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1. Gutierrez G, Daniels IR, Garcia A, Ramia JM: Peritoneal carcinomatosis from a small bowel carcinoid tumour. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:75
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  • [Title] Peritoneal carcinomatosis from a small bowel carcinoid tumour.
  • BACKGROUND: Peritoneal carcinomatosis from a gastrointestinal carcinoid tumour is rare and the long-term management and prognosis have not been clearly defined.
  • The natural history is different from gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma, although its capacity to invade regional lymph nodes and generate distal metastasis can make the management more complex.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 63 years-old woman underwent emergency surgery in 1993 for right iliac fossa pain and a mass that was found to be an ileal carcinoid tumour.
  • Systemic chemotherapy had little effect, although Somatostatin was used effectively to relieve symptoms caused by the disseminated disease (flushing and diarrhoea).
  • CONCLUSION: Peritoneal carcinomatosis from carcinoid tumours is not well documented in the literature.
  • Aggressive surgery must be performed in order to control the disease since chemotherapy has not been reported to be effective.

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  • (PMID = 17083717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1635417
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2. Warner RR: Carcinoid case presentation and discussion: the American perspective. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2003 Dec;10(4):489-96
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  • [Title] Carcinoid case presentation and discussion: the American perspective.
  • The rationale underlying an aggressive approach in the management of some carcinoid patients is explained and illustrated by the presented case of a middle-aged man with advanced classic typical midgut carcinoid.
  • The patient exhibited somatostatin receptor scintigraphy-positive massive liver metastases, carcinoid syndrome, severe tricuspid and pulmonic cardiac valve disease with congestive heart failure, ascites and malnutrition.
  • He had been treated for several years with supportive medications and biotherapy including octreotide and alpha interferon but his tumor eventually progressed and his overall condition was markedly deteriorated when he first sought more aggressive treatment.
  • This consisted of prompt replacement of both tricuspid and pulmonic valves, followed by hepatic artery chemoembolus (HACE) injection and then surgical tumor debulking including excision of the primary tumor in the small intestine.
  • Prophylactic cholecystectomy was also performed and a biopsy of tumor was submitted for cell culture drug resistance testing.
  • This was followed by systemic chemotherapy utilizing the drug (docetaxel) which the in vitro studies suggested as most likely to be effective.
  • His excellent response to this succession of treatments exemplifies the successful application of aggressive sequential multi-modality therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Heart Disease / pathology. Carcinoid Heart Disease / therapy. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Combined Modality Therapy. Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / pharmacology. Pulmonary Valve / pathology. Pulmonary Valve / surgery. Taxoids / pharmacology. Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency / pathology. Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency / surgery

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  • (PMID = 14713263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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3. Shelat VG, Diddapur RK: Duodenal carcinoid: a rare cause of melaena in a cirrhotic patient. Singapore Med J; 2008 Aug;49(8):e198-201
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  • [Title] Duodenal carcinoid: a rare cause of melaena in a cirrhotic patient.
  • Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumours are relatively rare.
  • These are indolent tumours and hence role of chemotherapy is limited.
  • Radionuclide and biological therapies are emerging.
  • We report a 29-year-old man presenting with melaena and diagnosed as having a neuroendocrine tumour of the duodenum together with liver cirrhosis.
  • Standard Whipple's procedure was done and he is doing well at follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Duodenal Neoplasms / complications. Liver Cirrhosis / diagnosis. Liver Cirrhosis / therapy. Melena / diagnosis. Melena / etiology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Duodenum / pathology. Endoscopy / methods. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18756332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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4. Kulke MH, Freed E, Chiang DY, Philips J, Zahrieh D, Glickman JN, Shivdasani RA: High-resolution analysis of genetic alterations in small bowel carcinoid tumors reveals areas of recurrent amplification and loss. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2008 Jul;47(7):591-603
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  • [Title] High-resolution analysis of genetic alterations in small bowel carcinoid tumors reveals areas of recurrent amplification and loss.
  • Carcinoid tumors of the small intestine are characterized by an indolent clinical course, secretion of neuropeptides, and resistance to standard cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • To evaluate the molecular events underlying carcinoid tumorigenesis, we used high-resolution arrays of single nucleotide polymorphisms to study chromosomal gains and losses in 24 primary and metastatic small bowel carcinoid tumors derived from 18 patients.
