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1. Kies MS, Holsinger FC, Lee JJ, William WN Jr, Glisson BS, Lin HY, Lewin JS, Ginsberg LE, Gillaspy KA, Massarelli E, Byers L, Lippman SM, Hong WK, El-Naggar AK, Garden AS, Papadimitrakopoulou V: Induction chemotherapy and cetuximab for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: results from a phase II prospective trial. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jan 01;28(1):8-14
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  • [Title] Induction chemotherapy and cetuximab for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: results from a phase II prospective trial.
  • PURPOSE To determine the potential efficacy of combining cetuximab with chemotherapy in patients with advanced nodal disease, we conducted a phase II trial with induction chemotherapy (ICT) consisting of six weekly cycles of paclitaxel 135 mg/m(2) and carboplatin (area under the curve = 2) with cetuximab 400 mg/m(2) in week 1 and then 250 mg/m(2) (PCC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS Forty-seven previously untreated patients (41 with oropharynx primaries; 33 men, 14 women; median age, 53 years; performance status of 0 or 1) with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN; T1-4, N2b/c/3) were treated and evaluated for clinical and radiographic response.
  • After ICT, patients underwent risk-based local therapy, which consisted of either radiation, concomitant chemoradiotherapy, or surgery, based on tumor stage and site at diagnosis.
  • The most common grade 3 or 4 toxicity was skin rash (45%), followed by neutropenia (21%) without fever.
  • At a median follow-up time of 33 months, locoregional or systemic disease progression was observed in six patients.
  • CONCLUSION ICT with weekly PCC followed by risk-based local therapy seems to be feasible, effective, and well tolerated.
  • PFS is promising, and this sequential treatment strategy should be further investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19917840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA88084; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097007; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA088084; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA97007; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16672
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2799235
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2. Gil Z, Fliss DM: Contemporary management of head and neck cancers. Isr Med Assoc J; 2009 May;11(5):296-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contemporary management of head and neck cancers.
  • Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide.
  • HNCs can originate in the skin or soft tissue, in the upper aerodigestive tracts (oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands), or in the thyroid.
  • In each of these sites, tumors vary not only by the primary site but also by pathophysiology, biological behavior, and sensitivity to radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • The main goals of therapy are ablation of the cancer while minimizing morbidity and preserving function and cosmesis.
  • Early-stage HNC (stage I and II) should be managed with a single modality, and advanced tumors (stage III and IV) with multimodality therapy.
  • Treatment should be directed to the primary tumor and the area of its lymphatic drainage--the neck lymph nodes.
  • Evidence of metastases in the neck necessitates comprehensive clearance of regional lymphatic basins.
  • However, even if there is no evidence of lymph nodes metastases, when the risk for positive neck lymph nodes exceeds 15-20% elective neck dissection is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neck Dissection. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19637508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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3. Tarallo M, Cigna E, Frati R, Delfino S, Innocenzi D, Fama U, Corbianco A, Scuderi N: Metatypical basal cell carcinoma: a clinical review. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2008;27:65
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  • [Title] Metatypical basal cell carcinoma: a clinical review.
  • BACKGROUND: Metatypical cell carcinoma can be considered as a new entity of skin cancer, being an intermediate typology between basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The behaviour of the metatypical cell carcinoma lies between these two varieties of skin cancer.
  • It is difficult to perform a differential diagnosis based on morphological and clinical features - therefore it is only possible by accurate histology.
  • METHODS: The authors have retrospectively analysed clinical records of 240 patients who were affected by metatypical skin cancer and who were treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • A recurrence occurred in 24 cases (10%), mainly in head and neck area.
  • CONCLUSION: In this manuscript, the authors have emphasised the importance of conducting a differential diagnosis, and the importance of the specific treatment for metatypical skin cancer, even though more clinical studies and long-term follow-ups are required before establishing specific guidelines.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18992138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-9966
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 55
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2585560
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4. Larsen CR, Hansen PB, Clausen NT: Aggressive growth of epithelial carcinomas following treatment with nucleoside analogues. Am J Hematol; 2002 May;70(1):48-50
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  • [Title] Aggressive growth of epithelial carcinomas following treatment with nucleoside analogues.
