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1. Matsuzaki K, Kageji T, Watanabe H, Hirose T, Nagahiro S: Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the cervical spinal cord successfully treated with chemotherapy: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(10):939-42

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the cervical spinal cord successfully treated with chemotherapy: case report.
  • A 15-month-old girl presented with a spinal pilomyxoid astrocytoma manifesting as a 3-month history of dysphagia.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed an intramedullary mass of the cervical spinal cord at C1-C6 with syringobulbia.
  • She underwent partial removal of the tumor and received postoperative chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide.
  • The tumor completely responded to the treatment and has not relapsed for 64 months.
  • Pilomyxoid astrocytoma frequently occurs in the opticohypothalamic regions but is rare in the spine.
  • The present case suggests that surgery followed by chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide may be an effective therapeutic option for pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the cervical spinal cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / therapy. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21030812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Stabouli S, Sdougka M, Tsitspoulos P, Violaki A, Anagnostopoulos I, Tsonidis Ch, Koliouskas D: Primary atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine in an infant. Hippokratia; 2010 Oct;14(4):286-8
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  • [Title] Primary atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine in an infant.
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine is a rare pediatric neoplasm with poor prognosis.
  • We report a case of an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the cervical spine in a 2-months-old infant.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord revealed an intradural, extramedullary mass occupying the spinal canal on the right at the level of C1-C5.
  • Tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, cytokeratins, S-100 protein, and CD57/Leu-7 antigen.
  • Despite chemotherapy, the infant presented with progressive neurological deterioration and died 6 months after initial diagnosis.
  • We review the literature on spinal malignant rhabdoid tumor and discuss the pathology, treatment, and outcome of these rare neoplasms.

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  • (PMID = 21311641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Hippokratia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hippokratia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3031327
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; atypical teratoid tumor / chemotherapy / chromosome 22q / hydrocephalous / rhabdoid tumor / spine
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3. Prevedello DM, Cordeiro JG, Koerbel A, Ditzel LF, Araújo JC: Management of primary spinal chondrosarcoma: report of two cases causing cord compression. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2004 Sep;62(3B):875-8
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  • [Title] Management of primary spinal chondrosarcoma: report of two cases causing cord compression.
  • Chondrosarcomas are malignant tumors that rarely grow inside the spinal canal.
  • Prognosis depends on histological features, patient's age and surgical margins free from tumor.
  • Response to radio and chemotherapy is poor.
  • Ideal treatment consists of total "en-block" resection, not always achievable due to limitation of location, compromise of stability and risk of inducing neurological deficits.
  • Two cases of spinal chondrosarcoma causing cord compression are reported, located in the cervical and thoracic spine.
  • Microsurgical technique consisted of initial debulking followed by removal of margins until limits free from tumor were obtained.
  • Association between chondrosarcoma and estrogen-dependent tumor has been confirmed in this report.
  • Although "en-block" resection of a chondrosarcoma should be tried whenever possible, tumor fragmentation should be considered in difficult cases, as in the present report, in which a long period free from recurrence with good quality of life can be obtained.
  • [MeSH-major] Chondrosarcoma / complications. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 15476087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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4. Jang SY, Kong MH, Song KY, Frazee JG: Intracranial Metastases of Cervical Intramedullary Low-Grade Astrocytoma without Malignant Transformation in Adult. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2009 Jun;45(6):381-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intracranial Metastases of Cervical Intramedullary Low-Grade Astrocytoma without Malignant Transformation in Adult.
  • The first case of intracranial metastases of a cervical intramedullary low-grade astrocytoma without malignant transformation in adult is presented in this report.
  • Seven years ago, a 45 year-old male patient underwent biopsy to confirm pathologic characteristics and received craniocervical radiation and chemotherapy for a grade II astrocytoma in the cervical spinal cord.
  • Two years later, posterior fusion was necessary for progressive kyphosis in the cervical spine.
  • After suboccipital craniectomy and posterior cervical exposure, the small masses in the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres were excised to a large extent by guidance of an intraoperative navigation system.
