cancer, and cholangiocarcinoma were 14.8%, 25%, 0%, and 0%, respectively.
  • On the other hand, the rates were 38.9%, 0%, 0%, and 0%, in the stage III + IV patients who did not undergo vascular resection.
  • The longest survival period among patients with hilar bile duct cancer and lower bile duct cancer was 85 months and 65 months, respectively, whereas it was 15 months in gallbladder cancer and 20 months in cholangiocarcinoma patients.
  • No hilar bile duct cancer patient who survived for more than 3 years had lymph node metastasis.
  • The longest surviving cholangiocarcinoma patient has received adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin.
  • It is concluded that patients with hilar bile duct cancer are good candidates for vascular resection.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy should be administered to gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma patients, because vascular resection alone does not result in prolongation of life in these patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11729649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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37. Zhu AX, Clark JW, Ryan DP, Meyerhardt JA, Enzinger PC, Earle CC, Fuchs CS, Regan E, Anbe H, Houghton M, Zhang J, Urrea P, Kulke MH: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of S-1 administered for 14 days in a 21-day cycle in patients with advanced upper gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2007 Feb;59(3):285-93
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  • [Title] Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of S-1 administered for 14 days in a 21-day cycle in patients with advanced upper gastrointestinal cancer.
  • To decrease the incidence of late onset, severe diarrhea observed in a previous study, a phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of S-1 utilizing a 14-day schedule, repeated every 21 days, in patients with chemotherapy-refractory upper gastrointestinal malignancies.
  • METHODS: S-1 was administered orally, twice-daily, at an initial dose level of 30 mg/m2/dose; doses were escalated by 5 mg/m2 at each level.
  • A minimum of three patients were enrolled at each dose level.
  • The MTD was based on the dose limiting toxicity (DLT) during the first treatment cycle.
  • RESULTS: At 30 mg/m2 no DLT was observed in the first three evaluable patients.
  • Two of the first three patients at the 35 mg/m2 dose level developed DLTs (grade 3 rash and dehydration).
  • One partial response was seen in a patient with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ten patients with pancreatic, gastric, or gallbladder carcinomas achieved stable disease as their best response to therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Upper Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16786333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA 093401; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K30 HL04095
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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38. Puhalla H, Bareck E, Scheithauer W, Ploner M, Stiglbauer W, Depisch D: [Therapy of gallbladder carcinoma. Experience of a central hospital]. Chirurg; 2002 Jan;73(1):50-6
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  • [Title] [Therapy of gallbladder carcinoma. Experience of a central hospital].
  • [Transliterated title] Die Therapie des Gallenblasenkarzinoms. Eine Standortanalyse.
  • INTRODUCTION: There are various options for the treatment of gallbladder carcinoma; however, only radical resection offers a chance for prolonged survival.
  • METHODS: The aim of this study was to analyze retrospectively patients suffering from gallbladder carcinoma in a central hospital in Austria.
  • RESULTS: In 28 patients the cancer was resected and 22 persons underwent palliative surgery.
  • Eleven patients had no surgical therapy, 10 persons received gemcitabine or a combination chemotherapy regimen consisting of leucoverin, 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C.
  • The median survival of patients without chemotherapy following radical resection (n = 15) was 10.7 months (one patient with metastatic cancer was excluded) and for patients with tumor remaining margins (n = 8) 3.2 months (P = 0.023).
  • Without chemotherapy the median patient survival following palliative resection (n = 17) and explorative laparotomy (n = 15) was 1.5 months and 2.1 months.
  • The median survival without surgical therapy was 1.6 months.
  • Chemotherapy was administered to four of the resected patients (median survival 16.5 months), in five patients following palliative surgery and in one patient after explorative laparotomy (median survival 4.3 months) (P = 0.034).
  • In a multivariate analysis, tumor resection (P = 0.034) and tumor-free resection margins (P = 0.025) proved to be the most important determinants for patient survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Tumor resection is the most important factor for a prolonged patient survival.
  • Following radical resection in an early tumor stage and combining this approach with an established chemotherapy, patient survival could be increased significantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cholecystectomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Palliative Care. Postoperative Care. Regression Analysis. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11974462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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39. Yoshida R, Matsuda T, Watanabe T, Iwadou H, Hunabiki K, Kamikawa Y: [A case of gallbladder cancer which completely responded to gemcitabine]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Sep;37(9):1771-3
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  • [Title] [A case of gallbladder cancer which completely responded to gemcitabine].
  • A 7 9-year-old man with advanced gallbladder cancer (stage IVa) underwent chemotherapy with single-agent gemcitabine (1,400mg/body: day 1, 8, 15, every 4 weeks) as first-line chemotherapy.
  • As soon as the chemotherapy started, the carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) level was notably reduced, and after 4 courses, CT scan revealed that the tumor was markedly reduced in size.
  • Intraoperative findings revealed that the gallbladder atrophied and, with no obvious invasion to adjacent organs, a small hard mass like only fibrosis was confirmed.
  • In the histological findings, cancer tissue was replaced by fibrosis, and malignant cells could not be detected.
  • Many clinical trials show that gemcitabine, which is used as a single agent or combined with other agents (for example, cisplatin), demonstrated high efficacy with manageable toxicity in patients with advanced or metastatic biliary tract cancer.
  • For this disease, including gallbladder cancer, gemcitabine is the mainstay of chemotherapy, and it is thought that this agent could have high efficacy in many cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20841944.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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40. Konstantinidis IT, Deshpande V, Genevay M, Berger D, Fernandez-del Castillo C, Tanabe KK, Zheng H, Lauwers GY, Ferrone CR: Trends in presentation and survival for gallbladder cancer during a period of more than 4 decades: a single-institution experience. Arch Surg; 2009 May;144(5):441-7; discussion 447
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  • [Title] Trends in presentation and survival for gallbladder cancer during a period of more than 4 decades: a single-institution experience.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of incidentally found cases of gallbladder cancer, the incidence of residual disease at reexploration, and the changes in the mode of presentation, treatment, and survival of patients with gallbladder cancer during a period of more than 4 decades.
  • PATIENTS: Between January 1, 1962, and March 1, 2008, 402 patients with gallbladder cancer were identified and their clinicopathologic data were analyzed.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Surgical treatment, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidentally discovered gallbladder cancer, incidence of residual disease, and differences in presentation, treatment, and survival.
  • Between January 1, 1994, and March 1, 2008, 6881 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed, and there were 17 incidentally discovered cases of gallbladder cancer (0.25%).
  • Residual disease on reexploration was identified in 0 of 2 patients with T1 tumor, 3 of 13 patients with T2 tumor, and 8 of 10 patients with T3 tumor (P = .01).
  • Patients with stage IV disease (34 [13.1%] diagnosed from 1962-1979; 34 [13.1%] diagnosed from 1980-1997; and 22 [8.5%] diagnosed from 1998-2008) had a median survival of 4 months (range, 0-37 months).
  • Cox regression analysis identified T stage and surgical margin status as significant prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gallbladder cancer is incidentally found during 0.25% of laparoscopic cholecystectomies.
  • As T stage increases, the likelihood of residual disease on reexploration increases.
