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1. Julka PK, Puri T, Rath GK: A phase II study of gemcitabine and carboplatin combination chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2006 Feb;5(1):110-4
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  • [Title] A phase II study of gemcitabine and carboplatin combination chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder have advanced, unresectable tumor at the time of presentation and face a dismal prognosis in the absence of a standard palliative chemotherapy regimen.
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined chemotherapy of gemcitabine and carboplatin in 20 patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The criteria of eligibility included chemonaive patients with unresectable gallbladder cancer, bidimensionally measurable disease, Zubrod's performance status < or = 2, and adequate major organ function.
  • RESULTS: In this group of 20 patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma 6 were men and 14 women, with a median age of 55 years.
  • The stage of the tumor at presentation was IVB in 14 patients (70%), IVA in 3 (15%) and III in 3 (15%).
  • The median time to progression of the tumor was 33.8 weeks, and 1-year survival rate of the patients was 43.3%.
  • CONCLUSION: With mild toxicity, combined chemotherapy of gemcitabine and carboplatin is effective in the treatment of advanced gallbladder carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16481295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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2. Mahantshetty UM, Palled SR, Engineer R, Homkar G, Shrivastava SK, Shukla PJ: Adjuvant radiation therapy in gall bladder cancers: 10 years experience at Tata Memorial Hospital. J Cancer Res Ther; 2006 Apr-Jun;2(2):52-6
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  • [Title] Adjuvant radiation therapy in gall bladder cancers: 10 years experience at Tata Memorial Hospital.
  • Although these are considered radio-resistant, adjuvant radiation, with or without chemotherapy, has been tried to improve loco-regional control and overall survival rates.
  • With an aim to evaluate the natural history of gall bladder cancers, role of radiation therapy (RT) and prognostication, a retrospective analysis was undertaken.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1991-2000, 60 patients with gall bladder cancer, treated with radical intent, were evaluated.
  • The details of post-operative adjuvant treatment, including radiation therapy details, as well as chemotherapeutic agents, number of cycles and type of infusion [bolus/infusion], were noted.
  • On histopathological staging, 28 patients (46.5%) had stage II, 19 (32%) had stage III, 12 (20%) had stage-I and 1 patient had stage IV disease.
  • Thirteen (21%) patents did not receive any adjuvant treatment, 32 (53%) patients received adjuvant RT alone, 8(14%) received post-operative CT+RT and 7 (12%) patients received CT alone.
  • Stage grouping ('P' = 0.007), Pathological T ('P' = 0.01) had significant impact on DFS on univariate analysis, where as histological grade ('P' = 0.06) showed trend towards significance.
  • Early diagnosis and curative surgery, followed by appropriate adjuvant radiation therapy, may improve survivals, with no established consensus till date.
  • Following curative surgery, pathological T stage and stage grouping, are the significant prognostic factors for outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Humans. India. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17998675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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3. Ogo Y, Nio Y, Yano S, Toga T, Koike M, Hashimoto K, Itakura M, Maruyama R: Immunohistochemical expression of HER-1 and HER-2 in extrahepatic biliary carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1B):763-70
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of HER-1 and HER-2 in extrahepatic biliary carcinoma.
  • The clinicopathological significance of HER-1- and HER-2-overexpressions (OE) (HercepTest score 2+ or 3+) in biliary cancer and their relationship to the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) were assessed.
  • In 72 biliary cancer (28 gallbladder and 44 bile duct cancer), HER-1 and HER-2 were stained immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens.
  • Out of the 72 cancer, OE was observed in 31 specimens (43%) for HER-1 and 47 (65%) for HER-2.
  • HER-2-OE was inversely correlated with the clinical stage (p=0.0482).
  • HER-1-OE was correlated with distant metastasis (p=0.0263), but not with the clinical stage.
  • In conclusion, neither HER-1-OE or HER-2-OE were prognostic factors of the biliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16739351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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4. Tewari M, Kumar V, Mishra RR, Kumar M, Shukla HS: Is there a role for cholecystectomy in gallbladder carcinoma discovered to be unresectable for cure at laparotomy? World J Surg; 2008 Dec;32(12):2683-7
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  • [Title] Is there a role for cholecystectomy in gallbladder carcinoma discovered to be unresectable for cure at laparotomy?