  • The tumor at the cervical and brain lesions was classified as an astrocytoma (WHO grade II).
  • When a patient with low-grade astrocytoma in the spinal cord has new cranial symptoms after surgery, radiaton, and chemotherapy, the possibility of its metastasis should be suspected because it can spread to the intracranial cavity even without malignant transformation as shown in this case.

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  • (PMID = 19609424.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2711238
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Astrocytoma / Cranial metastases / Intramedullary / Spinal cord tumor
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5. Vijay K, Venkateswaran K, Shetty AP, Rajasekaran S: Spinal extra-dural metastasis from Merkel cell carcinoma: a rare cause of paraplegia. Eur Spine J; 2008 Sep;17 Suppl 2:S267-70
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  • [Title] Spinal extra-dural metastasis from Merkel cell carcinoma: a rare cause of paraplegia.
  • We report a rare case of Merkel cell carcinoma with extra-dural spinal metastasis causing paraplegia.
  • MRI showed multiple epidural soft tissue masses causing neural compression.
  • Posterior decompression and tumor debulking at all three sites of neural compression was performed.
  • Histopathology of the epidural tumor was consistent with MCC and the diagnosis was confirmed by immuno-histochemistry staining for cytokeratin-20.
  • She was started on chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • One month after diagnosis she died due to extensive metastasis.
  • The short term palliative response seen in our patient demonstrates the poor prognosis for patients with spinal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Epidural Space / pathology. Paraplegia / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Decompression, Surgical. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Keratin-20 / analysis. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy. Neurosurgical Procedures. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18057968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2525916
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6. Heuer GG, Kiefer H, Judkins AR, Belasco J, Biegel JA, Jackson EM, Cohen M, O'Malley BW Jr, Storm PB: Surgical treatment of a clival-C2 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Jan;5(1):75-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of a clival-C2 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • The authors present the case of en bloc resection of a clival-C2 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor.
  • A transoral biopsy procedure revealed an atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor on histological examination.
  • The tumor was resected via a transoral approach, and the patient's spine was stabilized with posterior instrumented fusion from the occiput to C-5.
  • Postoperatively, the patient underwent 16 months of chemotherapy along with 6 weeks of overlapping radiation therapy.
  • The conus tumor was resected and found to be consistent with the primary tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20043739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046274-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA046274-18
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS184119; NLM/ PMC2840717
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7. Leitner Y, Shabat S, Boriani L, Boriani S: En bloc resection of a C4 chordoma: surgical technique. Eur Spine J; 2007 Dec;16(12):2238-42
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  • The prognosis of aggressive benign and low-grade malignant tumors in the spine as in the limbs, seems to be mostly related to the feasibility of en bloc resection, while in the treatment of high-grade malignant tumors the protocols of treatment include the combination of chemotherapy, radiation and surgery.
  • Indications, criteria of feasibility and surgical technique are extensively reported for the thoracic and lumbar spine.
  • In the cervical spine few cases are reported of resection, due not only to anatomical constraint, but also to the rarity of finding a tumor accomplishing the criteria of feasibility.
  • The anterior approach consisted of contemporary right and left prevascular presternocleidomastoid approaches The specimen was submitted for the histological study of the margins, which resulted tumor-free.
  • This technical note is finalized to confirm that en bloc resection of the vertebral body through total vertebrectomy is feasible in the midcervical spine by double approaches, provided the tumor involves only layers B and C, maximum extension sectors 5-8.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Chordoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical / instrumentation. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Humans. Internal Fixators. Laminectomy / instrumentation. Laminectomy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neck / anatomy & histology. Neck / surgery. Neck Pain / pathology. Neck Pain / physiopathology. Neck Pain / surgery. Radiculopathy / etiology. Radiculopathy / physiopathology. Radiculopathy / surgery. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Spinal Fusion / instrumentation. Spinal Fusion / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17713796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2140125
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8. Lee CH, Moon KY, Chung CK, Kim HJ, Chang KH, Park SH, Jahng TA: Primary intradural extramedullary melanoma of the cervical spinal cord: case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2010 Apr 15;35(8):E303-7
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  • [Title] Primary intradural extramedullary melanoma of the cervical spinal cord: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of primary intradural extramedullary melanoma of the cervical spinal cord in a nonwhite patient.
