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1. Diaz M, Patterson SG: Management of androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cancer Control; 2004 Nov-Dec;11(6):364-73
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  • [Title] Management of androgen-independent prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Although androgen withdrawal can control prostate cancer for long periods in many patients, controversy exists regarding management when the tumor becomes androgen independent.
  • METHODS: A review of the pertinent literature of the last 20 years was conducted to provide guidance in defining and managing hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
  • RESULTS: Stage D prostate cancer can be subclassified to correlate tumor biology with disease stage.
  • Secondary hormone manipulations may induce responses in patients after failure of initial androgen suppression, and chemotherapy with docetaxel has prolonged survival in patients with androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Secondary hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and bisphosphonate therapy may provide benefits for selected patients.
  • Correlation of disease stage with biologic characteristics of the tumor and host facilitates proper choices of interventions.
  • Docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimens should be considered for first-line treatment of patients with progressive metastatic AIPC.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Estrogens / therapeutic use. Humans. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Ketoconazole / therapeutic use. Male. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Testosterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15625524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-2359
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Taxoids; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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2. Bolla M, Artignan X, Fourneret P, Brochon D, Ringeisen F, Descotes JL: [Neoadjuvant hormonal treatment combined with external irradiation in the management of prostate cancer]. Bull Cancer; 2006 Nov;93(11):1101-5
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  • [Title] [Neoadjuvant hormonal treatment combined with external irradiation in the management of prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] L'association hormonothérapie néoadjuvante et irradiation externe dans les cancers de la prostate.
  • RTOG and EORTC trials have paved the way of the combination of radiation therapy and androgen suppression.
  • Localized carcinoma with intermediate prognostic factors (cT2b, Gleason 7, or baseline PSA ranging between 10 and 20 ng/mL) may be submitted to a 4-month complete androgene blockade with 2 months before irradiation, unless to include patients in ongoing randomized trials.
  • Very high risk prostate cancers, T3-4 N0 M0 or pelvic lymph node involvement (c or pN1) whatever the UICC T stage, need a long term androgen suppression of 3 years or more.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / radiotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 17145579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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3. Sato N, Kotake T, Masai M, Sakai S, Ito H: [Preventive effect of chlormadinone acetate on flare-up phenomenon in advanced prostate cancer administered with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2000 Jan;46(1):1-7
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  • [Title] [Preventive effect of chlormadinone acetate on flare-up phenomenon in advanced prostate cancer administered with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue].
  • To investigate whether chlormadinone acetate (CMA) could prevent the flare-up phenomenon induced by a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LH-RHa), we treated 4 cases of stage C and 17 cases of stage D prostate cancer with CMA for 4 weeks and CMA plus monthly injection of LH-RHa for following 24 weeks.
  • Serum LH, testosterone, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were closely monitored before and 3 days, 1-, 2-, and 4-weeks after LH-RHa injection.
  • CMA seemed to be capable of preventing flare-up phenomenon in advanced prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute-Phase Reaction / prevention & control. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Chlormadinone Acetate / administration & dosage. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Triptorelin Pamoate / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 10723656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0SY050L61N / Chlormadinone Acetate; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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4. Fine RL, Shah SS, Moulton TA, Yu IR, Fogelman DR, Richardson M, Burris HA, Samuels BL, Assanasen C, Gorroochurn P, Hibshoosh H, Orjuela M, Garvin J, Goldman FD, Dubovsky D, Walterhouse D, Halligan G: Androgen and c-Kit receptors in desmoplastic small round cell tumors resistant to chemotherapy: novel targets for therapy. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2007 Mar;59(4):429-37
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  • [Title] Androgen and c-Kit receptors in desmoplastic small round cell tumors resistant to chemotherapy: novel targets for therapy.
  • PURPOSE: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a highly fatal, mainly peritoneal cell origin cancer which predominantly affects young adult males.
  • METHODS: Slides were prepared from 27 multi-institutional patients all with end-stage DSRCT.
  • Slides were stained for AR, c-Kit, various growth factors, and drug resistance-associated proteins.
  • Six patients with positive AR status were treated solely with combined androgen blockade (CAB) as used for prostate cancer.
  • All patients had failed at least two prior multi-agent chemotherapy regimens and 44% had progressed after autologous stem cell transplant.
  • Six patients with positive AR status were treated with CAB alone and three of six attained clinical benefit (1-PR, 1-MR, 1-SD) in a range of 3-4 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Receptors, Androgen / analysis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16896931.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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5. Strosberg JR, Coppola D, Klimstra DS, Phan AT, Kulke MH, Wiseman GA, Kvols LK, North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS): The NANETS consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and management of poorly differentiated (high-grade) extrapulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas. Pancreas; 2010 Aug;39(6):799-800
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  • Extrapulmonary poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas can originate in the gastrointestinal tract, bladder, cervix, and prostate.
  • First-line systemic chemotherapy with a platinum agent (cisplatin or carboplatin) and etoposide is recommended for most patients with metastatic-stage disease; however, response durations are often short.
  • In patients with localized tumors undergoing surgical resection, adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy with or without radiation) is warranted in most cases.

