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1. Kinoshita Y, Akatsuka K, Ohtake M, Kamitani H, Watanabe T: Primary intramedullary spinal cord germinoma. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(7):592-4
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  • [Title] Primary intramedullary spinal cord germinoma.
  • A 21-year-old woman presented with an intramedullary spinal cord germinoma and a history of gait disturbance and elimination disorder.
  • After partial reduction of the intramedullary mass, histological findings revealed that the tumor was typical germinoma.
  • Combined chemotherapy (carboplatin and etoposide) and whole spine radiation were performed.
  • No recurrence of the tumor has been detected 3 years after the operation, and no dissemination into the cranial area was detected.
  • Cisplatin and etoposide chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy is recommended for primary spinal germinoma, and is effective for inhibition of both tumor dissemination and recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / surgery. Thoracic Vertebrae. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20671389.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. DeLaney TF, Liebsch NJ, Pedlow FX, Adams J, Dean S, Yeap BY, McManus P, Rosenberg AE, Nielsen GP, Harmon DC, Spiro IJ, Raskin KA, Suit HD, Yoon SS, Hornicek FJ: Phase II study of high-dose photon/proton radiotherapy in the management of spine sarcomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Jul 1;74(3):732-9
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  • [Title] Phase II study of high-dose photon/proton radiotherapy in the management of spine sarcomas.
  • PURPOSE: Radiotherapy (XRT) for spine sarcomas is constrained by spinal cord, nerve, and viscera tolerance.
  • Negative surgical margins are uncommon; hence, doses of >or=66 Gy are recommended.
  • A Phase II clinical trial evaluated high-dose photon/proton XRT for spine sarcomas.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligible patients had nonmetastatic, thoracic, lumbar, and/or sacral spine/paraspinal sarcomas.
  • Treatment included pre- and/or postoperative photon/proton XRT with or without radical resection; patients with osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma received chemotherapy.
  • Shrinking fields delivered 50.4 cobalt Gray equivalent (Gy RBE) to subclinical disease, 70.2 Gy RBE to microscopic disease in the tumor bed, and 77.4 Gy RBE to gross disease at 1.8 Gy RBE qd.
  • Spinal cord dose was limited to 63/54 Gy RBE to surface/center.
  • Intraoperative boost doses of 7.5 to 10 Gy could be given by dural plaque.
  • Two of 36 (5.6%) patients treated for primary versus 7/14 (50%) for recurrent tumor developed local recurrence (p < 0.001).
  • Five patients developed late radiation-associated complications; no myelopathy developed but three sacral neuropathies appeared after 77.12 to 77.4 Gy RBE.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Local control with this treatment is high in patients radiated at the time of primary presentation.
  • Spinal cord dose constraints appear to be safe.
  • Sacral nerves receiving 77.12-77.4 Gy RBE are at risk for late toxicity.

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  • (PMID = 19095372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA021239; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA021239-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA021239-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA021239; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA021239-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA021239-28
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS121640; NLM/ PMC2734911
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3. Leitner Y, Shabat S, Boriani L, Boriani S: En bloc resection of a C4 chordoma: surgical technique. Eur Spine J; 2007 Dec;16(12):2238-42
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  • The prognosis of aggressive benign and low-grade malignant tumors in the spine as in the limbs, seems to be mostly related to the feasibility of en bloc resection, while in the treatment of high-grade malignant tumors the protocols of treatment include the combination of chemotherapy, radiation and surgery.
  • Indications, criteria of feasibility and surgical technique are extensively reported for the thoracic and lumbar spine.
  • In the cervical spine few cases are reported of resection, due not only to anatomical constraint, but also to the rarity of finding a tumor accomplishing the criteria of feasibility.
  • The anterior approach consisted of contemporary right and left prevascular presternocleidomastoid approaches The specimen was submitted for the histological study of the margins, which resulted tumor-free.