  • Primary malignant melanoma of the spinal cord is a rare disease entity that predominately affects the middle or lower thoracic spine.
  • Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine suggested a multiloculated subdural hematoma in the subacute stage that spread from the level of C1 to the level of C6.
  • RESULTS: A standard posterior midline approach was used under the impression that the subacute subdural hematoma was caused by a hidden vascular anomaly or a rare, intradural, pigmented tumor.
  • Subsequent radiotherapy and chemotherapy were administered.
  • CONCLUSION: Unlike most cases of primary intradural melanoma, this patient presented with unusual radiologic findings in the cervical spinal cord.
  • The case described in the present study illustrates that primary spinal cord melanoma is rare and must be diagnosed with caution due to its variable clinical and radiologic presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Activities of Daily Living. Adult. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Biomarkers, Tumor. Combined Modality Therapy. Decompression, Surgical. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy. Humans. Laminectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Muscle Weakness / etiology. Neurosurgical Procedures. Paresthesia / etiology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiotherapy. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / physiopathology. Spinal Cord / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20308942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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9. Huang JH, Tsui I, Judkins AR, Simon E, Birknes JK, Sutton LN: Intramedullary cervical spine germinoma: case report. Neurosurgery; 2004 Dec;55(6):1432
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intramedullary cervical spine germinoma: case report.
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We report an extremely rare case of primary intramedullary germinoma in the cervical spinal cord arising in an 18-year-old man who had not undergone previous surgery or irradiation.
  • A magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated a heterogeneous cervical spine lesion with marked contrast enhancement extending from C3 to C6.
  • INTERVENTION: The patient underwent a cervical laminotomy with tumor resection, and pathological examination revealed the tumor to be a germinoma.
  • A postoperative magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain and spinal cord did not show any other tumors.
  • The patient received local radiation as well as three courses of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of an intramedullary cervical spine germinoma with confirmed tissue diagnosis.
  • Although extremely uncommon, the possibility of germinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis for primary intramedullary spinal cord tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Germinoma / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15574227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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10. Heran NS, Yong RL, Heran MS, Yip S, Fairholm D: Primary intradural extraarachnoid hodgkin lymphoma of the cervical spine. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine; 2006 Jul;5(1):61-4
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  • [Title] Primary intradural extraarachnoid hodgkin lymphoma of the cervical spine. Case report.
  • This 42-year-old man presented with an intradural extramedullary mass in his lower cervical spine.
  • At surgery, the mass was found to be an intradural extra-arachnoid tumor.
  • The procedure was limited to biopsy sampling and the patient was treated further with adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy, after which remission was demonstrated both clinically and on images.
  • Analysis of a frozen section obtained during the procedure aided in the diagnosis of the tumor, thus preventing further resection and the potential neurological complications associated with more radical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervical Vertebrae. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16850958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Moon SJ, Lee JK, Seo BR, Kim JH, Kim SH, Lee KH, Lee MC: An intraosseous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the cervical spine: a case report and review of the literature. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2008 Sep 1;33(19):E712-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An intraosseous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the cervical spine: a case report and review of the literature.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The spinal MPNST that develops from spinal nerve roots and secondary bony erosion is well-known entity.
  • However, primary intraosseous MPNSTs of the spine are extremely rare.
  • Complete excision of the tumor and posterior stabilization were performed through a posterior approach.
  • The tumor was noted to originate from the posterior element of C7.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: We report an intraosseous MPNST of the cervical spine.
  • Complete surgical excision and adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in a good functional outcome.
  • MPNST should be added to the differential diagnosis of primary bone tumors causing spinal cord compression.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / pathology. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18758353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1159
  • [Journal-full-title] Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Vimentin
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12. Fridley JS, Chamoun RB, Whitehead WE, Curry DJ, Luerssen TG, Adesina A, Jea A: Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the spine in an infant: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2009;45(3):237-43
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  • [Title] Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the spine in an infant: case report and review of the literature.
