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1. Soysal HG, Markoç F: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelids and periorbital region. Br J Ophthalmol; 2007 Mar;91(3):325-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelids and periorbital region.
  • AIM: To review the clinical and histopathological features, treatment and outcomes of squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelids.
  • METHODS: 76 patients with eyelid squamous cell carcinoma treated in an oncology referral hospital between 1997 and 2006 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Age, sex, risk factors, duration of symptoms, size and location of lesion, previous recurrences, presence of perineural invasion (PNI) and orbital invasion, histological subtype, inflammatory response of peritumoral tissue were recorded and analysed.
  • 63 patients underwent surgery, whereas others were treated with external radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Advanced deep local invasion was not rare in this study, as a result of treatment delay and previous inadequate treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Optic Nerve / pathology. Orbit / pathology. Paranasal Sinuses / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sclera / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Carcinoma, Squamous Cell.
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  • [CommentIn] Br J Ophthalmol. 2007 Mar;91(3):276-7 [17322464.001]
  • (PMID = 17020898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1857650
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2. Lin HF, Lui CC, Hsu HC, Lin SA: Orbital exenteration for secondary orbital tumors: a series of seven cases. Chang Gung Med J; 2002 Sep;25(9):599-605

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It entails the removal of the eyeball together with its extraocular muscles and other soft tissues.
  • Primary lesions, histopathological examination results, treatments, and recurrences are discussed.
  • RESULTS: Classification of the 7 patients showed that 2 had basal cell carcinoma of the skin, 2 had squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, 1 had squamous cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinus, 1 had rhabdomyosarcoma of the paranasal sinus, and 1 had intracranial meningioma.
  • Radiotherapy was performed in 6 of the patients and chemotherapy in 2.
  • CONCLUSION: Secondary orbital tumors involved the orbit from adjacent tissues: paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, lacrimal sac, conjunctiva, eyelid, intraocular tissue, and intracranial tissues.
  • And the imaging studies should include the field of the orbit, sinus, and brain to search for the primary lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Orbit Evisceration / methods. Orbital Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 12479621.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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3. Sebastián Villalón-López J, Arturo Valle-Mejía C, Patiño-Lara A, Moreno-Pérez Bertha A, Alejo Muñoz-López J, Alcantar-Andrade A: Supraestructure maxillectomy and orbital exenteration for treatment of basal cell carcinoma of inferior eyelid: case report and review. J Cancer Res Ther; 2005 Jul-Sep;1(3):132-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Supraestructure maxillectomy and orbital exenteration for treatment of basal cell carcinoma of inferior eyelid: case report and review.
  • Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent type of skin cancer in humans, with cumulative exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) as important risk factor for development of the illness as such as severe solar burns during childhood or adolescence.
  • BCC is mainly located on sun exposed sites, being head and neck the areas of more incidence; although nose, eyelids and periorbitary tissue are unfavorable due to cosmetic results that BCC involves.
  • Several treatment options as surgical and non-surgical are available.
  • The goal of treatment is complete excision of the tumor with preservation of surrounding structures in a way aesthetically acceptable.
  • Mohs' micrographic surgery is the standard treatment for all non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Orbital exenteration is also used for treatment of malignancies of ocular tissues, mainly squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous cell carcinoma and BCC.
  • The tissue beneath the surgical site can be left for second-intention granulation or covered with a cutaneous implant of partial thickness.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Eyelid Neoplasms / surgery. Maxilla / surgery. Orbit Evisceration / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17998643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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4. Schultes G, Kärcher H, Gaggl A, Santler G: Computer assisted tumour resection of the skull base: case report. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 2001 Dec;29(6):326-31

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This case report demonstrates computer assisted resection of a skull base tumour after combined chemotherapy and irradiation, in a 40-year-old man with a squamous cell carcinoma of maxilla, zygoma, orbit and skull base.
  • The resection of the skull base was performed with computer assistance after conventional resection of the maxilla, midface, exenteration of the orbit and lymph node dissection.
  • Following combined chemotherapy and irradiation, the original, pretherapeutic tumour extent was marked on the new, presurgical CT scan enabling resection of the skull base with the use of a navigation microscope.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery. Surgery, Computer-Assisted
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Transplantation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose Fractionation. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Maxillary Neoplasms / surgery. Microsurgery. Muscle, Skeletal / transplantation. Orbit Evisceration. Orbital Neoplasms / surgery. Patient Care Planning. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Skin Transplantation. Skull Neoplasms / surgery. Surgical Flaps. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Zygoma / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 European Association for Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery.