  • Although many patients with gallbladder cancer present with incurable disease and have very poor survival, the overall prognosis is improving, likely because of more extensive operations.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / epidemiology. Neoplasm, Residual / therapy. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19451486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Nehls O, Oettle H, Hartmann JT, Hofheinz RD, Hass HG, Horger MS, Koppenhöfer U, Hochhaus A, Stieler J, Trojan J, Gregor M, Klump B: Capecitabine plus oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in patients with advanced biliary system adenocarcinoma: a prospective multicentre phase II trial. Br J Cancer; 2008 Jan 29;98(2):309-15
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  • [Title] Capecitabine plus oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in patients with advanced biliary system adenocarcinoma: a prospective multicentre phase II trial.
  • This prospective multicentre phase II study characterises the toxicity and activity of first-line capecitabine and oxaliplatin combination therapy (CAPOX) in advanced biliary system adenocarcinomas.
  • Patients were stratified prospectively into two groups based on location of the primary (gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) versus intrahepatic mass-forming type cholangiocarcinoma (ICC)).
  • In both cohorts, therapy was well tolerated.
  • Our data suggest that the CAPOX regimen is a well-tolerated and active treatment option for advanced ECC and GBC but might produce poorer results for ICC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18182984.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361467
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42. Park HS, Lim JY, Yoon DS, Park JS, Lee DK, Lee SJ, Choi HJ, Song SY, Lee WJ, Cho JY: Outcome of adjuvant therapy for gallbladder cancer. Oncology; 2010;79(3-4):168-73
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  • [Title] Outcome of adjuvant therapy for gallbladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of adjuvant therapy on the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) after curative resection (RO) of patients with TNM stage II gallbladder (GB) cancer.
  • Among 61 stage II GB cancer patients, 43 received adjuvant therapy, while 18 others received surgery alone.
  • RESULTS: OS was not significantly different among the adjuvant therapies (p = 0.180), but DFS was (p = 0.033).
  • The 3-year OS and DFS from surgery alone, adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and adjuvant concurrent chemo-radiotherapy were 64, 78, 36 and 36%, and 56, 69, 14 and 47%, respectively.
  • Overall, the chemotherapy group had a better prognosis, although there were no significant differences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data from this study do not provide evidence that adjuvant therapy is an effective treatment option for curative resected GB cancer.
  • A large randomized controlled study is necessary to confirm the efficacy of adjuvant therapy.
  • Newer adjuvant studies should be focused on gemcitabine-based chemotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy with molecular-based target agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21212704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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43. Garioud A, Seksik P, Chrétien Y, Corphechot C, Poupon R, Poupon RE, Chazouillères O: Characteristics and clinical course of primary sclerosing cholangitis in France: a prospective cohort study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Jul;22(7):842-7
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  • At entry, 11 patients had a diagnosis of hepatobiliary or colon malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma: n = 5, hepatocellular carcinoma: n = 2, gallbladder carcinoma: n = 1 and colorectal cancer: n = 4).
  • RESULTS: During follow-up [3.9 (0.1-7.2) years], colorectal cancer was diagnosed in four patients and biliary carcinoma in two (incidences: 0.76 and 0.38 for 100 patient-years, respectively).
  • Main causes of death (n = 10) were cancer (n = 5, including three colorectal cancers and two cholangiocarcinoma) or liver failure (n = 4).
  • Indications for transplantation (n = 25) were end-stage liver disease (n = 16), biliary cancer (known or suspected) (n = 5), recurrent acute cholangitis (n = 3) or pruritus (n = 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / mortality. Liver Failure / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / drug effects. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cohort Studies. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. France / epidemiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Incidence. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Transplantation. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Ursodeoxycholic Acid / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19779305.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5687
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid
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44. Park JS, Yoon DS, Kim KS, Choi JS, Lee WJ, Chi HS, Kim BR: Actual recurrence patterns and risk factors influencing recurrence after curative resection with stage II gallbladder carcinoma. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 May;11(5):631-7
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  • [Title] Actual recurrence patterns and risk factors influencing recurrence after curative resection with stage II gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Despite the advances in imaging techniques, most patients can only be diagnosed at advanced stage: The prognosis is very poor.
  • Recent studies showed that aggressive radical resection for advanced gallbladder carcinoma can give an acceptable prognosis.
  • However, recurrence frequently remains the main problem after curative resection of advanced gallbladder carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to identify the patterns and risk factors of recurrence after curative resection for stage II gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Between January 1991 and December 2003, 100 patients received radical curative resection for gallbladder carcinoma at Yonsei University Medical Center.
  • Of these, 77 were defined with stage II gallbladder carcinoma according to the Union Internationale Contre Le Cancer classification (sixth edition).
  • Of the 77 patients, 67 were reviewed for the predictors of tumor recurrence.
  • Infiltrating and poorly differentiated types were identified as independent prognostic factors of recurrence after curative resection for stage II gallbladder carcinoma and it suggests that large multicenter randomized control trials are necessary to clarify the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cholecystectomy / classification. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Colectomy. Common Bile Duct / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatectomy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Seeding. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17468922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Dumez H, Awada A, Piccart M, Assadourian S, Semiond D, Guetens G, de Boeck G, Maes RA, de Bruijn EA, van Oosterom A: A phase I dose-finding clinical pharmacokinetic study of an oral formulation of irinotecan (CPT-11) administered for 5 days every 3 weeks in patients with advanced solid tumours. Ann Oncol; 2006 Jul;17(7):1158-65
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • BACKGROUND: Oral administration of irinotecan (CPT-11) should allow sustained exposure to the drug without the inconvenience of intravenous delivery and with fewer side-effects.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present phase I trial of CPT-11, administered orally as a powder-filled capsule for 5 consecutive days every 3 weeks at doses ranging from 30 to 90 mg/m(2)/day, was conducted in 47 patients for whom a satisfactory standard treatment option was no longer available (24 males/23 females; median age 51 years, range 26-85).
  • Tumour types included melanoma (11), colorectal (4), urinary tract (3), lung/pleura (4), thyroid (3), liver (3), gallbladder (2), cervix/uterus (3), breast (2), pancreas (2), carcinoma and other cancer types (10).
  • Dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurred during the first cycle in five of 31 patients in the dose-escalation part of the study: one patient at the 50 mg/m(2)/day dose level (diarrhoea grade 4); one patient at the 80 mg/m(2)/day dose level (prolonged neutropenia grade 4 and diarrhoea grade 3); and three patients at the 90 mg/m(2)/day dose level (diarrhoea, vomiting and neutropenia).
  • The 80 mg/m(2)/day dose level was expanded, as a feasibility study, to include 16 additional patients, five of whom had received extensive prior pelvic irradiation.
  • One patient died on study day 15 during the first cycle of oral CPT-11 following grade 3 diarrhoea, febrile neutropenia and a necrotic enterocolitis.

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  • (PMID = 16600980.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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46. Misra S, Chaturvedi A, Misra NC: Gallbladder cancer. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr;9(2):95-106

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gallbladder cancer.
  • Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract and the fifth most common gastrointestinal (GI) cancer.
  • Most GBC presents clinically as advanced disease with unfavorable prognosis and poor response to treatment.