  • Malignant rhabdoid tumors of the spine are rare pediatric neoplasms that have a poor prognosis.
  • The histological, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features are essential elements used in their diagnosis.
  • We report the case of a malignant rhabdoid tumor of the cervical spine in a 13-month-old infant.
  • Tumor cells were vimentin positive with prominent nucleoli indented by eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions containing intermediate filaments.
  • This patient was operated on twice for symptomatic spinal cord compression.
  • Despite chemotherapy, she developed worsening leptomeningeal dissemination, lower cranial nerve dysfunction, and hydrocephalus that did not respond to CSF diversion.
  • She died 4 months after initial diagnosis.
  • We review the literature on spinal malignant rhabdoid tumor and discuss the nomenclature, pathology, radiology, treatment, and outcomes of this rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Cervical Vertebrae. Female. Humans. Infant

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19521139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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13. Pamuk ON, Harmandar F: A case of cervical spine meningioma following etanercept use in a patient with RA. Nat Rev Rheumatol; 2009 Aug;5(8):457-60
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  • [Title] A case of cervical spine meningioma following etanercept use in a patient with RA.
  • BACKGROUND: A 70-year-old female with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was administered etanercept to treat active disease that persisted despite therapy with conventional DMARDs.
  • After 18 months of etanercept therapy, her RA symptoms had improved; however, she developed quadriparesis.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Physical examination, neurological examination, nerve conduction studies, measurement of serum inflammatory markers and autoantibodies, MRI of the cranium and cervical spine, and X-rays of the chest and hands.
  • DIAGNOSIS: The patient underwent neurosurgery to resect a 1 x 2 cm mass in the cervical spine at C6-C7.
  • MANAGEMENT: Etanercept was discontinued because of a possible association between the drug and development of meningioma; however, shortly afterwards the patient experienced a flare of RA symptoms.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of meningioma developing following use of tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapy, and the first to suggest a cause-effect relationship.
  • [MeSH-major] Antirheumatic Agents / adverse effects. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Immunoglobulin G / adverse effects. Meningioma / chemically induced. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cervical Vertebrae. Etanercept. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor

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  • (PMID = 19648944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
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14. Abel TJ, Chowdhary A, Thapa M, Rutledge JC, Geyer JR, Ojemann J, Avellino AM: Spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination to the brain. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg; 2006 Dec;105(6 Suppl):508-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma with leptomeningeal dissemination to the brain. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Leptomeningeal dissemination of low-grade spinal cord gliomas is an uncommon event.
  • The authors report a unique case of leptomeningeal dissemination of a spinal cord pilocytic astrocytoma (PCA) to the intracranial cerebral subarachnoid spaces in a child.
  • An intradural intramedullary spinal cord tumor was identified, and the lesion was subtotally resected and diagnosed by the pathology department to be a PCA.
  • Subsequently, the patient had recurrences of the intradural intramedullary tumor at 6 months and 2 years after his original presentation.
  • He underwent a repeated resection of the recurrent tumor and fenestration of an associated syrinx on both occasions.
  • The pathological characteristics of the reresected tumor remained consistent with those of a PCA.
  • Postoperative imaging after his last surgery revealed diffuse intracranial leptomeningeal dissemination into the cisternal space surrounding the midbrain, the suprasellar region, and the internal auditory canal, as well as nodular subarachnoid disease in the upper cervical region.
  • The patient then underwent chemotherapy, and total spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging 2 months later demonstrated stability in the size of the spinal cord tumor and a decrease in the associated syrinx.
  • However, an MR image of the head demonstrated two new areas of supratentorial subarachnoid leptomeningeal spread of the primary spinal cord tumor at the 2-month follow-up examination.
  • At the 6-month follow-up examination, MR imaging of the head and spine demonstrated stable metastatic disease.