  • (PMID = 11777349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-5182
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniomaxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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5. Verma V, Shen D, Sieving PC, Chan CC: The role of infectious agents in the etiology of ocular adnexal neoplasia. Surv Ophthalmol; 2008 Jul-Aug;53(4):312-31
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Given the fact that infectious agents contribute to around 18% of human cancers worldwide, it would seem prudent to explore their role in neoplasms of the ocular adnexa: primary malignancies of the conjunctiva, lacrimal glands, eyelids, and orbit.
  • By elucidating the mechanisms by which infectious agents contribute to oncogenesis, the management, treatment, and prevention of these neoplasms may one day parallel what is already in place for cancers such as cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma.
  • Antibiotic treatment and vaccines against infectious agents may herald a future with a curtailed role for traditional therapies of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
  • This review discusses the pathogenetic role of several microorganisms in different ocular adnexal malignancies, including human papilloma virus in conjunctival papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma, human immunodeficiency virus in conjunctival squamous carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus or human herpes simplex virus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8) in conjunctival Kaposi sarcoma, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori,), Chlamydia, and hepatitis C virus in ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Alphapapillomavirus / physiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Chlamydophila psittaci / isolation & purification. Chlamydophila psittaci / physiology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / microbiology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / virology. Eyelid Neoplasms / microbiology. Eyelid Neoplasms / virology. HIV-1 / isolation & purification. HIV-1 / physiology. Helicobacter pylori / isolation & purification. Helicobacter pylori / physiology. Hepacivirus / isolation & purification. Hepacivirus / physiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Humans. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / microbiology. Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases / virology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / virology. Orbital Neoplasms / microbiology. Orbital Neoplasms / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 18572051.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6257
  • [Journal-full-title] Survey of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surv Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 EY000222-22
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 248
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS58178; NLM/ PMC2507724
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6. Kanoto M, Oda A, Hosoya T, Nemoto K, Ishida A, Nasu T, Koike S, Aoyagi M: Impact of superselective transarterial infusion therapy of high-dose cisplatin on maxillary cancer with orbital invasion. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2010 Sep;31(8):1390-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of superselective transarterial infusion therapy of high-dose cisplatin on maxillary cancer with orbital invasion.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We have been performing the superselective transarterial infusion of high-dose cisplatin for advanced maxillary cancer since 1998 and the local control rate, disease free survival rate, and organ preservation have improved markedly compared with our former therapy.
  • This study evaluates the effectiveness of superselective transarterial infusion therapy by using high-dose cisplatin on maxillary cancer with orbital invasion.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated 23 patients with maxillary cancer by using superselective transarterial infusion therapy with high-dose cisplatin and concomitant radiation therapy for 10 years.
  • In all patients, we performed superselective transarterial infusion therapy via the internal maxillary artery and/or the other feeding branches from the external carotid artery.
  • Eyeballs were preserved in all patients, and local recurrence occurred in only 1 patient, at the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus (not in the orbit).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Superselective transarterial infusion therapy with high-dose cisplatin remarkably improved the local control rate and disease-free survival rate of maxillary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Maxillary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Orbital Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carotid Artery, External. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20360344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. Atique-Tacla M, Paves L, Pereira MD, Manso PG: [Exenteration: a retrospective study]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2006 Sep-Oct;69(5):679-82
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  • PURPOSE: To review all cases of orbit exenteration performed at the Orbit Sector, Ophthalmology Department - Federal University of São Paulo, from 1998 to 2003.
  • METHODS: We reviewed conditions leading to orbital exenteration in 21 patients at the Orbit Sector of Unifesp-EPM from August 1998 to May 2003.
  • Data regarding sex, age, race, primary lesion site, visual acuity at the moment of diagnosis, previous surgeries related to the exenteration, type of performed surgery, histopathologic diagnosis, postoperative complications and use of adjuvant treatment were collected.
  • Lesions originated from eyelids in twelve patients, from bulbar conjunctiva in six and from the orbit in three.
  • Cases were also classified as squamous cell carcinoma (eleven cases), basal cell carcinoma (four cases), sebaceous gland carcinoma (two cases), rhabdomyosarcoma (two cases), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (one case) and adnexal microcistic carcinoma (one case).
  • Visual acuity at the moment of diagnosis ranged from 20/40 to no light perception.
  • After surgery, three patients suffered graft necrosis, one presented ethmoidal sinus fistula to the orbit and one presented orbital socket shrinkage.