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2002 Jul 15;20(14):3054-60 [12118018.001]
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  • (PMID = 20664477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-4828
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA093401-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA093401-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA093401-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA093401-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA093401-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA093401-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA093401-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA093401-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA093401; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA093401-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA093401-05
  • [Publication-type] Consensus Development Conference; Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS286321; NLM/ PMC3100733
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6. Hoshi S, Yamaguchi O, Fujioka T, Arai Y, Tomita Y, Habuchi T, Ohyama C, Suzuki T, Orikasa S, Tohoku Prostate Cancer Study Group: A randomized comparative study of endocrine monotherapy and a combination of estramustine phosphate with the endocrine therapy in patients with untreated stage D prostate cancer. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Aug;11(4):303-8
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  • [Title] A randomized comparative study of endocrine monotherapy and a combination of estramustine phosphate with the endocrine therapy in patients with untreated stage D prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: We investigated the clinical efficacy and the prolongation of survival with combination therapy of estramustine phosphate (EMP) and endocrine therapy in untreated patients with progressive prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: We randomly divided 57 patients with untreated stage D prostate cancer into two groups, an endocrine monotherapy group and a group receiving combination treatment, consisting of endocrine therapy plus EMP.
  • Treatment was continued until deterioration.
  • However, overall survival was significantly prolonged in the combination therapy group (log-rank test, P = 0.0394; generalized Wilcoxon's test, P = 0.0145).
  • In particular, overall survival was significantly prolonged, compared to that in the endocrine monotherapy group, in patients in the combination therapy group who were less than 74 years old, those with a performance status (PS) of 1 to 3, a pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of more than 20 ng/ml, moderately or poorly differentiated carcinoma, or a partial response (PR) based on the PSA level 12 weeks after the start of treatment.
  • There was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects between the combination therapy and the endocrine monotherapy groups.
  • CONCLUSION: A combination of EMP with endocrine therapy may be useful for initial treatment in younger patients (aged 73 or younger) and in patients at high risk of progressive prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Estramustine / administration & dosage. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / adverse effects. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis

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  • [ErratumIn] Int J Clin Oncol. 2006 Dec;11(6):492-3
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  • (PMID = 16937304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 35LT29625A / Estramustine
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7. Kageyama S, Narita M, Kim CJ, Hanada E, Sakano Y, Iwaki H, Yoshiki T, Okada Y: [Small cell carcinoma of the prostate: a report of three patients and a prognostic analysis of cases reported in Japan]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Oct;52(10):809-15
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  • [Title] [Small cell carcinoma of the prostate: a report of three patients and a prognostic analysis of cases reported in Japan].
  • Small cell carcinoma (SCC) originating from the prostate is rare.
  • We report three cases of SCC of the prostate.
  • Case 1: A 29-year-old man with large pelvic mass and pelvic lymph node metastases was diagnosed as having pure SCC of the prostate.
  • Although cystoprostatectomy combined with pre- and post-operative chemotherapy ended with no evidence of disease, he died after 16 months because of multiple metastases and local recurrence.
  • Case 3: A 73-year-old man was diagnosed as having SCC and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the prostate simultaneously.
  • Chemo-endocrine therapy and pelvic irradiation were performed, achieving partial remission.
  • However, he developed multiple distant metastases, and died of disease 15 months after diagnosis.
  • Many patients had lymph node or distant metastases (stage D, 73%).
  • Survival did not differ in patients with pure SCC or mixed glandular and small cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17131874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Candura SM, Fonte R, Cantale G, Paolotti D, Biscaldi G: [Small cell carcinoma of the prostate. Description of a case]. Recenti Prog Med; 2000 Nov;91(11):567-70
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  • [Title] [Small cell carcinoma of the prostate. Description of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma a piccole cellule della prostata. Descrizione di un caso.
  • The case of a 73-year-old man with metastatic small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the prostate is described.
  • Seric neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was enhanced (75.4 ng/mL), while the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was in the normal range.
  • Therapy with etoposide and carboplatin induced a temporary partial remission, with fairly good quality of life and decrease of the NSE levels (down to 15.0 ng/mL).
  • The case confirms that prostatic SCC (a rare and very aggressive neoplasm) is usually diagnosed in an advanced stage.
  • Treatment is problematic, however chemotherapy may prolong survival allowing, at least temporarly, an acceptable life quality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11125949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-1193
  • [Journal-full-title] Recenti progressi in medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recenti Prog Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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9. Berruti A, Dogliotti L, Mosca A, Bellina M, Mari M, Torta M, Tarabuzzi R, Bollito E, Fontana D, Angeli A: Circulating neuroendocrine markers in patients with prostate carcinoma. Cancer; 2000 Jun 1;88(11):2590-7
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  • [Title] Circulating neuroendocrine markers in patients with prostate carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Circulating neuroendocrine markers were measured in patients with prostate carcinoma (PC), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) with the goal to:.
  • 3) compare values in patients with hormone-naive and hormone-refractory disease; and 4) assess changes after androgen deprivation or chemotherapy.
  • CgA was monitored in 31 patients submitted to androgen deprivation and in 24 patients receiving chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Supranormal CgA was observed more frequently in patients with American Urologic Association (AUA) Stage D2 disease (45.5%) compared with those with Stage D1 disease (33.3%), Stage C disease (16.7%), Stage A/B disease (18.8%), PIN (25.9%), and BPH (17.0%) (P < 0.02).
  • Elevated baseline CgA values decreased > 50% in 1 of 12 patients who received luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs and in 2 of 12 patients who underwent chemotherapy.