  • This technical note is finalized to confirm that en bloc resection of the vertebral body through total vertebrectomy is feasible in the midcervical spine by double approaches, provided the tumor involves only layers B and C, maximum extension sectors 5-8.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Chordoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical / instrumentation. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Humans. Internal Fixators. Laminectomy / instrumentation. Laminectomy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neck / anatomy & histology. Neck / surgery. Neck Pain / pathology. Neck Pain / physiopathology. Neck Pain / surgery. Radiculopathy / etiology. Radiculopathy / physiopathology. Radiculopathy / surgery. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Spinal Fusion / instrumentation. Spinal Fusion / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17713796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2140125
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4. Guzel A, Tatli M, Belen D, Seckin H: Spinal cord compression of primary extragonadal giant yolk sac tumor. Spinal Cord; 2007 Mar;45(3):254-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal cord compression of primary extragonadal giant yolk sac tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report an adult male patient with a primary extragonadal giant yolk sac tumor presenting with acute spinal cord compression.
  • METHOD: A 31-year-old man was referred to our department with a diagnosis of Pott's disease, a complaint of back pain and gait difficulty for 2 weeks.
  • Abdominal computed tomography and lumbar magnetic resonance imaging study revealed a giant cystic mass lesion located in the psoas muscle.
  • Posteriorly, the third lumbar vertebral body was destructed and the tumor was compressing the dural sac.
  • Pathological diagnosis was a yolk sac tumor.
  • A chemotherapy protocol was given including bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin.
  • Five months after the last chemotherapy, he was brought to the emergency unit in sepsis and died despite antibiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Yolk sac tumor should be considered in young adult male patients presenting with acute paraparesis even without any signs or medical history of a testis tumor.
  • These tumors may be unresectable; however, decompression of neural structures and stabilization of the spine with instrumentation may cause substantial improvement in neurological deficit and pain relief.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical. Humans. Lumbosacral Region / pathology. Lumbosacral Region / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Paraparesis / etiology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16733519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Reyns N, Assaker R, Louis E, Lejeune JP: Leptomeningeal hemangioblastomatosis in a case of von Hippel-Lindau disease: case report. Neurosurgery; 2003 May;52(5):1212-5; discussion 1215-6
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  • Seven years after the last operation, he developed chronic hydrocephalus.
  • Despite a ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure, he experienced progressive worsening of gait disturbances, associated with touch numbness of the lower limbs and Parinaud's syndrome.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine showed evidence of leptomeningeal contrast enhancement around the brainstem, spinal cord, and cauda equina and enlarged tortuous vessels around the mesencephalon.
  • INTERVENTION: A lumbar laminectomy allowed a leptomeningeal biopsy.
  • It is assumed that the tumor arose in the pia mater and that its direction of growth was purely extramedullary, invading all subarachnoid spaces.
  • The patient had a poor outcome as a result of progressive tetraplegia and died 6 months after diagnosis as a result of respiratory failure.
  • This case report illustrates the crucial challenge to develop a specific drug therapy related to angiogenesis in von Hippel-Lindau disease.

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  • (PMID = 12699568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-396X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Matsubara H, Watanabe K, Sakai H, Chang H, Fujino H, Higashi Y, Kobayashi M, Adachi S, Seto S, Nakahata T: Rapid improvement of paraplegia caused by epidural involvements of Burkitt's lymphoma with chemotherapy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2004 Jan 1;29(1):E4-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rapid improvement of paraplegia caused by epidural involvements of Burkitt's lymphoma with chemotherapy.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal cord compression in children is an emergency that requires urgent attention to minimize neurologic dysfunction.
  • Although it is not life-threatening in most patients, cord compression can cause severe neurologic morbidity.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Because the patient showed rapid neurologic deterioration, we started chemotherapy and high-dose steroids without laminectomy or radiotherapy immediately after a tumor biopsy from the left mandible.
  • RESULT: The combined therapies were very effective and his neurologic symptoms improved immediately.
  • The epidural involved masses disappeared in imaging studies after the first course of chemotherapy including methylprednisolone (20 mg/kg per day for 3 consecutive days and gradually tapered off over 2 weeks), vincristine (1.5 mg/m2 per day), cyclophosphamide (2 g/m2 per day for 2 days) and pirarubicin (40 mg/m2 per day).
  • After completing seven courses of chemotherapy, the patient is now fully ambulant.
