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1. Tupikowski W, Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Florczak A: [Adrenocortical carcinoma and its treatment]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online); 2004 Feb 26;58:27-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adrenocortical carcinoma and its treatment].
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare tumor with an annual incidence of 1 to 2 cases per million people.
  • Most adrenocortical neoplasms are hormone functional.
  • The rapid onset of Cushing 's syndrome, with its virilizing features, is characteristic of this cancer.
  • Adrenal tumors are often detected at an advanced stage.
  • Complete surgical resection is the only curative treatment for adrenal cancer.
  • Treatment also includes chemotherapy, especially with mitotane, usually in combination with doxorubicin, etoposide, and cisplatin.
  • Results of treatment are not satisfying, so adjuvant multicenter trials are still underway.

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  • (PMID = 15069374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1732-2693
  • [Journal-full-title] Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej (Online)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online)
  • [Language] POL
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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2. Kasperlik-Zaluska AA: Clinical results of the use of mitotane for adrenocortical carcinoma. Braz J Med Biol Res; 2000 Oct;33(10):1191-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOTANE .

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  • [Title] Clinical results of the use of mitotane for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • The drug has been used for 40 years in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma, mainly its regional and metastatic stage, as an adjuvant to surgical resection of the tumor.
  • In the medical literature there are controversial opinions about its efficacy for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • We have administered this drug in all cases of microscopically confirmed adrenocortical carcinoma, irrespectively of stage at the time of surgery, for fear of a false too optimistic classification.
  • In our series of 82 patients with adrenocortical carcinoma, 59 patients have been treated with mitotane, 32 of them immediately after surgery, and 27 with a delay of 2 to 24 months.
  • All patients were simultaneously given replacement therapy.
  • Furthermore, we used mitotane with good results in Cushing's syndrome of non-malignant origin as pre-treatment before surgery or in long-term treatment for patients with poor tolerance of other adrenal inhibitors.

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  • (PMID = 11004719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0100-879X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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3. Chalasani S, Vats HS, Banerjee TK, McKenzie AK: Metastatic virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma: a rare case of cure with surgery and mitotane therapy. Clin Med Res; 2009 Jun;7(1-2):48-51
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOTANE .

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  • [Title] Metastatic virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma: a rare case of cure with surgery and mitotane therapy.
  • A 57-year-old white woman with metastases to lungs and liver from virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) was treated with radical nephroadrenalectomy followed by oral mitotane 3 to 6 g/day for 5 months.
  • She developed complete response and remained free of disease for more than 25 years.
  • Stage I and II disease is curable with surgery.
  • Stage III and IV disease may benefit from mitotane orally with gradual adjustment of the dosage to a tolerable level.
  • Addition of chemotherapy (streptozotocin or a combination of etoposide, cisplatin and doxorubicin) to mitotane also produced responses along with increased survival among responders.
  • An international study has been started by randomizing between two of the above combinations by the Collaborative Group for Adrenocortical Carcinoma Treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19574489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1554-6179
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine & research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2705271
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4. Terzolo M, Angeli A, Fassnacht M, Daffara F, Tauchmanova L, Conton PA, Rossetto R, Buci L, Sperone P, Grossrubatscher E, Reimondo G, Bollito E, Papotti M, Saeger W, Hahner S, Koschker AC, Arvat E, Ambrosi B, Loli P, Lombardi G, Mannelli M, Bruzzi P, Mantero F, Allolio B, Dogliotti L, Berruti A: Adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma. N Engl J Med; 2007 Jun 7;356(23):2372-80
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOTANE .

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  • [Title] Adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm characterized by a high risk of recurrence after radical resection.
  • Whether the use of mitotane is beneficial as an adjuvant treatment has been controversial.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis involving 177 patients with adrenocortical cancer who had undergone radical surgery at 8 centers in Italy and 47 centers in Germany between 1985 and 2005.
  • Adjuvant mitotane was administered to 47 Italian patients after radical surgery (mitotane group), whereas 55 Italian patients and 75 German patients (control groups 1 and 2, respectively) did not receive adjuvant treatment after surgery.