  • Elevated CgA values correlate with poor prognosis and are scarcely influenced by either endocrine therapy or chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / blood. Chromogranins / blood. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / blood. Prostatic Hyperplasia / blood. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 10861438.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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10. Sasaki T, Komiya A, Suzuki H, Shimbo M, Ueda T, Akakura K, Ichikawa T: Changes in chromogranin a serum levels during endocrine therapy in metastatic prostate cancer patients. Eur Urol; 2005 Aug;48(2):224-9; discussion 229-30
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  • [Title] Changes in chromogranin a serum levels during endocrine therapy in metastatic prostate cancer patients.
  • INTRODUCTION: The concept of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer has become more widely recognized as its diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic usefulness.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 38 patients with stage D prostate cancer who underwent endocrine therapy by medical or surgical castration and oral antiandrogen.
  • According to PSA response, serum levels of CGA as a marker of NE differentiation were measured at the multiple points of time;.
  • (1) pre-treatment, (2) complete response (CR), (3) a nadir level of PSA, (4) PSA failure or hormone independent progression.
  • We compared these serum values in relation to efficacy of endocrine therapy.
  • Serum CGA increased as intervals of endocrine therapy became longer with positive correlation (p < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: During endocrine therapy in metastatic prostate cancer patients, serum CGA values were not related to serum PSA levels, and increased as treatment periods became longer.
  • It is suggested that CGA velocity has potential to predict androgen independent progression after endocrine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chromogranins / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Statistics, Nonparametric


11. Santen RJ, Petroni GR, Fisch MJ, Myers CE, Theodorescu D, Cohen RB: Use of the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate carcinoma. Cancer; 2001 Oct 15;92(8):2095-101
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  • [Title] Use of the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Men with prostate carcinoma initially respond to therapies designed to inhibit androgen secretion or block its action.
  • Later, the tumors in these patients become refractory to androgen-related therapies.
  • Reports of androgen receptor mutations and historic clinical observations raised the hypothesis that estrogens might be involved in the proliferation of androgen-refractory prostate carcinoma.
  • METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, 14 men with advanced prostate carcinoma that was refractory to medical or surgical orchiectomy and antiandrogens were entered into a clinical Phase II trial involving suppression of estrogens.
  • Follow-up included serial determinations of prostate specific antigen (PSA), measurements of evaluable lesions, and assessment of intensity of pain.
  • Minimal improvement of bone pain was reported in two patients receiving intensive analgesic medication.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the dependence of androgen-insensitive prostate carcinoma on estrogens for proliferation is uncommon and that aromatase inhibitors may not have a place in the treatment of prostate carcinoma at this stage of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Aromatase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Triazoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pain Measurement. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11596025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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12. Asmis TR, Reaume MN, Dahrouge S, Malone S: Genitourinary (GU) small cell carcinoma (SCC): A retrospective review of treatment and survival patterns at the Ottawa Regional Cancer Center (ORCC). J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):4545

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genitourinary (GU) small cell carcinoma (SCC): A retrospective review of treatment and survival patterns at the Ottawa Regional Cancer Center (ORCC).
  • : 4545 Background: SCC of the bladder (SCCB), prostate (SCCP), and kidney (SCCK) remains a therapeutic challenge.
  • Much debate exists in the literature about the ideal course of therapy.
  • Demographic, staging, treatment and outcome data was extracted.
  • The Veterans Administration small cell lung cancer classification of limited and extensive disease was adapted to the genitourinary system(limited:disease localized to the true and false pelvis, extensive:disease beyond the pelvis).
  • RESULTS: 555, 858 and 5066 new cases of primary renal, bladder and prostate cancer respectively, were identified.
  • Surviving patients received similar therapy with transurethral resection of the bladder tumor, platinum chemotherapy, etoposide (4-6 cycles), and radical radiotherapy (56-60 Gray).
  • 2/10 had limited stage.
  • Of these two patients one was treated with platinum chemotherapy and etoposide followed by radical radiotherapy (66 Gray), the other patient had a poor performance status at diagnosis and was treated with palliative hormonal ablation and radiotherapy.
  • Our table illustrates the median survival according to site and stage (SCCB and SCCP combined) at diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support that GU SCC is an aggressive cancer.
  • We have found that limited stage SCCB and SCCP, when treated with platinum/etoposide chemotherapy along with radical radiotherapy tends to have a more favourable outcome than that of extensive GUSCC.

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  • (PMID = 28016041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Martínez-Cornelio A, González-Pérez J, Tabares-García Fde J, Ramos-Salgado F, Alvarado-Cabrero I, Hernández-Toriz N: [Androgen-deprivation therapy in the management of neuroendocrine prostate cancer]. Cir Cir; 2009 Jul-Aug;77(4):293-9; 273-8
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  • [Title] [Androgen-deprivation therapy in the management of neuroendocrine prostate cancer].
  • BACKGROUND: Prostatic neuroendocrine carcinomas comprise <1% of all prostate neoplasms, and approximately 200 cases have been reported in the literature.
  • We undertook this study to describe the experience in the management of prostatic neuroendocrine carcinoma with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).
  • In patients with suspicion of prostate cancer, transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy (TRUS) or transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) was carried out during the period from January 2000 to December 2007.
  • Patients were selected by anatomopathological diagnostic study of neuroendocrine carcinoma including pure and mixed variants.
