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1. Bideau K, Metges JP, Bayle S, André M, Robaszkiewicz M, Lagarde N, Labat JP: [Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas with gemcitabine]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2006 Oct;30(10):1217-20
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  • [Title] [Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas with gemcitabine].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement d'un carcinome épidermoïde primitif du pancréas par gemcitabine.
  • Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor.
  • We report a case of a 49 years old patient with a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas.
  • Histological diagnosis was established by echoguided biopsy of the liver.
  • Due to that, we cannot be sure that this tumor was not adenosquamous with a metastatic component from only the squamous part of the lesion.
  • Two types of chemotherapy have been performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17075482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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2. Michalet V, Gaudin JL, Bancel B, El Khaddari S, Baulieux J, Rode A, Souquet JC: [Squamous cell carcinoma of the celiac area. Report of a case and review of the literature]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2002 Dec;26(12):1168-71
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  • [Title] [Squamous cell carcinoma of the celiac area. Report of a case and review of the literature].
  • Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas or of the stomach is rare and represents a controversial entity.
  • The unusual case of a 50-year-old woman with a large squamous cell carcinoma located in the celiac area and involving liver, stomach and pancreas, is reported here.
  • The microscopic diagnosis was well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma without glandular structure.
  • Following the procedure, search for another possible primary lesion (esophagus, anus, colon, lung, head and neck, pelvic floor) was performed.
  • In this context, final diagnosis was primary gastric or pancreatic squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Subsequent radiation combined with chemotherapy was instituted, allowing complete remission.
  • Pathogenesis of gastric as well as pancreatic primary squamous cell carcinoma remains obscure and controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Liver Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pancreatic Neoplasms. Stomach Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12520205.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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3. Kyriazi MA, Sofoudis C, Katsouri M, Kappos T, Zafeiris C, Trihia E, Diamantopoulos P, Nomikos IN: Acute cholangitis due to pancreatic metastasis from squamous cell lung carcinoma: a case report and review of literature. Cases J; 2009;2:9113

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  • [Title] Acute cholangitis due to pancreatic metastasis from squamous cell lung carcinoma: a case report and review of literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: The pancreas is a well-documented but relatively uncommon site of non-small-cell cancer metastases.
  • However, at the time of diagnosis the disease is usually locoregionally advanced, therefore therapeutic management is mostly palliative and symptomatic.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 77-year-old Caucasian male patient who presented initially with a clinical picture of acute cholangitis approximately 2 years after a left lower lobectomy for a low-grade squamous lung carcinoma.
  • CT scan imaging of the abdomen and chest revealed an abnormal growth of the pancreatic head and distention of both the intra- and extra-hepatic billiary tree, whereas osteolytic abnormalities were observed of the 5th left rib, consistent with secondary deposits.
  • Cytological examination of the aspirate collected by FNA of the pancreatic lession under EUS guidance revealed cells consistent with a low grade squamous lung carcinoma.
  • Following remission of the patient's attack of acute cholangitis and excessive vomiting he was released from the hospital and instructed to initiate chemotherapy with vinorelbine.
  • CONCLUSION: Symptomatic metastatic lesions of the pancreas from squamous cell carcinoma of the lung are infrequent.
  • Typically, the patients remain asymptomatic until their disease reaches a fairly advanced stage and therapeutic options are limited to palliative measures.
  • A high index of suspicion is the only way of early detection and potentially effective treatment for this rare localization of metastatic squamous lung carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20062690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803910
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4. Fallai C, Bolner A, Signor M, Gava A, Franchin G, Ponticelli P, Taino R, Rossi F, Ardizzoia A, Oggionni M, Crispino S, Olmi P: Long-term results of conventional radiotherapy versus accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy versus concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in locoregionally advanced carcinoma of the oropharynx. Tumori; 2006 Jan-Feb;92(1):41-54
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  • [Title] Long-term results of conventional radiotherapy versus accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy versus concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in locoregionally advanced carcinoma of the oropharynx.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To compare conventional fractionation (CF) radiation therapy (RT), arm A, versus a split-course accelerated hyperfractionated schedule (S-AHF), arm B, versus CFRT plus concomitant chemotherapy (CT), arm C, in terms of five-year survival and toxicity for squamous cell tumors of the oropharynx.
  • METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Between January 1993 and June 1998, 192 previously untreated patients with stage III and IV oropharyngeal carcinoma (excluding T1N1 and T2N1) were enrolled in a multicenter randomized phase III trial (ORO 93-01).
  • In arms A and C, 66 to 70 Gy in 33 to 35 fractions was administered five days a week for six and a half to seven weeks.
  • In arm B, the dose delivered was 64 to 67.2 Gy in two fractions of 1.6 Gy every day, five days a week, with a planned two-week split at 38.4 Gy.
  • The 13 second tumors were equally distributed and were mainly correlated with tobacco and alcohol consumption (five lung, two esophagus, two oral cavity, one larynx, one pancreas, one hepatocarcinoma, one myeloma).
  • Arm C showed slightly more G3+ late side effects involving subcutaneous tissues and mucosa, although significant late sequelae were relatively uncommon and the mucosal side effects were mostly transient.
  • The occurrence of persistent G3 xerostomia was comparable in the three treatment arms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained with the combination of CT and RT compared with RT alone did not reach statistical significance, but combined treatment almost doubled the five-year overall survival, relapse-free survival and locoregional control rate.
  • Patients with advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx who are medically suitable for the combined approach should be treated with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Dose Fractionation. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Risk Factors. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16683383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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5. Ali S, Varghese L, Pereira L, Tulunay-Ugur OE, Kucuk O, Carey TE, Wolf GT, Sarkar FH: Sensitization of squamous cell carcinoma to cisplatin induced killing by natural agents. Cancer Lett; 2009 Jun 18;278(2):201-9
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  • [Title] Sensitization of squamous cell carcinoma to cisplatin induced killing by natural agents.
  • Cisplatin resistance is a major problem in the successful treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • In the present study we showed, for the first time, that the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB partly contributes to cisplatin resistance and that the inactivation of NF-kappaB by natural agents [G2535 (isoflavone mixture containing genistein and diadzein), 3,3'-diindolylmethane (Bioresponse BR-DIM referred to as B-DIM)] could overcome this resistance, resulting in the inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis, which might be an useful strategy for achieving better treatment outcome in patients diagnosed with cisplatin-resistant tumors of SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Genistein / pharmacology. Indoles / pharmacology. Isoflavones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. DNA / metabolism. Humans. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / genetics. NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. bcl-X Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19231069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097248; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097248-07
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 6287WC5J2L / daidzein; 9007-49-2 / DNA; DH2M523P0H / Genistein; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; SSZ9HQT61Z / 3,3'-diindolylmethane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS371211; NLM/ PMC3350786
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6. Sharafinski ME, Ferris RL, Ferrone S, Grandis JR: Epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck; 2010 Oct;32(10):1412-21
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • BACKGROUND: Cumulative evidence implicates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as an important therapeutic target in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
  • CONCLUSION: The efficacy of EGFR targeted therapies may be mediated, at least in part, by the immune system and the presence of the truncated EGFR variant, EGFRvIII, among other factors.
  • Criteria to identify the subset of patients likely to be responsive to EGFR targeted therapies are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cetuximab. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Erlotinib Hydrochloride. Humans. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 20848399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE019727; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA077308; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098372; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097190; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA77308
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS165144; NLM/ PMC2946515
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7. Wisgerhof HC, van der Boog PJ, de Fijter JW, Wolterbeek R, Haasnoot GW, Claas FH, Willemze R, Bouwes Bavinck JN: Increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma in simultaneous pancreas kidney transplant recipients compared with kidney transplant recipients. J Invest Dermatol; 2009 Dec;129(12):2886-94
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  • [Title] Increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma in simultaneous pancreas kidney transplant recipients compared with kidney transplant recipients.