  • RESULTS: Baseline features in the mitotane group and the control group from Italy were similar; the German patients were significantly older (P=0.03) and had more stage I or II adrenocortical carcinomas (P=0.02) than did patients in the mitotane group.
  • Multivariate analysis indicated that mitotane treatment had a significant advantage for recurrence-free survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant mitotane may prolong recurrence-free survival in patients with radically resected adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis


5. Allolio B, Hahner S, Weismann D, Fassnacht M: Management of adrenocortical carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2004 Mar;60(3):273-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm with poor prognosis.
  • In addition, computed tomography (CT) typically demonstrates an inhomogeneous adrenal lesion with irregular margins and variable enhancement of solid components after intravenous contrast media.
  • Complete tumour removal (R0 resection) offers by far the best chance for long-term survival and therefore surgery is the treatment of choice in stage I-III ACC.
  • Thus adjuvant treatment options need to be evaluated in high-risk patients (e.g. radiation therapy of the tumour bed and/or chemotherapy).
  • In metastatic disease (stage IV ACC) not amenable to surgery mitotane (o,p'DDD) remains the first-line therapy.
  • Drug monitoring is needed for effective treatment aiming at concentrations between 14 and 20 mg/l.
  • Patients not responding to mitotane may benefit from cytotoxic chemotherapy (23% partial remissions, 4% complete remissions).
  • Only large prospective multicentre trials comparing different treatment options will allow to make systematic progress in the management of ACC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cytokines / therapeutic use. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15008991.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cytokines
  • [Number-of-references] 154
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6. Nishida S, Itoh N, Sasao T, Masumori N, Taguchi K, Tsukamoto T: Adrenocortical carcinoma: retrospective study of 14 patients experienced at a single institution over 34 years. Int J Urol; 2007 Jul;14(7):581-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: retrospective study of 14 patients experienced at a single institution over 34 years.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review clinical outcome of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma experienced at a single institute over 34 years.
  • Two patients were classified as having stage II disease, seven as stage III and five as stage IV.
  • The median survival periods were 2 months in patients with stage IV and 108 months in those with stages II and III (P = 0.136).
  • Mitotane treatment in the adjuvant setting did not clearly affect the clinical courses of patients without metastasis.
  • However, the treatment was effective for metastasis that was repeatedly developed as late recurrence in one patient.
  • Three patients with metastasis at diagnosis received combination chemotherapy with etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin (EDP) with or without mitotane treatment, to which lung metastasis completely responded in one patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare disease but frequently recurs.
  • The best chance of survival may be achieved by early detection and complete surgical removal.
  • There may be patients who possibly benefit from mitotane treatment with or without EDP, although this remains to be conclusively determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenocortical Carcinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17645596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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7. Ohwada S, Izumi M, Kawate S, Hamada K, Toya H, Togo N, Horiguchi J, Koibuchi Y, Takahashi T, Yamada M: Surgical outcome of stage III and IV adrenocortical carcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2007 Feb;37(2):108-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical outcome of stage III and IV adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor usually diagnosed at an advanced stage on invasion of or adherence to adjacent organs.
  • We report surgical outcome of stage III and IV ACCs.
  • METHODS: ACCs from seven patients at clinical stage II (n = 1), III (n = 4), or IV (n = 2) were resected.
  • RESULTS: The pathological stage was stage III in five patients and stage IV in two patients.
  • The estimated 3-year disease-free and overall survivals for stage III were 20% and 40%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 11-58).
  • The 3-year disease-free and overall survivals for stage III and IV were 14.3% and 28.6%, respectively.
  • The mean disease-free survival time was 18.6 +/- 6.7 months (95% CI: 5.4-31.8).
  • The mean survival after recurrence was 19.0 +/- 3.3 months (95% CI: 12.6-25.5), and the 50% survival was 18.4 months with mitotan and cytotoxic drug therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Resection for stage III, IV ACCs affords the possibility of negative margins, acceptable peri-operative morbidity and mortality, and prolongs survival in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17277000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Aspinall SR, Imisairi AH, Bliss RD, Scott-Coombes D, Harrison BJ, Lennard TW: How is adrenocortical cancer being managed in the UK? Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2009 Sep;91(6):489-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] How is adrenocortical cancer being managed in the UK?