  • BACKGROUND: Palliative operative resection in patients with locally advanced cancer of the gallbladder (GBC) found not to be amenable to radical resection for cure at exploration has received little attention.
  • Of these, 30 patients (group I) with GBC (T(3-4),N(0-1),M(0)) treated with cholecystectomy +/- biliary bypass were selected and compared with equal number of controls matched for age (+/-5 years), sex, histopathology, stage, residence, and postoperative chemotherapy who underwent biopsy +/- biliary bypass only (group II) followed by chemotherapy during the same period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. India. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] World J Surg. 2008 Dec;32(12):2688-9 [18850247.001]
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  • (PMID = 18836852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Hong YS, Lee J, Lee SC, Hwang IG, Choi SH, Heo JS, Park JO, Park YS, Lim HY, Kang WK: Phase II study of capecitabine and cisplatin in previously untreated advanced biliary tract cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2007 Aug;60(3):321-8
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  • [Title] Phase II study of capecitabine and cisplatin in previously untreated advanced biliary tract cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Biliary tract cancer is one of the most aggressive and chemotherapy-refractory tumors.
  • Although only curative treatment modality is surgery, most patients are not suitable for surgery due to advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis.
  • Thus most patients with biliary tract cancer are possible candidates for palliative chemotherapy.
  • We performed a phase II study of combination chemotherapy with capecitabine and cisplatin in these patients to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of the regimen.
  • METHODS: Patients with previously untreated metastatic, recurrent, or inoperable biliary tract cancer were enrolled.
  • Response was assessed for every two cycles of chemotherapy and treatment was stopped when tumor had progressed or stable with no further response.
  • Fifteen patients (46.9%) had gallbladder cancer, 13 (40.6%) had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and 4 (12.5%) had extrahepatic biliary cancer.
  • The median time to progression was 3.5 months (95% CI, 1.3-5.8), and the median overall survival was 12.4 months (95% CI, 6.3-18.5) after the median follow-up duration of 9.5 months (4.8-26.1 months).
  • A total of 108 cycles of chemotherapy was delivered.
  • There was no treatment-related death.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination chemotherapy of capecitabine and cisplatin demonstrated a promising antitumor activity with mild toxicity profile in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recurrence. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17143602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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6. Hou CS, Xu Z, Zhang TL, Peng Y, Ling XF, Wang LX, Zhou XS: [Prognostic analysis of T1 and T2 stage gallbladder cancer with invasion within the gallbladder wall]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Dec 1;44(23):1620-3
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  • [Title] [Prognostic analysis of T1 and T2 stage gallbladder cancer with invasion within the gallbladder wall].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of different treatment procedure on the prognosis of T1 and T2 stage gallbladder cancer with the invasion within the gallbladder wall.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 45 patients with pathologic stage T1 and T2 gallbladder cancer who had undergone surgical resection from 1990 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: Depth of invasion (T), radical cholecystectomy and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors on Cox multivariate analysis.
  • The 5-year survival rates of patients with T1a, T1b and T2 stage gallbladder cancer who underwent simple cholecystectomy without postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy were 100%, 67% and 0, respectively.
  • Without postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, the 5-year survival rates of patients with T2 stage gallbladder cancer who underwent simple cholecystectomy and radical cholecystectomy were 0 and 63%, respectively.
  • There was significant difference between the survival time of T2 patients who had undergone simple cholecystectomy with and without postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of patients with T1 stage gallbladder cancer is much better than that of T2 stage.
  • The 5-year survival rates of patients with T1a and T1b stage gallbladder cancer who received simple cholecystectomy are relatively good.
  • Radical cholecystectomy and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy can improve the prognosis of patients with T2 gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholecystectomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17359693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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7. Wang BL, Zhai HY, Chen BY, Zhai SP, Yang HY, Chen XP, Zhao WT, Meng L: Clinical relationship between MDR1 gene and gallbladder cancer. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2004 May;3(2):296-9
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  • [Title] Clinical relationship between MDR1 gene and gallbladder cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is the expression of an energy-dependent exfflux pump.
  • It is a major therapeutic problem in cancer chemotherapy.