  • Characteristics analyzed were age, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), imaging studies, treatment and survival.
  • In three (30%) patients, PSA was suspicious for prostate cancer.
  • In six (60%) patients mixed variant was documented (acinar adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma) with a median survival of 11.6 months.
  • In four patients (40%), pure neuroendocrine carcinoma was documented with a median survival of 7 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic neuroendocrine carcinoma is uncommon, aggressive and represents a prostatic neoplasia without PSA expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19919791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
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14. Francini G, Petrioli R, Gonnelli S, Correale P, Pozzessere D, Marsili S, Montagnani A, Lucani B, Rossi S, Monaco R, Manganelli A, Salvestrini F, Fiaschi AI: Urinary calcium excretion in the monitoring of bone metastases from prostatic carcinoma. Cancer; 2001 Sep 15;92(6):1468-74
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  • [Title] Urinary calcium excretion in the monitoring of bone metastases from prostatic carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: One of the greatest problems in treating advanced prostate carcinoma is monitoring the therapeutic response of bone metastases.
  • As these metastases are mainly osteosclerotic and lead to a markedly increased bone calcium requirement that may give rise to an imbalance in calcium homeostasis, the authors investigated whether changes in calcium balance may be useful for evaluating the response of bone metastases to treatment.
  • METHODS: The study involved 268 prostate carcinoma patients: 142 in Stage A-C2 (International Union Against Cancer [UICC] staging system, 1998) and 126 with bone metastases who had failed to respond to hormone therapy and were receiving chemotherapy.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), calcium and phosphate metabolism, and the main bone formation and resorption markers were all assayed before and after chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Of the 126 patients on chemotherapy, 109 were evaluable for response: according to standard criteria, 25 (23%) had improved, 43 (39.5%) were unchanged, and 41 (37.5%) had worsened.
  • All of the improved and 16 unchanged patients had decreased PSA and bone marker levels and an increased urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (UCa/Cr); the worsened patients had increased PSA and bone marker levels, and their UCa/Cr decreased after only six treatment cycles.
  • PSA and UCa/Cr were the biochemical markers whose changes showed the best agreement with treatment response.
  • CONCLUSION: The UCa/Cr ratio was the most useful marker of clinical response, mainly because it allowed an early decision to continue or to stop chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Creatinine / urine. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Monitoring, Physiologic. Neoplasm Staging. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis


15. Pilepich MV, Winter K, Lawton CA, Krisch RE, Wolkov HB, Movsas B, Hug EB, Asbell SO, Grignon D: Androgen suppression adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma--long-term results of phase III RTOG 85-31. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Apr 1;61(5):1285-90
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  • [Title] Androgen suppression adjuvant to definitive radiotherapy in prostate carcinoma--long-term results of phase III RTOG 85-31.
  • PURPOSE: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 85-31 was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of adjuvant androgen suppression, using goserelin, in unfavorable prognosis carcinoma of the prostate treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible patients were those with palpable primary tumor extending beyond the prostate (clinical Stage T3) or those with regional lymphatic involvement.
  • In Arm I, the drug was to be started during the last week of RT and was to be continued indefinitely or until signs of progression.
  • CONCLUSION: In a population of patients with unfavorable prognosis carcinoma of the prostate, androgen suppression applied as an adjuvant after definitive RT was associated not only with a reduction in disease progression but in a statistically significant improvement in absolute survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Androgen Antagonists. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Prostatectomy. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2005 Nov;2(11):536-7 [16474596.001]
  • (PMID = 15817329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-32115
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin
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16. Berruti A, Dogliotti L, Mosca A, Gorzegno G, Bollito E, Mari M, Tarabuzzi R, Poggio M, Torta M, Fontana D, Angeli A: Potential clinical value of circulating chromogranin A in patients with prostate carcinoma. Ann Oncol; 2001;12 Suppl 2:S153-7
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  • [Title] Potential clinical value of circulating chromogranin A in patients with prostate carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation of prostate adenocarcinoma has received increasing attention in recent years as a result of possible implications for prognosis and therapy.
  • METHODS: This article provides a review on published papers evaluating circulating CgA in prostate cancer patients.
  • RESULTS: Circulating CgA levels were found to be higher in prostate cancer patients than in patients with benign or pre-malignant prostatic diseases.
  • In patients with malignancy, they correlated either to the stage of disease or to the condition of hormone refractoriness.
  • CgA levels did not correlate with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and were supranormal in the majority of advanced patients with PSA within normality.
  • CgA values were not substantially affected by either endocrine therapy or chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Present data suggest a potential role of circulating CgA in the management of prostate cancer patients.
  • Serial evaluation of circulating CgA could provide information on changes in the NE phenotype expression as a consequence of tumor progression and/or treatment administration.

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  • (PMID = 11762344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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17. Köbel M, Xu H, Bourne PA, Spaulding BO, Shih IeM, Mao TL, Soslow RA, Ewanowich CA, Kalloger SE, Mehl E, Lee CH, Huntsman D, Gilks CB: IGF2BP3 (IMP3) expression is a marker of unfavorable prognosis in ovarian carcinoma of clear cell subtype. Mod Pathol; 2009 Mar;22(3):469-75
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  • [Title] IGF2BP3 (IMP3) expression is a marker of unfavorable prognosis in ovarian carcinoma of clear cell subtype.