  • INTRODUCTION: Adrenocortical carcinomas are rare.
  • This case series is reported to give an overview of how adrenocortical carcinoma is currently managed in the UK.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was made of case notes from patients with adrenocortical carcinomas presenting to the authors (TWJL, RDB, BJH, and DS-C) over the past 10 years in Newcastle, Sheffield and Cardiff.
  • Adjuvant mitotane was given in 64% of patients, in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy in 20%.
  • One-third of patients did not receive any adjuvant therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The size of tumour, stage and mode of presentation, age and overall survival of patients in this study are comparable to published series of adrenocortical carcinomas from major endocrine surgical centres world-wide.
  • Despite controversies about benefits, adjuvant mitotane was used in the majority of cases, whereas cytotoxic chemotherapy was only used in the minority.
  • The exact role of adjuvant therapy in the management of adrenocortical carcinoma is not as well established as for other more common malignancies.
  • Establishing a database for adrenocortical carcinomas in the UK would contribute to our understanding of the management of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cytotoxins / therapeutic use. Great Britain. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19558758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Cytotoxins; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2966201
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9. Tucci S Jr, Martins AC, Suaid HJ, Cologna AJ, Reis RB: The impact of tumor stage on prognosis in children with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Urol; 2005 Dec;174(6):2338-42, discussion 2342
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The impact of tumor stage on prognosis in children with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated treatment outcomes in children with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Children with incomplete excision of the tumor and/or stage IV disease received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Ultrasonography, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging exhibited specificity of 100% in the diagnosis of vascular invasion, and sensitivity of 50%, 66% and 100%, respectively.
  • Patient age, tumor stage or size and vascular invasion were associated with survival in univariate analysis.
  • Tumor stage was the only independent factor associated with survival in multivariate analysis.
  • The overall 5-year survival rates according to tumor stage were 100% in stage I, 85% in stage II, 40% in stage III and 0% in stage IV.
  • A total of 10 children with stage IV disease treated with chemotherapy died within a median of 6 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor stage was the most relevant prognostic factor for children with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Thrombectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16280838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Ahlman H, Khorram-Manesh A, Jansson S, Wängberg B, Nilsson O, Jacobsson CE, Lindstedt S: Cytotoxic treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. World J Surg; 2001 Jul;25(7):927-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytotoxic treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, aggressive tumor that is often detected in an advanced stage.
  • Medical treatment with the adrenotoxic drug mitotane has been used for decades, but critical prospective trials on its role in residual disease or as an adjuvant agent after surgical resection are still lacking.
  • The concept of a critical threshold plasma level of the drug must be confirmed in controlled studies.
  • In case of cortisol or other steroid overproduction, several drugs (e.g., ketoconazole or aminoglutethimide) may be used.
  • Chemotherapy with single agents (e.g., doxorubicin or cisplatin) have been disappointing, with low response rates (< 30%) and a short response duration.
  • Chemotherapy with multiple agents has been tested in smaller series and has resulted in significant side effects.
  • When mitotane-based therapies are used, monitored drug levels are mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Humans. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11572034.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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11. Liou LS, Kay R: Adrenocortical carcinoma in children. Review and recent innovations. Urol Clin North Am; 2000 Aug;27(3):403-21
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma in children. Review and recent innovations.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma in childhood is a rare potentially fatal disease.
  • Despite its often dramatic presentation, there typically has been a distressingly long delay between the onset of symptoms and the time of diagnosis.
  • This delay undoubtedly has contributed to the historically poor prognosis in these children by permitting the disease to reach an advanced stage before treatment is started.
  • Aggressive complete surgical resection continues to be the mainstay of treatment and is the best prognosticator of overall survival.
  • The role of adjuvant therapy and chemotherapy continues to evolve.
  • Molecular studies have increased understanding of cancer biology and may provide possible novel therapeutic approaches in the future.
  • It is hoped that increased familiarity with this unusual tumor will result in earlier detection, prompt intervention, and improved survival for children with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Virilism / etiology

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  • (PMID = 10985141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-0143
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 125
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12. Langer P, Bartsch D, Moebius E, Rothmund M, Nies C: Adrenocortical carcinoma--our experience with 11 cases. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2000 Oct;385(6):393-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma--our experience with 11 cases.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumour with an incidence of approximately 0.5-2 cases per million per year.