  • The purpose of this study was to ascertain the risk of non-melanocytic skin cancer (NMSC) in simultaneous pancreas kidney transplant recipients (SPKTRs) compared with kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) in relation to other potential risk factors of skin cancer.
  • In a cohort study, 208 SPKTRs were compared with 1,111 KTRs who were transplanted during the same time period.
  • The effects of age, sex, country of origin, time period after transplantation, HLA matching, immunosuppressive regimen, and rejection treatments on the risk of NMSC were investigated in multivariable Cox's proportional hazard models.
  • After adjustment for age and sex, SPKTRs had a 6.2 (3.0-12.8) increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) compared with KTRs.
  • Adjustment for induction and rejection therapy or HLA mismatching did not change the hazard ratio significantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Kidney Transplantation / statistics & numerical data. Pancreas Transplantation / statistics & numerical data. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Graft Rejection / drug therapy. Graft Rejection / epidemiology. Histocompatibility Testing. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Factors


8. Itoh Y, Fuwa N, Shinoda M: A case of esophageal carcinoma surgically treated after discontinuance of the simultaneous application of radiotherapy and chemotherapy with low doses of CDDP and 5-FU. Radiat Med; 2000 Jan-Feb;18(1):55-8
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  • [Title] A case of esophageal carcinoma surgically treated after discontinuance of the simultaneous application of radiotherapy and chemotherapy with low doses of CDDP and 5-FU.
  • The patient, a 69-year-old man with esophageal cancer, had a type 2 tumor in the Mt region, accompanied with an ulcer measuring 12 cm in the major axis.
  • The clinical stage of the lesion was T3N1M0 (stage III), and simultaneous therapy combining radiotherapy (2 Gy/day) with chemotherapy employing CDDP (6 mg/day) and 5-FU (300 mg/day) was started on October 21, 1996.
  • During treatment, tumor invasion into the gastric walls from lymph node metastasis was observed on endoscopy, and radiotherapy was discontinued at a total dose of 40 Gy to avoid the possibility of bleeding.
  • Although tumor invasion from lymph node metastasis in the lesser curvature of the stomach was observed in the pancreas, no remaining cancer cells were noted in the primary nest and metastasized lymph node, suggesting the usefulness of the simultaneous combined therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Esophagectomy. Esophagoscopy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Radiotherapy Dosage. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Ulcer / etiology

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  • (PMID = 10852656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0288-2043
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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9. Sawai H, Okada Y, Funahashi H, Matsuo Y, Takeyama H, Manabe T: Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with squamous features: report of a case and immunohistochemical study. Med Sci Monit; 2005 Nov;11(11):CS65-8
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  • [Title] Anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with squamous features: report of a case and immunohistochemical study.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic carcinomas of the pancreas are rare aggressive tumors with survival measurable in weeks.
  • We herein present our experience with a case of anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with squamous features in order that allowed us to delineate the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of this rare entity.
  • CASE REPORT: According to imaging findings, the 77-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed as the malignant pancreatic tumor, and underwent a surgical resection.
  • Histopathologically, anaplastic tumor cells showed focal ductal and squamous features infiltrated into pancreatic parenchyma, extrapancreatic fatty tissue, and stomach.
  • Although immunoreactivity against p53 was negative, strong positive immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1RI) was observed in a the majority of tumor cells, while the alpha6 integrin subunit was predominantly strong expressed in the adenocarcinomatous lesion.
  • The patient's postoperative course was uneventful and he was treated with a chemotherapy consisting of gemcitabine.
  • After discharging from the hospital, he had subsequently been observed as an outpatient and same chemotherapy was followed by weekly.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our immunohistochemical studies suggested that the prognosis of the case with anaplastic carcinoma presented here would be poor, due to the strong expression of integrins and IL-1RI.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Integrins / analysis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptors, Interleukin-1 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16258403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Integrins; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-1
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10. Homma A, Suzuki F, Oridate N, Furuta Y, Inuyama Y, Fukuda S: [Long-term complete response to treatment with TS-1 in a patient with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2002 Aug;29(8):1475-8
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  • [Title] [Long-term complete response to treatment with TS-1 in a patient with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma].