  • Six patients needed postoperative radiotherapy and two had been previously submitted to chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients analyzed in our study presented lesions that are usually small in the beginning; however, they can disseminate to the orbit in the absence of adequate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Eye Neoplasms / surgery. Orbit Evisceration. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child, Preschool. Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Continental Population Groups. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 17187134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2749
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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8. McKay SP, Shibuya TY, Armstrong WB, Wong HS, Panossian AM, Ager J, Mathog RH: Cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses and skull base. Am J Otolaryngol; 2007 Sep-Oct;28(5):294-301

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses and skull base.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinus and skull base for factors that might predict clinical outcome.
  • RESULTS: Of 73 patients with anterior skull base malignancies, squamous cell carcinoma was the most prevalent-30 patients or 41%.
  • Twenty-three patients underwent craniofacial surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Seven patients, deemed unresectable or not willing to have surgery, were treated with standard radiation protocols often with chemotherapy.
  • Although 3- and 5-year survival of tumors free of sphenoid sinus, dura, retromaxillary, and ptyerygoid space, and orbit treated with surgery showed no significant difference to those patients with involvement, their median time of survival was increased for all anatomical regions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Squamous cell carcinoma of the sinus invading the skull base carries a very poor prognosis regardless of treatment modality.
  • Surgery with adjunctive radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy offers a survival advantage over nonsurgical methods, but treatment should be individualized weighing prognostic factors, such as age, stage, and anatomical extension with morbidity of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Skull Base Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prevalence. Proportional Hazards Models. Quality of Life. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17826529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Ross AH, Kennedy CT, Collins C, Harrad RA: The use of imiquimod in the treatment of periocular tumours. Orbit; 2010 Apr;29(2):83-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The use of imiquimod in the treatment of periocular tumours.
  • PURPOSE: To review our experience with 5% topical Imiquimod in the treatment of periocular tumours.
  • Two patients were diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid, one patient with actinic keratosis, one with intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma (Bowen's disease) and one patient had concomitant squamous cell carcinoma and intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: All 5 patients, with various eyelid neoplastic/pre-neoplastic pathology, responded well with clinical resolution, to treatment with topical Imiquimod.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is limited experience and published literature on the use of topical 5% Imiquimod in the treatment of periocular tumours.
  • In our experience, it is a safe and effective treatment for periocular lesions, including actinic keratosis, intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first published description of the successful use of 5% Imiquimod in treating moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Eyelid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmic Solutions. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20394545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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10. Pino Rivero V, Montero García C, Marcos García M, Trinidad Ruiz G, Pardo Romero G, González Palomino A, Alvarez Domínguez J, Blasco Huelva A: [Ethmoidal epidermoid carcinoma showing as cluster headache. Report of a case and literature review]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2004;31(5):477-83
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  • [Title] [Ethmoidal epidermoid carcinoma showing as cluster headache. Report of a case and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma epidermoide etmoidal manifestándose con cluster headache. Caso clínico y revisión de la literatura.
  • We report the case of a 54 years old male diagnosed as ethmoidal epidermoid carcinoma which, after almost 1 year--asymptomatic period, debuted with facial pain (cluster headache) without another associated clinic.
  • Sino-nasal malignant tumours represent about 5%-6% in all ENT carcinomas and they use to be of later diagnosis, with high probability of local recurrence and invasiveness on structures like orbit and skull base.
  • The main treatment for ethmoidal squamous carcinomas is surgery and depending on staging can require radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cluster Headache / complications. Ethmoid Bone / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15566268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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11. Shiga K, Yokoyama J, Hashimoto S, Saijo S, Tateda M, Ogawa T, Watanabe M, Kobayashi T: Combined therapy after superselective arterial cisplatin infusion to treat maxillary squamous cell carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Jun;136(6):1003-9
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined therapy after superselective arterial cisplatin infusion to treat maxillary squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the efficacy of combined therapy after superselective arterial cisplatin infusion (SACI) therapy to treat the maxillary squamous cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Patients with surgery (ASR) had an 88% local control rate with 75% disease-free survival rate at 60 months by Kaplan-Meier analysis, compared with 62% disease-free survival rate for patients with AR treatment.
  • CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Combined SACI therapy is very effective for the treatment of maxillary squamous cell carcinomas and contributes to the improving prognoses of patients and organ preservation rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Infusions, Intra-Arterial / methods. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Maxilla / pathology. Maxilla / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Orbit Evisceration

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  • (PMID = 17547996.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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12. Gökmen Soysal H, Ardiç F: Malignant conjunctival tumors invading the orbit. Ophthalmologica; 2008;222(5):338-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant conjunctival tumors invading the orbit.
