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1. Ishii N, Yonese J, Tsukamoto T, Maezawa T, Fukui I, Ishikawa Y, Aoki N: [Multiple synchronous primary malignant tumors of fibrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the urinary bladder: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2002 Jul;93(5):642-7
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  • [Title] [Multiple synchronous primary malignant tumors of fibrosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the urinary bladder: a case report].
  • A 65-year-old housewife presented with a diagnosis of malignant spindle cell tumor of the bladder which had been diagnosed by work up for chance hematuria.
  • Urine cytology revealed a small number of squamous epithelial cells showing dyskeratosis but no spindle cells.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance images showed a markedly enhanced mass, 4 cm in diameter, on the anterior wall of the urinary bladder, which appeared to be adhesive to the pubic bone.
  • Although the anterior wall of the urinary bladder was mildly adhesive to the pubic bone, the surgical margin was negative for malignant cells.
  • The tumor corresponded to a fibrosarcoma that infiltrated the adipose tissue surrounding the urinary bladder.
  • The entire mucosa of the bladder showed diffuse squamous metaplasia, and well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with pearl formation was found in part.
  • These two malignant tumors were clearly apart from each other, resulting in the histologic diagnosis of synchronous multiple malignant tumors of the bladder.
  • The patient developed a local relapse and pulmonary metastasis of fibrosarcoma one month postoperatively and died two month later without any response to chemotherapy (CYVADIC) and radiotherapy.
  • The current case seems to be the first one in Japan (third in the world) of a patient with multiple synchronous primary malignant tumors, carcinoma and sarcoma, airsing in the urinary bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Fibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12174642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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2. Shi J, Orth JD, Mitchison T: Cell type variation in responses to antimitotic drugs that target microtubules and kinesin-5. Cancer Res; 2008 May 1;68(9):3269-76
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  • [Title] Cell type variation in responses to antimitotic drugs that target microtubules and kinesin-5.
  • To improve cancer chemotherapy, we need to understand the mechanisms that determine drug sensitivity in cancer and normal cells.
  • Here, we investigate this question across a panel of 11 cell lines at a phenotypic and molecular level for three antimitotic drugs: paclitaxel, nocodazole, and an inhibitor of kinesin-5 (also known as KSP, Eg5, Kif11).
  • Using automated microscopy with markers for mitosis and apoptosis (high content screening), we find that the mitotic arrest response shows relatively little variation between cell types, whereas the tendency to undergo apoptosis shows large variation.
  • Response to the three drugs strongly correlated, although paclitaxel caused more apoptosis in some cell lines at similar levels of mitotic arrest.
  • Molecular investigations showed that sensitivity to apoptosis correlated with loss of an antiapoptotic protein, XIAP, during the drug response, but not its preresponse levels, and to some extent also correlated with activation of the p38 and c-Jun NH(2) kinase pathways.
  • We conclude that variation in sensitivity to antimitotic drugs in drug-naive cell lines is governed more by differences in apoptotic signaling than by differences in mitotic spindle or spindle assembly checkpoint proteins and that antimitotics with different mechanisms trigger very similar, but not identical, responses.

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  • (PMID = 18451153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA078048; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA078048-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimitotic Agents; 0 / KIF11 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; EC 3.6.1.- / Kinesin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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3. Radulescu S, Ridgway RA, Appleton P, Kroboth K, Patel S, Woodgett J, Taylor S, Nathke IS, Sansom OJ: Defining the role of APC in the mitotic spindle checkpoint in vivo: APC-deficient cells are resistant to Taxol. Oncogene; 2010 Dec 09;29(49):6418-27
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  • [Title] Defining the role of APC in the mitotic spindle checkpoint in vivo: APC-deficient cells are resistant to Taxol.
  • Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour suppressor are the key initiating event of colorectal cancer.
  • Although the control of WNT signalling is well established as a central tumour-suppressive function, the significance of APC in regulating chromosome instability is less well established.
  • In this study, we test whether APC-deficient cells have a functional spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) in vivo by examining the response of these cells to Taxol and Vinorelbine.
  • We also show for the first time that APC deficiency compromises the arrest response to Taxol in vivo.
  • At higher levels of Taxol, APC-deficient cells arrest as efficiently as wild-type cells.