  • Two patients, one with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and one with hairy-cell leukemia (HCL), were treated with immunosuppressive chemotherapy.
  • The patient with CLL was a 54-year-old female, who had had a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) excised from her forehead 5 months before receiving the first course of fludarabine.
  • During the fludarabine treatment, the patient developed a local SCC relapse and metastases in the neck.
  • The carcinoma was treated by excision and radiotherapy, and further fludarabine treatment was withheld.
  • Nevertheless, the SCC metastasized aggressively and the patient died 3 months after the start of fludarabine treatment, primarily due to respiratory failure.
  • At the time of diagnosis of HCL, the patient had two solid tumors in the liver containing poorly differentiated epithelial carcinoma cells of unknown origin.
  • During treatment with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2CdA), the tumors in the liver rapidly spread in multiple intrahepatic metastases, followed by liver failure and death within 1 month.
  • Fludarabine and 2CdA cause a substantial suppression of all lymphocyte subsets, in particular the T-cell line.
  • T-lymphocytes are believed to be responsible for the usually slow growth and the low metastatic rate of the SCC skin lesions.
  • It is therefore assumed that fludarabine and 2CdA in these two cases triggered an exacerbation of both tumors due to the T-cell depletion.
  • [MeSH-major] 2-Chloroadenosine / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Hairy Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nucleosides / therapeutic use. Vidarabine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Neoplasms, Second Primary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 11994981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Nucleosides; 146-77-0 / 2-Chloroadenosine; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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5. Putnik K, Stadler P, Schäfer C, Koelbl O: Enhanced radiation sensitivity and radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) after hypericin therapy -- case report and review of literature. Radiat Oncol; 2006;1:32
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  • [Title] Enhanced radiation sensitivity and radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) after hypericin therapy -- case report and review of literature.
  • However, skin toxicity is still a major problem in many entities, especially head and neck cancer.
  • Some substances like chemotherapy provide a risk of increased side effects or can induce a "recall phenomenon" imitating acute RT-reactions months after RT.
  • Moreover, some phototoxic drugs seem to enhance side effects of radiotherapy while others do not.
  • CASE REPORT: A 65 year old man with completely resected squamous cell carcinoma of the epiglottis received an adjuvant locoregional RT up to a dose of 64.8 Gy.
  • During radiotherapy the patient developed unusual intensive skin reactions.
  • Five months after RT the skin was completely bland at the first follow up.
  • However, half a year later the patient presented erythema, but only within the area of previously irradiated skin.
  • After local application of a steroid cream the symptoms diminished but returned after the end of steroid therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Several drugs are able to enhance skin toxicity of RT.
  • Furthermore, the effect of RRD is well known especially for chemotherapy agents such as taxans.
  • Moreover, it is unknown whether photosensitising drugs can also be considered to increase radiation sensitivity and whether a recall phenomenon is possible.
  • In clinical practise many interactions between drugs and radiotherapy were not noticed and if registered not published.
  • We recommend to ask especially for complementary or alternative drugs because patients tend to conceal such medication as harmless.
  • [MeSH-major] Perylene / analogs & derivatives. Phytotherapy / methods. Radiation Tolerance. Radiodermatitis / diagnosis. Radiodermatitis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Radiotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16948841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 5QD5427UN7 / Perylene; 7V2F1075HD / hypericin
  • [Number-of-references] 39
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1564402
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070726
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6. Thariat J, Badoual C, Hans S, Meatchi T, Housset M: Skin metastasis of head and neck carcinoma predictive for dismal outcome. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(6):8
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  • [Title] Skin metastasis of head and neck carcinoma predictive for dismal outcome.
  • A 64-year-old female with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma presented with an innocuous appearing macule on the abdomen.
  • The lesion rapidly enlarged over 2 weeks into an inflammatory 5 cm fleshy nodule that was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and was found to overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
  • A fatal outcome occurred 3 months after the initial diagnosis of cancer, in spite of chemotherapy and treatment with EGFR inhibitors (cetuximab).