  • Clear cell carcinoma is an uncommon subtype of ovarian carcinoma, accounting for 10% of cases.
  • Clear cell carcinoma typically presents with stage I or II disease, and in this setting prognostic markers could aid in management decisions, in particular the decision to treat with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • We tested whether expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3, also known as IMP3) can serve as a new biomarker to predict outcome for patients with clear cell carcinoma and other subtypes of ovarian carcinoma.
  • We conclude that IGF2BP3 is the first biomarker of prognostic significance in ovarian clear cell carcinoma that has been validated in an independent case series.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19136932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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18. Isayeva T, Chanda D, Kallman L, Eltoum IE, Ponnazhagan S: Effects of sustained antiangiogenic therapy in multistage prostate cancer in TRAMP model. Cancer Res; 2007 Jun 15;67(12):5789-97
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  • [Title] Effects of sustained antiangiogenic therapy in multistage prostate cancer in TRAMP model.
  • Antiangiogenic therapy is a promising alternative for prostate cancer growth and metastasis and holds great promise as an adjuvant therapy.
  • The present study evaluated the potential of stable expression of angiostatin and endostatin before the onset of neoplasia and during the early and late stages of prostate cancer progression in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice.
  • The effects of therapy were determined by sacrificing groups of treated mice at defined stages of tumor progression and following cohorts of similarly treated mice for long-term survival.
  • Results indicated remarkable survival after recombinant adeno-associated virus-(E+A) therapy only when the treatment was given at an earlier time, before the onset of high-grade neoplasia, compared with treatment given for invasive cancer.
  • Interestingly, early-stage antiangiogenic therapy arrested the progression of moderately differentiated carcinoma to poorly differentiated state and distant metastasis.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of the prostate from treated mice indicated significantly lower endothelial cell proliferation and increased tumor cell apoptosis.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 expression was significantly down-regulated in tumor endothelium after treatment but not VEGFR-1.
  • Analysis of the neuroendocrine marker synaptophysin expression indicated that antiangiogenic therapy given at an early-stage disease reduced neuroendocrine transition of the epithelial tumors.
  • These studies indicate that stable endostatin and angiostatin gene therapy may be more effective for minimally invasive tumors rather than advanced-stage disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Angiostatins / administration & dosage. Endostatins / administration & dosage. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Genetic Therapy / methods. Genetic Vectors. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / drug effects. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Synaptophysin / drug effects. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17575146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA98817
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Endostatins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 86090-08-6 / Angiostatins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
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19. Hirano D, Okada Y, Minei S, Takimoto Y, Nemoto N: Neuroendocrine differentiation in hormone refractory prostate cancer following androgen deprivation therapy. Eur Urol; 2004 May;45(5):586-92; discussion 592
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine differentiation in hormone refractory prostate cancer following androgen deprivation therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) status and hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) following hormone therapy based on immunohistochemical study.
  • METHODS: Seventy-two prostate cancer specimens obtained at radical prostatectomy and 21 prostate cancer autopsy specimens from patients who died from HRPC after androgen deprivation therapy were examined for NED status using an antibody against chromogranin A.
  • These specimens were classified into 3 arms: 38 radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with no neoadjuvant hormone therapy (Group 1); 34 from patients with neoadjuvant hormone therapy for 3 to 6 months (Group 2); and 21 autopsy specimens from patients with HRPC following androgen deprivation therapy for more than 1 year (Group 3).
  • Staining of prostatic carcinoma was scored as: 0 = no staining; 1 = staining cells <10%; 2 = staining cells 10-20%; and 3 = staining cells >20%.
  • Multivariate analysis using a logistic regression model was performed to examine whether NED status was associated with pathological stage (pT), grade and group.
  • NED status increased with longer duration of hormone therapy (p<0.0001).
  • HRPC following Long-term hormonal therapy was the only independent predictor of NED.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrated that NED status was significantly increased in patients with HRPC following long-term androgen deprivation therapy, but it could not be discriminate whether the increase of NED is attributable to condition of hormone refractoriness or long-term hormonal therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15082200.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
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20. Hoff AO, Gagel RF: Osteoporosis in breast and prostate cancer survivors. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Apr;19(5):651-8
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  • [Title] Osteoporosis in breast and prostate cancer survivors.
  • Recent advances in treatment modalitiesfor breast and prostate cancer have resulted in an increasing number of patients that are cured or that, despite residual disease, live long enough to start experiencing complications from cancer treatment.
  • Osteoporosis is one such problem that has been increasingly identified in cancer patients.
  • In patients with prostate carcinoma, androgen-deprivation therapy by either treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or bilateral orchiectomy results in increased bone turnover, significant bone loss, and increased risk of fractures.
  • Patients with breast cancer are at increased risk for estrogen deficiency due to age-related menopause, ovarian failure from systemic chemotherapy, or from the use of drugs such as aromatase inhibitors and GnRH analogs.
  • Several studies have indicated that the prevalence of fractures is higher in breast and prostate cancer patients compared to the general population.
  • Therefore, patients at risk for bone loss should have an assessment of their bone mineral density so that prevention or therapeutic interventions are instituted at an early enough stage to prevent fractures.
  • This article will address the characteristics of bone loss observed in breast and prostate cancer patients and potential treatments.