  • Such patients are generally in an earlier stage of disease and are potentially more curable by a completion radical cholecystectomy, which is especially indicated for patients whose disease is stage pT1b or beyond.
  • Radical surgery is the mainstay of curative intent treatment for GBC.
  • When feasible, extended or radical cholecystectomy is the standard treatment for resectable GBC.
  • Patients with advanced stage III or IV disease may undergo more complex, high-risk, and morbid extended resections such as hepatopancreaticoduodenectomy.
  • Patients not fit for such major resection or found unresectable on imaging or exploration are usually offered palliative treatment.
  • This may be in the form of surgical palliation (eg, palliative bypass for gastric outlet, bowel, or biliary tract obstruction), endoscopic biliary stenting (for obstructive jaundice), or palliative chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy for GBC is generally used in the palliative setting.
  • Patients with advanced GBC and jaundice who undergo stenting followed by chemotherapy show response and survival rates similar to those who present without jaundice.

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  • (PMID = 16539870.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-8472
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Kiguchi K, Ruffino L, Kawamoto T, Ajiki T, Digiovanni J: Chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitors in a transgenic mouse model of gallbladder carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Aug 1;11(15):5572-80
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  • [Title] Chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy of orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitors in a transgenic mouse model of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is the second most common primary hepatobiliary cancer after hepatocellular cancer.
  • At the time of diagnosis, most BTC are at an advanced stage and are unresectable.
  • There is presently no effective curative treatment of the advanced disease nor is there any effective clinical therapy that will prevent the development of BTC.
  • All of these factors render gallbladder cancer nearly incurable with a poor survival rate.
  • The aim of our study was to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of gallbladder carcinoma as the advancement of more effective treatment options would significantly improve prognosis.
  • In the present study, we examined the effect of gefitinib, a selective epidermal growth factor receptor/tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR/TKI), on the development of gallbladder carcinoma in BK5.erbB2 mice.
  • Animals were treated with either 400 ppm gefitinib or 200 ppm GW2974 as a supplement in the diet using either a chemopreventive or therapeutic protocol.
  • The results show that both compounds were potent chemopreventive and therapeutic agents in this mouse model of human BTC.
  • The results also suggest that activation of the EGFR plays an important role in development of BTC in this model and that targeting both the EGFR and erbB2 may be an effective strategy for treatment of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Body Weight. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Models, Animal. Gallbladder / metabolism. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Neoplasms, Experimental. Phosphorylation. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Tolonium Chloride / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16061875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES07784; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099526
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / GW2974; 0 / Quinazolines; 15XUH0X66N / Tolonium Chloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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48. Dowlati A, Hoppel CL, Ingalls ST, Majka S, Li X, Sedransk N, Spiro T, Gerson SL, Ivy P, Remick SC: Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of rebeccamycin analog NSC 655649 given daily for five consecutive days. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Apr 15;19(8):2309-18
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  • PURPOSE: Rebeccamycin analog (NSC 655649) is active against a variety of both solid and nonsolid tumor cell lines.
  • RESULTS: Grade 2 phlebitis occurred in all patients before the use of central venous access, placed at dose level 4 and higher.
  • Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), grade 4 neutropenia, occurred at 188 mg/m(2)/d x 5 days in both previously treated and chemotherapy-naive patients.
  • Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a three-compartmental model of drug elimination and a long terminal half-life (154 +/- 55 hours).
  • Of these, three patients with gallbladder cancer and one patient with cholangiocarcinoma experienced either a minor response or a significant period of freedom from progression.
  • CONCLUSION: The recommended phase II dose for NSC 665649 on a daily x 5 every 3 weeks schedule is 141 and 165 mg/m(2)/d for patients with prior and no prior therapy, respectively, with DLT being neutropenia.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides. Anti-Bacterial Agents / adverse effects. Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carbazoles. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Disease Progression. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glucosides. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 11304785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / MO1-RR-00080; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA43703; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA62502-06
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Carbazoles; 0 / Glucosides; A60X6MBU6G / becatecarin
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49. Shimizu T, Okamoto I, Tamura K, Satoh T, Miyazaki M, Akashi Y, Ozaki T, Fukuoka M, Nakagawa K: Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of the glucose-conjugated cytotoxic agent D-19575 (glufosfamide) in patients with solid tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2010 Jan;65(2):243-50
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  • Thirteen patients received 43 treatment cycles (median 3; range 1-11) at D-19575 doses of 3,200, 4,500, or 6,000 mg/m(2).
  • Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a linear relation between the area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) and dose.
  • The AUC values for isophosphoramide mustard were substantially greater than those achieved by bolus administration or continuous infusion of ifosfamide in conventional therapy.
  • One patient with gallbladder cancer previously treated with cisplatin and gemcitabine achieved a partial response lasting for >5 months, and eight patients achieved disease stabilization.
  • The safety profile and potential antitumor activity of D-19575 show that phase II studies of this drug are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Phosphoramide Mustards / pharmacokinetics. Phosphoramide Mustards / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Glucose / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Ifosfamide / analogs & derivatives. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19479254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Phosphoramide Mustards; 0 / beta-D-glucosylisophosphoramide mustard; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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50. Misra MC, Guleria S: Management of cancer gallbladder found as a surprise on a resected gallbladder specimen. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Jun 15;93(8):690-8
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  • [Title] Management of cancer gallbladder found as a surprise on a resected gallbladder specimen.
  • Carcinoma gallbladder is associated with an overall 5-year survival rate reported less than 5% due to late diagnosis.
  • Advent of ultrasound scanning may help in detecting gallbladder polyps and an early gallbladder cancer.
  • Excellent 5-year survival (up to 100%) has been reported for Stage Ia disease and the survival has significantly improved for Stage Ib, II, and III if appropriate re-operation is carried out soon after the incidental detection of gallbladder cancer.
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is contraindicated in the presence of gallbladder cancer.
  • It is recommended to excise all laparoscopic port sites, at the time of re-operation.
  • Re-operation for Stage II gallbladder cancer is associated with a 90-100% 3-year survival rate.
  • Patients with Stage III and IV tumors also benefit from an extended cholecystectomy.
  • It is advantageous to perform the appropriate extent of surgery for gallbladder cancer at the initial operation.
  • Heightened awareness of the presence of cancer and the knowledge of appropriate management are important.
  • For patients whose cancer is an incidental finding on pathologic review, re-resection is indicated for all disease except Stage Ia.
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy have not been found effective as an adjuvant or palliative therapy in gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Diseases / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder / pathology. Gallbladder / ultrasonography. Hepatectomy. Humans. Incidental Findings. Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Polyps / epidemiology. Polyps / ultrasonography. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16724357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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51. Fan YZ, Fu JY, Zhao ZM, Chen CQ: Influence of norcantharidin on proliferation, proliferation-related gene proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 of human gallbladder carcinoma GBC-SD cells. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2004 Nov;3(4):603-7
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  • [Title] Influence of norcantharidin on proliferation, proliferation-related gene proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 of human gallbladder carcinoma GBC-SD cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder carcinoma is a highly lethal and aggressive disease with early metastasis, strong invasion and poor prognosis.