  • This case illustrates a unique instance of supratentorial leptomeningeal dissemination of an intramedullary spinal cord PCA in a child.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology


15. Zarovnaya EL, Pallatroni HF, Hug EB, Ball PA, Cromwell LD, Pipas JM, Fadul CE, Meyer LP, Park JP, Biegel JA, Perry A, Rhodes CH: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine in an adult: case report and review of the literature. J Neurooncol; 2007 Aug;84(1):49-55
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  • [Title] Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the spine in an adult: case report and review of the literature.
  • There have been only 17 cases of AT/RT in adults reported in the medical literature and the rarity of this tumor makes the diagnosis in adults difficult.
  • We describe a case of an AT/RT of the spinal cord in an adult.
  • An MRI demonstrated a mass lesion in the dorsal spinal cord extending from C4 to C6.
  • Subsequently, immunohistochemical studies revealed the absence of INI1 gene expression in the malignant cells, supporting the diagnosis of AT/RT.
  • The patient underwent three additional surgical procedures for recurrent disease throughout the neuraxis secondary to leptomeningeal spread of the tumor.
  • Despite aggressive surgical resection, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy, the patient succumbed to the disease two and a half years after her initial presentation.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of a spinal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in an adult fully documented with molecular, immunohistochemical, cytogenetic and autopsy findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervical Vertebrae. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Monosomy / diagnosis. Monosomy / genetics. SMARCB1 Protein

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  • (PMID = 17377740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46274
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 Protein; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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16. Biswas A, Puri T, Goyal S, Gupta R, Eesa M, Julka PK, Rath GK: Spinal intradural primary germ cell tumour--review of literature and case report. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Mar;151(3):277-84

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal intradural primary germ cell tumour--review of literature and case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary spinal cord germ cell tumour is a rare tumour.
  • We herein review the tumour characteristics, associated risk factors, treatment policy, and patterns of failure of primary intradural germ cell tumour.
  • METHOD: We conducted a PUBMED search using a combination of keywords such as "spinal germ cell tumor," "germinoma," "extradural," "intradural," "intramedullary," "extramedullary," and identified 19 cases of primary spinal germ cell tumour.
  • Clinical features, pathologic characteristics, and treatment details of these patients including status at follow-up were noted from respective case reports.
  • We also describe a case of a young Indian patient of intradural extramedullary germ cell tumour treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • Most patients were treated with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic chemotherapy.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging spine showed an inhomogeneous hyperintense soft tissue mass at L(2)-L(4) spinal level.
  • He was treated with complete surgical excision and four cycles of chemotherapy with BEP regimen following a histological diagnosis of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour.
  • Palliative irradiation to the lumbar spine was given on progression at 3 months.
  • The patient eventually succumbed to his condition, due to compressive transverse myelitis possibly due to cervical cord metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Limited surgery followed by upfront radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy is the optimal management of this rare group of tumour.
  • Omission of radiation therapy from the treatment armamentarium might engender local recurrence and spinal dissemination at first failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / analysis. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / metabolism. Decompression, Surgical. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Myelitis, Transverse / etiology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Subarachnoid Space / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2009 Aug;151(8):983-4 [19337687.001]
  • (PMID = 19240975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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17. Tseng HM, Kuo LT, Lien HC, Liu KL, Liu MT, Huang CY: Prolonged survival of a patient with cervical intramedullary glioblastoma multiforme treated with total resection, radiation therapy, and temozolomide. Anticancer Drugs; 2010 Nov;21(10):963-7
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  • [Title] Prolonged survival of a patient with cervical intramedullary glioblastoma multiforme treated with total resection, radiation therapy, and temozolomide.
  • We report a case of prolonged survival in a patient with cervical intramedullary glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treated with total resection, radiotherapy, and temozolomide.
  • A 26-year-old woman complaining of midline lower cervical pain, insidiously progressive motor weakness, paresthesia, and urinary incontinence was admitted to our institution.
  • Total resection of the tumor was performed at the C2-C6 level by laminoplasty with miniplate, followed by chemoradiotherapy (focal irradiation dose of 5000, at 200 cGy per fraction for over a period of 5 weeks) with concomitant temozolomide (75 mg/m2).
  • Histologic examination of the resected tumor confirmed GBM.