  • Cutaneous metastases occur in 10 percent of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck.
  • Contiguous cutaneous metastases in the head and neck areas are by far the most common.
  • In a patient with cancer, the possibility of distant skin metastasis should be considered whenever new cutaneous nodules appear.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cetuximab. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Surgical Procedures, Operative

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  • (PMID = 18713589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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7. Marioni G, Doro D, Marino F, Verdecchia P, Staffieri C, Staffieri A: Skin and eye: uncommon sites of distant metastasis from tongue base squamous cell carcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol; 2003 Dec;123(9):1110-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Skin and eye: uncommon sites of distant metastasis from tongue base squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The frequency of non-lymphatic distant metastases from primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) appears to be higher than previously presumed.
  • The general conditions of the affected patients, who usually also present with locoregional recurrences, are so impaired as to limit the use of available methods for diagnosing the distant spread of head and neck SCC.
  • The incidence reported in autopsy studies is approximately three to four times higher than that in clinical studies.
  • Lung metastases from head and neck SCC are most common, followed by metastases to bone and liver.
  • Metastases to the skin are unusual.
  • Secondary ocular localizations of head and neck SCC are exceedingly rare.
  • We report the first case of synchronous intraocular (involving the choroid and vitreous body) and cutaneous metastases from a recurrent tongue base SCC in a 64-year-old woman who had undergone radiotherapy, bilateral neck dissection and chemotherapy.
  • Cytological evaluation of vitreous aspirate and histological diagnosis of the skin lesion were performed < 1 month before the patient's death.
  • Skin metastases occur in 1-4% of patients with diagnosed head and neck SCC and are usually associated with advanced or recurrent disease.
  • To the best of our knowledge, fewer than 10 cases of ocular metastases from head and neck SCC have been reported.
  • The average survival time after diagnosis of ocular or skin metastases from head and neck SCC is 7 months.
  • Treatment for eye and skin metastases is palliative and rarely alters patient outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Choroid. Eye Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Vitreous Body


8. Goh MS: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma after treatment of carcinoma in situ with 5% imiquimod cream. Australas J Dermatol; 2006 Aug;47(3):186-8
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  • [Title] Invasive squamous cell carcinoma after treatment of carcinoma in situ with 5% imiquimod cream.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma in situ has the potential to progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This report presents two cases of punch biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma in situ, treated with once-daily application of 5% imiquimod cream for 6 weeks.
  • Both patients developed moderate local inflammatory reactions during treatment.
  • The first patient demonstrated clinical clearance of the scalp lesion after treatment.
  • Histology was consistent with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Five months following excision of the recurrent tumour, he presented with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma to a cervical lymph node.
  • The second patient had low-grade chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and presented with squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the leg that failed to clear clinically after treatment with imiquimod.
  • He presented 4 months later with a focus of invasive squamous cell carcinoma within the lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Leg. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Scalp. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16867000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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9. Kim AJ, Suh JD, Sercarz JA, Abemayor E, Head C, Funk G, Blackwell KE: Salvage surgery with free flap reconstruction: factors affecting outcome after treatment of recurrent head and neck squamous carcinoma. Laryngoscope; 2007 Jun;117(6):1019-23
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  • [Title] Salvage surgery with free flap reconstruction: factors affecting outcome after treatment of recurrent head and neck squamous carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine factors predicting the outcome after salvage surgery with microvascular flap reconstruction for recurrent squamous cell cancer (SCC) of the head and neck.
  • METHODS: One hundred six patients underwent salvage surgery and microvascular flap reconstruction after prior unsuccessful cancer treatment using surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy.
  • All patients had a follow-up interval after salvage surgery of at least 24 months unless cancer rerecurrence occurred within 24 months after salvage surgery.
  • Factors including age, sex, comorbidity level, tobacco use, alcohol use, disease-free interval since prior therapy, prior radiation, prior chemotherapy, prior surgery, recurrent tumor T class, recurrent tumor N class, recurrent cancer stage, and tumor location were examined to determine their association with cancer rerecurrence after salvage surgery.