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: The data of the patients with ACC were reviewed and presenting symptoms, diagnostic procedures, treatment and results of follow-up were evaluated.
  • At the time of diagnosis, five tumours were classified as stage II, two as stage III and four as stage IV.
  • Five patients received additional chemotherapy.
  • Five of the 11 patients are still alive (three stage II, one stage III and one stage IV at the time of diagnosis), three of whom have no evidence of disease (14, 48 and 71 months after surgery).
  • There is no consensus concerning adjuvant therapy.

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  • (PMID = 11127523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Ciftci AO, Senocak ME, Tanyel FC, Büyükpamukçu N: Adrenocortical tumors in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Apr;36(4):549-54

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical tumors in children.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Etiopathogenesis and management of pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) is still obscure because of the limited number of cases.
  • Information recorded for each patient included age, sex, clinical characteristics, diagnostic methods, stage of disease, treatment, pathologic findings, and outcome.
  • The patients were subdivided into 2 groups: group I, patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and group II, patients with adrenocortical adenoma (ACA).
  • The mean time from initial symptoms to diagnosis was 8.1 +/- 0.2 months, and this interval was similar in 2 groups, in functional and nonfunctional tumors, and in both sexes.
  • Ultrasound scan, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, intravenous pyelography, and angiography were used for the diagnosis.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of mitotane (n = 12), mitotane plus cisplatin and etoposide (n = 2) was commenced.
  • For the time being, the most important aspect of therapy for ACCs is early diagnosis and total excision.
  • Partial excision and advanced-stage disease are the major determinants of poor outcome.
  • Because of the steadily increasing incidence of precancerous genetic syndromes of adrenal glands and poor prognosis of ACCs, childhood patients of endocrine disorders should receive a detailed and vigorous diagnostic evaluation and appropriate treatment as given to adults.
  • Patients with ACTs should be entered into multi-institutional trials to adequately assess effective chemotherapy and radiotherapy protocols and molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenalectomy. Angiography. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Probability. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.
  • (PMID = 11283875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3468
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Hanna AM, Pham TH, Askegard-Giesmann JR, Grams JM, Iqbal CW, Stavlo P, Moir CR: Outcome of adrenocortical tumors in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 May;43(5):843-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome of adrenocortical tumors in children.
  • PURPOSE: This study reviews adrenocortical tumors in children to determine factors that significantly affect outcome.
  • METHODS: An institutional review board-approved retrospective review from 1976 to 2005 identified 23 patients younger than 19 years old with histologic confirmation of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and adenomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean age of the 23 children was 9.0 +/- 1.6 years; girls predominated (female-to-male ratio = 1.9:1) as did cancers (ACC 16, adenoma 7); tumor hormone production (74%); and advanced stage for disease (66%).
  • Three patients received chemotherapy or chemoradiation as primary treatment without surgery.
  • Surgical cure without adjuvant therapy was achieved for all adenomas and ACC stages I and II.
  • For ACC stage III and IV, median survival was 21 months, 5-year survival was 0%.
  • All advanced-staged ACC received adjuvant therapy.
  • The high percentage of children with functioning tumors suggests earlier detection is possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / mortality. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenalectomy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18485950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Aiba M, Fujibayashi M: Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):13-22
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathological diagnosis and prognostic factors in adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • A great majority of adrenocortical tumors are benign, and many adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are obviously malignant at presentation.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of ACC is occasionally difficult, particularly with stage I and stage II disease.
  • Surgery is the major treatment, with chemotherapy and radiotherapy being applicable to only restricted patients.
  • The Weiss criteria are useful in diagnosing the common adult type of ACC.
  • In this article, we first describe the current histopathological diagnostic and prognostic factors of ACC, highlighting the special types of ACC to which Weiss's criteria are not fully applicable.
  • These special type tumors include pediatric adrenocortical tumors, oncocytomas, and aldosterone-producing tumors of pure zona glomerulosa type.