  • The amplitude of observed gains was modest in comparison to those reported in some other tumor types.
  • One focal region of recurrent gain on 14q mapped to the locus of the gene encoding the antiapoptotic protein DAD1, and immunohistochemical staining confirmed DAD1 protein expression in tumor samples.
  • This detailed study of an uncommon neoplasm provides a basis to investigate putative oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in intestinal carcinoid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Intestinal Neoplasms / genetics. Intestine, Small. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18383209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2264
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / DAD1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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5. Poncet G, Faucheron JL, Walter T: Recent trends in the treatment of well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the small bowel. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Apr 14;16(14):1696-706

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  • [Title] Recent trends in the treatment of well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the small bowel.
  • Well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the small bowel are fairly rare neoplasms that present many clinical challenges.
  • They secrete peptides and neuroamines that may cause carcinoid syndrome.
  • Initial treatment aims to control carcinoid syndrome with somatostatin analogs.
  • Even if there is metastatic spread, surgical resection of the primitive tumor should be discussed in cases of retractile mesenteritis, small bowel ischemia or subocclusive syndrome in order to avoid any acute complication, in particular at the beginning of somatostatin analog treatment.
  • The choice of treatment depends on the symptoms, general health of the patient, tumor burden, degree of uptake of radionuclide, histological features of the tumor, and tumor growth.
  • Management strategies include surgery for cure (which is rarely achieved) or for cytoreduction, radiological interventions (transarterial embolization or radiofrequency ablation), and chemotherapy (interferon and somatostatin analogs).
  • New biological agent and radionuclide targeted therapies are under investigation.
  • Finally, it has to be emphasized that it is of the utmost importance to enroll these patients with a rare disease in prospective clinical trials assessing new therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy. Humans. Intestine, Small. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / diagnosis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20380000.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 101
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2852816
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6. Auer J, Kirchgatterer A, Berent R, Allinger S, Hinterholzer G, Höbling W, Meindl S, Oppitz P, Kalchmair J, Neuwirth G, Knoflach P: [Gastrointestinal hemorrhage needing blood transfusion as the first manifestation of small bowel carcinoid tumor]. Z Gastroenterol; 2000 Aug;38(8):631-6
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  • [Title] [Gastrointestinal hemorrhage needing blood transfusion as the first manifestation of small bowel carcinoid tumor].
  • Carcinoid tumors arise from enterochromaffin or enterochromaffin-like cells that are present in the gastrointestinal tract, ovaries, and lungs.
  • Carcinoid syndrome is associated with small intestine carcinoids in about 40%.
  • Common symptoms include intermittent intestinal obstruction with crampy abdominal pain and vomiting, and weight loss.
  • Upper gastrointestinal bleeding with melaena or hematochezia is a relatively rare early symptom of patients with small intestine carcinoid tumors.
  • Laparotomy revealed bleeding from a small submucosal malignant carcinoid tumor in small intestine and multiple large metastases within mesenteric tissue.
  • Segmental resection of small intestine and exstirpation of the metastatic masses was performed.
  • Cytotoxic chemotherapy in this adjuvant setting has not been recommended.
  • Small intestinal carcinoid tumor has to be considered as a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding with melaena or hematochezia.
  • Nevertheless, bleeding is a relatively rare early symptom of patients with small intestine carcinoid tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Transfusion. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestine, Small
  • [MeSH-minor] Acenocoumarol / administration & dosage. Acenocoumarol / adverse effects. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Protein S Deficiency / drug therapy. Protein S Deficiency / genetics. Recurrence


7. Kidd M, Schally AV, Pfragner R, Malfertheiner MV, Modlin IM: Inhibition of proliferation of small intestinal and bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine cell lines by using peptide analogs targeting receptors. Cancer; 2008 Mar 15;112(6):1404-14
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  • [Title] Inhibition of proliferation of small intestinal and bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine cell lines by using peptide analogs targeting receptors.
  • BACKGROUND: Currently, no consistently effective therapy is available to inhibit cell proliferation or metastasis of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) disease.