21. Miller N, Smolkin ME, Bissonette E, Theodorescu D: Undetectable prostate specific antigen at 6-12 months: a new marker for early success in hormonally treated patients after prostate brachytherapy. Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;103(12):2499-506
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  • [Title] Undetectable prostate specific antigen at 6-12 months: a new marker for early success in hormonally treated patients after prostate brachytherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The concept of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) "nadir" has been used as a predictive marker for treatment success in patients treated with radiotherapy for localized prostate carcinoma.
  • However, this approach is not applicable in patients who are concomitantly treated with short-term hormonal therapies.
  • To address this, the authors sought to develop a new predictive marker in such patients after prostate brachytherapy (BT).
  • METHODS: Between March 1997 and November 2002, 194 men with clinical Stage T1A-T3N0M0 prostate carcinoma (according to the 1992 International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM classification system) were treated with interstitial palladium (103Pd3) BT and androgen ablation therapy with or without external beam radiotherapy (EBRT).
  • Hormonal therapy was initiated 2-3 months before any radiotherapy for a total duration of 8-9 months.
  • Postoperative serum testosterone was evaluated in preoperatively potent patients with erectile dysfunction > 6 months after therapy.
  • A PSA level < or = 0.06 ng/mL or < or = 0.20 ng/mL detected during a 6-12-month window after the implant were evaluated as predictors of biochemically disease-free survival (DFS), defined as the time to a PSA level > or = 1.0 ng/mL.
  • Furthermore, because testosterone levels may occasionally remain low after the cessation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy and result in erectile dysfunction and an artificially low PSA level, the authors reviewed the serum testosterone levels in 23 patients who were so treated and were experiencing erectile dysfunction.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A PSA level < or = 0.20 ng/mL or < or = 0.06 ng/mL measured at 6-12 months after BT appears to be a useful predictive marker for detecting early success in patients with prostate carcinoma who are treated with neoadjuvant androgen ablation and BT.
  • These markers may be used to identify those patients who are at an increased risk of biochemical failure and may be useful in stratifying patients for closer follow-up, long-term adjuvant therapies, or clinical trials.
  • A longer follow-up period will be needed to verify whether these are predictive of long-term cancer control.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Finasteride / therapeutic use. Humans. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Palladium / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Testosterone / blood. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15852361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Radioisotopes; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57GNO57U7G / Finasteride; 5TWQ1V240M / Palladium; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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22. Kris MG, Natale RB, Herbst RS, Lynch TJ Jr, Prager D, Belani CP, Schiller JH, Kelly K, Spiridonidis H, Sandler A, Albain KS, Cella D, Wolf MK, Averbuch SD, Ochs JJ, Kay AC: Efficacy of gefitinib, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, in symptomatic patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a randomized trial. JAMA; 2003 Oct 22;290(16):2149-58
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  • [Title] Efficacy of gefitinib, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, in symptomatic patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a randomized trial.
  • CONTEXT: More persons in the United States die from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than from breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer combined.
  • In preclinical testing, oral gefitinib inhibited the growth of NSCLC tumors that express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a mediator of cell signaling, and phase 1 trials have demonstrated that a fraction of patients with NSCLC progressing after chemotherapy experience both a decrease in lung cancer symptoms and radiographic tumor shrinkages with gefitinib.
  • Patients (N = 221) had either stage IIIB or IV NSCLC for which they had received at least 2 chemotherapy regimens.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Improvement of NSCLC symptoms (2-point or greater increase in score on the summed lung cancer subscale of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung [FACT-L] instrument) and tumor regression (>50% decrease in lesion size on imaging studies).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gefitinib, a well-tolerated oral EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, improved disease-related symptoms and induced radiographic tumor regressions in patients with NSCLC persisting after chemotherapy.


23. Borgoño CA, Fracchioli S, Yousef GM, Rigault de la Longrais IA, Luo LY, Soosaipillai A, Puopolo M, Grass L, Scorilas A, Diamandis EP, Katsaros D: Favorable prognostic value of tissue human kallikrein 11 (hK11) in patients with ovarian carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2003 Sep 10;106(4):605-10
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  • [Title] Favorable prognostic value of tissue human kallikrein 11 (hK11) in patients with ovarian carcinoma.
  • Recently, we developed a highly sensitive and specific immunoassay for hK11 and found that this protease is expressed in the prostate, stomach and trachea as well as in amniotic fluid and milk of lactating women.
  • Elevated serum hK11 levels were found in 60% of men with prostate cancer and 70% of women with ovarian cancer.
  • We hypothesized that hK11 may be implicated in endocrine-related malignancies and serve as a novel prostate and ovarian cancer serological marker.
  • An optimal cutoff value of 0.54 ng/mg was selected to categorize tumors as hK11-positive or -negative. hK11-positive tumors were more frequently associated with early stage (Stage I/II) disease, pre-/peri-menopausal status and patients who exhibited complete or partial response to chemotherapy (p < 0.05).
  • These results indicate that hK11 is a novel, independent marker of favorable prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Up-Regulation

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12845660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R1CA93568-O1A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / trypsin-like serine protease; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases
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24. Hong WK: The current status of docetaxel in solid tumors. An M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Review. Oncology (Williston Park); 2002 Jun;16(6 Suppl 6):9-15
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  • [Title] The current status of docetaxel in solid tumors. An M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Review.
