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1. Chen CH, Chao KC, Wang PH: Advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma with skin metastasis. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Sep;46(3):264-6
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  • [Title] Advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma with skin metastasis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Although cervical cancer is a very common gynecologic malignancy, skin metastasis presenting as an initial sign of recurrent or persistent disease is extremely rare.
  • CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old woman was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (FIGO stage, IIB), which was treated with concurrent chemoradiation.
  • After treatment, she was followed up regularly, without evidence of disease.
  • Some of skin lesions grew rapidly.
  • Excision biopsy was performed and showed metastatic carcinoma, favoring a squamous cell type.
  • The patient then underwent a series of imaging examinations, including magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis and computed tomography of the chest, and a whole body bone scan showed disseminated diseases involving the lung and bone.
  • Palliative chemotherapy was prescribed, and the skin lesions responded relatively well, but disease involving the vital organs still progressed during treatment.
  • The patient died of the disease 6 months after the appearance of the skin lesion.
  • CONCLUSION: This report supports the concept that skin metastasis is a late manifestation and an ominous sign for cervical cancer patients, and also indicates the uncontrolled or widespread metastasis of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17962107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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2. Gil Z, Fliss DM: Contemporary management of head and neck cancers. Isr Med Assoc J; 2009 May;11(5):296-300
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  • HNCs can originate in the skin or soft tissue, in the upper aerodigestive tracts (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands), or in the thyroid.
  • In each of these sites, tumors vary not only by the primary site but also by pathophysiology, biological behavior, and sensitivity to radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • The main goals of therapy are ablation of the cancer while minimizing morbidity and preserving function and cosmesis.
  • Early-stage HNC (stage I and II) should be managed with a single modality, and advanced tumors (stage III and IV) with multimodality therapy.
  • Treatment should be directed to the primary tumor and the area of its lymphatic drainage--the neck lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neck Dissection. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19637508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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3. Yamazaki N: [Squamous cell carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Oct;33(10):1392-7
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  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma].
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is common skin malignancy arising from malignant proliferation of the keratinocytes of the epidermis.
  • Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight is the most important risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment provide the best opportunity to cure cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Although it is locally invasive, squamous cell carcinomas usually remain localized and can be cured by a variety of techniques.
  • Surgical excision is the most broadly used treatment for high-risk squamous cell carcinoma.
  • It is well-tolerated, extremely effective, and the completeness of the procedure can be evaluated through histologic assessment of the specimen's margins.
  • About 10 percent of squamous cell carcinomas in Japan spread to regional lymph nodes or more distant sites with a relatively poor outcome.
  • Five-year cure rates are reported to be 85 to 80 percent for Japanese patients with squamous cell carcinomas, respectively.
  • Recommendations for surgical margins vary depending upon the risk of local recurrence, especially; squamous cell carcinomas with perineural extension also need more extensive procedures.
  • Recently the sentinel lymph node biopsy technique is being evaluated for its ability to detect microscopic involvement in patients with high-risk patients who have no clinical evidence of lymph node metastasis.
  • Systemic chemotherapy has been to limited benefit in patients with disseminated squamous cell carcinoma patients.
  • The ability of current chemotherapy protocols to increase the cure ratio in squamous cell carcinoma is still controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Sunlight / adverse effects. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17033226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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4. Marioni G, Doro D, Marino F, Verdecchia P, Staffieri C, Staffieri A: Skin and eye: uncommon sites of distant metastasis from tongue base squamous cell carcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol; 2003 Dec;123(9):1110-4
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  • [Title] Skin and eye: uncommon sites of distant metastasis from tongue base squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The frequency of non-lymphatic distant metastases from primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) appears to be higher than previously presumed.
  • The incidence reported in autopsy studies is approximately three to four times higher than that in clinical studies.
  • Metastases to the skin are unusual.
  • We report the first case of synchronous intraocular (involving the choroid and vitreous body) and cutaneous metastases from a recurrent tongue base SCC in a 64-year-old woman who had undergone radiotherapy, bilateral neck dissection and chemotherapy.
  • Cytological evaluation of vitreous aspirate and histological diagnosis of the skin lesion were performed < 1 month before the patient's death.
  • Skin metastases occur in 1-4% of patients with diagnosed head and neck SCC and are usually associated with advanced or recurrent disease.
  • The average survival time after diagnosis of ocular or skin metastases from head and neck SCC is 7 months.