  • CONCLUSION: Considering the severe late effects of laminectomy and radiotherapy, chemotherapy should be considered as a first choice of treatment for spinal cord compression caused by malignant lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / complications. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Epidural Neoplasms / complications. Paraplegia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Leg. Lumbar Vertebrae. Male. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14699290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; D58G680W0G / pirarubicin; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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7. Chamberlain MC, Glantz M: Myelomatous meningitis. Cancer; 2008 Apr 1;112(7):1562-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The most frequent nervous system complications of multiple myeloma are peripheral neuropathy and epidural spinal cord compression.
  • The current study was performed to characterize the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome of MM.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients with advanced multiple myeloma were treated with involved-field radiotherapy (to the brain in 5 patients and the spine in 6 patients) and intra-CSF chemotherapy (ventricular in 10 patients and lumbar in 4 patients).
  • The best response to treatment included 6 partial responses and 8 patients with progressive disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MM is rare and morbid entity (6-month neurologic disease progression-free survival rate of 7%), and appears to be no more responsive to treatment than solid tumor carcinomatous meningitis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18260094.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Massimino M, Gandola L, Spreafico F, Biassoni V, Terenziani M, Pecori E, Arcella A, Giangaspero F: Unusual primary secreting germ cell tumor of the spine. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine; 2006 Jul;5(1):65-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual primary secreting germ cell tumor of the spine. Case report.
  • The authors describe a young man with a rare primary spinal germ cell tumor that secreted beta-human chorionic gonadotropin.
  • The tumor was resected, and six courses of adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, bleomycin and etoposide were administered together with irradiation to the craniospinal area.
  • An additional dose of radiation was delivered to the tumor site after the first four chemotherapy sessions.
  • The patient was well without any neurological deficit or iatrogenic sequela 33 months after diagnosis.
  • The occurrence of this rare tumor located primarily in the spine warrants attention in pathological studies of spinal tumors in young patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secretion. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / secretion. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / secretion. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secretion. Teratoma / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae. Male

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  • (PMID = 16850959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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9. Vassilyadi M, Michaud J: Hydrocephalus as the initial presentation of a spinal cord astrocytoma associated with leptomeningeal spread. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2005 Jan-Feb;41(1):29-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hydrocephalus as the initial presentation of a spinal cord astrocytoma associated with leptomeningeal spread.
  • CSF studies procured during the procedure were all normal.
  • In contrast, CSF from a lumbar puncture contained a high protein, and cytology was highly suspicious for malignancy.
  • Spine MRI showed diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement and a 1.5-cm intramedullary lesion at T12-L1 associated with minimal edema.
  • Chemotherapy was administered and follow-up spine MRI at 2 months did not reveal any residual tumor, however, the leptomeningeal enhancement persisted.
  • Sixteen months later, at the completion of the chemotherapy and radiation therapy, the spine MRI remained unchanged.
  • This case illustrates how a spinal cord astrocytoma can metastasize via spinocranial dispersion and present early with hydrocephalus rather than myelopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae. Male. Thoracic Vertebrae

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 15886510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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10. Tekkök IH, Sav A: Aggressive spinal germinoma with ascending metastases. J Neurooncol; 2005 Nov;75(2):135-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aggressive spinal germinoma with ascending metastases.
  • Initial spinal MR scans showed a sausage-like lesion that extended between L1 and S2.
  • At surgery, an encapsulated intradural extramedullary tumor was removed en bloc.
  • The initial histopathological diagnosis was ependymoma.
  • The tumor recurred locally to double its original size only 4 months later.
  • After second surgery, 5,100 cGy of local spinal radiation was given since the pathologist believed that the new tumor exhibited anaplastic features.
  • Subsequently tumor recurred at T6-10 levels and later in the right parasellar region.
  • Surgery was undertaken for both recurrences and radiation to whole spine and to whole brain respectively followed surgery.
  • At 11 months after the initial presentation, a new tumor was diagnosed at T11-T12 levels.
  • After fifth surgery, chemotherapy with cisplatin, doxorubicin and vincristine was started.
  • The new and correct histological diagnosis was germinoma.
  • A new chemotherapy regimen targeted for germinoma was then started.
  • Primary spinal germinomas are exceedingly rare.