  • A 60-year-old man had a recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma at the right side of the tongue base.
  • Chemotherapy with TS-1 (100 mg/day) was begun.
  • Each course of chemotherapy consisted of 4 weeks of TS-1, followed by 2 weeks of no treatment.
  • From the third course of TS-1 treatment, the dose was increased to 120 mg/day.
  • A biopsy done during the ninth course of TS-1 treatment confirmed the complete response histologically, with no evidence of malignancy.
  • After 12 courses of TS-1 treatment, the drug was switched to 600 mg/day of UFT.
  • Although there were no signs or symptoms of recurrence, the patient died of cancer of the pancreas.
  • There was no recurrence of the oropharyngeal cancer, even at the time of death.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Combinations. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 12214481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Pyridines; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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11. Kao J, Sikora AT, Fu S: Dual EGFR and COX-2 inhibition as a novel approach to targeting head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2009 Dec;9(8):931-7
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  • [Title] Dual EGFR and COX-2 inhibition as a novel approach to targeting head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Epidermal growth factor inhibition (EGFR) is emerging as an important treatment modality in several epithelial malignancies, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
  • Since EGFR inhibition is already used for lung, colorectal, breast and pancreas cancers in addition to HNSCC, overcoming treatment resistance would have a major impact on outcome.
  • When the mechanisms of intrinsic resistance are identified, including mutations in the EGFR receptor, alternative therapeutic approaches should be employed.
  • Mechanisms of acquired resistance that may be amenable to pharmacological therapies include dysregulation of EGFR degradation, constitutive activation of overlapping signal transduction pathways, especially cMET/HER3, the PI3K/Akt resistance pathway, angiogenesis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.
  • Combinatorial strategies of combined inhibition of EGFR and acquired resistance pathways in combination with radiation or chemotherapy are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cyclooxygenase 2 / chemistry. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Humans. Signal Transduction / drug effects


12. Minashi K, Ohtsu A, Mera K, Yoshida S, Ishikura S, Ogino T, Boku N, Miyata Y, Kaneko K, Nakamura A: Long-term toxicity and survival of definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients (pts) with T4/M1LYM esophageal carcinoma. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):4209

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  • [Title] Long-term toxicity and survival of definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients (pts) with T4/M1LYM esophageal carcinoma.
  • : 4209 Background: Although definitive CRT is considered to be standard of care in non-surgical treatment for loco-regional esophageal carcinoma, there have been few reports indicating the treatment results for locally advanced disease.
  • We have previously reported a multicenter phase II trial of the definitive CRT in pts with T4/M1LYM (UICC1987) esophageal carcinoma, which resulted in median survival time of 9months and 3-year survival rate of 23% despite substantial toxicities (Ohtsu et al.JCO'99).
  • METHODS: Eligibility criteria of this study required T4 and/or M1LYM squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus, age ≤ 75, PS 0-2, no prior therapy, and written informed consent.
  • The treatment consisted of 5-FU combined with CDDP and concurrent radiotherapy of 60Gy.
  • For responders, 2 additional courses of chemotherapy were administered.
  • Eleven of the 18 pts have already died: 7 due to recurrent disease, 3 other malignancies (lung, pancreas, and acute leukemia), and 1 cardiac failure.
  • Seven pts are still alive with no evidence of disease 5.8-8.2 years after initiation of the CRT including 1 pt on-therapy for late toxicity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Definitive CRT provided 17% 5-year survival rate even for unresectable T4/M1LYM esophageal carcinoma, although late toxicity was non-negligible issues that should be addressed.

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  • (PMID = 28013936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Moazzam N, Mir A, Potti A: Pancreatic metastasis and extrahepatic biliary obstruction in squamous cell lung carcinoma. Med Oncol; 2002;19(4):273-6
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  • [Title] Pancreatic metastasis and extrahepatic biliary obstruction in squamous cell lung carcinoma.