  • The aim of this study is to study the expression of MDR1 gene encoding P-gp and MDRl mRNA in primary gallbladder carcinoma, and analyze its clinical significance.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) S-P method and in situ polymerase chain reaction (ISPCR) were used to detect the expression of P-gp and MDR1 mRNA in 53 cases of untreated primary gallbladder carcinoma and 12 cases of cholecystitis (archival paraffin-embedded tissues).
  • The positive expression rate of P-gp and MDR1mRNA were 69.44%, 83.33% and 41.18%, 47.06% respectively in tissues in stage of Nevin I-III against Nevin IV, V (P<0.05).
  • In well, moderately differentiated gallbladder carcinoma tissues, their expressions were 79.49%, 69.23% against 50.00%, 35.71% in low, undifferentiated tissues (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MDR to gallbladder carcinoma is closely related to the intrinsic MDR and it provides an important evidence to reverse the MDR by detection of the MDR1 gene.
  • Meanwhile, MDR1 gene expression in gallbladder carcinoma is correlated with some biological characteristics, takes part in the carcinogenesis of gallbladder tissues, and acts as a valuable biomarker of prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Gallbladder Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, MDR / genetics. P-Glycoprotein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15138130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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8. Kresl JJ, Schild SE, Henning GT, Gunderson LL, Donohue J, Pitot H, Haddock MG, Nagorney D: Adjuvant external beam radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy in the management of gallbladder carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Jan 1;52(1):167-75
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  • [Title] Adjuvant external beam radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy in the management of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: This study was performed to evaluate the outcome of patients with gallbladder cancer who received postoperative concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Curative resection followed by adjuvant combined modality therapy with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy was attempted in 21 consecutive gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) patients at the Mayo Clinic from 1985 through 1997.
  • EBRT fields encompassed the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes (median dose of 54 Gy in 1.8-2.0-Gy fractions).
  • One patient received 15 Gy intraoperatively after EBRT.
  • One patient had Stage I disease, and 20 had Stage III-IV disease.
  • The 5-year survival rate of patients with Stage I-III disease was 65% vs. 0% for those with Stage IV disease (p < 0.02).
  • Five-year local control rates were 100% for the 6 patients who received total EBRT doses >54 Gy (microscopic residual, 3 patients; gross residual, 1 patient; negative but narrow margins, 2 patients) vs. 65% for the 15 who received a lower dose (3, gross residual; 2, microresidual; 10, negative margins).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with completely resected (negative margins) GBC followed by adjuvant EBRT plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy had a relatively favorable prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of 64%.
  • Both tumor stage and extent of resection seemed to influence survival and local control.
  • More aggressive measures using current cancer therapies and integration of new cancer treatment modalities will be required to favorably impact on the poor prognosis of patients with Stage IV or subtotally resected GBC.
  • Additional investigation leading to earlier diagnosis is warranted, because most patients with GBC present with advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11777635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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9. Abou-Alfa GK, Rowinsky EK, Patt YZ, Schwartz GK, Kelsen DP, Sharma S, Siegel E, Becerra CR, Eckhardt SG, Feit K, De Jager R, O'Reilly EM: A Phase II study of intravenous exatecan administered daily for 5 days, every 3 weeks to patients with biliary tract cancers. Am J Clin Oncol; 2005 Aug;28(4):334-9
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  • A multicenter phase II study to determine the antitumor activity of exatecan was conducted in patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Patients with 0 to 1 prior chemotherapy regimens, adequate major organ function, and metastatic disease were eligible.
  • A Simon optimal 2-stage design was employed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Area Under Curve. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Half-Life. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Topoisomerase I Inhibitors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16062073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; 0 / exatecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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10. Duffy A, Capanu M, Abou-Alfa GK, Huitzil D, Jarnagin W, Fong Y, D'Angelica M, Dematteo RP, Blumgart LH, O'Reilly EM: Gallbladder cancer (GBC): 10-year experience at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC). J Surg Oncol; 2008 Dec 1;98(7):485-9
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  • [Title] Gallbladder cancer (GBC): 10-year experience at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre (MSKCC).
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in the US is 1.2/100,000.
  • This report examines the patterns of presentation, adjuvant treatment and survival of a large cohort of patients with GBC evaluated at MSKCC over a 10-year period.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients referred to MSKCC with a diagnosis of GBC between January 1995 and December 2005 was performed.
  • Patients were identified from the MSKCC cancer registry.