  • A review of the literature revealed only 14 biopsy-proven spinal germinoma cases.
  • Our case is clearly unique in aggressivity of the tumor, a feature often unexpected for germinomas.
  • This case proves that the dissemination risk may be very serious for germinomas and that the craniospinal radiation may be a more secure treatment mode.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Reoperation. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Ependymoma / diagnosis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae / anatomy & histology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Sacrum / anatomy & histology. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16132516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Biswas A, Puri T, Goyal S, Gupta R, Eesa M, Julka PK, Rath GK: Spinal intradural primary germ cell tumour--review of literature and case report. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Mar;151(3):277-84

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal intradural primary germ cell tumour--review of literature and case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary spinal cord germ cell tumour is a rare tumour.
  • We herein review the tumour characteristics, associated risk factors, treatment policy, and patterns of failure of primary intradural germ cell tumour.
  • METHOD: We conducted a PUBMED search using a combination of keywords such as "spinal germ cell tumor," "germinoma," "extradural," "intradural," "intramedullary," "extramedullary," and identified 19 cases of primary spinal germ cell tumour.
  • Clinical features, pathologic characteristics, and treatment details of these patients including status at follow-up were noted from respective case reports.
  • We also describe a case of a young Indian patient of intradural extramedullary germ cell tumour treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • Most patients were treated with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic chemotherapy.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging spine showed an inhomogeneous hyperintense soft tissue mass at L(2)-L(4) spinal level.
  • He was treated with complete surgical excision and four cycles of chemotherapy with BEP regimen following a histological diagnosis of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour.
  • Palliative irradiation to the lumbar spine was given on progression at 3 months.
  • The patient eventually succumbed to his condition, due to compressive transverse myelitis possibly due to cervical cord metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Limited surgery followed by upfront radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy is the optimal management of this rare group of tumour.
  • Omission of radiation therapy from the treatment armamentarium might engender local recurrence and spinal dissemination at first failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / analysis. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / metabolism. Decompression, Surgical. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Myelitis, Transverse / etiology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Subarachnoid Space / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009 Aug;151(8):983-4 [19337687.001]
  • (PMID = 19240975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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12. Akens MK, Yee AJ, Wilson BC, Burch S, Johnson CL, Lilge L, Bisland SK: Photodynamic therapy of vertebral metastases: evaluating tumor-to-neural tissue uptake of BPD-MA and ALA-PpIX in a murine model of metastatic human breast carcinoma. Photochem Photobiol; 2007 Sep-Oct;83(5):1034-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy of vertebral metastases: evaluating tumor-to-neural tissue uptake of BPD-MA and ALA-PpIX in a murine model of metastatic human breast carcinoma.
  • Photodynamic therapy has been successfully applied to numerous cancers.
  • Its potential to treat cancer metastases in the spine has been demonstrated previously in a preclinical animal model.
  • The difference in photosensitizer concentration in the spinal cord and the surrounding tumor-bearing vertebrae was of particular interest to assess the risk of potential collateral damage to the spinal cord.
  • When tumor growth was confirmed, photosensitizers were injected systemically and the animals were euthanized at different time points.
  • The following tissues were harvested: liver, kidney, ovaries, appendicular bone, spinal cord and lumbar vertebrae.
  • Photosensitizer tissue concentration of BPD-MA or PpIX was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry.
  • In contrast to BPD-MA, ALA-PpIX did not demonstrate an appreciable difference in the uptake ratio in tumor-bearing vertebrae compared to spinal cord.
  • The highest ratio for BPD-MA concentration was found 15 min after injection, which can be recommended for therapy in this model.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Photochemotherapy. Porphyrins / therapeutic use. Protoporphyrins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17880497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-8655
  • [Journal-full-title] Photochemistry and photobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photochem. Photobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 43892
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Porphyrins; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 129497-78-5 / verteporfin; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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13. Morita M, Osawa M, Naruse H, Nakamura H: Primary NK/T-cell lymphoma of the cauda equina: a case report and literature review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2009 Nov 15;34(24):E882-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This report is the first to describe a case of primary nasal type NK/T-cell lymphoma of the cauda equina.