  • Most patients with this disease are at the advanced and un-resectable stage and should be considered for palliative treatment such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Unfortunately, reports of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for gallbladder carcinoma are disappointing.
  • We investigated the influence of norcantharidin (NCTD) on proliferation, proliferation-related gene proteins PCNA and Ki-67 of human gallbladder carcinoma GBC-SD cells in vitro.
  • METHODS: GBC-SD cell lines of human gallbladder carcinoma were cultured by the cell culture technique.
  • The streptavidin-biotin complex method was used to determine the expressions of proliferation-related gene proteins PCNA and Ki-67 of human gallbladder carcinoma GBC-SD cells.
  • RESULTS: NCTD inhibited the growth and proliferation of GBC-SD cells from 10 mg/L or after 6 hours in a dose-and time-dependent manner, with the IC50 value of 56.18 microg/ml at 48 hours.
  • After treatment with NCTD, the expression of PCNA (0.932+/-0.031 vs. 0.318+/-0.023, P<0.001) and Ki-67 (0.964+/-0.092 vs. 0.297+/-0.018, P<0.001) proteins were decreased significantly.
  • CONCLUSION: NCTD inhibits the proliferation of human gallbladder carcinoma GBC-SD cells in vitro and the expression of their proliferation-related gene proteins PCNA and Ki-67.
  • [MeSH-major] Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic / pharmacology. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 15567755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 5442-12-6 / norcantharidin
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52. Takayanagi N, Chiba H, Sagawa T, Hirayama Y, Tsuji Y, Sakamaki S: [A case of inoperable advanced gallbladder cancer that has maintained stable disease status for a long period with gemcitabine and cisplatin therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Mar;31(3):439-41
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  • [Title] [A case of inoperable advanced gallbladder cancer that has maintained stable disease status for a long period with gemcitabine and cisplatin therapy].
  • We report a case of inoperable advanced gallbladder cancer that responded to treatment with gemcitabine (GEM) and cisplatin (CDDP) therapy.
  • A 54-year-old woman was diagnosed in a nearby hospital with inoperable advanced gallbladder cancer (T4, N1, H0, P1, M(-): Stage IV b) with direct invasion to the liver.
  • Therefore, chemotherapy was performed by TS-1.
  • Two months later, however, the disease was found to have progressed, and she was referred to our hospital for further therapy.
  • Combined chemotherapy with GEM 1,000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15 and CDDP 50 mg/m2 on day 1 was performed starting in June 2002.
  • No side effects were observed after the first administration during hospitalization, so the treatment was continued on an outpatient basis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Quality of Life. Survivors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15045958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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53. Zagouri F, Sergentanis TN, Koulocheri D, Nonni A, Bousiotou A, Domeyer P, Michalopoulos NV, Dardamanis D, Konstadoulakis MM, Zografos GC: Bilateral synchronous breast carcinomas followed by a metastasis to the gallbladder: a case report. World J Surg Oncol; 2007;5:101
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  • [Title] Bilateral synchronous breast carcinomas followed by a metastasis to the gallbladder: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is usually associated with metastases to lungs, bones and liver.
  • Breast carcinoma metastasizing to the gallbladder is very rare.
  • A palpable, retroareolar solid lesion of diameter equal to 5 cm was present in the right breast, and a newly developed, non-palpable lesion with microcalcifications (diameter equal to 0.7 cm) was present in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast.
  • The pathological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma grade II in the right breast and invasive ductal carcinoma grade I in the left breast.
  • Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, trastuzumab and letrozole were appropriately administered.
  • At her 18-month follow-up, the patient was free of symptoms; the imaging tests (chest CT, abdominal U/S, bone scan), biochemical tests, blood cell count and tumor markers were also normal.
  • At the 20th month after surgery however, the patient developed symptoms of cholecystitis and underwent cholecystectomy.
  • The histopathological examination revealed metastasis of the lobular carcinoma to the gallbladder.
  • CONCLUSION: This extremely rare case confirms on a single patient the results of large series having demonstrated the preferential metastasis of lobular breast cancer to the gallbladder.
  • Symptoms of cholecystitis should not be neglected in such patients, as they might indicate metastasis to the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholecystectomy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17848197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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54. Ortiz J, Reich D, Joon HB, Martinez O, Manzarbeitia C: Six year disease free survival after liver transplantation in a patient with T3 gallbladder carcinoma: case presentation and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:45

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Six year disease free survival after liver transplantation in a patient with T3 gallbladder carcinoma: case presentation and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of gallbladder carcinoma in cirrhotics is unknown.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A sixty year old with primary sclerosing cholangitis, cirrhosis, and gallbladder polyps underwent liver transplantation.
  • A polypoid lesion measuring 1.5 x 0.5 cm was found on the fundus of the gallbladder.
  • Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with full thickness penetration of the gallbladder encroaching liver parenchyma.
  • The lymph nodes, the cystic duct and the common duct were free of tumor (T3N0M0).
  • No chemotherapy was given.
  • He is currently six years post procedure and free of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: "Incidentally" discovered stage IIA gallbladder carcinoma may not negatively affect long term survival after liver transplantation.

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  • (PMID = 16842623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1540419
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55. Ogo Y, Nio Y, Yano S, Toga T, Koike M, Hashimoto K, Itakura M, Maruyama R: Immunohistochemical expression of HER-1 and HER-2 in extrahepatic biliary carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1B):763-70
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of HER-1 and HER-2 in extrahepatic biliary carcinoma.
  • The clinicopathological significance of HER-1- and HER-2-overexpressions (OE) (HercepTest score 2+ or 3+) in biliary cancer and their relationship to the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) were assessed.
  • In 72 biliary cancer (28 gallbladder and 44 bile duct cancer), HER-1 and HER-2 were stained immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens.
  • Out of the 72 cancer, OE was observed in 31 specimens (43%) for HER-1 and 47 (65%) for HER-2.
  • HER-2-OE was inversely correlated with the clinical stage (p=0.0482).
  • HER-1-OE was correlated with distant metastasis (p=0.0263), but not with the clinical stage.
  • In conclusion, neither HER-1-OE or HER-2-OE were prognostic factors of the biliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16739351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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56. Medina-Franco H, Ramos-Gallardo G, Orozco-Zepeda H, Mercado-Díaz MA: [Prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer]. Rev Invest Clin; 2005 Sep-Oct;57(5):662-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Factores pronósticos en cáncer de vesícula.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer is a rare and aggressive neoplasm.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this manuscript was to evaluate the prognostic factors associated with overall survival in gallbladder cancer patients.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the patients with gallbladder cancer who received attention in a tertiary referral center in Mexico City during a 13 year period (1990-2002).
  • We evaluated demographic, clinical, pathological and treatment variables.
  • Fifty-seven percent of patients had previous diagnosis of cholelithiasis.
  • Ninety-eight percent of the tumors were adenocarcinoma and 25% were poorly differentiated.
  • Eighty-six percent were found to have stage IV.
  • On univariate analysis surgery, early stage, chemotherapy, Karnofsky 2 80 and serum albumin > 3.0 g/dL were associated with better prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of gallbladder cancer presented with advanced stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16419459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-8376
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de investigación clínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Invest. Clin.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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57. Bode MK, Perälä J, Mäkelä JT, Leinonen S: Intra-arterial chemotherapy with mitomycin C in gallbladder cancer: a follow-up study. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Aug 1;91(2):102-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOMYCIN C .