  • Treatment for eye and skin metastases is palliative and rarely alters patient outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Choroid. Eye Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Vitreous Body


5. Thariat J, Badoual C, Hans S, Meatchi T, Housset M: Skin metastasis of head and neck carcinoma predictive for dismal outcome. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(6):8
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  • [Title] Skin metastasis of head and neck carcinoma predictive for dismal outcome.
  • A 64-year-old female with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma presented with an innocuous appearing macule on the abdomen.
  • The lesion rapidly enlarged over 2 weeks into an inflammatory 5 cm fleshy nodule that was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and was found to overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
  • A fatal outcome occurred 3 months after the initial diagnosis of cancer, in spite of chemotherapy and treatment with EGFR inhibitors (cetuximab).
  • Cutaneous metastases occur in 10 percent of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck.
  • In a patient with cancer, the possibility of distant skin metastasis should be considered whenever new cutaneous nodules appear.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cetuximab. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Surgical Procedures, Operative

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  • (PMID = 18713589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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6. Ghaemmaghami F, Modares M, Behtash N, Moosavi AZ: Multiple, disseminated cutaneous metastases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2004 Mar-Apr;14(2):384-7
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  • [Title] Multiple, disseminated cutaneous metastases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous metastases of vulvar carcinoma are extremely rare and have been reported in six patients so far.
  • After detecting stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, she underwent radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy.
  • Six months later, she came back with multiple advanced skin lesions.
  • For her palliation, some chemotherapy drugs were prescribed.
  • She is on her sixth chemotherapy cycle, but these skin lesions are somewhat a preterminal event and there is no well-established treatment for this phase of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Buttocks. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15086744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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7. Ben Said B, Maitre S, Perrot JL, Labeille B, Cambazard F: [Hypercalcemia-hyperleukocytosis paraneoplastic syndrome complicating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Report of two cases]. Rev Med Interne; 2010 Apr;31(4):309-11
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  • [Title] [Hypercalcemia-hyperleukocytosis paraneoplastic syndrome complicating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Report of two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Syndrome paranéoplasique hypercalcémie-hyperleucocytose au cours des carcinomes épidermoïdes cutanés. A propos de deux observations.
  • INTRODUCTION: We report two cases of hypercalcemia-hyperleucocytosis paraneoplastic syndrome complicating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • CASE REPORTS: The first patient, a 50-year-old man, suffering for hidradenitis suppurativa for the past 20 years, was admitted for squamous cell carcinoma.
  • There was evidence of pulmonary metastasis.
  • Despite treatment the patient died of agranulocytosis.
  • He has been treated by surgery for a squamous cell carcinoma of the left hand, 6 months ago.
  • Serum calcium and white cell bloods count were elevated.
  • The diagnosis of metastatic lymph node of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was confirmed.
  • There was evidence of pulmonary metastasis.
  • Despite chemotherapy the patient died rapidly.
  • CONCLUSION: Hypercalcemia-hyperleucocytosis paraneoplastic syndrome is rarely described during the course of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.
  • (PMID = 20167400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1768-3122
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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8. Goh MS: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma after treatment of carcinoma in situ with 5% imiquimod cream. Australas J Dermatol; 2006 Aug;47(3):186-8
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  • [Title] Invasive squamous cell carcinoma after treatment of carcinoma in situ with 5% imiquimod cream.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma in situ has the potential to progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This report presents two cases of punch biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma in situ, treated with once-daily application of 5% imiquimod cream for 6 weeks.
  • Both patients developed moderate local inflammatory reactions during treatment.
  • The first patient demonstrated clinical clearance of the scalp lesion after treatment.
  • Histology was consistent with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Five months following excision of the recurrent tumour, he presented with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to a cervical lymph node.
  • The second patient had low-grade chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and presented with squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the leg that failed to clear clinically after treatment with imiquimod.
  • He presented 4 months later with a focus of invasive squamous cell carcinoma within the lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Leg. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16867000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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9. Dong XR, Zhang T, Fan L, Zhang S, Wu G: Parotid gland metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: case report and review of the literature. J Int Med Res; 2009 Nov-Dec;37(6):1994-9
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  • [Title] Parotid gland metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: case report and review of the literature.
  • Parotid metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is extremely rare.
  • Histopathological examination of a partial excision of the mass on the right parotid and the neoplasm in the pharynx nasalis revealed poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The patient received radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy.
  • Grade 2 skin reaction, grade 2 oropharyngeal mucositis and grade 3 xerostomia were detected during treatment.
  • The patient achieved a complete clinical response by 1 month after treatment.