  • AIM: The aim of this study is to present the clinical and histopathological features as well as the treatment results of advanced conjunctival malignant tumors with orbital invasion, in the context of all secondary orbital tumors.
  • The age, gender, duration of symptoms, clinical and histopathological features and the treatment results of patients were recorded.
  • RESULTS: Four out of 21 patients had malignant melanoma (MM), while 17 had squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the conjunctiva.
  • Two patients underwent wide excision with control of the surgical margins and postoperative adjunctive topical chemotherapy.
  • Two patients with regional metastasis were treated by radical neck dissection and radiation therapy to the neck.
  • After a mean follow-up time of 35.6 months, no tumor recurrence or tumor-related death was encountered.
  • CONCLUSION: Delay in presentation for treatment and previous unsuccessful surgery of conjunctival malignant lesions are likely to lead to orbital invasion and loss of the eye.
  • Exenteration is generally needed but margin-controlled wide surgical excision and adjuvant chemotherapy may be curative in selected cases.
  • Early diagnosis and effective treatment of lesions will minimize the mortality rate and morbidity related to the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Orbit Evisceration. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18635931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0267
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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13. Yao M, Dornfeld KJ, Buatti JM, Skwarchuk M, Tan H, Nguyen T, Wacha J, Bayouth JE, Funk GF, Smith RB, Graham SM, Chang K, Hoffman HT: Intensity-modulated radiation treatment for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma--the University of Iowa experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Oct 1;63(2):410-21
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CIS-DIAMINEDICHLOROPLATINUM .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation treatment for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma--the University of Iowa experience.
  • PURPOSE: To review the University of Iowa experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From October 1999 to April 2004, 151 patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma were treated with IMRT for curative intent.
  • One patient was lost to follow-up 2 months after treatment and therefore excluded from analysis.
  • Of the remaining 150 patients, 99 were treated with definitive IMRT, and 51 received postoperative IMRT.
  • None of the patients treated with postoperative IMRT received chemotherapy.
  • Of 99 patients who had definitive IMRT, 68 patients received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • One patient received induction cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but no concurrent chemotherapy was given.
  • The prescribed doses to CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3 in the definitive cohort were 70-74 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy, respectively.
  • For high-risk postoperative IMRT, the prescribed doses to CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3 were 64-66 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy, respectively.
  • For intermediate-risk postoperative IMRT, the prescribed doses to CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3 were 60 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy.
  • The median time from treatment completion to local-regional recurrence was 4.7 months (range, 1.8 to 15.6 months).
  • Only one marginal failure was noted in a patient who had extensive tonsil cancer with tumor extension into the orbit and cavernous sinus.
  • There was no significant difference in local-regional control for patients who received postoperative radiation or definitive radiation (p = 0.339) and for patients who had chemotherapy or not (p = 0.402).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iowa. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure. Universities

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  • (PMID = 16168834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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14. Kummoona R: Periorbital and orbital malignancies: methods of management and reconstruction in Iraq. J Craniofac Surg; 2007 Nov;18(6):1370-5
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  • Tumor types were squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, retinoblastoma, fibrosarcoma, and ectopic mixed tumor in two, one, two, one, one, and one patients, respectively, in addition to eight patients with jaw lymphoma involving the orbit, out of 24 patients reported by us.
  • Eight patients were treated surgically with adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy, whereas eight patients with lymphoma treated with combination chemotherapy (vincristine, Adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and prednisolone), the survival rate was very poor.
  • Reconstruction of the defect was accomplished using various local skin flaps and temporalis muscle flap was used for augmenting the orbit in the four exenterated patients.
  • There is no single best method for reconstruction of the periorbital and orbital defects left after tumor resection, and different flaps applied for reconstruction had given satisfactory results related to the type and complexity of the deformity.
  • Temporalis muscle flap in this study had proved to be versatile and highly reliable flap in terms of bulk and vascularity for blocking the orbit.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbit / surgery. Orbital Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Surgical Flaps. Temporal Muscle / transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Infant. Iraq. Lymphoma / chemistry. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17993883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Nishino H, Ichimura K, Tanaka H, Ishikawa K, Abe K, Fujisawa Y, Shinozaki T: Results of orbital preservation for advanced malignant maxillary sinus tumors. Laryngoscope; 2003 Jun;113(6):1064-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine the oncological and functional outcomes of multimodality therapy for patients with advanced malignant maxillary sinus tumors that invaded the orbit.