  • In less than a decade, docetaxel (Taxotere) has progressed from initial studies in anthracycline-refractory metastatic breast cancer to several large, phase III randomized trials evaluating its efficacy as adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and ovarian cancer.
  • In other tumor types, including prostate, head and neck, gastric, and bladder cancer, ongoing phase III trials are comparing docetaxel-containing regimens to previously established regimens.
  • For the seven tumor types reviewed in this supplement, phase III study information for docetaxel or docetaxel-based combinations are presented.
  • In early-stage and metastatic breast cancer, NSCLC, and ovarian cancer, randomized trials have shown that docetaxel-containing therapies are superior to or as effective as established standard chemotherapeutic regimens and are often associated with an improved safety profile.
  • Trials of docetaxel as adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer are under way or have been completed.
  • For example, a survival benefit was demonstrated in anthracycline-resistant breast cancer and second-line NSCLC cancer phase III comparative trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Taxoids
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • (PMID = 12108903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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25. Blum KA, Johnson JL, Niedzwiecki D, Piro LD, Saven A, Peterson BA, Byrd JC, Cheson BD, Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 9153: Prolonged follow-up after initial therapy with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma: results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 9153. Cancer; 2006 Dec 15;107(12):2817-25
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  • [Title] Prolonged follow-up after initial therapy with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine in patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma: results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 9153.
  • METHODS: For this multicenter, single-arm, Phase II study, 44 patients with treatment-naive, stage III or IV, indolent NHL (International Working Formulation subtypes A, B, and C) were enrolled.
  • Four late malignancies (prostate adenocarcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ, and myelodysplasia) and 4 patients with large cell transformation were reported.
  • CONCLUSIONS: 2-CdA is an active, well-tolerated therapy for patients with untreated, indolent NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cladribine / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17120198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA02599; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04326; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04457; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07968; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA08025; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11789; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA12046; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA26806; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31983; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33601; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35279; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA41287; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47555; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47559; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47577; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77597; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77658
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine
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26. Cellini N, Luzi S, Morganti AG, Mantini G, Valentini V, Racioppi M, Leone M, Mattiucci GC, Di Gesù C, Giustacchini M, Destito A, Smaniotto D, Alcini E: Hormono-radiotherapy in prostatic carcinoma: prognostic factors and implications for combined modality treatment. Tumori; 2002 Nov-Dec;88(6):495-9
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  • [Title] Hormono-radiotherapy in prostatic carcinoma: prognostic factors and implications for combined modality treatment.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of several clinical variables in a patient population undergoing neoadjuvant hormonotherapy (NHT) with external beam radiotherapy (ERT) to identify subsets of patients with an unfavorable prognosis who require intensified therapy.
  • Eighty-four patients (mean age, 68.2 +/- 6.1 years; range, 52-81 years) underwent ERT (45 Gy to pelvic volume; 65 Gy mean dose to prostate volume) and NHT (oral flutamide: 250 mg three times daily for 30 days; LH-RH analogue: one vial every 28 days starting two months before radiotherapy and for its entire duration).
  • The distribution according to clinical stage was T2: 46.4%, T3: 50.0%, T4: 3.6%.
  • At univariate analysis (log-rank) clinical stage (cT) was shown to be significantly correlated with the incidence of metastasis (P = 0.0004), local progression (P < 0.0001) and disease-free survival (P = 0.0005).
  • At multivariate analysis (Cox) the correlations between clinical stage and metastasis (P = 0.0175), local progression (P = 0.0200) and disease-free survival (P = 0.0175) were confirmed.
  • These results confirm the indications of the recent literature, which, in prostate carcinoma at higher clinical stages, suggest the use of prolonged hormonal therapy after radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12597145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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27. Molinié V, Longchampt E, Ouazana D, Lebret T: [Bladder tumors and molecular markers. Current status and perspectives]. Ann Pathol; 2003 Sep;23(4):306-31
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  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs de vessie et marqueurs moléculaires: bilan et perspectives.
  • With 15,000 new cases each year, bladder tumors are the second leading urological cancer in France, after prostate carcinoma.
  • In spite of advances in surgical techniques and therapeutic protocols based on trans-urethral resection associated with additive treatment (immunotherapy or endovesical chemotherapy), the natural course of superficial bladder tumors remains marked by two risks: recurrence and progression.
  • In spite of the impressive efforts developed by molecular biologists searching for new specific markers, none of the markers can currently replace histological features such as stage and grade.
  • Although detection of microsatellite instability is a promising approach, numerous difficulties limit the use of these markers and prevent their application in routine practice.
  • Let us hope that the new techniques for tissue analysis such as DNA or tissue-arrays developed for simultaneous analysis of hundreds or even thousands of tumors will allow identification and validation of biological and even therapeutic markers.

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Pathol. 2003 Sep;23(4):293-6 [14597893.001]
  • (PMID = 14597895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 160
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28. Goeman L, Joniau S, Ponette D, Van der Aa F, Roskams T, Oyen R, Van Poppel H: Is low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia a risk factor for cancer? Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis; 2003;6(4):305-10
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  • [Title] Is low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia a risk factor for cancer?
  • INTRODUCTION: High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is generally accepted to be a precursor lesion of prostate cancer.
  • The likely outcome of isolated low-grade PIN (LGPIN) lesions in prostate biopsies remains unclear.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 2-y period, 207 men were diagnosed with isolated PIN on standard systematic sextant biopsy of the prostate.