  • The effects of 4 novel peptides were analyzed: a targeted cytotoxic analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analog (AN-152), a targeted cytotoxic analog of somatostatin (AN-238), and 2 antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) on 3 NET (carcinoid) cell lines that expressed respective peptide receptors.
  • RESULTS: Proliferation of the LH-RH receptor-expressing lung NET, NCI-H720 line, was inhibited 2-fold by AN-152 containing doxorubicin compared with the chemotherapy alone (IC50 of 9.1 nM vs 24 nM).
  • Proliferation of the GH-RH receptor expressing lung NET, NCI-H727 line, was inhibited by both GH-RH antagonists, the effects being mediated through changes in Ki67 expression, but not in caspase 3-mediated apoptosis.
  • The small intestinal NET, KRJ-I line, was 8x more sensitive to inhibition by AN-238 than to 2-pyrolino-doxorubicin, reflected by increased caspase 3 transcript as well as activity.
  • AN-238-mediated growth inhibition culminated in complete G1 arrest.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate GH-RH antagonists or peptide-linked antineoplastic agents such as AN-152 and AN-238 are effective inhibitors of NET proliferation in vitro.
  • Because peptide receptors such as those for GH-RH, LH-RH, and SST subtypes are commonly expressed by NETs, the development of antineoplastic agents targeted to specific tumor receptors may provide a more efficacious strategy than systemic chemotherapeutic agents currently in use.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Intestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cytotoxins / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Flow Cytometry. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / pharmacology. Humans. Intestine, Small / drug effects. Intestine, Small / metabolism. Intestine, Small / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Pyrroles / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, LHRH / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Somatostatin / antagonists & inhibitors. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18224665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA1185285
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AN 238; 0 / Cytotoxins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, LHRH; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 27844X2J29 / LHRH, lysine(6)-doxorubicin; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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8. Louthan O: [Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix]. Vnitr Lek; 2009 Nov;55(11):1056-9
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  • [Title] [Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinoid appendixu s pohárkovými bunkami.
  • Appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids are mixed tumors including neuroendocrine cells and intestinal type of goblet cells.
  • Compared to typical carcinoids, goblet cell carcinoids are malignant tumors with degree of malignity differing from case to case.
  • Carcinoid syndrom is not present.
  • There is poor prognosis in larger tumors.
  • Appendectomy is a sufficient therapeutical approach in small tumors, hemicolectomy should be performed in larger ones.
  • There is limited experience with chemotherapy in metastasizing tumors and sporadic with somatostatin analogues.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor

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  • (PMID = 20017437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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9. Kaur N, Vijayaragavan P, Aggarwal S: Large nodal metastases from carcinoid tumor causing bowel obstruction. Indian J Gastroenterol; 2003 Mar-Apr;22(2):69-70
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  • [Title] Large nodal metastases from carcinoid tumor causing bowel obstruction.
  • Histology revealed carcinoid tumor with small cell differentiation.
  • A trial of chemotherapy gave no response.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 12696834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0254-8860
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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10. Bolanowski M, Jarzab B, Handkiewicz-Junak D, Jeziorski A, Kos-Kudła B, Zajecki W, oraz Pozostali Uczestnicy Konferencji Okragłego Stołu: [Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine and the appendix - management guidelines (recommended by The Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Jan-Feb;59(1):87-96
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  • [Title] [Neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine and the appendix - management guidelines (recommended by The Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumors)].
  • Polish recommendations regarding management of patients suffering from neuroendocrine tumors of small intestine and appendix are presented.
  • Small intestine, especially ileum represent most common origin of these tumors.
  • In 4-10% of patients typical symptoms of carcinoid syndrome are present.
  • Ultrasound, colonoscopy, capsule endoscopy, baloon enteroscopy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and somatostatin analogs scintigraphy could be used for the visualization.
  • The treatment of choice in the neuroendocrine tumors of small intestine and appendix is radical or palliative surgery, if possible using endoscopy.
  • Pharmacotherapy consists of biotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The crucial in biotherapy is somatostatin analogs application, possible in symptomatic treatment of hormonally functioning tumors.
  • This is treatment of choice in carcinoid crisis.
  • Interferon alfa could be applied because of the same indications as somatostatin analogs, except for carcinoid crisis.