  • The tumor consisted of a markedly pleomorphic neoplasm measuring 4.6 cm×2.6 cm×1.7 cm and characterized by necrosis, atypical mitotic figures, and endothelial proliferation.
  • Recurrence in the cervical spine without brain GBM metastasis was identified 25 months after operation, and temozolomide chemotherapy was reinitiated; however, the tumor progressed, and the patient died 33 months after operation.
  • We suggest that, in addition to potential factors of tumor biology, multimodal treatment consisting of total resection of intramedullary GBM coupled with radiation therapy and temozolomide may have prolonged the survival of this patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioblastoma. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 20838208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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18. Cramer P, Thomale UW, Okuducu AF, Lemke AJ, Stockhammer F, Woiciechowsky C: An atypical spinal meningioma with CSF metastasis: fatal progression despite aggressive treatment. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine; 2005 Aug;3(2):153-8
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  • [Title] An atypical spinal meningioma with CSF metastasis: fatal progression despite aggressive treatment. Case report.
  • The authors report the case of a 23-year-old man who presented with a C1-3 spinal mass.
  • Following intraspinal decompression the tumor was histologically classified as an atypical meningioma (World Health Organization grade II).
  • During the 1.5-year follow-up period the diagnostic examinations identified a local tumor recurrence, an intraspinal C-6 metastasis, and a segmental instability with anterior C2-3 slippage and C3-4 kyphosis.
  • The tumor was resected and occipitocervical stabilization was performed.
  • Despite additional hydroxyurea-based chemotherapy, the patient presented 4 months later with a hemiparesis and a massive recurrence of the tumor mass involving the posterior fossa and the upper thoracic spine.
  • The authors discuss more aggressive therapeutic options in addition to surgery in patients with metastatic atypical meningiomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / surgery. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cervical Vertebrae. Decompression, Surgical. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Hydroxyurea / therapeutic use. Joint Instability / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Myelography. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Spinal Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16370305.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-5654
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; X6Q56QN5QC / Hydroxyurea
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19. Popugaev KA, Savin IA, Oshorov AV, Sokolova EIu, Kushel' IuV, Lemeneva NV: [Effective therapy of acute cardiovascular and respiratory failure developed after removal of cervical spinal cord tumor in a child]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko; 2008 Oct-Dec;(4):43-6; discussion 46
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  • [Title] [Effective therapy of acute cardiovascular and respiratory failure developed after removal of cervical spinal cord tumor in a child].
  • Development of hemodynamic and respiratory disturbances in cervical spinal cord injury is a known phenomenon.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypotension / therapy. Postoperative Complications / therapy. Respiratory Insufficiency / therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cervical Vertebrae. Hemodynamics / drug effects. Hemodynamics / physiology. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19230481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8817
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhurnal voprosy neĭrokhirurgii imeni N. N. Burdenko
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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20. Kuba H, Inamura T, Nishio S, Fukui M: Metastatic spinal intramedullary germinoma with elevated cerebrospinal fluid chorionic gonadotropin: a case report. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2000 Mar;102(1):44-7
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  • [Title] Metastatic spinal intramedullary germinoma with elevated cerebrospinal fluid chorionic gonadotropin: a case report.
  • A 25-year-old man with a suprasellar germinoma and ventricular dissemination was treated successfully with systemic chemotherapy and cranial irradiation.
  • Six years later he developed progressive numbness and weakness in both upper extremities.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed an intramedullary spinal cord tumor in the cervical region.
  • After completion of systemic chemotherapy and spinal irradiation, symptoms subsided and the tumor was no longer evident on MRI.
  • Based on the patient's history and the rapid response of the tumor to treatment, the spinal cord tumor was considered a metastatic intramedullary spinal germinoma representing CSF dissemination via the central canal.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / cerebrospinal fluid. Germinoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Germinoma / secondary. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 10717404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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21. Gemici C: Lhermitte's sign: Review with special emphasis in oncology practice. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2010 May;74(2):79-86
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  • Lhermitte's sign (LS) is characterized by electric shock like sensation, spreading along the spine in a cervico-caudal direction and also into both arms and legs, which is felt upon forward flexion of the neck.