  • Successful treatment was defined as patients who remained free from cancer rerecurrence for a minimum 2 year period after salvage surgery.
  • RESULTS: Advanced recurrent T class (P = .02) was significantly associated with cancer recurrence.
  • Recurrent cancer stage and patient smoking status approached statistical significance (P = .06).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with recurrent T1 and T2 class are the best candidates for salvage surgery and microvascular flap reconstruction for treatment of recurrent SCC of the head and neck.
  • Patients with T3 and T4 class recurrent cancers and patients who continue to smoke after initial diagnosis and treatment of head and neck SCC are poor candidates to undergo salvage surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Salvage Therapy / methods. Skin Transplantation / methods. Surgical Flaps


10. Dona E, Veness MJ, Cakir B, Morgan GJ: Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to the parotid: the role of surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy to achieve best outcome. ANZ J Surg; 2003 Sep;73(9):692-6
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  • [Title] Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to the parotid: the role of surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy to achieve best outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: Australia has the highest incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in the world.
  • The majority of lesions occur in the head and neck with metastases to the parotid gland lymph nodes reflecting an uncommon, but aggressive, manifestation.
  • Parotidectomy +/- neck dissection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy should be considered as best practice.
  • METHODS: Between 1983 and 2000, seventy-four patients were treated for metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma to the parotid with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy at Westmead Hospital, Sydney.
  • RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 65 years (34-93 years) in 63 men and 11 women.
  • All patients underwent parotidectomy with 52 undergoing a simultaneous neck dissection.
  • All received adjuvant radiotherapy to the parotid region with 56 also receiving radiotherapy to the ipsilateral neck.
  • Despite treatment, 24% developed locoregional recurrence, with a median time to relapse of 7.5 months.
  • The most common site for recurrence was the treated parotid region and upper neck.
  • CONCLUSION: Parotid gland lymph node metastases from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma are associated with a high rate of recurrence and cause-specific mortality despite current best practice (surgery and high dose adjuvant radiotherapy).
  • The role of more aggressive surgery, altered fractionation or chemotherapy to enhance locoregional control remains unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12956783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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11. Taxy JB: Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland: a review of the diagnostic considerations. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2001 Jun;125(6):740-5
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  • [Title] Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland: a review of the diagnostic considerations.
  • CONTEXT: Squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland has several possible sources:.
  • (1) high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, (2) metastasis or direct invasion from a primary skin carcinoma, (3) metastasis from a distant primary carcinoma, or (4) a primary malignant neoplasm.
  • The latter is conventionally regarded as a diagnosis of exclusion after a history of squamous carcinoma elsewhere has been obtained or there is a positive mucin stain.
  • DESIGN: Eleven cases of squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland are presented and the literature reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Two cases, 1 metastatic from a histologically identical squamous carcinoma from the ipsilateral tonsil and 1 with in situ squamous carcinoma in a duct, demonstrated positive mucicarmine stains.
  • Five cases represented metastases from cutaneous squamous carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland exhibits a histologic sameness that precludes accurate subclassification and assignation of origin.
  • Also irrespective of tumor origin, the clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment is similar.
  • Adjuvant therapy (eg, radical neck dissection, radiation, chemotherapy) is not uniformly applied.
  • The traditional subclassification of squamous carcinoma in a major salivary gland may not be clinically relevant.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11371224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9985
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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12. Lee SS, Chu PY: Toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by cetuximab plus minocycline in head and neck cancer. Am J Otolaryngol; 2010 Jul-Aug;31(4):288-90
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  • [Title] Toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by cetuximab plus minocycline in head and neck cancer.
  • We present a unique case of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) caused by cetuximab plus minocycline during chemoradiation for recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
  • He received surgery and postoperative adjuvant therapy with cetuximab plus chemoradiation.
  • Noticing the transformation of skin lesions makes early diagnosis possible, and prompt cessation of the causative agent is essential for patients with TEN.