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  • [Title] Intra-arterial chemotherapy with mitomycin C in gallbladder cancer: a follow-up study.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is only limited and somewhat controversial information available on hepatic artery infusion of cytotoxic agents in gallbladder cancer.
  • We report the results of 5-year follow-up of all gallbladder cancer patients treated with surgery and intra-arterial mitomycin C or mitomycin C alone in our hospital during 15 years.
  • METHODS: Thirty-five patients with gallbladder cancer were treated with superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (SIAC) with mitomycin C during 1981-1996.
  • Survival was measured from diagnosis, and all patients were followed up until death or the end of January 2002.
  • Cumulative survival rates and median survival times were calculated for all patients, according to response to treatment and staging.
  • RESULTS: Median survival times after SIAC for all patients, responders, and non-responders were 48, 60+, and 8.5 months, respectively.
  • Survival was significantly better for tumors limited to the gallbladder wall, as expected.
  • Drug toxicity occurred in half of the patients, requiring cessation of chemotherapy in 25% of the cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The median survival of gallbladder cancer patients treated with surgery and SIAC seems to be significantly better compared to the previously reported outcome of surgical treatment alone.
  • Drug toxicity limits the use of i.a. chemotherapy and requires careful monitoring for early side-effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mitomycin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16028283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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58. Daines WP, Rajagopalan V, Grossbard ML, Kozuch P: Gallbladder and biliary tract carcinoma: A comprehensive update, Part 2. Oncology (Williston Park); 2004 Jul;18(8):1049-59; discussion 1060, 1065-6, 1068
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  • [Title] Gallbladder and biliary tract carcinoma: A comprehensive update, Part 2.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma and carcinoma of the bile ducts are relatively rare cancers in the United States.
  • These cancers are often diagnosed in an advanced stage due to their nonspecific symptomatology and until recently have been associated with a dismal prognosis.
  • Recent advances in imaging and surgical techniques along with emerging options in palliative chemotherapy have improved the outlook in these cancers.
  • While complete surgical resection remains the only hope of cure in both these cancers, palliative biliary decompression and chemotherapy result in substantial improvement in quality of life.
  • In part 2, we examine palliative care and systemic therapy in gallbladder and biliary tract carcinomas, as well as the use of liver transplantation in the treatment of cholangiocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Decompression, Surgical. Humans. Liver Transplantation. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 15328897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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59. Kwon EJ, Kim SW, Kim KK, Seo HS, Kim DY: A case of gemcitabine and cisplatin associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Mar;41(1):53-5

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  • A 58-year-old female receiving gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy for stage IV gallbladder cancer developed the clinicoradiologic syndrome, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES).
  • Just before the 4th gemcitabine chemotherapy cycle, she was admitted to the hospital with complaints of headache, dizziness, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
  • A MRI was performed on the day when the seizure developed, and the findings showed patchy cortical and subcortical T2 hyperintensity without enhancement that involved both occipital and parietal lobes.

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  • (PMID = 19688073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2699096
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cisplatin / Gemcitabine / Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)
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60. Malik IA: Gallbladder cancer: current status. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2004 Jun;5(6):1271-7
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  • [Title] Gallbladder cancer: current status.
  • Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common biliary tract malignancy.
  • Most patients present at an advanced stage, overall prognosis is very poor.
  • TNM stage and the extent of surgical resection are the most important prognostic factors.
  • Surgery is the only curative therapy reserved for patients with early-stage disease.
  • The role of adjuvant therapy is not fully defined.
  • Patients with advanced disease are managed with systemic chemotherapy that is primarily palliative.
  • The availability of better drugs and combinations may affect the use of chemotherapy in neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings.
  • Novel targeted therapies require exploration alone or in combination with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15163272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-6566
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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61. Malik IA, Aziz Z, Zaidi SH, Sethuraman G: Gemcitabine and Cisplatin is a highly effective combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced cancer of the gallbladder. Am J Clin Oncol; 2003 Apr;26(2):174-7
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  • [Title] Gemcitabine and Cisplatin is a highly effective combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced cancer of the gallbladder.
  • We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of gemcitabine with or without cisplatin in 11 chemonaive patients with histologically confirmed advanced gallbladder cancer.
  • All were symptomatic and had stage IV disease.
  • Treatment cycles were repeated every 21 days.
  • One patient (9%) had complete remission of disease and 6 (55%) achieved a partial response to chemotherapy with an overall response rate of 64%.
  • Median time to progression was 28 weeks and median overall survival was 42 weeks.
  • Toxicity was easily manageable, and no treatment-related deaths occurred.
  • We conclude that gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin may be one of the most effective therapies for patients with advanced gallbladder cancer.
  • If confirmed by others, it may provide an important therapeutic option in managing these patients who otherwise have a dismal prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12714891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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62. Ishizaki M, Akiyama N, Tanaka S, Motegi M, Sasamoto H, Osawa H, Wada W, Nakajima M: [Long-term survival of a patient with postoperative liver metastasis of stage IVa gallbladder cancer responding to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2001 Mar;28(3):395-8
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  • [Title] [Long-term survival of a patient with postoperative liver metastasis of stage IVa gallbladder cancer responding to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy].
  • A 58-year-old man was diagnosed as having advanced gallbladder cancer (T4, P0, H0, N0, stage IVa) with direct invasion to the liver, transverse colon and duodenum.
  • Histopathological examination revealed moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma of si, ly1, v1, hinf3, binf3, n0.
  • Repeated hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with 5-FU 500 mg/body/w, MMC 4 mg/body/2w and EPI 40 mg/body/4w was performed starting in January 1996.
  • Four months later, the lesions in the liver were reduced in size, and abdominal CT 10 months after the chemotherapy showed a partial response.
  • Repeated hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with the same regimen was performed again starting in March 1998.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 11265412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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63. Dingle BH, Rumble RB, Brouwers MC, Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care's Gastrointestinal Cancer Disease Site Group: The role of gemcitabine in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer: a systematic review. Can J Gastroenterol; 2005 Dec;19(12):711-6
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  • [Title] The role of gemcitabine in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer are difficult to treat curatively.
  • The treatment of choice is surgery, dependent on detection at a resectable stage.
  • No chemotherapy or radiotherapy options have shown substantial activity.
  • Considering the lack of treatment options for cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, a systematic review of the evidence on gemcitabine use for these indications was performed.
  • OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review to evaluate the role of gemcitabine in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer.
  • METHODS: The MEDLINE database was searched (1996 to March 2005) using the medical subject headings 'gemcitabine' and 'gallbladder neoplasms' with results limited to English only.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In appropriate patients with gallbladder cancer or cholangiocarcinoma, surgery offers the best chance for survival and should remain the first treatment of choice.