  • The pancreas is a relatively infrequent site of metastasis.
  • As a result, extrahepatic bile duct obstruction (EHBDO) resulting from pancreatic metastasis from lung cancer is extremely rare and occurs mostly with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).
  • We report an unusual case in which a patient presented with jaundice and, after extensive workup, was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with metastasis to the pancreas causing EHBDO.
  • The patient was treated with combination chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel) with a good clinical and radiographic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Cites] South Med J. 1985 Nov;78(11):1398-9 [2999994.001]
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  • (PMID = 12512922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Tonai K, Kitasato Y, Kawakami T, Kondo H, Koga T, Takata S, Katafuchi R, Kawasaki M: [Autopsy case of rapidly progressive pulmonary spindle cell carcinoma with multiple metastases to the brain and pancreas]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Sep;47(9):828-32
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  • [Title] [Autopsy case of rapidly progressive pulmonary spindle cell carcinoma with multiple metastases to the brain and pancreas].
  • Chest X-ray and computed tomography showed a large mass lesion in the right lower lobe of the lung.
  • We diagnosed primary non-small cell lung cancer; cT3N1M1 stage IV.
  • Systemic chemotherapy using carboplatin and paclitaxcel was performed.
  • However, the treatment had no effect and he died two months after admission.
  • An autopsy showed pulmonary spindle cell carcinoma, with multiple metastases to the brain, pancreas, etc.
  • Pulmonary spindle cell carcinoma had been recognized as a variant of the squamous cell carcinoma for years, however, in the recent WHO and Japanese classification of lung tumors, it was redefined as an independent histological type.
  • We need to pay more attention to this type of lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Autopsy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19827589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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15. Sanyal S, Kaman L, Sinha SK: Splenic metastasis from esophageal cancer: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(11):988-90
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  • We herein report the case of a 25-year-old woman who underwent a transhiatal esophagectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the lower third of the esophagus with pN1 lymph node metastasis.
  • Fifteen months following surgery she was found to have splenic metastasis infiltrating the tail of the pancreas at the hilum.
  • A splenectomy, distal pancreatectomy, and resection of the splenic flexure with colocolic anastomosis were performed.
  • A histological examination of the resected specimen showed squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Cites] Am J Clin Pathol. 1963 Jul;40:58-66 [13933237.001]
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  • (PMID = 16249859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Pejcić I, Vrbić S, Filipović S, Sćekić M, Petković I, Pejcić L, Djenić N: [Significance of serum tumor markers monitoring metastases in carcinomas of unknown primary site]. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2010 Sep;67(9):723-31
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  • Following the routine light microscopy, all histological findings were classified into one of the following three groups: plano-cellular carcinoma--8 patients; adenocarcinoma--33 patients; unclassifiable (undifferentiated) carcinoma--22 patients.
  • In all the cases we evaluated 8 serum tumor markers: alpha-fetoproteins (AFP), chronic gonadotrophin beta submit, human (beta-HCG), neuron specific enolase (NSE), marker of malignant ovarian tumors (CA 125), prostate-specific antigene (PSA), marker of malignant brest tumor (CA 15-3), marker of malignant pancreas tumor and gastrointestinal tumor (Ca 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) at the time of diagnosis.
  • The patients on chemotherapy had the markers determined after the third and sixth chemocycle, i.e. at the time of illness progression observation, if present.
  • The patients responding to chemotherapy with complete response (CR), partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) had the markers determined after three-month periods until the time of relapse or progression.
  • Chemotherapy was applied in 32 patients (20 females and 12 males), aged 29-70 years, who met the inclusion criteria.
  • The following chemotherapy regimen was used: doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 (day 1), cisplatin 60 mg/m2 (day 1), and etoposide 120 mg/m2 (days 1-3).
  • The period between two chemotherapy cycles was three weeks, and maximum five weeks in the case of prolonged hematological toxicity.
  • Average survival time was 17.89 months (95% CI 12.96; 22.83).