  • We review the literature on cetuximab, minocycline, and TEN and discuss the impact of TEN on cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Minocycline / adverse effects. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cetuximab. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Epidermal Growth Factor. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20015761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-818X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; FYY3R43WGO / Minocycline; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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13. Leach BC, Kulbersh JS, Day TA, Cook J: Cranial neuropathy as a presenting sign of recurrent aggressive skin cancer. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Apr;34(4):483-97
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  • [Title] Cranial neuropathy as a presenting sign of recurrent aggressive skin cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize recurrent skin cancers of the head and neck presenting with cranial neuropathies and to review the presentation and the management for this rare subset of cutaneous neoplasms.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for all patients with previous related cutaneous neoplasms presenting with cranial neuropathies referred to a single academic tertiary-care head and neck tumor program from 1999 to 2007.
  • Six cases of head and neck carcinoma with demonstrable cranial neuropathy were identified and analyzed by clinical history, radiographic and surgical findings, and treatment and survival data.
  • The tumors involved were squamous cell carcinoma (4) and melanoma (2).
  • Symptoms were present for an average of 7 months prior to diagnosis of perineural recurrence.
  • Treatment consisted of various combinations of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy for five patients, and one patient declined any intervention.
  • CONCLUSION: Cranial neuropathy is a rare presentation of recurrent cutaneous neoplasms of the head and neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18248467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Trigo J, Hitt R, Koralewski P, Diaz-Rubio E, Rolland F, Knecht R, Amellal N, Bessa EH, Baselga J, Vermorken JB: Cetuximab monotherapy is active in patients (pts) with platinum-refractory recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN): Results of a phase II study. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5502

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  • [Title] Cetuximab monotherapy is active in patients (pts) with platinum-refractory recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN): Results of a phase II study.
  • : 5502 Background: Pts with refractory SCCHN have a poor prognosis with few therapeutic options.
  • Main inclusion criteria were: stage III/IV recurrent and/or metastatic SCCHN not suitable for local therapy, with documented progression on or within 30 days after 2 to 6 cycles of a platinum-based CT.
  • Median age was 57 years (23-77), median baseline KPS was 80 (60-100) and median time from diagnosis to study entry was 20 months (3-283).
  • Drug-related adverse events occurring in >10% of pts included: skin rash/acne 80% (1% grade 3), fatigue 24% (4% grade 3), fever/chills 19% (2% grade 3), nail changes 15% (all grade 1-2) and nausea 13% (1% grade 3).
  • There was one treatment-related death due to hypersensitivity reaction in a patient not suitable to receive mechanical ventilation.
  • An independent review of all pre-treatment and on-study imaging assessments is ongoing and will be available at the meeting.

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  • (PMID = 28014198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Zetola-Burneo N, Brown C: Cases from the Osler Medical Service at Johns Hopkins University. Am J Med; 2004 Feb 1;116(3):198-200
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  • A 47-year-old white woman with a history of stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the anus was transferred to Johns Hopkins Hospital for further evaluation of renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and thrombocytopenia.
  • The patient was first diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus 1 year before admission.
  • She was treated with external beam radiation of the pelvis and two cycles of mitomycin C-based chemotherapy (a cumulative dose, 34 mg/m(2)).
  • Three months before admission, the patient developed dysuria.
  • Head, neck, chest, cardiovascular, and abdominal examinations were normal.
  • There was skin pallor, but no echymoses or petechiae.
  • Laboratory data showed a white blood cell count of 6390/mm(3), a hematocrit level of 26.5%, and a platelet count of 26,000/mm(3).
  • There was no radiographic or clinical evidence of relapse of her squamous cell carcinoma.
  • What is the diagnosis?
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 14749166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9343
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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16. Shah JP, Gil Z: Current concepts in management of oral cancer--surgery. Oral Oncol; 2009 Apr-May;45(4-5):394-401
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  • [Title] Current concepts in management of oral cancer--surgery.
  • Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with a high prevalence in South Asia.