  • For patients not considered candidates for surgery, but willing and able to tolerate chemotherapy alone or in combination with a fluoropyrimidine (such as 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine), gemcitabine appears to be a reasonable alternative to best supportive care, although this conclusion has not been confirmed with a randomized controlled trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16341310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0835-7900
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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64. Morganti AG, Trodella L, Valentini V, Macchia G, Alfieri S, Smaniotto D, Luzi S, Costamagna G, Doglietto GB, Cellini N: Concomitant gemcitabine (Gemzar) and extended nodes irradiation in the treatment of pancreatic and biliary carcinoma: a phase I study. Onkologie; 2003 Aug;26(4):325-9
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  • [Title] Concomitant gemcitabine (Gemzar) and extended nodes irradiation in the treatment of pancreatic and biliary carcinoma: a phase I study.
  • Several studies on pancreatic or biliary carcinoma evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of gemcitabine when combined with irradiation of the macroscopic tumor.
  • Aim of this report is to determine the MTD of weekly gemcitabine when combined with extended field irradiation (tumor plus nodal irradiation).
  • External beam radiation (ERT) was delivered to the tumor (or tumor bed) and regional lymph nodes by using a three-field technique.
  • At each dose level 3 patients were treated, and if no grade 3-4 toxicity (considered as dose-limiting toxicity, DLT) was recorded, dose escalation was applied with 50 mg/m(2) increments until the MTD was established.
  • There were no treatment-related deaths.
  • No DLT occurred at the first 4 dose levels (100-250 mg/m(2)).
  • At the 5th dose level (300 mg/m(2)), 3 patients experienced DLT: 1 had grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity (painful erosion of gastric mucosa), 1 had uncomplicated grade 3 leukopenia and 1 grade 3 change in liver biochemistry tests.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on this study, the recommended dose for weekly short infusional gemcitabine combined with radiation therapy to the tumor and lymph nodes is 250 mg/m(2).
  • This value is suggestive of a correlation between acute toxicity and inclusion of lymph nodes in the irradiated volume.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hepatic Duct, Common. Klatskin Tumor / radiotherapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Lymphatic Irradiation. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 12972696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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65. Pitot HC, Goldberg RM, Reid JM, Sloan JA, Skaff PA, Erlichman C, Rubin J, Burch PA, Adjei AA, Alberts SA, Schaaf LJ, Elfring G, Miller LL: Phase I dose-finding and pharmacokinetic trial of irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) using a once-every-three-week dosing schedule for patients with advanced solid tumor malignancy. Clin Cancer Res; 2000 Jun;6(6):2236-44
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  • [Title] Phase I dose-finding and pharmacokinetic trial of irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) using a once-every-three-week dosing schedule for patients with advanced solid tumor malignancy.
  • For patients with no prior AP radiation therapy, the MTD was determined to be 320 mg/m2, whereas those with prior AP radiation therapy had a MTD of 290 mg/m2.
  • Dose-proportional increases in the mean area under the concentration-time curves for CPT-11, SN-38, and SN-38G were not observed over the narrow dose range studied.
  • The pharmacodynamic analyses indicated the strongest correlation to be between SN-38 area under the concentration-time curves and neutropenia (p = 0.60; P = 0.001).
  • A total of five responses (one complete response and four partial responses) were observed in the cohort of 32 patients with previously treated metastatic colorectal carcinoma.
  • In this trial, the recommended Phase II starting dose for patients with no prior AP radiation therapy was found to be 320 mg/m2; for patients with prior AP radiation, the recommended Phase II starting dose was 290 mg/m2.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Anesthesia / pharmacology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antidiarrheals / pharmacology. Antiemetics / pharmacology. Area Under Curve. Atropine / pharmacology. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Digestive System / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glucuronates / blood. Glucuronates / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Loperamide / pharmacology. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 10873073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / MO1-RR00585
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin beta-glucuronide; 0 / Adjuvants, Anesthesia; 0 / Antidiarrheals; 0 / Antiemetics; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Glucuronates; 6X9OC3H4II / Loperamide; 7673326042 / irinotecan; 7C0697DR9I / Atropine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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66. Yanagawa T, Shimizu J, Dono K, Yasumoto T, Hata T, Fujino S, Kitahara T, Munakata K, Watanabe N, Takamoto K, Nagai K, Miyake M, Hata T, Kawanishi K, Ikeda K, Fujita J, Akagi K, Iwasawa T, Kitada M, Shimano T: [A case report--transarterial embolization for advanced gallbladder carcinoma with hepatic metastasis]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2711-3
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  • [Title] [A case report--transarterial embolization for advanced gallbladder carcinoma with hepatic metastasis].
  • CT revealed a primary gallbladder carcinoma Stage IVb with multiple hepatic metastases.
  • Gastrofiberscopy revealed an invasion to duodenal and bleeding from the tumor.
  • For her poor performance status, it seems to be too difficult to undergo a general chemotherapy.
  • She underwent 2 times TAE.
  • There was a notable reduction in tumor size.
  • TAE may be useful for advanced gallbladder carcinoma with tumor vascularity.
  • [MeSH-major] Embolization, Therapeutic. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21224688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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67. Hou CS, Xu Z, Zhang TL, Peng Y, Ling XF, Wang LX, Zhou XS: [Prognostic analysis of T1 and T2 stage gallbladder cancer with invasion within the gallbladder wall]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Dec 1;44(23):1620-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Prognostic analysis of T1 and T2 stage gallbladder cancer with invasion within the gallbladder wall].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of different treatment procedure on the prognosis of T1 and T2 stage gallbladder cancer with the invasion within the gallbladder wall.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 45 patients with pathologic stage T1 and T2 gallbladder cancer who had undergone surgical resection from 1990 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: Depth of invasion (T), radical cholecystectomy and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors on Cox multivariate analysis.
  • The 5-year survival rates of patients with T1a, T1b and T2 stage gallbladder cancer who underwent simple cholecystectomy without postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy were 100%, 67% and 0, respectively.
  • Without postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, the 5-year survival rates of patients with T2 stage gallbladder cancer who underwent simple cholecystectomy and radical cholecystectomy were 0 and 63%, respectively.
  • There was significant difference between the survival time of T2 patients who had undergone simple cholecystectomy with and without postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of patients with T1 stage gallbladder cancer is much better than that of T2 stage.
  • The 5-year survival rates of patients with T1a and T1b stage gallbladder cancer who received simple cholecystectomy are relatively good.
  • Radical cholecystectomy and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy can improve the prognosis of patients with T2 gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholecystectomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17359693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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68. Wang BL, Zhai HY, Chen BY, Zhai SP, Yang HY, Chen XP, Zhao WT, Meng L: Clinical relationship between MDR1 gene and gallbladder cancer. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2004 May;3(2):296-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical relationship between MDR1 gene and gallbladder cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is the expression of an energy-dependent exfflux pump.
  • It is a major therapeutic problem in cancer chemotherapy.
  • The aim of this study is to study the expression of MDR1 gene encoding P-gp and MDRl mRNA in primary gallbladder carcinoma, and analyze its clinical significance.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) S-P method and in situ polymerase chain reaction (ISPCR) were used to detect the expression of P-gp and MDR1 mRNA in 53 cases of untreated primary gallbladder carcinoma and 12 cases of cholecystitis (archival paraffin-embedded tissues).
  • The positive expression rate of P-gp and MDR1mRNA were 69.44%, 83.33% and 41.18%, 47.06% respectively in tissues in stage of Nevin I-III against Nevin IV, V (P<0.05).