  • Information extracted included, demographics, clinical and pathological stage, surgical management, pathology, adjuvant and palliative therapy, date of relapse, death or last follow-up.
  • Date of diagnosis was defined as date of surgery or biopsy.
  • 36.6% presented as AJCC Stage IV.
  • Of those who underwent curative resections (N = 123), 8 (6.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy, 8 (6.5%) chemoradiation alone and 8 (6.5%) both chemoradiation and systemic chemotherapy.
  • The median survival for those presenting with stage Ia-III disease was 12.9 months (95% CI 11.7-15.8 months) and 5.8 months (95% CI 4.5-6.7) for those presenting with stage IV disease.
  • The median survival for those who received adjuvant therapy was 23.4 months (95% CI 15.7-47).
  • Although we did not observe a survival benefit for those who received adjuvant therapy, the study did not have sufficient power to address this question.
  • In addition, the number of patients who received adjuvant therapy was small with marked heterogeneity in clinical and therapeutic details, precluding any definitive conclusions being drawn.
  • Prospective randomized trials of adjuvant therapy are needed in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholecystectomy. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Hepatectomy. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Neuroendocrine Tumors / mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma / mortality. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18802958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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11. Malik IA: Clinicopathological features and management of gallbladder cancer in Pakistan: a prospective study of 233 cases. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2003 Aug;18(8):950-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological features and management of gallbladder cancer in Pakistan: a prospective study of 233 cases.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gallbladder cancer is common in Pakistan and has an extremely poor prognosis.
  • Treatment is primarily surgical.
  • Chemotherapy is frequently used in patients with advanced disease.
  • This study was performed to evaluate and compare the clinicopathological features and management of gallbladder cancer in Pakistani patients, with particular emphasis on factors that influence survival.
  • METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-three patients with histologically proven gallbladder cancer were studied.
  • Information was prospectively collected on demographic features, clinical and laboratory findings at the time of presentation, influence of therapy, and survival.
  • The majority (69%) had a history of symptomatic gallbladder disease.
  • Most had abnormal hepatic function tests and 58% had elevated carcinoma embryonic antigen levels.
  • Stage (P < 0.001), jaundice (P = 0.01) and palpable mass (P = 0.02) were statistically significant variables.
  • However, on multivariate analysis, tumor node metastases (TNM) stage was the only factor influencing survival.
  • Median survival of the patients was 44 months for patients with stage I disease, 23 months for stage II, 17 months for stage III and 6 months for stage IV.
  • Most patients presented at an advanced stage of disease and had an extremely poor prognosis.
  • Systemic therapy did not provide any survival benefit.
  • The TNM stage remains the most important factor influencing survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12859725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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12. Puhalla H, Bareck E, Scheithauer W, Ploner M, Stiglbauer W, Depisch D: [Therapy of gallbladder carcinoma. Experience of a central hospital]. Chirurg; 2002 Jan;73(1):50-6
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  • [Title] [Therapy of gallbladder carcinoma. Experience of a central hospital].
  • [Transliterated title] Die Therapie des Gallenblasenkarzinoms. Eine Standortanalyse.
  • INTRODUCTION: There are various options for the treatment of gallbladder carcinoma; however, only radical resection offers a chance for prolonged survival.
  • METHODS: The aim of this study was to analyze retrospectively patients suffering from gallbladder carcinoma in a central hospital in Austria.
  • RESULTS: In 28 patients the cancer was resected and 22 persons underwent palliative surgery.
  • Eleven patients had no surgical therapy, 10 persons received gemcitabine or a combination chemotherapy regimen consisting of leucoverin, 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C.
  • The median survival of patients without chemotherapy following radical resection (n = 15) was 10.7 months (one patient with metastatic cancer was excluded) and for patients with tumor remaining margins (n = 8) 3.2 months (P = 0.023).
  • Without chemotherapy the median patient survival following palliative resection (n = 17) and explorative laparotomy (n = 15) was 1.5 months and 2.1 months.
  • The median survival without surgical therapy was 1.6 months.
  • Chemotherapy was administered to four of the resected patients (median survival 16.5 months), in five patients following palliative surgery and in one patient after explorative laparotomy (median survival 4.3 months) (P = 0.034).