  • The most common disease was squamous cell carcinoma.
  • All patients underwent simultaneous combined therapy consisting of conservative surgery through a sublabial incision, radiotherapy, and regional chemotherapy.
  • Overall survival rates and local control rates were significantly worse in patients with disease other than squamous cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combined therapy with conservative surgery, radiotherapy, and regional chemotherapy is an effective method for local control and preservation of ocular function.
  • However, performing orbital conservation procedure in patients with disease other than squamous cell carcinoma and with orbital apex disease must be considered carefully.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Orbital Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12782824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Yücel A, Cinar C, Aydin Y, Senyuva C, Güzel Z, Cetinkale O, Altintaŝ M: Malignant tumors requiring maxillectomy. J Craniofac Surg; 2000 Sep;11(5):418-29
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  • The most common histopathological diagnoses was squamous cell carcinoma (54%), followed by basal cell carcinoma (20%).
  • Postoperative radiotherapy was performed in 32 patients and combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 12 patients.
  • Resection of the tumor with free surgical margins and appropriate evaluation of the surgical defect for the most suitable reconstruction are the mainstays of treatment of the midfacial tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Facial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Lip Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Mandible / surgery. Mandibular Neoplasms / surgery. Maxillary Neoplasms / surgery. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / surgery. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Orbit Evisceration. Palatal Neoplasms / surgery. Palatal Obturators. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / surgery. Skin Transplantation / methods. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 11314064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Li LL, Liu HG, Piao YS, He CY, Zhou Q, Zhang Y: [Clinicopathologic study of malignant tumors in head and neck region complicated by fungal infection]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Aug;39(8):508-12
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  • The primary tumors in such cases included leukemia (n = 7) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (n = 1).
  • These patients had history of chemotherapy/radiotherapy or antibiotics usage.
  • The remaining 13 cases of fungal infection often affected necrotic tumor tissue in nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx and palate.
  • Invasive fungal sinusitis (due to Zygomycetes and Aspergillus) often occurs in patients with leukemia, tends to involve orbit and is associated with poor prognosis.
  • On the other hand, Aspergillus and Candida are the commonest fungi found in the necrotic tumor tissue.
  • Pathologic examination remains the hallmark in confirming the diagnosis and fungal typing.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Aspergillosis / drug therapy. Aspergillosis / microbiology. Aspergillosis / pathology. Aspergillus / isolation & purification. Candida / isolation & purification. Candidiasis / drug therapy. Candidiasis / microbiology. Candidiasis / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / microbiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / microbiology. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult. Zygomycosis / drug therapy. Zygomycosis / microbiology. Zygomycosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21055027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents
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18. Day TA, Beas RA, Schlosser RJ, Woodworth BA, Barredo J, Sharma AK, Gillespie MB: Management of paranasal sinus malignancy. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2005 Jan;6(1):3-18
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  • Malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses represent a wide spectrum of histologies, tissues of origin, and anatomic primary sites.
  • The inherent difficulty in generalizing treatment approaches is obvious, given the numerous variables associated with the broadly-based term, paranasal sinus malignancy (PNSCa).
  • Nevertheless, the majority of epithelial and salivary malignancies of this region (ie, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and esthesioneuroblastoma) require surgical intervention as part of any treatment regimen.
  • Nonepithelial malignancies, including the wide variety of sarcomas arising in this region, most commonly require multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery for definitive treatment.
  • Moreover, the proximity of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses to structures including the orbit, dura, brain, cranial nerves, and carotid arteries mandates careful radiologic and neurologic evaluations throughout the course of the disease.
  • However, additional clinical trials are necessary to systematically evaluate the locoregional control, organ-preservation strategies, and survival related to the variety of treatments currently available.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery. Sarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diet. Humans. Life Style. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 15610711.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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19. Potter BO, Sturgis EM: Sarcomas of the head and neck. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2003 Apr;12(2):379-417
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  • With the exception of pediatric RMS, soft tissue sarcomas only rarely arise in the head and neck region.
  • Soft tissue sarcomas include a diverse array of histologic types because of the variety of mesenchymal tissues from which they originate.
  • The combination of infrequent occurrence, varied pathologic features, and the many potential sites of presentation makes these tumors a challenge for the head and neck oncologist and underscore the need for review by a pathologist experienced with soft tissue tumors.