  • In well, moderately differentiated gallbladder carcinoma tissues, their expressions were 79.49%, 69.23% against 50.00%, 35.71% in low, undifferentiated tissues (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MDR to gallbladder carcinoma is closely related to the intrinsic MDR and it provides an important evidence to reverse the MDR by detection of the MDR1 gene.
  • Meanwhile, MDR1 gene expression in gallbladder carcinoma is correlated with some biological characteristics, takes part in the carcinogenesis of gallbladder tissues, and acts as a valuable biomarker of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Gallbladder Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, MDR / genetics. P-Glycoprotein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15138130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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69. Mody K, Strauss E, Lincer R, Frank RC: Complete response in gallbladder cancer to erlotinib plus gemcitabine does not require mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene: a case report. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:570
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  • [Title] Complete response in gallbladder cancer to erlotinib plus gemcitabine does not require mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer typically follows an aggressive course, with chemotherapy the standard of care for advanced disease; complete remissions are rarely encountered.
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a promising therapeutic target but the activity of single agent oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors is low.
  • There have been no previous reports of chemotherapy plus an EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to treat gallbladder cancer or correlations of response with the mutation status of the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR gene.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 67 year old man with metastatic gallbladder cancer involving the liver and abdominal lymph nodes was treated with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) on day 1 and 8 every 21 days as well as daily erlotinib (100 mg).
  • After four cycles of therapy, the CA 19-9 normalized and a PET/CT showed a complete remission; this response was maintained by the end of 12 cycles of therapy.
  • Gemcitabine was then discontinued and single agent erlotinib was continued as maintenance therapy.
  • The disease remains in good control 18 months after initiation of therapy, including 6 months on maintenance erlotinib.
  • Because of the remarkable response to erlotinib plus gemcitabine, we performed tumor genotyping of the EGFR gene for response predicting mutations in exons 18, 19 and 21.
  • This disclosed the wild-type genotype with no mutations found.
  • CONCLUSION: This case report demonstrates a patient with stage IV gallbladder cancer who experienced a rarely encountered complete, prolonged response after treatment with an oral EGFR-TKI plus chemotherapy.
  • These observations should inform the design of clinical trials using EGFR-TKIs to treat gallbladder and other biliary tract cancers; such trials should not select patients based on EGFR mutation status.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. CA-19-9 Antigen / biosynthesis. DNA Mutational Analysis. Erlotinib Hydrochloride. Exons. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20961434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Quinazolines; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2972285
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70. van der Hoeven J, Busch O, Bijnen C, Gouma D, van Gulik T: [Diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma of the gall bladder]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2010;154:A355
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of carcinoma of the gall bladder].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostiek en behandeling van het galblaascarcinoom.
  • Over the past decade considerable progress has been made in several fields relating to the diagnosis and treatment of gall bladder cancer.
  • This literature search evaluates if these recent advances have led to improved diagnosis, treatment and survival of patients with gall bladder carcinoma.
  • The increase in the number of cholecystectomies being carried out has resulted in more carcinomas being discovered incidentally, and at an early and treatable stage.
  • The combination of ultrasound and MRI yields the most accurate preoperative staging.
  • Current radiotherapy and chemotherapy in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings have not shown any survival benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Cholecystectomy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20356434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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71. Fuks D, Regimbeau JM: [Role of exploratory laparoscopy in hepato-biliary malignancies]. J Chir (Paris); 2008 Jan-Feb;145(1):16-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Place de la coelioscopie exploratrice en cancérologie hépatobiliaire.
  • This approach diminishes operative time, hospital stay, delay in starting chemotherapy, and cost.
  • 1) cancer of the gallbladder;.
  • 2) hilar cholangiocarcinoma Stage T2-T3; and: 3) hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer or hepatocellular cancer with poor prognostic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cost-Benefit Analysis. Evidence-Based Medicine. Hospitalization / economics. Humans. Laparotomy / economics. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18438277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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72. Khan JA, Yaqin S: Successful immunological treatment of gallbladder cancer in India--case report. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2006 Sep;7(9):719-24
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  • [Title] Successful immunological treatment of gallbladder cancer in India--case report.
  • Gallbladder cancer has a poor outcome because of its anatomy and location.
  • Often, the diagnosis is made very late due to its silent course.
  • Post-operated cases do respond to chemotherapy but the survival is counted in months and the quality of life is further hampered due to toxicity of drugs.
  • Among various therapies, dendritic cell therapy is growing at rapid pace due to its acceptable rationale.
  • It has been utilized in treating successfully resected stage III (T2, N1, M0) gallbladder cancer in one of our patients.
  • A 48 years old lady treated with this therapy is free of metastasis with ten doses of autologous dendritic cell vaccine constructed by utilizing resected tumor lysate antigen.
  • She has received ten doses of therapy in 14 months of her treatment.
  • This therapy has proven to be safe and without apparent side effects.
  • The positive clinical response obtained supports that autologous dendritic cell-based immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach for refractory gallbladder cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Dendritic Cells / immunology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Vaccination

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  • (PMID = 16909473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1559800
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73. Eder JP Jr, Garcia-Carbonero R, Clark JW, Supko JG, Puchalski TA, Ryan DP, Deluca P, Wozniak A, Campbell A, Rothermel J, LoRusso P: A phase I trial of daily oral 4'- N -benzoyl-staurosporine in combination with protracted continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Invest New Drugs; 2004 Apr;22(2):139-50
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of 5-FU, PKC412, and two of its circulating metabolites were determined during the first cycle of therapy.
  • Among nine patients treated with 225 mg/day of PKC412, one experienced grade 3 fatigue and nausea, another developed grade 3 hyperglycemia, and three had grade 2 emesis and stomatitis, leading to early treatment discontinuation.
  • Minor responses consisting of a 40-45% tumor reduction were observed in two patients, one with gall bladder carcinoma and one with breast cancer.
  • There was no evidence of a pharmacokinetic interaction between the two drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Staurosporine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Area Under Curve. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drugs, Investigational / administration & dosage. Drugs, Investigational / adverse effects. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / blood. Gastrointestinal Diseases / blood. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 14739662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Investigational; H88EPA0A3N / Staurosporine; ID912S5VON / midostaurin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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74. Horiuchi H, Kawamata H, Fujimori T, Kuroda Y: A MEK inhibitor (U0126) prolongs survival in nude mice bearing human gallbladder cancer cells with K-ras mutation: analysis in a novel orthotopic inoculation model. Int J Oncol; 2003 Oct;23(4):957-63
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Gallbladder Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A MEK inhibitor (U0126) prolongs survival in nude mice bearing human gallbladder cancer cells with K-ras mutation: analysis in a novel orthotopic inoculation model.
  • Most cases of gallbladder cancer are found at an advanced stage accompanied by invasion to the liver, metastases to the lymph nodes and distant organs, and peritoneal dissemination.
  • Then, the treatment for advanced gallbladder cancer is often ineffective, and the prognosis of this disease is poor.
  • The specific aim of this study was to establish a model system for developing new therapeutic strategies, such as molecular target therapy, for human advanced gallbladder cancer.