  • RESULTS: After laminectomy and removal of the tumor, the patient recovered from the symptoms of cauda equina syndrome except for bladder and bowel dysfunction.
  • Further investigations including immunohistochemical stains made a diagnosis of primary nasal type NK/T-cell lymphoma of the cauda equina, and the patient received radiotherapy to the lumbosacral area.
  • Brain metastasis was detected 8 months after surgery, and the patient died 14 months after his initial clinical presentation despite additional treatments including whole-brain radiotherapy and oral chemotherapy.
  • Early definitive diagnosis with examination of the cerebrospinal fluid followed by combined treatment with radiotherapy and high-dose methotrexate should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / pathology. Polyradiculopathy / pathology. Spinal Canal / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Nerve Roots / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Decompression, Surgical. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Laminectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Myelography. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Radiotherapy. Sciatica / etiology. Treatment Outcome. Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19910757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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14. Moynihan TJ: Ependymal tumors. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2003 Dec;4(6):517-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ependymal tumors are rare malignancies that arise from the cells that line the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord.
  • Prognosis is dependent on tumor location, histology, especially for myxopapillary tumors that tend to occur in the lumbar spine, extent of surgical resection, and stage of disease.
  • Standard therapy consists of complete resection when feasible.
  • Patients with known residual disease may benefit from local radiation therapy, but the extent of radiation field and total dose are controversial.
  • Even in patients treated with involved field radiotherapy, most relapses occur within the original tumor bed, thus local control remains the biggest obstacle to effective therapy.
  • Chemotherapy has little impact against this tumor and has no role in the adjuvant setting, outside of a well designed clinical trial, with the possible exception of children younger than 5 years in an effort to delay radiation.
  • A minority of patients may respond to one of several chemotherapy regimens at the time of recurrence, but the impact of this therapy is limited.
  • Newer treatment strategies are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Ependymoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Emergency Medical Services. Humans. Life Style. Neoplasm Staging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 14585232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Kosmas C, Malamos NA, Tsavaris NB, Stamataki M, Stefanou S, Gregoriou A, Rokana S, Vartholomeou M, Antonopoulos MJ: Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis after major remission to taxane-based front-line therapy in patients with advanced breast cancer. J Neurooncol; 2002 Feb;56(3):265-73
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHOTREXATE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis after major remission to taxane-based front-line therapy in patients with advanced breast cancer.
  • AIM: To determine the incidence of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC), as the first manifestation of systemic progression, in breast cancer patients after obtaining a major response (complete response, CR or >80% partial response, PR) to first-line taxane-based chemotherapy treated between 1996 and 2000 in our Medical Oncology Unit.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with histologically proven breast cancer having either metastatic disease, or high-risk locoregional disease that were entered into treatment protocols with first-line taxane (paclitaxel or docetaxel) plus anthracyclines or mitoxantrone combinations and developed LMC as the first evidence of progression after major response (CR or >80% PR) were analyzed in the present study (n = 155).
  • RESULTS: Seven patients with a median age of 54 (range: 40-70) years developed LMC as their first evidence of progression after taxane-based regimens with a median interval of 6 months (range: 2-18) from start of treatment to diagnosis of LMC.
  • Five patients received intrathecal (i.t.) methotrexate treatment and whole brain radiotherapy (RT), while one patient received i.t. methotrexate and RT to lumbar spine.
  • Two patients responded to treatment for LMC, while two achieved stable disease and three progressed.
  • Two patients had elevated cerebrospinal fluid tumor markers (more than serum marker levels) that proved useful in monitoring response to treatment.
  • Median survival after LMC was 3.6 months (range: 1-31+) and correlated positively to the interval from the initiation of taxane-based therapy to LMC (r = 0.84, P = 0.019).
  • Seven out of 86 responders (8.1%; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-13.9) developed LMC as the first sign of progression after a major response to first-line chemotherapy.
  • Prospective evaluation of the incidence of LMC after taxane versus non-taxane-based treatment from large randomized multiinstitutional trials is warranted and identification of potential prognostic factors might help identify patients requiring appropriate prophylactic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bridged-Ring Compounds / adverse effects. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / etiology. Taxoids
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12061734.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bridged-Ring Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 1605-68-1 / taxane; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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