  • Then we present three cases with unusual small adrenocortical tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16000842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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16. Kendrick ML, Lloyd R, Erickson L, Farley DR, Grant CS, Thompson GB, Rowland C, Young WF Jr, van Heerden JA: Adrenocortical carcinoma: surgical progress or status quo? Arch Surg; 2001 May;136(5):543-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma: surgical progress or status quo?
  • HYPOTHESIS: Outcome of patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has improved with the advent of more widely available and higher quality imaging.
  • Operative management strategies and use of adjuvant therapy have not changed.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective review of patient histories, imaging studies, operative data, adjuvant therapy, and outcomes at a single institution.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Determinants of recurrence, survival, and the effect of adjuvant therapy on overall outcome.
  • Stage according to the TNM staging system (AJCC Cancer Staging Manual) at presentation was I (n = 0), II (n = 30), III (n = 7), and IV (n = 21).
  • Recurrence occurred in 30 patients (73%) with a median time to recurrence of 17 months.
  • Prognostic factors (P<.05) included functional status, stage, and chemotherapy in stage III/IV patients.
  • (1) Surgical resection remains the principal treatment for stage I to III disease. (2) Adjuvant therapy may improve survival in patients with stage III or IV disease. (3) Current patients were more likely to present at an earlier stage, undergo curative resections, and have improved 5-year survival than institutional historical comparisons.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11343545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Koschker AC, Fassnacht M, Hahner S, Weismann D, Allolio B: Adrenocortical carcinoma -- improving patient care by establishing new structures. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Feb;114(2):45-51
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Adrenocortical Carcinoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adrenocortical carcinoma -- improving patient care by establishing new structures.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly malignant tumour with a poor prognosis.
  • DIAGNOSIS: In case of an adrenal mass, hormonal workup before surgery is required for differential diagnosis, perioperative management, and for follow-up.
  • TREATMENT: Surgical resection is the therapeutic option of choice in stages 1 - 3.
  • In stage 4, the adrenolytic compound mitotane is part of the first-line treatment, but often needs to be combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Most patients will eventually have a recurrence, so adjuvant treatment (mitotane/tumour bed radiation) has to be considered in high risk patients, even if randomized controlled trials on adjuvant treatment are still lacking.
  • STRUCTURAL PROGRESS: Several national and European structures have recently been established in order to increase our knowledge of ACC, improve therapeutic options and diagnostic procedures, and promote research.
  • GANIMED, as a Germany-wide network of experts on adrenal diseases, has been founded allowing for improved gathering of data and joint studies.
  • ENSAT (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours) has been brought to life, aiming at European standards for therapy, diagnosis and tumour banking.
  • France and Italy have also developed a central registry to collect nationwide data from patients with ACC.
  • For the first time, patients with metastatic/unresectable ACC can participate in a prospective controlled randomized trial comparing two different cytotoxic chemotherapy regimes (FIRM-ACT).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Mutation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16570232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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18. Lacroix A: Approach to the patient with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Nov;95(11):4812-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Approach to the patient with adrenocortical carcinoma.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare and often aggressive malignancy that requires multidisciplinary expertise for optimal management.
  • Thorough imaging and endocrine evaluations can identify the majority of ACCs amongst adrenal tumors; however, some smaller ACCs are better identified using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan.
  • Complete resection by an expert surgeon is the only potentially curative treatment for ACC, and tumor spillage should be avoided.
  • Despite complete resection in stage I-III tumors, approximately 40% of patients develop metastasis within 2 yr.
  • Some retrospective studies indicate that adjuvant mitotane therapy prolongs disease-free survival, leading several centers to recommend its administration; prospective studies are under way to provide future evidence-based recommendations.
  • When ACC is not surgically resectable, mitotane therapy is adjusted to reach serum levels of 14-20 μg/ml.
  • Careful replacement of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency after surgery or mitotane therapy is important; steroid excess from remaining tumor burden should also be controlled to avoid its morbidities.
  • For metastatic disease, combination chemotherapy should be administered, if possible, in the context of multicenter collaborative research protocols.