  • Following radical resection in an early tumor stage and combining this approach with an established chemotherapy, patient survival could be increased significantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cholecystectomy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Palliative Care. Postoperative Care. Regression Analysis. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11974462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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13. Konstantinidis IT, Deshpande V, Genevay M, Berger D, Fernandez-del Castillo C, Tanabe KK, Zheng H, Lauwers GY, Ferrone CR: Trends in presentation and survival for gallbladder cancer during a period of more than 4 decades: a single-institution experience. Arch Surg; 2009 May;144(5):441-7; discussion 447
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  • [Title] Trends in presentation and survival for gallbladder cancer during a period of more than 4 decades: a single-institution experience.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of incidentally found cases of gallbladder cancer, the incidence of residual disease at reexploration, and the changes in the mode of presentation, treatment, and survival of patients with gallbladder cancer during a period of more than 4 decades.
  • PATIENTS: Between January 1, 1962, and March 1, 2008, 402 patients with gallbladder cancer were identified and their clinicopathologic data were analyzed.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Surgical treatment, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidentally discovered gallbladder cancer, incidence of residual disease, and differences in presentation, treatment, and survival.
  • Between January 1, 1994, and March 1, 2008, 6881 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed, and there were 17 incidentally discovered cases of gallbladder cancer (0.25%).
  • Patients with stage IV disease (34 [13.1%] diagnosed from 1962-1979; 34 [13.1%] diagnosed from 1980-1997; and 22 [8.5%] diagnosed from 1998-2008) had a median survival of 4 months (range, 0-37 months).
  • Cox regression analysis identified T stage and surgical margin status as significant prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gallbladder cancer is incidentally found during 0.25% of laparoscopic cholecystectomies.
  • As T stage increases, the likelihood of residual disease on reexploration increases.
  • Although many patients with gallbladder cancer present with incurable disease and have very poor survival, the overall prognosis is improving, likely because of more extensive operations.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / epidemiology. Neoplasm, Residual / therapy. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19451486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Dwary AD, Sharma A, Mohanti BK, Pal S, Garg P, Raina V, Shukla NK, Deo SV, Thulkar S, Sreenivas V: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing best supportive care (BSC), 5-FU plus folinic acid (FUFA) and, gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (Gem-Ox) in management of unresectable gallbladder cancer (GBC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4521

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  • [Title] A randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing best supportive care (BSC), 5-FU plus folinic acid (FUFA) and, gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin (Gem-Ox) in management of unresectable gallbladder cancer (GBC).
  • Surgery is the only curative treatment.
  • Unfortunately most patients present in advance and unresectable stage (median survival 3-4 months).
  • Chemotherapy regimens for GBC are not yet standardized.
  • Planned sample size was 81 to have type I & type II error probabilities of 0.05 & 0.2 respectively.
  • Secondary end points were to compare PFS in three arms and toxicity analysis of chemotherapy arms.
  • Inclusion criteria were: proven unresectable GBC, performance state ≤2, adequate bone marrow reserve and normal biochemical profile (bilirubin≤3 mg % & liver enzymes within 5 times of upper limit).
  • Patients in BSC group received symptomatic treatment without anticancer therapy.
  • Chemotherapy arms were generally well tolerated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Probably this is the first RCT confirming efficacy of chemotherapy (Gem-Ox) compared to BSC in improving OS and PFS in unresectable GBC.
  • Both chemotherapy arms were well tolerated.

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  • (PMID = 27962726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Chatterjee A, Bhattacharya S, Chatterjee AK, Biswas J, Mukhopadhyay B: A prospective observational clinical study involving an alternative cancer treatment, psorinum therapy, in treating stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, and liver cancers. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):3050

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A prospective observational clinical study involving an alternative cancer treatment, psorinum therapy, in treating stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, and liver cancers.
  • : 3050 Background: The prospective observational clinical study was conducted to know the efficacy of an alternative cancer treatment, 'psorinum therapy,' in treating liver, gall bladder, pancreatic, and stomach cancers.
  • The secondary outcome measure of the study was to assess the side effects of the investigational anti-cancer drug (psorinum) if any.
  • METHODS: The drug psorinum (an alcoholic extract of scabies, scrub, slough, and pus cells) was administered orally at 0.01ml-0.02 ml/Kg body weight as a single dose in empty stomach per day and ongoing to all the participants along with allopathic and homeopathic supportive cares.