  • Importantly, this dose of Taxol strongly suppresses intestinal tumourigenesis in models of benign (APC(Min/+) mouse) and invasive (AhCreER(+)APC(fl/+)PTEN(fl/fl)) cancer.
  • In contrast to intestinal enterocytes with a general SAC defect because of Bub1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazole 1) deletion, APC-deficient enterocytes arrest equivalently to wild type when treated with Vinorelbine.
  • This suggests that the failed arrest in response to Taxol is because of a specific defect in microtubule stabilization following Taxol treatment rather than a general role of the APC protein in the mitotic spindle checkpoint.
  • In summary, this study clarifies the role of APC as a mitotic spindle checkpoint protein in vivo and shows that APC-deficient cells have a compromised response to Taxol.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / drug therapy. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein / physiology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Spindle Apparatus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Cycle / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Chromosomal Instability / genetics. Enterocytes / drug effects. Enterocytes / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Sequence Deletion. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives. Vinblastine / therapeutic use. Wnt Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20729907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A11243; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / 12858; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 11243; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / 74711; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A7130; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 11913
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; EC 2.7.11.1 / Bub1 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Bub1 spindle checkpoint protein; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3016607; NLM/ UKMS31064
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4. Sakuma T, Nomizu T, Miyamoto K, Ogino A, Yamada M, Katagata N, Watanabe F, Yamaguchi Y: Locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer with cartilaginous and/or osseous metaplasia showing excellent response to chemotherapy. Breast Cancer; 2004;11(4):401-8
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  • [Title] Locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer with cartilaginous and/or osseous metaplasia showing excellent response to chemotherapy.
  • Breast cancer with cartilaginous and/or osseous metaplasia is considered a rare disease, but several cases have been reported recently.
  • We report a case of breast cancer with cartilaginous and/or osseous metaplasia that was StageIV,(T4bN0M1b (PUL)), on the basis of the Japanese General Rules for Clinical and Pathological Recording of Breast Cancer, which responded well to chemotherapy.
  • A 58-year-old women visited our hospital with a chief complaint of a palpable breast mass that had increased in size in March 2002.
  • Chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated multiple lung metastases.
  • Histology of the biopsy specimens revealed a spindle-shaped cell carcinoma.
  • CAF was given to the patient as preoperative chemotherapy.
  • Five cycles of treatment yielded improvement at the primary site and improvement of the metastatic lung lesions, which was judged as a partial response.
  • The final pathological diagnosis was a rare type of breast cancer with cartilaginous and/or osseous metaplasia.
  • Preoperative chemotherapy had caused necrosis in most of the tumor cells, and the efficacy was judged as Grade 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


5. de la Roza G, Naqvi A, Clark K: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors presenting as a prostatic mass. Can J Urol; 2009 Feb;16(1):4502-6
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  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are a rare and heterogeneous group of spindle cell neoplasms that have also been reported outside of gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
  • These tumors are characterized by somatic mutations of c-KIT (CD117), a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase normally expressed in the interstitial cell of Cajal that control the GI smooth muscle peristalsis, and an exquisite sensitivity to the action of the tyrokinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571; Gleevec).
  • We report two cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor identified on prostatic biopsies, where a primary prostatic sarcoma was considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • In one of the cases, there was extensive local disease involving prostate, rectum, and pelvic wall, as well as metastatic disease that quickly lead to the patient's death despite aggressive treatment with imatinib mesylate and conventional chemotherapy.
  • In the other case, the tumor was mostly confined to the rectum but also focally extended into the prostate capsule.
  • In both cases, tissue samples from prostate and the rectum showed a malignant spindle cell neoplasm, which was positive for CD117 (c-kit).
  • Given their unique clinical management, gastrointestinal stromal tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell lesions on prostatic needle biopsies and CD117 should be added to the immunohistochemical panel in the work-up of such lesions to avoid misinterpreting them as primary prostatic neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 19222892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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6. Chen YY, Tiang XY, Li Z, Luo BN, Huang Q: Sporadic meningioangiomatosis-associated atypical meningioma mimicking parenchymal invasion of brain: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:39
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  • We now report a case of meningioangiomatosis-associated meningioma with atypical and clear cell variant.