  • The group of 32 patients treated with chemotherapy had 12 (37.5%) fatal outcomes in the observed period (72 months).
  • Average survival time was 26.6 months (95% CI 19.5; 33.7).
  • Average tumor marker values before and after the chemotherapy were significantly lower for NSE and CA 125.
  • The NSE and CA 125 levels show good correlation with response to the given chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology


17. Ndoye A, Merlin JL, Leroux A, Dolivet G, Erbacher P, Behr JP, Berg K, Guillemin F: Enhanced gene transfer and cell death following p53 gene transfer using photochemical internalisation of glucosylated PEI-DNA complexes. J Gene Med; 2004 Aug;6(8):884-94
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  • [Title] Enhanced gene transfer and cell death following p53 gene transfer using photochemical internalisation of glucosylated PEI-DNA complexes.
  • BACKGROUND: p53 is frequently mutated in many cancers including human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer.
  • In tumor models, wild-type (wt) p53 gene transfer induces apoptosis and tumor regression in vivo, justifying the extensive clinical investigation of p53 gene therapy.
  • Experimental conditions were optimised using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. p53 gene transfer was then evaluated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR in p53-deleted PANC3 and p53-mutated FaDu cell lines.
  • Induction of long-term cell death was analysed using colony-forming assays.
  • RESULTS: PCI was found to enhance GFP gene transfer after 48 h in both cell lines.
  • Spontaneous induction of apoptosis following wt-p53 gene transfer was achieved in both cell lines.
  • PCI was found to enhance apoptosis up to levels similar to those achieved with chemotherapy.
  • As a consequence, long-term cell death was significantly enhanced after wt-p53 gene transfer when PCI was used in both cell lines, yielding up to 60% cell death.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PCI increases glucosylated-PEI-mediated p53 gene transfer, apoptosis as well as cell death in mutant p53 human cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Fragmentation. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Indicators and Reagents / chemistry. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Photochemistry. Plasmids. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Stem Cell Assay / methods

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  • (PMID = 15293347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-498X
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of gene medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gene Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 9002-98-6 / Polyethyleneimine
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18. Thomas CR Jr, Giroux DJ, Janaki LM, Turrisi AT 3rd, Crowley JJ, Taylor SA, McCracken JD, Shankir Giri PG, Gordon W Jr, Livingston RB, Gandara DR: Ten-year follow-up of Southwest Oncology Group 8269: a phase II trial of concomitant cisplatin-etoposide and daily thoracic radiotherapy in limited small-cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2001 Aug-Sep;33(2-3):213-9
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  • [Title] Ten-year follow-up of Southwest Oncology Group 8269: a phase II trial of concomitant cisplatin-etoposide and daily thoracic radiotherapy in limited small-cell lung cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To report the long-term follow-up of Southwest Oncology Group-8269, a phase II North American cooperative group trial of concurrent cisplatin, etoposide, vincristine (PEV), and thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) for limited small-cell lung cancer (L-SCLC).
  • Induction chemotherapy consisted of three cycles of PEV.
  • TRT was administered at 1.8 Gy/fraction in 25 daily fractions to a total dose of 45 Gy, to begin concomitantly.
  • Consolidative chemotherapy included two cycles of vincristine, methotrexate, etoposide, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide.
  • Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) was concurrent with the 3rd cycle of chemotherapy.
  • The PCI dose was 30 Gy in 15 fractions of 2 Gy/fraction.
  • Eleven patients (10%) developed fatal second primary cancers, including two with acute myelogenous leukemia, two with squamous cell lung cancer, one each with breast, pancreas, prostate, renal cell, and myelodysplasia.
  • One patient developed both a melanoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11551416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04920; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA12213; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA12644; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13612; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14028; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16385; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA20319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA22433; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35090; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35128; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35176; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35178; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35192; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35261; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35281; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37981; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38296; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46441; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58416; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58686; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76132; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76447
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; VEP combination
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19. Blaszyk H, Hartmann A, Bjornsson J: Cancer of unknown primary: clinicopathologic correlations. APMIS; 2003 Dec;111(12):1089-94
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  • Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) accounts for 5-10% of all malignant tumors at presentation and remains the death certificate diagnosis in 0.5-5% of patients.