  • Chemotherapy is less successful in disseminated or locally advanced intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, so radioisotope therapy should be considered in each case of unresectable tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Appendiceal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Appendiceal Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Competence. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Humans. Intestine, Small. Neoplasm Staging. Physical Examination. Poland. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18335403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Investigator] Bar-Andziak E; Cwikła J; de Herder W; Dzielicki J; Falconi M; Foltyn W; Gaciong Z; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A; Kowalska A; Krolicki L; Krzyzanowska-Swiniarska B; Kryszałowicz B; Kvols L; Nasierowska-Guttmejer A; O'Toole D; Kunikowska J; Lampe P; Matyja V; Mełen-Mucha G; Milewicz A; Nowak A; Nowakowska-Duława E; Omyła-Staszewska J; Pajak J; Rudzki S; Rydzewska G; Sowinski J; Starzynska T; Strzelczyk J; Sworczak K; Syrenicz A; Szawlowski A; Tomaszewska RA; Wasko-Czopnik D; Wronski M; Zemczak A; Zgliczynski W
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11. Talamonti MS, Goetz LH, Rao S, Joehl RJ: Primary cancers of the small bowel: analysis of prognostic factors and results of surgical management. Arch Surg; 2002 May;137(5):564-70; discussion 570-1
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  • [Title] Primary cancers of the small bowel: analysis of prognostic factors and results of surgical management.
  • HYPOTHESIS: This study was done to review the clinical presentation, surgical management, pathologic features, and prognostic factors for primary small-bowel cancers.
  • The distribution of tumors by histological features was as follows: adenocarcinoma (33%), carcinoid tumor (29%), lymphoma (19%), and sarcoma (19%).
  • Cumulative 5-year survival rate was 37% in the adenocarcinoma group, 64% in the carcinoid tumor group, 29% in the lymphoma group, and 22% in the sarcoma group.
  • Significant prognostic predictors of overall survival for the entire cohort and for each tumor subtype included complete resection and American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor stage (P<.05).
  • Patient age, tumor location, histological grade, and use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy did not significantly influence survival.
  • The median time to recurrence was 16 months.
  • Twenty-one patients (16%) developed associated primary cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive surgical resection in an attempt to achieve complete tumor removal seems warranted.
  • Despite complete resections, patients with high-stage tumors remain at risk for recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / mortality. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Female. Humans. Intestine, Small. Lymphoma / mortality. Lymphoma / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma / mortality. Sarcoma / surgery. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11982470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Almeida N, Figueiredo P, Lopes S, Gouveia H, Leitão MC: Double-balloon enteroscopy and small bowel tumors: a South-European single-center experience. Dig Dis Sci; 2009 Jul;54(7):1520-4
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  • [Title] Double-balloon enteroscopy and small bowel tumors: a South-European single-center experience.
  • Small bowel tumors are rare, accounting for 1-2% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms.
  • We sought to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in patients with small bowel tumors.
  • All nine patients (seven males; mean age 68 +/- 11.3 years) with small bowel tumors were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Biopsies were taken in seven patients and provided definitive histological diagnosis in all except one.
  • Final histologic diagnosis were: primary carcinoma (33.3%), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) (33.3%), malignant lymphoma (22.2%), and carcinoid tumor (11.1%).
  • Mean follow-up time was 15.4 +/- 12.7 months (range 2-34 months).
  • Six patients were submitted to chemotherapy.
  • Small bowel tumors are common in patients submitted to DBE.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Capsule Endoscopy. Constriction, Pathologic. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Jejunum / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Portugal. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18958620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2568
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Debono M, Hon LQ, Bax N, Blakeborough A, Newell-Price J: Gluteal nodules in patients with metastatic midgut carcinoid disease treated with depot somatostatin analogs. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 May;93(5):1860-4
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  • [Title] Gluteal nodules in patients with metastatic midgut carcinoid disease treated with depot somatostatin analogs.
  • CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: We were referred a patient with metastatic well-differentiated endocrine tumor of the small intestine (midgut carcinoid) in whom asymptomatic sc gluteal nodules had been identified on routine abdominal computed tomography and labeled as metastases.