  • RESULTS: 158 histopathology or cytopathology proved participants (42 of stomach, 40 of gallbladder, 44 of pancreas, and 32 of liver cancers) were included in the final analysis at the end of the study.
  • According to the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system, 7 (4.43%) of them diagnosed at stage II, 39 (24.68%) of them diagnosed at late stage II or early stage III and 112 (70.87%) of them diagnosed at late stage III or stage IV.
  • These participants did not receive any other conventional or investigational cancer treatments.
  • The participants report no side effects from the drug psorinum.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Psorinum therapy is effective in treating stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, and liver cancers.
  • Double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial should be done for further investigation of this alternative cancer treatment.

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  • (PMID = 27961982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Malka D, Trarbach T, Fartoux L, Mendiboure J, de la Fouchardière C, Viret F, Assenat E, Boucher E, Rosmorduc O, Greten T: A multicenter, randomized phase II trial of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) alone or in combination with biweekly cetuximab in the first-line treatment of advanced biliary cancer: Interim analysis of the BINGO trial. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4520

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  • [Title] A multicenter, randomized phase II trial of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) alone or in combination with biweekly cetuximab in the first-line treatment of advanced biliary cancer: Interim analysis of the BINGO trial.
  • : 4520 Background: There is no standard regimen for palliative chemotherapy of advanced biliary cancers.
  • METHODS: Patients with advanced biliary cancer, WHO performance status 0-1, and without prior palliative chemotherapy were eligible for this international, open-label, two-stage, randomized phase II trial.
  • Randomization was stratified according to tumor stage and location, center, and prior treatments.
  • A data safety monitoring board-approved interim analysis was performed at the end of the first stage (18 patients per arm, minimal follow- up 4 months).
  • RESULTS: From October 2007 to October 2008, we enrolled 101 patients (median age, 62 yrs; male, 60%; metastatic, 86%; non-gallbladder, 76%).
  • Among the 36 patients at the time of the interim analysis, the median number of treatment cycles was 6 and 8 in arms A and B, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The GEMOX-cetuximab regimen seems well tolerated in patients with advanced biliary cancer.

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  • (PMID = 27962727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Endo I, Masunari H, Sugita M, Morioka D, Tanaka K, Togo S, Sekido H, Yoshida T, Shimada H: [Indications for combined resection and reconstruction of the hepatic artery in biliary tract carcinoma]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2001 Nov;102(11):820-5

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  • [Title] [Indications for combined resection and reconstruction of the hepatic artery in biliary tract carcinoma].
  • More than 10 years have passed since hepatic artery resection was first performed for the treatment of biliary tract cancer.
  • The safety of this procedure has been established with the introduction of the microsurgery technique.
  • However, the benefits of and indications for this treatment have not yet been clarified.
  • Twenty-three patients underwent vascular resection (portal vein in 7, portal vein + hepatic artery in 9, hepatic artery in 7) among 114 resected patients with biliary tract cancer in our institution.
  • The curative resection rate was 88.9% in hilar bile duct cancer.
  • Cumulative 5-year survival rates of vascular resection patients with hilar bile duct cancer, lower bile duct cancer, gallbladder cancer, and cholangiocarcinoma were 14.8%, 25%, 0%, and 0%, respectively.
  • On the other hand, the rates were 38.9%, 0%, 0%, and 0%, in the stage III + IV patients who did not undergo vascular resection.
  • The longest survival period among patients with hilar bile duct cancer and lower bile duct cancer was 85 months and 65 months, respectively, whereas it was 15 months in gallbladder cancer and 20 months in cholangiocarcinoma patients.
  • No hilar bile duct cancer patient who survived for more than 3 years had lymph node metastasis.
  • The longest surviving cholangiocarcinoma patient has received adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin.
  • It is concluded that patients with hilar bile duct cancer are good candidates for vascular resection.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy should be administered to gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma patients, because vascular resection alone does not result in prolongation of life in these patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11729649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Park HS, Lim JY, Yoon DS, Park JS, Lee DK, Lee SJ, Choi HJ, Song SY, Lee WJ, Cho JY: Outcome of adjuvant therapy for gallbladder cancer. Oncology; 2010;79(3-4):168-73
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  • [Title] Outcome of adjuvant therapy for gallbladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of adjuvant therapy on the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) after curative resection (RO) of patients with TNM stage II gallbladder (GB) cancer.