  • We used a human gallbladder cancer cell line, NOZ with K-ras mutation in this experiment.
  • Then, we established a novel orthotopic inoculation model for gallbladder cancer by using NOZ cells in nude mice.
  • All of the mice orthotopically inoculated by NOZ cells developed tumors at the gallbladder.
  • Nude mice with NOZ tumor at gallbladder were treated by an intraperitoneal injection of a MAPK kinase inhibitor U0126 (25 micro mole/kg) twice a week.
  • U0126 (p=0.0110, one-way ANOVA) significantly prolonged the survival duration of the mice with NOZ gallbladder tumor.
  • Our orthotopic inoculation model is useful for developing new therapeutic strategies, such as molecular target therapy for advanced gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Butadienes / pharmacology. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gallbladder / cytology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Genes, ras. Mutation. Nitriles / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Nude. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Transplantation. RNA / chemistry. Transcription, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12963974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Butadienes; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / U 0126; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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75. Chang TS, Liaw CC, Lee KF, Wu CS: Gingival metastasis from gallbladder cancer. Chang Gung Med J; 2002 Aug;25(8):553-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Gallbladder Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gingival metastasis from gallbladder cancer.
  • Gallbladder cancer is generally diagnosed at an advanced stage.
  • Oral soft tissue metastasis is extremely unusual.
  • This report describes the case of a 62-year-old woman diagnosed with advanced metastatic gallbladder cancer, who initially presented with abdominal pain.
  • Diagnosis of gallbladder cancer was made about 3 months after her symptoms developed, when a laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed because of the suspicion of gallstones.
  • A visible left gingival tumor was found on physical examination and was confirmed as gallbladder cancer metastasis by compatible histopathology 1 month after surgery.
  • The patient responded poorly to chemotherapy and unfortunately died 5 months after the diagnosis.
  • The clinical presentation of gallbladder cancer was relatively typical, apart from the unusual gingival metastasis.
  • The medical literature contains quite a few examples of metastatic lesions located strictly in the oral soft tissue, however no case of gallbladder cancer metastasizing to the oral soft tissue has been previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gingival Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 12392369.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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76. Orth K, Beger HG: Gallbladder carcinoma and surgical treatment. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2000 Dec;385(8):501-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Gallbladder Cancer.

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  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoma and surgical treatment.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma shows an unusual geographic and demographic distribution.
  • The frequency of gallbladder cancer in all operations of the biliary tract is about 1-3%, reflecting the commonest biliary tract malignancy.
  • Preoperative imaging, including ultrasound and computed tomography (CT), may reveal signs indicative of the presence of malignancy.
  • Survival depends on the ability to achieve a curative resection, including hepatectomy and lymph node dissection in patients with local extended tumour according to the stage of the disease.
  • Overall, the curative resection rates for gallbladder carcinoma range from 10% to 30%.
  • For those patients with unresectable cancer, palliative surgical, endoscopic or radiological bypass procedures can improve quality of life.
  • Other approaches to the management of advanced tumours include systemic chemotherapy or combined chemo-radiotherapy and need further evaluation.
  • Early-stage tumours are often discovered as an incidental finding during (laparoscopic) cholecystectomy or on histological examination of the gallbladder, mostly necessitating relaparotomy and extensive resection.
  • In the following, management of patients with gallbladder cancer at different stages and situations is discussed.

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  • (PMID = 11201005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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77. Liu KH, Yeh TS, Hwang TL, Jan YY, Chen MF: Surgical management of gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Apr 21;15(15):1876-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Gallbladder Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management of gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma.
  • AIM: To study the behavior as well as optimal treatment of gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma, we reviewed the results of treatment of gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.
  • METHODS: From 1987 to 2005, six patients were diagnosed with gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma and treated at our institution.
  • Tumor staging was based on 2002 revised tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging for gall bladder cancer from the American Joint Committee on Cancer.
  • The follow-up time ranged from 30 d to 5 mo.
  • The prognosis was extremely poor, even after curative resection and postoperative chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma was not dependent on TNM stage and was always dismal.
  • The clinicopathological features were different from those of gall bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19370786.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2670416
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78. Endo I, Shimada H: [Present situation of and prospects for standardization of surgery for biliary tract cancer]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2003 May;104(5):404-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Present situation of and prospects for standardization of surgery for biliary tract cancer].
  • Surgery remains the primary treatment for biliary tract malignancies.
  • A standard therapy is required in the era of evidence-based medicine.
  • However, guidelines for biliary tract cancer surgery have not yet been adopted.
  • We review the current literature on the treatment of biliary tract malignancies and surveyed the prospects for standardization of biliary tract cancer surgery.
  • For patients with gallbladder cancer, surgical procedures should be selected based on the depth of invasion.
  • In aggressive surgery for stage IV gallbladder cancer, attention should be paid to the high incidence of operative mortality.
  • For hilar cholangiocarcinoma patients, surgical procedures should be selected based on tumor location.
  • For Bismuth types III and IV, hepatectomy combined with caudate lobectomy appears to be the standard surgery.
  • Pancreatoduodenectomy is considered the standard procedure for middle and lower bile duct and ampullary cancer.
  • It is necessary to continue developing adjuvant therapies for patients with negative prognostic factors.
  • The appropriateness of adjuvant therapies such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy should be confirmed in further clinical trials.
  • It is necessary to reach a definite consensus on standard therapy for biliary tract malignancies in the near future, and therefore multicenter, randomized trials to address the issues involved should be initiated in Japan.

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  • (PMID = 12774525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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79. Selvakumar P, Pasha MK, Ashakumary L, Dimmock JR, Sharma RK: Myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase: a novel molecular approach for cancer therapy (Review). Int J Mol Med; 2002 Oct;10(4):493-500
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase: a novel molecular approach for cancer therapy (Review).
  • Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of malignant death, and better preventive strategies are needed.
  • The treatment of colonic cancer remains difficult because of the lack of effective chemotherapeutic agents; therefore it is important to continue to search for cellular functions that can be disrupted by chemotherapeutic drugs resulting in the inhibition of the development and progression of cancer.
  • This process is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer.
  • We have reported for the first time in rats treated with azoxymethane that NMT activity was higher in colonic epithelial neoplasms than in normal colonic tissue and that an increase in NMT activity appeared at an early stage in colonic carcinogenesis.
  • Increased NMT activity was also confirmed in human colonic tumors compared to normal tissue.
  • In addition, gallbladder carcinoma showed moderate to strong cytoplasmic positivity for NMT with increased intensity in the invasive component whereas the normal gallbladder mucosa showed weak to negative cytoplasmic staining for this enzyme.
  • It is conceivable therefore that NMT can be used as a potential marker for the early detection of cancer.
  • Of particular note is the very recent discovery of cytotoxic compounds in the laboratories of the authors which inhibit NMT and may offer a novel approach for the evolution of candidate antineoplastic agents which display greater potencies towards neoplasms than the corresponding normal tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Acyltransferases / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers. Carcinoma / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Humans. Rats

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  • (PMID = 12239600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-3756
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; EC 2.3.- / Acyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.97 / glycylpeptide N-tetradecanoyltransferase
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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