  • It is a myelopathy resulting from damage to sensory axons at the dorsal columns of the cervical or thoracic spinal cord and a well-known clinical sign in neurology practice.
  • Patients with cancer may present with LS due to various causes either related to the tumor itself or to its treatment.
  • Spinal cord tumors, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are possible causes of LS observed in oncology practice.
  • While LS is observed with a frequency of 3.6-13% in large patient groups receiving radiotherapy for head and neck and thoracic malignancies, the true incidence of chemotherapy and spinal cord tumor induced LS is unknown with only few reported cases in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms / therapy. Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Nervous System Diseases / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Humans. Incidence. Medical Oncology / methods. Neurosurgical Procedures. Professional Practice. Radiation Injuries / diagnosis. Radiation Injuries / therapy. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19493683.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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22. Benes V 3rd, Barsa P, Benes V Jr, Suchomel P: Prognostic factors in intramedullary astrocytomas: a literature review. Eur Spine J; 2009 Oct;18(10):1397-422

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  • These infiltratively growing tumors are treated by a variety of methods -- biopsy and decompressive surgery, maximal safe resection, adjuvant oncological therapy.
  • Better understanding of factors that influence prognosis may help in treatment planning with the goal of prolonging survival.
  • Only tumor grade was consistently reported as the major factor affecting prognosis.
  • The influence of other clinical factors (age, gender, history length, functional status, tumor location or extent, syrinx or cyst presence) can be speculated upon, but cannot be assessed adequately from the available literature.
  • For both low- and high-grade (HG) astrocytomas, maximal safe tumor resection should be the primary treatment objective but is often not feasible in contrast to other intramedullary and spinal neoplasms.
  • Since the biological nature of spinal cord HG glioma is identical to that of the brain, the same treatment algorithm of maximal safe resection followed by concomitant radio- and chemotherapy would be sensible to implement.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / therapy. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy / methods. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19562388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 76
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899373
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23. Arnold PM, Habib A, Newell K, Anderson KK: Esthesioneuroblastoma metastatic to the thoracic intradural and extradural space. Spine J; 2009 May;9(5):e1-5
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  • BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Ethesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare tumor of the olfactory epithelium that has been shown to metastasize mostly to the cervical lymphatics, with only infrequent spread to other locations.
  • Computed tomography of the chest showed no pulmonary metastasis and a high-attenuation spinal canal mass at T8 was noted on magnetic resonance imaging.
  • A tumor was seen penetrating through the dura, and a midline durotomy was performed for resection of a large intradural mass.
  • RESULTS: The postoperative period was uneventful, and included pain management and physical therapy, followed by chemotherapy and radiation.
  • The patient remains free of spinal recurrence 2 years after surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metastasis of ENB to the spinal column is rare, and of those instances, 80% are localized to the cauda equina.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidural Space / pathology. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / secondary. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18805062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1632
  • [Journal-full-title] The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Slampa P, Burkon P, Sterba J, Seneklova Z, Dembicka D, Burianova L: The technique of craniospinal irradiation in the management of intracranial ependymomas. J BUON; 2002 Apr-Jun;7(2):131-6
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  • PURPOSE: To present a new technique of craniospinal irradiation as a postoperative prophylactic treatment in patients with intracranial ependymomas being at risk for relapse.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the last 3 years, 9 pediatric patients under 15 years of age with grade 2-4 ependymomas located infratentorially received postoperative craniospinal axis radiotherapy by a new technique developed in our department.
  • In whole brain and cervical spine irradiation (with the caudal border at C3-C4 level), two opposite lateral fields were chosen with shielding blocks of the eye bulbs and the face part of the scull.
  • The spinal cord was irradiated from C3 to S2-4 with two direct radiation fields using asymmetric jaws as well.
  • Doses of 35 Gy to the whole craniospinal axis and 54 Gy to the tumor bed were delivered.
  • In cases of residual tumor doses were increased up to 58-60 Gy.
  • Four patients also received postirradiation chemotherapy because of large tumor size and unfavorable histology.

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  • (PMID = 17577276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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