  • The primary symptom of parotid gland mass in patients with NPC is commonly misdiagnosed and a pathological analysis can be considered a reliable method for confirming diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20146900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of international medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Int. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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10. Taxy JB: Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland: a review of the diagnostic considerations. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2001 Jun;125(6):740-5
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  • [Title] Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland: a review of the diagnostic considerations.
  • CONTEXT: Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland has several possible sources:.
  • (1) high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, (2) metastasis or direct invasion from a primary skin carcinoma, (3) metastasis from a distant primary carcinoma, or (4) a primary malignant neoplasm.
  • The latter is conventionally regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion after a history of squamous carcinoma elsewhere has been obtained or there is a positive mucin stain.
  • DESIGN: Eleven cases of squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland are presented and the literature reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Two cases, 1 metastatic from a histologically identical squamous carcinoma from the ipsilateral tonsil and 1 with in situ squamous carcinoma in a duct, demonstrated positive mucicarmine stains.
  • Five cases represented metastases from cutaneous squamous carcinomas.
  • Three of the 5 still alive had recurrence or metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland exhibits a histologic sameness that precludes accurate subclassification and assignation of origin.
  • Also irrespective of tumor origin, the clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment is similar.
  • Adjuvant therapy (eg, radical neck dissection, radiation, chemotherapy) is not uniformly applied.
  • The traditional subclassification of squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland may not be clinically relevant.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11371224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9985
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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11. Dona E, Veness MJ, Cakir B, Morgan GJ: Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to the parotid: the role of surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy to achieve best outcome. ANZ J Surg; 2003 Sep;73(9):692-6
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  • [Title] Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to the parotid: the role of surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy to achieve best outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: Australia has the highest incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the world.
  • METHODS: Between 1983 and 2000, seventy-four patients were treated for metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to the parotid with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy at Westmead Hospital, Sydney.
  • RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 65 years (34-93 years) in 63 men and 11 women.
  • Despite treatment, 24% developed locoregional recurrence, with a median time to relapse of 7.5 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Parotid gland lymph node metastases from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma are associated with a high rate of recurrence and cause-specific mortality despite current best practice (surgery and high dose adjuvant radiotherapy).
  • The role of more aggressive surgery, altered fractionation or chemotherapy to enhance locoregional control remains unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Parotid Gland / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 12956783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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13. Uchida N, Tsuzuki Y, Ando T, Mochida Y, Yoshikawa M, Sekihara M, Kobayashi M, Ide M, Ohno Y, Kuwano H: Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor in the skin over the breast: a case report. Breast Cancer; 2000 Jan;7(1):79-82
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  • [Title] Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor in the skin over the breast: a case report.
  • It is composed of multiple cysts consisting of squamous epithelium with trichilemmal keratinization without granular layer interposition.
  • We describe a 67-year-old woman with a malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor in the skin over the breast.
  • We first misdiagnosed the disease as a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast with a metastatic lymph node in the axilla because of the disease site and our unfamiliarity with the disease.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only one case of a proliferating trichilemmal tumor occurring in the skin over the breast has been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diagnostic Errors. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Fadrozole / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Radical. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11029776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; H3988M64PU / Fadrozole; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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14. Zheng FF, Liang YY, Guo YS, Dai YP, Zheng KL: [Diagnosis and therapy for penile cancer: a report of 46 cases with literature review]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Sep;27(9):962-5

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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy for penile cancer: a report of 46 cases with literature review].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy, which is mainly treated by surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Forty-four patients had squamous cell carcinoma, one had Paget disease, and one had verrucous carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients received partial penectomy, four received total penectomy and perineal urethrostomy, one Paget disease patient received lesion resection and skin grafting, two patients did not receive surgery.
  • Prognosis of patients with pelvic lymph node metastasis was poor.
  • Two patients who had pelvic lymph node metastasis died of lung metastasis within two years after surgery.
  • Lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor for penile cancer.
  • Patients with ilioinguinal lymph node metastasis should receive lymphadenectomy as early as possible to improve the therapeutic effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Penile Neoplasms / surgery. Penis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Carcinoma, Verrucous / surgery. Carcinoma, Verrucous / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Paget's Disease, Mammary / pathology. Paget's Disease, Mammary / surgery. Paget's Disease, Mammary / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18799036.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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15. Wang CH, Nien HC, Hou MF, Chen GS, Cheng ST: Sentinel lymphadenectomy for circumscribed cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Dermatol Surg; 2004 Jun;30(6):952-6
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymphadenectomy for circumscribed cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymphadenectomy has been associated with fewer complications in evaluating regional lymph nodes from melanoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This is the first report demonstrating sentinel lymphadenectomy may be useful on primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the efficacy of sentinel lymphadenectomy on primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.