  • We reviewed 9,436 consecutive autopsies performed between 1984 and 1999 at the Mayo Clinic, matched with 177,167 cancer patients treated in the same time period.
  • Antemortem pathologic diagnoses were obtained in 57 patients, agreed with postmortem diagnoses in 98%, and included adenocarcinoma (n=44), undifferentiated carcinoma (n=7), squamous cell carcinoma (n=3), and others (n=3).
  • Of 43 patients evaluated for tumor-specific therapy, only six received no further oncologic treatment and untreated patients survived a median of 57 (range 10-280) days, compared with 225 (range 19-1,129) days for patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (n=37).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Autopsy. Biliary Tract / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cohort Studies. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 14678017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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20. Aggarwal BB, Bhardwaj A, Aggarwal RS, Seeram NP, Shishodia S, Takada Y: Role of resveratrol in prevention and therapy of cancer: preclinical and clinical studies. Anticancer Res; 2004 Sep-Oct;24(5A):2783-840
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of resveratrol in prevention and therapy of cancer: preclinical and clinical studies.
  • Besides cardioprotective effects, resveratrol exhibits anticancer properties, as suggested by its ability to suppress proliferation of a wide variety of tumor cells, including lymphoid and myeloid cancers; multiple myeloma; cancers of the breast, prostate, stomach, colon, pancreas, and thyroid; melanoma; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; ovarian carcinoma; and cervical carcinoma.
  • The growth-inhibitory effects of resveratrol are mediated through cell-cycle arrest; upregulation of p21Cip1/WAF1, p53 and Bax; down-regulation of survivin, cyclin D1, cyclin E, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and clAPs; and activation of caspases.
  • Besides chemopreventive effects, resveratrol appears to exhibit therapeutic effects against cancer.
  • Currently, structural analogues of resveratrol with improved bioavailability are being pursued as potential therapeutic agents for cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / prevention & control. Stilbenes / therapeutic use


21. Ulrich C, Johannsen A, Röwert-Huber J, Ulrich M, Sterry W, Stockfleth E: Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy study of topical diclofenac 3% gel in organ transplant patients with multiple actinic keratoses. Eur J Dermatol; 2010 Jul-Aug;20(4):482-8
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  • Increasing incidence rates of cutaneous malignancies, paralleling rising survival times of grafts and patients in organ transplant recipients, represents an escalating challenge for dermatologists worldwide.
  • Especially, invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in immuno-compromised patients are characterized by significantly increased morbidity and mortality and characteristically outnumber basal cell carcinoma in this population.
  • Diclofenac in hyaluronic acid has previously shown to be an effective and well tolerated option for the treatment of AK in immuno-competent patients.
  • 32 organ transplant patients (kidney (+/- pancreas), liver, heart) screened at our specialized transplant dermatology outpatient clinic were found eligible and were randomized to either active treatment (24) or vehicle (8).
  • Treatment of AK with 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronic acid or placebo twice daily was conducted over a total of 16 weeks, followed by a final evaluation 4 weeks after last application of the study drug.
  • Patients were assessed for safety variables that included adverse events, local skin reactions, laboratory results, dosage of immunosuppressive medication and indication of graft rejection.
  • A 24 months follow up was conducted after the end of treatment.
  • 87% (n = 28/32) of the patients completed the 16 week treatment phase and presented for final evaluation 4 weeks after end of treatment.
  • In the diclofenac 3% gel treatment group, a complete clearance of AK lesions was achieved in 41% (9/22) compared to 0% (0/6) in the vehicle group.
  • In 55% of the previously cleared patients, new AK developed in the study area after an average of 9.3 months.
  • None of these patients developed invasive SCC in the study area within 24 months of follow-up.