  • Among 61 stage II GB cancer patients, 43 received adjuvant therapy, while 18 others received surgery alone.
  • RESULTS: OS was not significantly different among the adjuvant therapies (p = 0.180), but DFS was (p = 0.033).
  • The 3-year OS and DFS from surgery alone, adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and adjuvant concurrent chemo-radiotherapy were 64, 78, 36 and 36%, and 56, 69, 14 and 47%, respectively.
  • Overall, the chemotherapy group had a better prognosis, although there were no significant differences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data from this study do not provide evidence that adjuvant therapy is an effective treatment option for curative resected GB cancer.
  • A large randomized controlled study is necessary to confirm the efficacy of adjuvant therapy.
  • Newer adjuvant studies should be focused on gemcitabine-based chemotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy with molecular-based target agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21212704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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19. Iyer RV, Gibbs J, Kuvshinoff B, Fakih M, Kepner J, Soehnlein N, Lawrence D, Javle MM: A phase II study of gemcitabine and capecitabine in advanced cholangiocarcinoma and carcinoma of the gallbladder: a single-institution prospective study. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Nov;14(11):3202-9
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  • [Title] A phase II study of gemcitabine and capecitabine in advanced cholangiocarcinoma and carcinoma of the gallbladder: a single-institution prospective study.
  • AIM: To determine the clinical benefit response (CBR), time to tumor progression (TTP), overall survival, and effect on quality of life (QOL) of gemcitabine and capecitabine in patients with advanced biliary cancer.
  • All patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire and Pancreatic Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-C30-PAN 26) questionnaire on day 1 of each cycle.
  • The two-stage design required 17 patients to evaluate the confirmed response at nine weeks.
  • Four out of seven patients with CBR had no decline in QOL with chemotherapy.
  • There were no treatment-related deaths.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine and capecitabine at this dose and schedule are well tolerated and effective and may offer clinical benefit and maintain QOL in patients with advanced biliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Capecitabine. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17705089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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20. Medina-Franco H, Ramos-Gallardo G, Orozco-Zepeda H, Mercado-Díaz MA: [Prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer]. Rev Invest Clin; 2005 Sep-Oct;57(5):662-5
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  • [Title] [Prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Factores pronósticos en cáncer de vesícula.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer is a rare and aggressive neoplasm.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this manuscript was to evaluate the prognostic factors associated with overall survival in gallbladder cancer patients.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the patients with gallbladder cancer who received attention in a tertiary referral center in Mexico City during a 13 year period (1990-2002).
  • We evaluated demographic, clinical, pathological and treatment variables.
  • Fifty-seven percent of patients had previous diagnosis of cholelithiasis.
  • Eighty-six percent were found to have stage IV.
  • On univariate analysis surgery, early stage, chemotherapy, Karnofsky 2 80 and serum albumin > 3.0 g/dL were associated with better prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of gallbladder cancer presented with advanced stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16419459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-8376
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de investigación clínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Invest. Clin.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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21. Gómez-Roel X, Arrieta O, León-Rodríguez E: Prognostic factors in gallbladder and biliary tract cancer. Med Oncol; 2007;24(1):77-83
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in gallbladder and biliary tract cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancers of the gallbladder and bile ducts are uncommon neoplasms with poor survival.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients with cancer of the bile ducts and gallbladder between the years 1979 and 1998, and analyzed their characteristics according to location (gallbladder, extrahepatic biliary tract, intrahepatic biliary tract, and Klatskin tumors).
  • RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-eight patients were included; the mean follow-up time was 238 +/- 54 d.
  • Overall survival time was 254 +/- 40 d.
  • The factors significantly associated to increased survival were age at diagnosis less than 50 yr (p = 0.0065), surgical treatment (p < 0.001), adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0072, respectively), surgical treatment with curative purpose (p < 0.001), stage of the disease (p < 0.0001), absence of jaundice (p = 0.0425), and absence of weight loss (p = 0.0446).
  • In the multivariate analysis the significant variables were age, surgical treatment, adjuvant chemotherapy, surgery with curative purpose, stage of the disease, and absence of jaundice.