  • New insights in the molecular pathogenesis of ACC should allow the development of improved targeted therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21051577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Balasubramaniam S, Fojo T: Practical considerations in the evaluation and management of adrenocortical cancer. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):619-26
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOTANE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Practical considerations in the evaluation and management of adrenocortical cancer.
  • Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) is a rare, challenging disease with a broad range of clinical presentations.
  • Often presenting in an advanced stage with a large, locally invasive primary tumor or with Cushing's syndrome, it requires a multidisciplinary approach to treatment.
  • We conclude that the role of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) remains unclear and that it should be employed sparingly.
  • Surgery is the preferred intervention initially and at the time of recurrence, and every effort should be made to attempt a surgical resection.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is effective in patients with widely metastatic disease or as an adjunct to a surgical intervention and should focus on regimens that have been shown to effect responses; "novel targeted therapies" should not be employed as first-line treatment.
  • Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and cryoablation can be very helpful but are still under evaluation; embolization with or without chemotherapy may be used as a surgical adjunct.
  • Finally, physicians caring for these patients need to recognize that Cushing's disease is a debilitating problem that should be managed aggressively; expecting chemotherapy to solve this complication is not appropriate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Humans. Laparoscopy. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Streptozocin / administration & dosage. Streptozocin / therapeutic use

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. STREPTOZOTOCIN .
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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 21167380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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20. Shon Ch, Mladenovski V, Petkov R, K'tev N, Mikhailov N, Gavrailov M, Trifonov D: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. A review of the literature and report of two cases]. Khirurgiia (Sofiia); 2000;56(2):45-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. A review of the literature and report of two cases].
  • Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are rare and represent only 0.05 to 0.2% of all cancers.
  • Commonly most of the cases with AC are diagnosed when the neoplastic process have spread out of the suprarenal gland (stage III or IV).
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the most useful diagnostic methods of ACC but the latter is more accurate, especially in estimation of the local invasion of the tumor.
  • Surgery is the main and the most effective method for treatment of both primary and recurrent ACC, and in selective cases--of metastasis.
  • The chemotherapy with mitotane has a limited role and is indicated in cases of inoperable ACC (primary or recurrent) and/or presence of metastasis.
  • Case I: a 26-years-old female with ACC in stage II, which was diagnosed incidentally by ultrasound investigation for other consideration.
  • Problems in diagnose and surgical treatment of these cases are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 11484289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0450-2167
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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21. Wängberg B, Khorram-Manesh A, Jansson S, Nilsson B, Nilsson O, Jakobsson CE, Lindstedt S, Odén A, Ahlman H: The long-term survival in adrenocortical carcinoma with active surgical management and use of monitored mitotane. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):265-72
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOTANE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The long-term survival in adrenocortical carcinoma with active surgical management and use of monitored mitotane.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumour disease with sinister prognosis also after attempts to radical surgery; better prognosis is seen for low-stage tumours.
  • Adjuvant treatment with the adrenolytic drug mitotane has been attempted, but not proven to prevent from recurrence.
  • The drug may offer survival advantage in case of recurrence.
  • The aim of this single-centre study (1979-2007) of 43 consecutive patients was to evaluate the long-term survival after active surgical treatment combined with monitored mitotane (to reduce side effects of the drug).
  • The series is unique, since all patients were offered a period of mitotane as adjuvant or palliative treatment; six patients refused mitotane.
  • Despite a high proportion of high-stage tumours (67%), the complete resection rate was high (77%).
  • The disease-specific 5-year survival was high (64.1%); very high for patients with low-stage tumours without evident relation to mitotane levels.
  • Patients with high-stage tumours had a clear survival advantage with mitotane levels above a threshold of 14 mg/l in serum.
  • The hazard ratio for patients with high mitotane levels versus all patients indicates a significant effect of the drug.
  • The results indicate that adjuvant mitotane may be the standard of care for patients with high-stage ACC after complete resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery. Mitotane / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Endocrine Surgical Procedures / methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Monitoring, Physiologic. Survival Analysis. Survivors / statistics & numerical data. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20026647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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22. Stewart JN, Flageole H, Kavan P: A surgical approach to adrenocortical tumors in children: the mainstay of treatment. J Pediatr Surg; 2004 May;39(5):759-63

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A surgical approach to adrenocortical tumors in children: the mainstay of treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) are rare in the pediatric population.