  • This study suggests that diclofenac 3% gel is not only an efficient and well tolerated treatment for multiple AKs in OTRs but also may prevent invasive SCC in these high-risk patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Organ Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Double-Blind Method. Female. Gels. Humans. Hyaluronic Acid / administration & dosage. Hyaluronic Acid / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Placebos. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20507841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 0 / Placebos; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
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22. Sessa C, Tosi D, Viganò L, Albanell J, Hess D, Maur M, Cresta S, Locatelli A, Angst R, Rojo F, Coceani N, Rivera VM, Berk L, Haluska F, Gianni L: Phase Ib study of weekly mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor ridaforolimus (AP23573; MK-8669) with weekly paclitaxel. Ann Oncol; 2010 Jun;21(6):1315-22
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  • Collateral levels with a lower dose of either drug were planned upon achievement of the maximum tolerated dose in the main escalation.
  • Two partial responses were observed in pharyngeal squamous cell and pancreatic carcinoma.
  • No drug interaction emerged from PK studies.
  • Similar inhibition of phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase was present in reparative epidermis and vascular tissues, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 19901013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 48Z35KB15K / ridaforolimus; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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23. Pavlidis N, Briasoulis E, Hainsworth J, Greco FA: Diagnostic and therapeutic management of cancer of an unknown primary. Eur J Cancer; 2003 Sep;39(14):1990-2005
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic and therapeutic management of cancer of an unknown primary.
  • Patients with CUP present with metastatic disease for which the site of origin cannot be identified at the time of diagnosis.
  • Extensive work-up with specific pathology investigations (immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, molecular diagnosis) and modern imaging technology (computed tomography (CT), mammography, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan) have resulted in some improvements in diagnosis; however, the primary site remains unknown in most patients, even on autopsy.
  • The most frequently detected primaries are carcinomas hidden in the lung or pancreas.
  • Several favourable sub-sets of CUP have been identified, which are responsive to systemic chemotherapy and/or locoregional treatment.
  • Identification and treatment of these patients is of paramount importance.
  • The considered responsive sub-sets to platinum-based chemotherapy are the poorly differentiated carcinomas involving the mediastinal-retroperitoneal nodes, the peritoneal papillary serous adenocarcinomatosis in females and the poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas.
  • Other tumours successfully managed by locoregional treatment with surgery and/or irradiation are the metastatic adenocarcinoma of isolated axillary nodes, metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of cervical nodes, or any other single metastatic site.
  • Empirical chemotherapy benefits some of the patients who do not fit into any favourable sub-set, and should be considered in patients with a good performance status.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Physician's Role. Prognosis. Prospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Cancer. 2004 Jun;40(9):1454-5 [15177507.001]
  • (PMID = 12957453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 119
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24. Calabrese L, Jereczek-Fossa BA, Jassem J, Rocca A, Bruschini R, Orecchia R, Chiesa F: Diagnosis and management of neck metastases from an unknown primary. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Feb;25(1):2-12
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Head and Neck Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of neck metastases from an unknown primary.
  • Neck lymph node metastases from occult primary constitute about 5%-10% of all patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site.
  • Diagnostic procedures include a careful clinical evaluation and a fiberoptic endoscopic examination of the head and neck mucosa, biopsies from all suspicious sites or blindly from the sites of possible origin of the primary, computerized tomography scan, and magnetic resonance.
  • The most frequent histological finding is Squamous Cell Carcinoma, particularly when the upper neck is involved.
  • Thoracic, and abdominal primaries (especially from lung, oesophagus, stomach, ovary or pancreas) should be sought in the case of adenocarcinoma and involvement of the lower neck.
  • Positron emission tomography with fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose allows detection of primary tumour in about 25% of cases, but this procedure is still considered investigational.
  • Therapeutic approaches include surgery (neck dissection), with or without post-operative radiotherapy, radiotherapy alone and radiotherapy followed by surgery as reported by several guide-lines.
  • The role of other methods, such as chemotherapy and hyperthermia, remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 16080309.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 102
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639847
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