  • METHODS: Routine abdominal computed tomography scans of 56 patients with metastatic midgut carcinoid were analyzed by two independent radiologists, blinded to treatment status (depot somatostatin analogs).
  • RESULTS: No nodules were detected in 13 patients not on depot somatostatin therapy.
  • Nodules were found in 29 of 43 patients (67%) on somatostatin analog therapy: 16 of 22 patients on lanreotide Autogel, five of 12 patients on octreotide LAR only, and eight of nine patients who had been treated with both somatostatin analogs.
  • Presence of nodules was significantly associated with total number of injections (P = 0.024), duration on treatment (P = 0.022), and cumulative dose of lanreotide Autogel (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with metastatic midgut carcinoid tumors have large numbers of asymptomatic sc nodules in the gluteal area when on either depot somatostatin analog, but these resolve over time.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Intestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Octreotide / adverse effects. Peptides, Cyclic / adverse effects. Radiography, Abdominal. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Buttocks. Cross-Sectional Studies. Delayed-Action Preparations. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18303072.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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14. Rygoł B, Mykała-Cieśla J, Machalski M: [Malignant neoplasms of the small intestines]. Wiad Lek; 2004;57(1-2):33-6

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  • [Title] [Malignant neoplasms of the small intestines].
  • The paper contains a retrospective study of 12 cases of malignant small bowel tumors observed and treated in the Department of Oncological Chemotherapy of Medical University of Silesia.
  • The authors presented the most common symptoms, typical diagnostic procedures and the difficulties in the diagnostics of small bowel neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms. Intestine, Small
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15181747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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15. Svejda B, Aguiriano-Moser V, Sturm S, Höger H, Ingolic E, Siegl V, Stuppner H, Pfragner R: Anticancer activity of novel plant extracts from Trailliaedoxa gracilis (W. W. Smith & Forrest) in human carcinoid KRJ-I Cells. Anticancer Res; 2010 Jan;30(1):55-64
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  • [Title] Anticancer activity of novel plant extracts from Trailliaedoxa gracilis (W. W. Smith & Forrest) in human carcinoid KRJ-I Cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Small intestinal (SI) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare neoplasms derived from neuroendocrine cells presenting distinct clinical symptoms according to the ability to secrete neuroamines.
  • As response rates to chemotherapy are low, surgery remains the only effective treatment.
  • Because many tumors have metastasized at the time of diagnosis, curative surgery is rarely achieved.
  • Consequently, a substantial need for new therapeutic options has emerged.
  • Smith & Forrest) were investigated in the SI-NET cell line KRJ-I and in KRJ-I transplanted mice.
  • Tumor growth inhibition was also observed in heterotransplanted SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Intestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Rubiaceae / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Caspase 7 / metabolism. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Fibroblasts / cytology. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Fibroblasts / enzymology. Humans. Intestine, Small / pathology. Mice. Mice, SCID. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 20150617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Plant Extracts; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 7
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16. Han SL, Cheng J, Zhou HZ, Guo SC, Jia ZR, Wang PF: Surgically treated primary malignant tumor of small bowel: a clinical analysis. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Mar 28;16(12):1527-32
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  • [Title] Surgically treated primary malignant tumor of small bowel: a clinical analysis.
  • AIM: To evaluate the clinical presentation, treatment and survival of patients with primary malignant tumor of small bowel (PMTSB).
  • RESULTS: The most common initial clinical features of the patients were intermittent abdominal discomfort or vague abdominal pain (67.4%), abdominal mass (31.2%), bowel obstruction (24.1%), hemotochezia (21.3%), jaundice (16.3%), fever (14.2%), coexistence of bowel perforation and peritonitis (5.7%), coexistence of gastrointestinal bleeding and shock (5.0%), and intraabdominal bleeding (1.4%).
  • Ileum was the most common site of tumor (44.7%), followed by jejunum (30.5%) and duodenum (24.8%).
  • Segmental bowel resection (n = 81) was the most common surgical procedure, followed by right hemi-colectomy (n = 15), pancreaticoduodenectomy (n = 10), and others (n = 19).
  • Twenty-seven adenocarcinoma patients and 13 malignant lymphoma patients received adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisone, respectively.
  • The median survival time of PMTSB patients was 20.3 mo.