  • Information on age, sex, presenting symptoms, hormonal levels, pathology, stage, treatment, and outcome was obtained.
  • Of the carcinomas, 3 were stage I, and 5 were stage II.
  • Two patients were treated with chemotherapy because of large tumor size and nodal involvement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that surgical excision continues to be the mainstay of treatment for ACTs.
  • The role of adjuvant chemotherapy remains unclear because most of the children in our series were effectively treated with surgical resection only.
  • Patients should be enrolled in multicenter trials to assess the added value of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15137014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Soga H, Takenaka A, Ooba T, Nakano Y, Miyake H, Takeda M, Tanaka K, Hara I, Fujisawa M: A twelve-year experience with adrenal cortical carcinoma in a single institution: long-term survival after surgical treatment and transcatheter arterial embolization. Urol Int; 2009;82(2):222-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A twelve-year experience with adrenal cortical carcinoma in a single institution: long-term survival after surgical treatment and transcatheter arterial embolization.
  • INTRODUCTION: We retrospectively analyzed 6 cases of adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) treated during a 12-year period at a single institution.
  • Three patients were clinically classified as stage II, 2 as stage III and 1 as stage IV with bone metastasis.
  • Two patients without reoperation for metastases died, and others with radical treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, transcatheter arterial embolization and/or radiation remain alive.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Humans. Japan. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19322014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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24. Tauchmanovà L, Colao A, Marzano LA, Sparano L, Camera L, Rossi A, Palmieri G, Marzano E, Salvatore M, Pettinato G, Lombardi G, Rossi R: Andrenocortical carcinomas: twelve-year prospective experience. World J Surg; 2004 Sep;28(9):896-903

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (AC) is a rare tumor with poor prognosis.
  • Twenty-two patients (14 F, 8 M; age 22 to 59 years; median, 43 years) with AC were evaluated prospectively in a single center: tumor stage was I-II in 12 cases and III-IV in 10.
  • At diagnosis, 14 patients (63.5%) presented with features of clear adrenocortical hyperactivity.
  • The most common clinical finding was a recent diagnosis of moderate-to-severe hypertension (68%), poorly controlled by pharmacological treatment, often associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors.
  • Response to treatments other than surgery (mitotane chemotherapy) was better in patients treated early after the first surgery.
  • In conclusion, curative surgery was the most effective treatment.
  • Monitoring arterial pressure, endocrine parameters, and metabolic parameters can be helpful for the early detection of AC recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15593464.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Xiao ZJ, Li CL: [Combined therapy of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Aug 10;90(30):2123-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Combined therapy of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical efficacy of combined therapy in the treatment of advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 12 cases with advanced adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma at our hospital from 1986 - 2006 were analyzed.
  • All cases were treated with chemotherapy or chemotherapy pulse post-operative radiotherapy.
  • Pathological diagnosis was all of adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma.
  • According to the staging criteria of Jacques and Brennan, all 12 cases were of IV stage.
  • The median survival time was 14 months and median progression-free survival time 9 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Combined therapy of adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma is effective to prolong the patient lifespan.
  • Making an early diagnosis and offering a novel therapy yield a better outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21029628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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26. Martins AC, Cologna AJ, Tucci S Jr, Suaid HJ, Falconi RA: Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms. J Urol; 2005 Jun;173(6):2138-42
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical features and immunoexpression of p53, MIB-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in adrenal neoplasms.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical features and immunoreactivity of p53 protein, MIB-1 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in adrenal neoplasms.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 26 patients with adrenocortical adenoma and 24 patients with carcinoma were treated with adrenalectomy.
  • Carcinoma and adenoma occurring in children presented more commonly as the virilizing syndrome, while in adults Cushing's syndrome was more common.
  • Histological Weiss criteria were the most reliable pathological features to distinguish adenoma from carcinoma.
  • Children and adults with carcinoma had similar curves of survival (p = 0.76).
  • Carcinoma stage and PCNA immunoexpression displayed an association with outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cell Cycle Proteins. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Drosophila Proteins. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15879867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147979-57-5 / mitotic 15 protein, Drosophila; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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