  • He had no stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 2.
  • Microscopically, parts of lesions were atypical and clear cell meningioma corresponding to WHO grade II.
  • However, the spindle cells in meningioangiomatosis area were negative for EMA with low MIB-1 index of up to 1%.
  • The diagnosis of atypical meningioma associated with sporadic meningioangiomatosis was made.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of a meningioangiomatosis-associated meningioma with atypical and clear cell variant component to be described.
  • The patient had been followed-up for 11 months without adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • No tumor recurrence was found during this period.
  • We suggest that postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy should be given careful consideration to avoid over-treatment due to erroneously interpret as malignant meningioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Vascular Malformations / diagnosis. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20565869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2904739
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7. Huang JM, Sheard MA, Ji L, Sposto R, Keshelava N: Combination of vorinostat and flavopiridol is selectively cytotoxic to multidrug-resistant neuroblastoma cell lines with mutant TP53. Mol Cancer Ther; 2010 Dec;9(12):3289-301
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  • [Title] Combination of vorinostat and flavopiridol is selectively cytotoxic to multidrug-resistant neuroblastoma cell lines with mutant TP53.
  • As p53 loss of function (LOF) confers high-level drug resistance in neuroblastoma, p53-independent therapies might have superior activity in recurrent neuroblastoma.
  • We tested the activity of vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and flavopiridol, a pan-Cdk inhibitor, in a panel of multidrug-resistant neuroblastoma cell lines that included lines with wild-type (wt) and transcriptionally active TP53 (n = 3), mutated (mt), and LOF TP53 (n = 4) or p14(ARF) deletion (n = 1).
  • The combination of vorinostat and flavopiridol was synergistic and significantly more cytotoxic (P < 0.001) in cell lines with p53-LOF and in the clones stably transfected with dominant-negative p53 plasmids.
  • Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry showed prominent cell-cycle arrest in G(2)/M (37%) for a cell line with wt TP53 (SK-N-RA) at 16 to 20 hours, while cells with mt TP53 (CHLA-90) slipped into sub-G(1) at 6 to 24 hours (25%-40% specific cell death).
  • The morphological hallmarks of mitotic cell death, including defective spindle formation and abnormal cytokinesis, were detected by confocal microscopy after the treatment with vorinostat + flavopiridol combination in CHLA-90.
  • The combination caused reduction in the expression of G(2)/M proteins (cyclin B1, Mad2, MPM2) in 2 cell lines with mt TP53 but not in those with wt TP53.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Multiple / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Piperidines / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Death / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Drug Synergism. G2 Phase / drug effects. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Humans. Mitosis / drug effects. Mutant Proteins / metabolism. Mutation / genetics. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] ©2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 21159612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8514
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA81403
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Mutant Proteins; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 45AD6X575G / alvocidib; 58IFB293JI / vorinostat
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8. Mita AC, Mita MM, Nawrocki ST, Giles FJ: Survivin: key regulator of mitosis and apoptosis and novel target for cancer therapeutics. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Aug 15;14(16):5000-5
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  • [Title] Survivin: key regulator of mitosis and apoptosis and novel target for cancer therapeutics.
  • Survivin, a member of the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, functions as a key regulator of mitosis and programmed cell death.
  • However, over the last years, research studies have shown that the role of survivin in cancer pathogenesis is not limited to apoptosis inhibition but also involves the regulation of the mitotic spindle checkpoint and the promotion of angiogenesis and chemoresistance.
  • Survivin gene expression is transcriptionally repressed by wild-type p53 and can be deregulated in cancer by several mechanisms, including gene amplification, hypomethylation, increased promoter activity, and loss of p53 function.
  • This article reviews the multiple functions of survivin in the regulation of apoptosis, the promotion of tumorigenesis, and the development of survivin inhibitors as a novel anticancer therapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / physiology. Mitosis / physiology. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Neoplasms / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18698017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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9. Peralta-Sastre A, Manguan-Garcia C, de Luis A, Belda-Iniesta C, Moreno S, Perona R, Sanchez-Perez I: Checkpoint kinase 1 modulates sensitivity to cisplatin after spindle checkpoint activation in SW620 cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol; 2010 Feb;42(2):318-28
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  • [Title] Checkpoint kinase 1 modulates sensitivity to cisplatin after spindle checkpoint activation in SW620 cells.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate possible signaling pathways involved in sensitization to chemotherapy in cells with chromosomal instability.