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor was observed in 80.0% (20/25), 72.0% (18/25) and 36.0% (9/25) of the patients, respectively.
  • Carcinoid was detected in 100.0% (15/15), 80.0% (12/15) and 46.7% (7/15) of the patients, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: En bloc resection is the principal therapy for most PMTSB and chemotherapy is the important treatment modality for malignant lymphoma and other malignant tumors of small bowel which cannot be radically removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Intestine, Small / surgery. Lymphoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20333796.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2846261
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17. Spunt SL, Pratt CB, Rao BN, Pritchard M, Jenkins JJ, Hill DA, Cain AM, Pappo AS: Childhood carcinoid tumors: the St Jude Children's Research Hospital experience. J Pediatr Surg; 2000 Sep;35(9):1282-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Childhood carcinoid tumors: the St Jude Children's Research Hospital experience.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To better characterize childhood carcinoid tumors, the authors reviewed the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes of pediatric patients with these rare tumors.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of medical records and pathologic materials of all children with carcinoid tumors treated at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between December 1977 and March 1999.
  • Primary tumor sites were the appendix (n = 5), small intestine (n = 1), bronchus (n = 1), and 1 unknown site.
  • In 7 cases, carcinoid tumor was not suspected at the time the tumor was identified.
  • Seven patients had localized disease; 5 remain disease-free after complete resection, and 2, whose carcinoid tumors were identified incidentally, died of metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma of the colon.
  • One patient who presented with symptoms of carcinoid syndrome had metastatic disease that responded poorly to cytotoxic chemotherapy and remains alive with active disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although most pediatric carcinoid tumors arise in the appendix, these tumors also occur in other primary sites.
  • New therapeutic strategies are needed for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendiceal Neoplasms. Bronchial Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor. Intestinal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Appendectomy. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Pneumonectomy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10999679.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3468
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23099; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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18. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Wayne JD, Ko CY, Bennett CL, Talamonti MS: Small bowel cancer in the United States: changes in epidemiology, treatment, and survival over the last 20 years. Ann Surg; 2009 Jan;249(1):63-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small bowel cancer in the United States: changes in epidemiology, treatment, and survival over the last 20 years.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown an increasing incidence of small bowel tumors in the United States.
  • Our objective was to assess this increase by examining changes in histology-specific incidence, treatment, and survival.
  • METHODS: Patients with small bowel malignancies were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB, 1985-2005) and the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER, 1973-2004) database.
  • Treatment and survival trends over time were examined using the National Cancer Data Base.
  • Regression models were developed to assess survival over time.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-seven thousand eight hundred forty-three patients were identified with small bowel malignancies: 37.4% carcinoid, 36.9% adenocarcinomas, 8.4% stromal tumors, and 17.3% lymphomas.
  • From 1973 to 2004, the incidence of carcinoid tumors increased more than 4-fold (2.1 to 9.3 per million), whereas changes in adenocarcinomas, stromal tumors, and lymphomas were less pronounced.
  • From 1985 to 2005, utilization of surgery increased significantly for carcinoid tumors from 78.8% to 87.4% (P < 0.0001).
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy utilization for adenocarcinoma increased from 8.1% in 1985 to 23.8% in 2005 (P < 0.0001).
  • Treatment over time was generally unchanged for lymphoma and stromal tumors.
  • Five-year survival after resection remained unchanged over time for all histologic subtypes even after adjusting for changes in patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and treatment approaches.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of small intestine malignancies has increased considerably, primarily because of carcinoid tumors which are now the most common small bowel cancer.
  • With current treatments, survival has remained relatively unchanged over the last 20 years.
  • Novel therapeutic options need to be investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms. Intestine, Small
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. Time Factors. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19106677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Laboudi A, Makdassi R, Choukroun G, Fournier A: [Acute renal insufficiency secondary to interferon]. Nephrologie; 2003;24(4):181-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Alpha interferon is increasingly used in the treatment of malignancies and viral hepatitis.
  • We report one case of acute renal failure without nephrotic syndrome but with tubulointerstitiel infiltration by mononuclear cells in 65 old man who had before interferon therapy 151 mumol/l of serum creatinine.
  • Interferon was administrated for digestive carcinoid neoplasia and bone and liver metastasis.