  • No patients had ever received androgen deprivation therapy, chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  • In the LGPIN group, 30% of the patients had cancer in at least one of the repeat biopsy cores.
  • In the HGPIN group, 27% had cancer in at least one of the repeat biopsy cores.
  • The mean total PSA of patients who had cancer in repeat biopsies with LGPIN was 7.84 ng/ml (range 2.92-34.13).
  • The mean total PSA of the patients who had cancer in repeat biopsy in the HGPIN was 6.73 ng/ml (range 0.56-25).
  • There was no significant difference in PSA and pathological stage between those patients who did and those who did not receive selenium-vitamin E supplements.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data are intriguing since the risk of finding prostate carcinoma on repeat sextant biopsy in the LGPIN group is 30%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Risk Factors. Selenium / pharmacology. Vitamin E / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 14663472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-7852
  • [Journal-full-title] Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; H6241UJ22B / Selenium
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29. Hobisch A, Ramoner R, Fuchs D, Godoy-Tundidor S, Bartsch G, Klocker H, Culig Z: Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) generated after long-term interleukin 6 (IL-6) treatment express IL-6 and acquire an IL-6 partially resistant phenotype. Clin Cancer Res; 2001 Sep;7(9):2941-8
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  • [Title] Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) generated after long-term interleukin 6 (IL-6) treatment express IL-6 and acquire an IL-6 partially resistant phenotype.
  • PURPOSE: The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) are frequently elevated in sera from patients with advanced prostate carcinoma.
  • Our main objective was to investigate changes in responsiveness to IL-6 and/or androgen that occur in LNCaP cells after long-term treatment with IL-6.
  • This in vitro model could be of clinical relevance because of its similarity with late-stage prostate carcinoma.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: LNCaP human prostate cancer cells were treated with IL-6 at a concentration of 5 ng/ml.
  • LNCaP cells passaged at the same time in the absence of IL-6 were used as controls (LNCaP-IL-6-).
  • Cells were counted after treatment with either IL-6 or the synthetic androgen methyltrienolone (R1881), and cell cycle analysis was performed.
  • Prostate-specific antigen in LNCaP-IL-6+ supernatants was measured by an enzyme immunoassay.
  • In parallel, IL-6 binding decreased gradually during long-term IL-6 treatment and, in HP, reached only 33% of the levels measured in controls.
  • However, androgen- and IL-6-induced prostate-specific antigen secretion decreased in long-term IL-6-treated cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term treatment of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells with IL-6 leads to abolishment of inhibitory growth response.
  • [MeSH-major] Interleukin-6 / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgens / metabolism. Androgens / pharmacology. Binding, Competitive. Cell Count. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Metribolone / metabolism. Metribolone / pharmacology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / drug effects. Prostate-Specific Antigen / secretion. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Tritium. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11555613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 10028-17-8 / Tritium; 2C323EGI97 / Metribolone; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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30. Hewish M, Chau I, Cunningham D: Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor targeted therapeutics: novel compounds and novel treatment strategies for cancer medicine. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov; 2009 Jan;4(1):54-72
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor targeted therapeutics: novel compounds and novel treatment strategies for cancer medicine.
  • The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and its associated signalling system has provoked considerable interest over recent years as a novel therapeutic target in cancer.
  • A brief outline of the IGF-1R signalling system and the rationale for its use in cancer medicine is given.
  • This is followed by a discussion of the different possible targets within the IGF-1R system, and drugs developed to interact at each target.
  • The following tumour types are specifically discussed: lung, breast, colorectal, pancreatic, NETs, sarcoma, prostate, leukaemia, multiple myeloma.
  • Other tumour types are mentioned briefly: squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, melanoma, glioblastoma, ovary, gastric and mesothelioma.
  • Results of early stage clinical trials, involving recently patented drugs. are included where appropriate.
  • We then outline the current understanding of toxicity related to IGF-1R targeted therapy, and finally outline areas for further research.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, Insulin / physiology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 19149688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1574-8928
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent patents on anti-cancer drug discovery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Insulin
  • [Number-of-references] 149
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31. Prezioso D, Lotti T, Polito M, Montironi R: Neoadjuvant hormone treatment with leuprolide acetate depot 3.75 mg and cyproterone acetate, before radical prostatectomy: a randomized study. Urol Int; 2004;72(3):189-95
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant hormone treatment with leuprolide acetate depot 3.75 mg and cyproterone acetate, before radical prostatectomy: a randomized study.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of neoadjuvant hormone treatment before radical prostatectomy on: tumor/prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and testosterone levels, surgical margin status and tumor stage, and the ease of surgery following treatment.
  • METHODS: Patients with clinically localized prostatic carcinoma were randomized to receive leuprolide acetate depot 3.75 mg once a month for 3 months and cyproterone acetate 300 mg once a week for 3 weeks prior to surgery (group A).
  • In group A, 31% of patients had a reduction in tumor/prostate volume following hormone therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant hormone therapy before radical prostatectomy has some effects in the treatment of prostate cancer.
  • However, long-term follow-up of patients is needed to assess the impact of this therapy on morbidity and mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Cyproterone Acetate / administration & dosage. Leuprolide / administration & dosage. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Delayed-Action Preparations. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Prostatectomy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 15084760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 4KM2BN5JHF / Cyproterone Acetate; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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