  • We designed a screen using the fission yeast Squizossaccharomyces pombe, to isolate strains showing a phenotype of chromosome mis-segregation and higher sensitivity to the antitumoral drug Bleomycin.
  • We examined differences in gene expression using a comparative analysis of genome-wide expression of the wild type strain and one of the mutants.
  • The results revealed a set of genes involved in cell cycle control, including Mad3/BubR1 and Chk1.
  • We then studied the levels of these two proteins in colorectal cancer human cell lines with different genomic content.
  • These studies showed that SW620 cells undergo synergistic cell death after spindle checkpoint activation followed by cisplatin treatment, suggesting a role of Chk1 in this checkpoint, very likely dependent on BubR1 protein.
  • In summary, we propose that Chk1 could be a biomarker predictive of the efficacy of chemotherapy across different types of tumors with aneuploidy.
  • These findings may be potentially very useful for the stratification of patients for treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aneuploidy. Apoptosis / drug effects. Biomarkers / metabolism. Bleomycin / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosome Segregation / drug effects. DNA Damage / drug effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. G2 Phase / drug effects. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Mitosis / drug effects. Mutation. Phenotype. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Schizosaccharomyces / cytology. Schizosaccharomyces / drug effects. Schizosaccharomyces / genetics. Schizosaccharomyces / metabolism. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins / genetics. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins / metabolism. Thiabendazole / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19931410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5875
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Checkpoint kinase 1; N1Q45E87DT / Thiabendazole; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Leuschner I, Harms D, Mattke A, Koscielniak E, Treuner J: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder and vagina: a clinicopathologic study with emphasis on recurrent disease: a report from the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry and the German CWS Study. Am J Surg Pathol; 2001 Jul;25(7):856-64
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  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder and vagina: a clinicopathologic study with emphasis on recurrent disease: a report from the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry and the German CWS Study.
  • Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) of the urinary bladder and vagina vary in their biologic and clinical behavior and require different types of treatment.
  • We investigated tumor specimens of 51 urinary bladder RMS and 14 vaginal RMS with regard to histologic subtype, growth pattern, differentiation, and proliferation morphologically and immunohistochemically.
  • Recurrences and/or "second look" specimens from 15 patients after chemotherapy were compared with the primary tumors.
  • Within the 65 specimens we found 31 "classical" embryonal RMS, 26 embryonal RMS of botryoid subtype (BRMS), 3 embryonal RMS of spindle cell subtype, and 5 alveolar RMS.
  • Classical embryonal RMS with a polypoid (exophytic) growth pattern is associated with a more favorable prognosis (92% 10-year survival) than the same type with a diffuse intramural (endophytic) growth pattern (68% 10-year survival, p = 0.02).
  • A marked maturation after chemotherapy was seen in the majority of recurrences and SL specimens, associated with lowered proliferation activity.
  • Two of 12 patients with recurrences showing chemotherapy-induced maturation died of the disease.
  • Maturation after chemotherapy occurs frequently in RMS.
  • In contrast to the excellent prognosis reported in other studies, we had two patients with fatal outcome despite chemotherapy-induced maturation in the recurrences.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cell Division. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Registries. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11420456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Li CQ, Guo ZM, Liu WW, Zhang Q, Yang AK, Yang L: [Clinical analysis of myoepithelial carcinoma of head and neck]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Feb;45(2):124-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical feature, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) in the head and neck.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 11 patients which were confirmed by pathology and immunohistochemistry in Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University from Jan.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 37 years (range: 14 - 60 years).
  • RESULTS: All cases were operated, 4 underwent surgery alone, 2 underwent surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, 2 received surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy, 3 underwent surgery plus adjuvant chemoradiation.
  • There was spindle cell type in 5 cases, clear cell type, plasmacytoid cell type in 2 cases, epithelioid cell type, mixed type in 1 case.
  • The median follow-up time was 40 months.
  • AS to the last follow-up time, 8 patients died.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of the tumor were rapidly enlarging, invading the surrounding regions, high rates of lymph node metastasis, high rates of distance metastasis.