  • Chemotherapy was an independent survival factor despite the context, there is need of future studies to define its role on this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17673815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Horiuchi H, Kawamata H, Fujimori T, Kuroda Y: A MEK inhibitor (U0126) prolongs survival in nude mice bearing human gallbladder cancer cells with K-ras mutation: analysis in a novel orthotopic inoculation model. Int J Oncol; 2003 Oct;23(4):957-63
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  • [Title] A MEK inhibitor (U0126) prolongs survival in nude mice bearing human gallbladder cancer cells with K-ras mutation: analysis in a novel orthotopic inoculation model.
  • Most cases of gallbladder cancer are found at an advanced stage accompanied by invasion to the liver, metastases to the lymph nodes and distant organs, and peritoneal dissemination.
  • Then, the treatment for advanced gallbladder cancer is often ineffective, and the prognosis of this disease is poor.
  • The specific aim of this study was to establish a model system for developing new therapeutic strategies, such as molecular target therapy, for human advanced gallbladder cancer.
  • We used a human gallbladder cancer cell line, NOZ with K-ras mutation in this experiment.
  • Then, we established a novel orthotopic inoculation model for gallbladder cancer by using NOZ cells in nude mice.
  • All of the mice orthotopically inoculated by NOZ cells developed tumors at the gallbladder.
  • Nude mice with NOZ tumor at gallbladder were treated by an intraperitoneal injection of a MAPK kinase inhibitor U0126 (25 micro mole/kg) twice a week.
  • U0126 (p=0.0110, one-way ANOVA) significantly prolonged the survival duration of the mice with NOZ gallbladder tumor.
  • Our orthotopic inoculation model is useful for developing new therapeutic strategies, such as molecular target therapy for advanced gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Butadienes / pharmacology. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gallbladder / cytology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Genes, ras. Mutation. Nitriles / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 12963974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Butadienes; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / U 0126; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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23. Gold DG, Miller RC, Haddock MG, Gunderson LL, Quevedo F, Donohue JH, Bhatia S, Nagorney DM: Adjuvant therapy for gallbladder carcinoma: the Mayo Clinic Experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Sep 1;75(1):150-5
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy for gallbladder carcinoma: the Mayo Clinic Experience.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy on gallbladder carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed the records from consecutive patients who underwent R0 resection of gallbladder carcinoma between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 2004.
  • Patients had either Stage I (T1-T2N0M0) or Stage II (T3N0M0 or T1-T3N1M0) disease.
  • Patients undergoing adjuvant therapy received 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy (median dosage, 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions).
  • Adverse prognostic factors and the effect of adjuvant treatment on overall survival (OS) were evaluated.
  • On univariate analysis, no adverse prognostic factors for OS reached statistical significance, but trends were noted for Stage N1 vs. N0 (p = .06), Nx vs. N0 (p = .09), Stage T3 vs. T1-T2 (p = .06), and histologic findings other than adenocarcinoma (p = .13).
  • However, a significantly greater percentage of patients receiving adjuvant chemoradiotherapy had Stage II disease (p <.001).
  • CONCLUSION: After adjusting for the stage parameters and histologic findings, our data suggest that adjuvant chemoradiotherapy might improve OS for patients with gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / mortality. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19297105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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24. Garioud A, Seksik P, Chrétien Y, Corphechot C, Poupon R, Poupon RE, Chazouillères O: Characteristics and clinical course of primary sclerosing cholangitis in France: a prospective cohort study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Jul;22(7):842-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • At entry, 11 patients had a diagnosis of hepatobiliary or colon malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma: n = 5, hepatocellular carcinoma: n = 2, gallbladder carcinoma: n = 1 and colorectal cancer: n = 4).
  • RESULTS: During follow-up [3.9 (0.1-7.2) years], colorectal cancer was diagnosed in four patients and biliary carcinoma in two (incidences: 0.76 and 0.38 for 100 patient-years, respectively).
  • Main causes of death (n = 10) were cancer (n = 5, including three colorectal cancers and two cholangiocarcinoma) or liver failure (n = 4).
  • Indications for transplantation (n = 25) were end-stage liver disease (n = 16), biliary cancer (known or suspected) (n = 5), recurrent acute cholangitis (n = 3) or pruritus (n = 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / mortality. Liver Failure / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / drug effects. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cohort Studies. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. France / epidemiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Incidence. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Transplantation. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Ursodeoxycholic Acid / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19779305.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5687
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid
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