  • Tobacco and alcohol consumption remain the most dominant etiologic factors, however HPV has been recently implicated in oral cancer.
  • Surgery is the most well established mode of initial definitive treatment for a majority of oral cancers.
  • The factors that affect choice of treatment are related to the tumor and the patient.
  • The radial forearm free flap provides excellent soft tissue and lining for soft tissue defects in the oral cavity.
  • Over the course of the past thirty years there has been improvement in the overall survival of patients with oral carcinoma largely due to the improved understanding of the biology of local progression, early identification and treatment of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck, and employment of adjuvant post-operative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
  • The role of surgery in primary squamous cell carcinomas in other sites in the head and neck has evolved with integration of multidisciplinary treatment approaches employing chemotherapy and radiotherapy either sequentially or concurrently.
  • Surgery thus remains the mainstay of management of a majority of neoplasms arising in the head and neck area.
  • Similarly, the role of the surgeon is essential throughout the life history of a patient with a malignant neoplasm in the head and neck area, from initial diagnosis through definitive treatment, post-treatment surveillance, management of complications, rehabilitation of the sequelae of treatment, and finally for palliation of symptoms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Protocols. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Patient Selection. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome


17. Satyaprakash AK, Sheehan DJ, Sangüeza OP: Proliferating trichilemmal tumors: a review of the literature. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Sep;33(9):1102-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to review the clinical presentation, histopathologic characteristics, malignant potential, and treatment options for PTT.
  • Complete surgical excision is recommended; additional radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy may be used for lesions with increased invasive potential.
  • CONCLUSION: Adequate treatment of PTT requires skilled histopathologic examination for proper diagnosis; histologic appearance may not correlate with clinical behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17760602.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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18. Myers M, Gurwood AS: Periocular malignancies and primary eye care. Optometry; 2001 Nov;72(11):705-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: In 1985, an estimated 92,000 new cases of skin malignancies were diagnosed worldwide.
  • Based on reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as the stratospheric ozone layer continues to be depleted, the number of new cases of skin cancer are predicted to climb by as many as 12 million over the next 50 years.
  • Up to 90% of all cases of skin cancer occur in the vicinity of the head or neck and 10% of those involve the eyelids.
  • METHODS: We surveyed the literature regarding the incidence, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, management, prognosis, and prevention of the most common periocular malignancies.
  • The types of malignancies include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma.
  • RESULTS: The period of greatest risk for the development of skin cancer begins in the fourth decade and increases with advancing age.
  • Up to 20% of periocular skin lesions are malignant.
  • Perhaps the most-significant risk factor is innate skin coloration.
  • Workup for these entities includes biopsy as the first step in diagnosis and management of skin cancers.
  • Treatment alternatives, used when surgical intervention is unable to be tolerated, include radiation therapy, cryotherapy, chemotherapy, interferons, and recently developed photodynamic therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The importance of gross observation, examination, and careful slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the ocular adnexa cannot be overstated as a means of detection, diagnosis, and management of beginning, impending, or worsening malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / diagnosis. Primary Health Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Incidence. Prognosis. United States

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  • (PMID = 12363258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-1839
  • [Journal-full-title] Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Optometry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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19. Wollenberg A, Kroth J, Hauschild A, Dirschka T: [Cutaneous side effects of EGFR inhibitors--appearance and management]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2010 Jan;135(4):149-54
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  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors such as cetuximab, erlotinib, panitumumab und gefitinib, are increasingly used for the treatment of advanced, metastatic, or recurrent tumours like colorectal carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and pancreatic cancer.
  • For this reason the treatment of common cutaneous side effects of EGFR inhibitors has become important: they stigmatize the patient in daily life and may lead to efficacious therapie being discontinued.
  • Severity, site, stage of eruptions and individual response influence the decision of treatment in the given case.
  • It follows the forms of treatment for acne and rosacea, including topical and systemic antibiotics for their antimicrobial effect and anti-inflammatory effect, sometimes in combination with topical steroids.
  • After several weeks additional sebostatic skin reactions, paronychia and changes in the hair structure may occur, calling for individualized treatment.