  • MC was a sort of malignant tumor.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be effective after operation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20398508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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12. Franklin WA: Diagnosis of lung cancer: pathology of invasive and preinvasive neoplasia. Chest; 2000 Apr;117(4 Suppl 1):80S-89S
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of lung cancer: pathology of invasive and preinvasive neoplasia.
  • The histopathologic appearance of lung carcinoma remains an important guide to prognosis and treatment.
  • The newly revised World Health Organization classification retains the broadest pathologic categories of the older classification but includes several revisions, including the elimination of the small cell, intermediate cell type category; the addition of large cell neuroendocrine and spindle/giant cell categories; and an extended consideration of preneoplastic lesions.
  • The histopathologic classification of lung cancer is expected to continue to change as clinical practice and biological understanding of these tumors change.
  • The significance of expression of neuroendocrine markers, histologic grading of response to chemotherapy, and delineation of morphologic changes preceding the occurrence of invasive carcinoma are all areas where understanding microscopic cellular changes in the airways will be critical for clinical advance.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Mesothelioma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 10777460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3692
  • [Journal-full-title] Chest
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chest
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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13. Lifschitz O, Ziv-Sokolovsky N, Ben-Aharon U: [Acute rectal bleeding from malignant stromal tumor]. Harefuah; 2002 Dec;141(12):1019-20, 1092
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  • [Title] [Acute rectal bleeding from malignant stromal tumor].
  • A case report of a 61 years old female admitted with acute bleeding due to malignant stromal tumor of the rectum is described.
  • Preoperative assessments revealed a large tumor located in the rectal wall with extension to the adjacent tissues.
  • The histologic features of needle biopsy was compatible with gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
  • The definitive histological examination showed a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GISTs), spindle cell type with mucosal invasion, vast necrosis and highly mitotic activity.
  • The tumor cells coexpressed CD34 and smooth muscle actin and were negative for staining desmin and S-100 protein.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was given.
  • We decided to describe a rare malignant stromal tumor of the rectum with uncommon clinical presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12534196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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14. Kakegawa S, Kawashima O, Sugano M, Nagashima T, Morishita Y: [Pleomorphic lung cancer; a clinicopathologic study]. Kyobu Geka; 2006 Feb;59(2):110-3
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  • [Title] [Pleomorphic lung cancer; a clinicopathologic study].
  • Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma is a comparatively rare histologic type of lung carcinoma, and the incidence among all lung carcinomas has been reported to be 0.4%.
  • We reported our experience with 8 patients who had been diagnosed as pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma, and discussed clinicopathologically the preoperative diagnosis and treatment.
  • In 2 of 8 patients, preoperative transbronchial lung biopsy revealed spindle cell component, highly suggesting pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma.
  • All patients underwent surgical treatment and 2 of then had incomplete resections because of intrathoracic disseminations or carcinomatous pericarditis.
  • Although the preoperative diagnosis of biphasic tumor such as pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma is difficult, it is possible to suspect the diagnosis when sarcomatous components were detected by preoperative biopsy.
  • The efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy have not been established yet, and thus we would like to emphasize that surgery might be the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16482903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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15. Raveglia F, Mezzetti M, Panigalli T, Furia S, Giuliani L, Conforti S, Meda S: Personal experience in surgical management of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2004 Nov;78(5):1742-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic carcinoma is a rare epithelial malignant tumor.
  • Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma was introduced by the 1999 World Health Organization classification as a new peculiar type of lung carcinoma showing concurrent malignant epithelial and sarcomatoid spindle cell elements.
  • My colleagues and I report a series of patients surgically treated for pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma to describe our experience with this malignant neoplasm.
  • Histologic diagnosis was established by using light microscopic examination and immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: We postoperatively diagnosed 20 cases of pleomorphic carcinoma: 14 cases were exclusively spindle and giant-cell carcinomas, 2 cases were spindle and giant-cell carcinoma combined with adenocarcinoma, 2 were combined with squamous cell carcinoma, and 2 were combined with large cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of patients with pleomorphic carcinoma was poor, despite surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, because of early relapse of disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / surgery. Cell Differentiation. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Life Tables. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15511465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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16. Kuo SH, Chen CL, Huang CS, Cheng AL: Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: analysis of eight Asian patients with special emphasis on two unusual cases presenting with inflammatory-type breast cancer. Anticancer Res; 2000 May-Jun;20(3B):2219-22
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  • [Title] Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast: analysis of eight Asian patients with special emphasis on two unusual cases presenting with inflammatory-type breast cancer.
  • Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is a rare form of breast cancer and has an uncertain prognostic significance.
  • There were 7 women and one man with a median age of 52.5 (37-73) years.
  • Pathologic diagnosis included three poorly-differentiated adenosquamous carcinomas, two adenocarcinomas with spindle cell metaplasia, two matrix-producing carcinomas and one carcinosarcoma.
  • Local recurrence or distant metastasis developed in 3 patients within one year of initial treatment.
  • With a mean follow-up of 81 months (range, 19-183 months), 5 patients were disease-free at the time of this report.
  • Interestingly, two of our patients had presented with huge-sized inflammatory breast cancer and were refractory to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, but enjoyed an unexpected long disease-free survival after mastectomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms, Male / chemistry. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / chemistry. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / chemistry. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Carcinosarcoma / chemistry. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Estrogens. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Inflammation. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mastectomy. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / chemistry. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / therapy. Progesterone. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Taiwan / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10928181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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17. Schoenfield L, Pettay J, Tubbs RR, Singh AD: Variation of monosomy 3 status within uveal melanoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Aug;133(8):1219-22
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  • CONTEXT: Determining the most significant prognostic variables in uveal melanoma is important for stratifying patients for metastasis surveillance and possible initiation of chemotherapy or immunotherapy.
  • Monosomy 3, one such variable, can be determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization, either on enucleated samples, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, or tumor sample obtained by vitrector.
  • Representative paraffin blocks were selected based on review of hematoxylin-eosin stained sections, and the apex and base of each tumor was demarcated.
  • The chromosomal analysis was also correlated with histologic evaluation for melanoma cell type (spindle vs epithelioid cell), ciliary body involvement, presence of positive periodic acid-Schiff vascular mimicry patterns, scleral or extrascleral spread and size.
  • RESULTS: Ten of the 17 remaining cases (59%) demonstrated monosomy 3 (in either the base or both base and apex of the tumor) with 7 cases (41%) showing disomy.
  • Lack of concordance between the base and apex did not correlate with melanoma cell type.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic variables are important in management of neoplasms, and this study points out that the site of tissue biopsy for prognostication in uveal melanoma could affect the results obtained, at least for the presence of monosomy 3.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Eye Enucleation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19653713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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18. Zmonarski SC, Boratyńska M, Puziewicz-Zmonarska A, Kazimierczak K, Klinger M: Kaposi's sarcoma in renal transplant recipients. Ann Transplant; 2005;10(2):59-65
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  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a spindle-shaped vascular cell tumor that occurs in the skin, lymphoid, respiratory and gastrointestinal tissues.
  • It may resemble aggressive malignant neoplasm in HIV-related or in post-transplant types but classic form may behave as benign, potentially controllable and reversible hyperplasia.
  • KS occurrence is associated with: type and dose of immunosuppression, chronic stimulation by foreign allograft antigens, viral infections (Herpes virus 8), anti rejection and induction therapy, etc.
  • Histological picture shows networks of spindle shaped cells and vascular spaces surrounded by an endothelial cell layer.
  • There is no uniform schema of KS treatment in renal transplant recipients.
  • After conversion to MMF regression of KS was observed, although low therapeutic MMF doses seem to be appropriate.
  • Sirolimus seems to inhibit the growth of established vascularized tumors and this effect is best realized with relatively low immunosuppressive doses of drug.

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  • (PMID = 16218035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1425-9524
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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19. Mohanty SK, Balani JP, Parwani AV: Pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland: case report and review of the literature. Urology; 2007 Sep;70(3):591.e5-7
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  • Computed tomography showed a large heterogeneous left adrenal mass abutting the renal vessels.