  • METHODS: Sentinel lymphadenectomy was performed on a patient with a localized CD30+ primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.
  • RESULTS: Sentinel lymphadenectomy was negative for tumor metastasis to sentinel lymph node.
  • Total excision was performed without systemic chemotherapy or immunotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Leg. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15171780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Abhishek A, Ouseph MM, Sharma P, Kamal V, Sharma M: Bulky scalp metastasis and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis from a cervical adenocarcinoma: an unusual case. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol; 2008 Feb;52(1):91-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bulky scalp metastasis and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis from a cervical adenocarcinoma: an unusual case.
  • We present the case of a 53-year-old postmenopausal lady with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix that metastasized to the scalp with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis 8 months after diagnosis.
  • In contrast to the seven prior cases of scalp metastases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma reported in published reports, ours is the first documentation of such an occurrence in cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Scalp / pathology. Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / radiography. Cervix Uteri / surgery. Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic / drug therapy. Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic / etiology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


17. Goncalves A, Fabbro M, Lhommé C, Gladieff L, Extra JM, Floquet A, Chaigneau L, Carrasco AT, Viens P: A phase II trial to evaluate gefitinib as second- or third-line treatment in patients with recurring locoregionally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Jan;108(1):42-6
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  • [Title] A phase II trial to evaluate gefitinib as second- or third-line treatment in patients with recurring locoregionally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer of the cervix occurs in approximately 500,000 women worldwide each year, with prognosis highly dependent on disease stage at diagnosis.
  • Survival times are poor and therapy options are limited for patients who relapse following radiotherapy and chemotherapy regimens, suggesting alternative treatments are required.
  • We investigated whether gefitinib (IRESSA), an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a potential second- or third-line treatment option for women with recurrent cervical cancer.
  • RESULTS: Thirty patients with squamous-cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma were recruited from six centers in France.
  • Median time to progression was 37 days and median overall survival was 107 days.
  • Gefitinib was well tolerated, with the most common drug-related adverse events being skin and gastrointestinal toxicities.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In recurrent disease resistant to standard treatment, gefitinib has only minimal monotherapy activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis


18. Guenova E, Lichte V, Hoetzenecker W, Woelbing F, Moehrle M, Roecken M, Schaller M: Nodular malignant melanoma and multiple cutaneous neoplasms under immunosuppression with azathioprine. Melanoma Res; 2009 Aug;19(4):271-3
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  • Immunosuppressed patients are at increased risk of skin cancer.
  • A 67-year-old renal transplant recipient developed a nodular malignant melanoma after 30 years of immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisolone.
  • The patient died of metastatic disease 3 months after the diagnosis was made.
  • Renal transplant recipients are at high risk of developing nonmelanocytic skin tumors when on immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine A.
  • Less common is the development of skin cancer during immunosuppression with azathioprine.
  • Our case illustrates the necessity of close dermatological surveillance of allograft recipients, to assure an early recognition of any malignant skin tumor and to reduce the risk of systemic metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Azathioprine / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation. Melanoma / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Early Detection of Cancer. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19550360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
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19. Toporcer T, Lakyová L, Babjaková L, Zábavníková M, Belák J, Radonak J: [Chronic wound as a precancerosis (Ulcus marjolini--Marjolin's ulcer)--a case review]. Rozhl Chir; 2008 Jun;87(6):317-21
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  • Commonly, it is histologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma or a basocellular carcinoma.
  • The patient was hospitalized to cover the defect with a skin flap.
  • During the hospitalization, histological examinations of his inguinal lymphnodes and subsequent wound granulations were performed with an identical finding of a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The patient underwent the first series of chemotherapy.
  • He exited 24 days following establishment of the diagnosis.
  • Marjolin's ulcer is a diagnosis, which must be considered in any chronic wound of any etiology, persisting for over 3 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Pressure Ulcer / complications. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18681267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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20. Dummer R, Beyeler M, Morcinek J, Burg G: [Cutaneous neoplasms]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2003 Sep 3;92(36):1470-8
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  • The skin is the organ most commonly affected by malignancies.
  • Various cancers of the skin show a dramatic increase in incidence over the last decades.