  • Although local control of the primary tumor is critical to successful treatment of both high- and low-grade lesions, the high rate of distant metastases in high-grade tumors supports the role of combined modality therapy.
  • Compared with other types of head and neck neoplasms, such as squamous cell carcinoma, soft tissue sarcomas have low rates of regional metastases.
  • Surgery generally has been recommended as the primary method of treatment for achieving local control, except in those high-grade tumors arising in sites not amenable to resection.
  • Exceptions to this principle include RMSs of the orbit, paranasal sinuses, and masticator space in children; these are usually treated with radiotherapy and combined multiagent chemotherapy, thereby avoiding the functional and cosmetic impact of surgery.
  • Also, extensive angiosarcomas of the scalp should be treated with multimodality therapy combining surgery and wide-field radiation therapy in an attempt to achieve local control.
  • Systemic chemotherapy is recommended for those tumors with a significant risk of distant metastases.
  • Increasingly, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being used to determine responsiveness to chemotherapy, which can help physicians select patients who may benefit from systemic postoperative therapy.
  • Traditional predictors of treatment failure for soft tissue sarcomas include larger tumor size, high-grade histology, and positive surgical margins.
  • The advent of more advanced reconstructive techniques, including free tissue transfer, has made more aggressive surgical resection of these tumors possible.
  • In the future, the discovery of the molecular pathogenesis of specific tumor types, such as the cytogenetic findings in synovial sarcoma, will improve physicians' prognostic abilities and selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from emerging adjuvant therapies.

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  • (PMID = 12916461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 183
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20. Katz TS, Mendenhall WM, Morris CG, Amdur RJ, Hinerman RW, Villaret DB: Malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Head Neck; 2002 Sep;24(9):821-9
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  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of radiation therapy in patients with nasal cavity and paranasal sinus tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between October 1964 and July 1998, 78 patients with malignant tumors of the nasal cavity (48 patients), ethmoid sinus (24 patients), sphenoid sinus (5 patients), or frontal sinus (1 patient) were treated with curative intent by radiation therapy alone or in the adjuvant setting.
  • There were 25 squamous cell carcinomas, 14 undifferentiated carcinomas, 31 minor salivary gland tumors (adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma), 8 esthesioneuroblastomas, and 1 transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Forty-seven patients were treated with irradiation alone, 25 with surgery and postoperative irradiation, 2 with preoperative irradiation and surgery, and 4 with chemotherapy in combination with irradiation with or without surgery.
  • RESULTS: The 5-year actuarial local control rate for stage I (limited to the site of origin; 22 patients) was 86%; for stage II (extension to adjacent sites (eg, adjacent sinuses, orbit, pterygomaxillary fossa, nasopharynx; 21 patients) was 65%; and for stage III (destruction of skull base or pterygoid plates, or intracranial extension; 35 patients) was 34%.
  • Of the 67 (86%) patients who were initially seen with node-negative disease, 39 (58%) received no elective neck treatment, and 28 (42%) received elective neck irradiation.
  • Of the 39 patients who received no elective neck treatment, 33 (85%) did not experience recurrence in the neck compared with 25 (89%) of 28 patients who received elective neck irradiation.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy may result in improved local control, absolute survival, and complications when compared with radiation therapy alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blindness / etiology. Blindness / prevention & control. Cause of Death. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Osteoradionecrosis / etiology. Postoperative Care. Preoperative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 24: 821-829, 2002
  • (PMID = 12211046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Li Y, Zhang TM, An YZ, Shi JT, Fu JD, Qiu E: [Clinical study of lacrimal gland tumor involving anterior and middle cranial fossae]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Jun 20;86(23):1597-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland tumor involving the anterior and middle cranial fossae and the effect of transcranial-orbital approach in treatment of such tumor.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on the clinical data of 23 cases lacrimal gland tumor involving the anterior and middle cranial fossae confirmed by radiological examination, including 11 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma, 6 cases of pleomorphic adenocarcinoma (malignant mixed tumor), 2 cases of adenocarcinoma, 1 case of squamous cell carcinoma, 1 case of ductal carcinoma, 1 case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and 1 case of benign mixed tumor, 15 males and 8 females, aged 42.5 (2 - 76), with a case history of 43 months (2 months to 27 years), with the chief complaints of progressive proptosis, disgenesia of the eye ball, and orbit pain, all undergoing transcranial-orbital operation from August 1998 to February. 2006.
  • Suitable treatment strategy should by combination of operation with irradiation or chemotherapy.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Eye Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 16854296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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