  • The adrenal mass was resected and histopathologic examination revealed a highly pleomorphic malignant spindle cell neoplasm diffusely infiltrating the adrenal parenchyma with an immunoprofile consistent with that of a leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Nephrectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Thrombophlebitis / etiology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17905130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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20. Chen WH, Cheng SP, Tzen CY, Yang TL, Jeng KS, Liu CL, Liu TP: Surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast: retrospective review of 172 cases. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Sep 1;91(3):185-94
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of phyllodes tumors of the breast: retrospective review of 172 cases.
  • They are composed of a benign epithelial component and a cellular, spindle cell stroma forming a leaf-like structure.
  • No one morphologic finding is reliable in predicting the clinical behavior of the tumor.
  • Clinical data analyzed included age, presenting symptoms and signs, tumor size, location, type of surgery, time to recurrence, and metastasis.
  • The pathologic diagnoses included 131 benign, 12 borderline, and 29 malignant lesions.
  • The initial diagnosis of all 19 recurrent tumors were benign.
  • Stromal cellularity, stromal overgrowth, stromal atypia, mitotic activity, tumor margin, and heterologous stromal elements were significantly correlated with metastases (P = 0.032, 0.00008, 0.000002, 0.004, 0.005, and 0.046, respectively).
  • The role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy remains to be defined.
  • Local excision, wide excision, or mastectomy with negative surgical margins yielded high local control rates (88.7%, 88.2%, and 100%, respectively), but local excision was associated with a relatively high percentage of positive surgical margins (18.3%).
  • The reasons for these procedures included a diagnosis of malignancy on frozen section or because the tumors were so large, they were assumed to be carcinomas.
  • Fifteen patients in our series had tumors with infiltrating tumor margin, severe stromal overgrowth, atypia, and cellularity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Wide excision with a clear margin may be the preferable initial therapy, even for malignant PTs.
  • Patients have tumors with infiltrating tumor margin, severe stromal overgrowth, atypia, and cellularity are at high risk for metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy / methods. Phyllodes Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Taiwan / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16118768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Prakash S, Sarran L, Socci N, DeMatteo RP, Eisenstat J, Greco AM, Maki RG, Wexler LH, LaQuaglia MP, Besmer P, Antonescu CR: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors in children and young adults: a clinicopathologic, molecular, and genomic study of 15 cases and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Apr;27(4):179-87
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  • Gene expression analysis was performed on 5 gastric tumor samples from 2 children, 2 gastric tumors from young adults, and 10 gastric GISTs from older adults using an U133A Affymetrix platform (22,000 genes).
  • Although all five patients developed recurrence (four in the liver, three in the peritoneum, and two in both sites), four are still alive with disease.
  • Of the 10 GISTs in young adults, half occurred in the small bowel and had spindle cell morphology, and one case had lymph node metastasis.
  • Seven patients developed recurrence, and at last follow-up two patients had died of disease.
  • GISTs that occur in children are a separate clinicopathologic and molecular subset with predilection for girls, multifocal gastric tumors, and wild-type KIT/PDGFRA genotype.
  • In contrast, GISTs in young adults are a more heterogeneous group, including cases that resemble either the pediatric or the older adult-type tumors.
  • The distinct gene expression profile suggests avenues for investigation of pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / genetics. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Amino Acid Sequence. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzamides. Child. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

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  • (PMID = 15838387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102774; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA94503; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL/DK55748; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 47179-10A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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22. Tanguay C, Harvey I, Houde M, Srigley JR, Têtu B: Leiomyosarcoma of urinary bladder following cyclophosphamide therapy: report of two cases. Mod Pathol; 2003 May;16(5):512-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leiomyosarcoma of urinary bladder following cyclophosphamide therapy: report of two cases.
  • Leiomyosarcoma of urinary bladder is rare, although it is the most common mesenchymal tumor in adults.
  • We report two cases of this tumor following cyclophosphamide therapy.
  • He presented with painless hematuria, and the initial biopsy of the bladder tumor revealed a malignant spindle cell neoplasm.
  • A final diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was made on radical cystoprostatectomy.
  • He also presented with painless hematuria, and a bladder tumor was resected transurethrally and diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma.
  • Cyclophosphamide, when used for a neoplastic or non-neoplastic condition, is associated with an increased risk of developing bladder cancer.
  • A review of the literature shows an increased proportion of squamous cell carcinomas and sarcomas, especially leiomyosarcomas in cyclophosphamide exposed patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / complications. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12748258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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