  • Epithelial skin tumors are most frequently, e.g., basal cell carcinoma and the squamous cell carcinoma with its precursors, the actinic keratoses.
  • Morbus Bowen and adnexal tumors originating from the skin appendices.
  • Since the majority of malignant neoplasms is removable and curable by a simple surgical intervention, the knowledge of the different skin tumors is essential for non-dermatologist.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Melanoma. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Bowen's Disease / diagnosis. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Bowen's Disease / radiotherapy. Bowen's Disease / surgery. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cryotherapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Humans. Immunotherapy. Keratosis / diagnosis. Keratosis / drug therapy. Keratosis / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphoma / classification. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma / radiotherapy. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Photochemotherapy. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / surgery. Skin / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 14526630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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21. Pallini R, Sabatino G, Doglietto F, Lauretti L, Fernandez E, Maira G: Clivus metastases: report of seven patients and literature review. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Apr;151(4):291-6; discussion 296

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • FINDINGS: Of 46 patients who underwent surgery for clivus bone tumours, seven proved to harbour a metastasis.
  • The primary tumours associated were lung adenocarcinoma (n = 2), prostate carcinoma (n = 2), skin melanoma (n = 1), hepatocarcinoma (n = 1) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1).
  • In spite of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the mean survival was 12 months.
  • Including our series, the most common primary tumours were prostate cancer (26.4%), thyroid carcinoma (11.7%) and hepatocarcinoma (11.7%).
  • CONCLUSION: Though exceedingly rare, metastases involving the clivus should be considered in the differential diagnosis with clivus chordoma.
  • The trans-sphenoidal approach is the ideal procedure to establish a histopathological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19259614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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22. Porojnicu AC, Robsahm TE, Dahlback A, Berg JP, Christiani D, Bruland OS, Moan J: Seasonal and geographical variations in lung cancer prognosis in Norway. Does Vitamin D from the sun play a role? Lung Cancer; 2007 Mar;55(3):263-70
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  • Our main source of Vitamin D is ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced synthesis in skin following sun exposure.
  • As judged from the incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma, the same is true for the average personal UV exposures.
  • The present work aims at investigating the impact of season of diagnosis and residential region, both influencing the Vitamin D level, on the risk of death from lung cancer in patients diagnosed in Norway.
  • Our results indicate that season of diagnosis is of prognostic value for lung cancer patients, with a approximately 15% lower case fatality for young male patients diagnosed during autumn versus winter (RR=0.85; 95% CI, -0.73 to 0.99; p=0.04).
  • There are two main types of lung cancer: small cell lung cancer for which chemotherapy is the primary treatment and non-small cell lung cancer, which in its early stages is treated primarily with surgery.
  • Gender-related differences have been described in the literature with respect to survival after therapy, male gender being a significant independent negative prognostic factor .
  • In vitro studies, performed with lung cancer cell lines, have shown an inhibitive effect of Vitamin D derivatives on cell-growth and proliferation .
  • Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated the capability of these compounds to suppress invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis in vivo , suggesting that administration of Vitamin D derivatives may be used as adjuvant therapy for lung cancer.
  • During winter, the UVB fluence rate in the Nordic countries (50-71 degrees N) is below the level required for Vitamin D synthesis in skin .
  • Patients diagnosed during summer and autumn have a better survival after standard treatment than patients diagnosed during the winter season .
  • An American study investigated the effect of season of surgery and recent Vitamin D intake on the survival of non-small cell lung cancer patients.
  • We investigated whether variations in UV, and, consequently, in Vitamin D level, influence the prognosis of lung cancer, using season of diagnosis and residential regions as variables.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Norway / epidemiology. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Seafood. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17207891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; P6YZ13C99Q / Calcifediol
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23. Borchers H, Jakse G: [Lymphadenectomy for penile cancer. Diagnostic and prognostic significance as well as therapeutic benefit]. Urologe A; 2005 Jun;44(6):657-61

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  • [Title] [Lymphadenectomy for penile cancer. Diagnostic and prognostic significance as well as therapeutic benefit].
  • Lymphadenectomy is an essential part of diagnosis and treatment of the squamous cell carcinoma of the penis.
  • The limits of lymphadenectomy are extended to the radical type of dissection when the frozen section indicates cancer.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is reasonable for patients with bulky nodes fixed to the skin or fascia because this improves respectability, freedom from local recurrence and increases survival.
  • Adjuvant chemo- and/or radio-therapy are reserved for extended disease or palliative situations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Preoperative Care / methods. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15891865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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