  • This article gives an overview of the occurrence and latest treatment options of the cutaneous side effects caused by treatment with EGFR inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Drug Eruptions / diagnosis. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Quinazolines / adverse effects. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Acneiform Eruptions / chemically induced. Acneiform Eruptions / diagnosis. Acneiform Eruptions / therapy. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cetuximab. Erlotinib Hydrochloride. Hair Diseases / chemically induced. Hair Diseases / diagnosis. Hair Diseases / therapy. Humans. Ichthyosis / chemically induced. Ichthyosis / diagnosis. Ichthyosis / therapy. Mucositis / chemically induced. Mucositis / diagnosis. Mucositis / therapy. Paronychia / chemically induced. Paronychia / diagnosis. Paronychia / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.
  • (PMID = 20101558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / panitumumab; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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20. Abhishek A, Ouseph MM, Sharma P, Kamal V, Sharma M: Bulky scalp metastasis and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis from a cervical adenocarcinoma: an unusual case. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol; 2008 Feb;52(1):91-4
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  • We present the case of a 53-year-old postmenopausal lady with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix that metastasized to the scalp with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis 8 months after diagnosis.
  • In contrast to the seven prior cases of scalp metastases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma reported in published reports, ours is the first documentation of such an occurrence in cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Scalp / pathology. Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / radiography. Cervix Uteri / surgery. Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic / drug therapy. Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic / etiology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


21. Khelifa E, Benmously R, Fenniche S, Marrak H, Zghal M, Mokhtar I: [Adult discoid lupus erythematosus]. Tunis Med; 2007 Mar;85(3):205-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Le lupus erythemateux chronique de l'adulte.
  • BACKGROUND: Discoid lupus erythematosus is a particular form of systemic lupus in which manifestations are confined to the skin.
  • AIM: Our purpose was to evaluate the epidemiology trends, presenting clinical manifestations, therapeutic features and outcome of patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE).
  • The lesions were localized on the face for 25 patients, neck (7 patients), scalp (6) and hands (6).
  • After a 15 year evolution, 1 patient presented degeneration in squamous cell carcinoma of 2 lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid / diagnosis. Lupus Erythematosus, Discoid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hand Dermatoses / diagnosis. Hand Dermatoses / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Retrospective Studies. Scalp Dermatoses / diagnosis. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17668574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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22. Nakamura M, Maruyama K, Furukawa J, Maruyama N, Shingai T, Katsumoto Y, Nakaguchi K, Okajima S, Sue F, Morimoto T: [A patient with esophageal cancer with subcutaneal abscess and esophago-tracheal fistula who survived more than 2 years following treatment by drainage and chemoradiation therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2001 Oct;28(11):1662-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A patient with esophageal cancer with subcutaneal abscess and esophago-tracheal fistula who survived more than 2 years following treatment by drainage and chemoradiation therapy].
  • A 48-year-old man presented at the hospital because of neck swelling and pain.
  • A diagnosis of esophageal cancer with subcutaneous abscess was made based on examination and biopsy results.
  • The cancer was Ce T4NxMx Stage III-IVa.
  • Curative surgery was considered impossible, so chemoradiation therapy was performed (5-FU 500 mg + CDDP 5 mg/day + 2 Gy/day x 31 days) after drainage.
  • During the therapy, an esophago-tracheal fistula was observed, but it later vanished.
  • After chemoradiation therapy, the abscess and tumor vanished.
  • Now, 2 years after therapy, no recurrence has been found.
  • Chemoradiation therapy is effective for inoperable advanced esophageal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Abscess / etiology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Skin Diseases, Infectious / etiology. Tracheoesophageal Fistula / etiology


23. Smith LH: Toxic epidermal necrolysis. Clin J Oncol Nurs; 2007 Jun;11(3):333-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Critical Care. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Monitoring / nursing. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Nurse's Role. Nursing Assessment. Oncology Nursing. Precipitating Factors. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rare Diseases. Skin Care. Tonsillar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17623618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-1095
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of oncology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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