  • Outcome was improvement of renal function after withdrawn of interferon, dialysis and steroid treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Humans. Intestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Intestine, Small. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Nephritis, Interstitial / chemically induced. Recombinant Proteins

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  • (PMID = 12891833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-4960
  • [Journal-full-title] Néphrologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrologie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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20. Cybulla M, Weiner SM, Otte A: End-stage renal disease after treatment with 90Y-DOTATOC. Eur J Nucl Med; 2001 Oct;28(10):1552-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] End-stage renal disease after treatment with 90Y-DOTATOC.
  • DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide (DOTATOC), a newly developed somatostatin analogue which can be stably labelled with the beta-emitter yttrium-90, can be used for receptor-mediated internal radiotherapy.
  • A 78-year-old woman suffering from a carcinoid of the small intestine with multiple metastases in the liver as well as mesenteric and supraclavicular lymph node metastases was treated with this therapy after the disease had progressed under other chemotherapy options employed years previously.
  • Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were within the normal range prior to starting and during DOTATOC therapy.
  • However, 15 months after cessation of DOTATOC therapy, a progressive deterioration of renal function occurred, leading to end-stage renal disease.
  • There was no obvious risk factor for chronic renal insufficiency except DOTATOC therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Intestinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2002 Mar;29(3):435 [12002721.001]
  • [CommentIn] Eur J Nucl Med. 2001 Oct;28(10):1447-9 [11688660.001]
  • [CommentIn] Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2002 Feb;29(2):277-9 [11926391.001]
  • (PMID = 11685499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U194AS08HZ / Edotreotide
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21. Cho SB, Park SY, Yoon KW, Lee S, Lee WS, Joo YE, Kim HS, Choi SK, Rew JS: [The effect of post-biopsy scar on the submucosal elevation for endoscopic resection of rectal carcinoids]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jan;53(1):36-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: While endoscopic resection could be considered as the best choice for the treatment of small rectal carcinoid, the colonoscopic biopsies performed at the time of detection may lead to scar and ulcer formation and cause unpredicted difficulty in the endoscopic resection.
  • METHODS: Twenty two cases of rectal carcinoid which received prior biopsies before the endoscopic resection were retrospectively compared with 20 non-biopsied cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Cicatrix / pathology. Colonoscopy. Female. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19158469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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22. Kianmanesh R, O'toole D, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J: [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors]. J Chir (Paris); 2005 May-Jun;142(3):132-49
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement chirurgical des tumeurs endocrines gastro-entéro-pancréatiques.
  • Endocrine tumors (ET) of the digestive tract (formerly called neuroendocrine tumors) are rare.
  • They are classified into two principal types: gastrointestinal ET's (formerly called carcinoid tumors) which are the most common, and pancreaticoduodenal ET's.
  • Poorly-differentiated ET's have a poor prognosis and are treated by chemotherapy.
  • Surgical excision is the only curative treatment of well-differentiated ET's.
  • The surgical goals are to: 1. prolong survival by resecting the primary tumor and any nodal or hepatic metastases, 2. control the symptoms related to hormonal secretion, 3. prevent or treat local complications.
  • The most common sites of gastrointestinal ET's ( carcinoids) are the appendix and the rectum; these are often small (<1 cm), benign, and discovered fortuitously at the time of appendectomy or colonoscopic removal.
  • Ileal ET's, even if small, are malignant, frequently multiple, and complicated in 30-50% of cases by bowel obstruction, mesenteric invasion, or bleeding.
  • The carcinoid syndrome (consisting of abdominal pain, flushing, diarrhea, hypertension, bronchospasm, and right sided cardiac vegetations) is caused by the hypersecretion of serotonin into the systemic circulation; it occurs in 10% of cases and is usually associated with hepatic metastases.
  • Insulinoma and gastrinoma (cause of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) are the most common functional ET's. 80% are sporadic; in these cases, tumor size, location, and malignant potential determine the type of resection which may vary from a simple enucleation to a formal pancreatectomy.
  • In 10-20% of cases, pancreaticoduodenal ET presents in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia (NEM type I), an autosomal-dominant genetic disease with multifocal endocrine involvement of the pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas, and adrenal glands.
  • For insulinoma with NEM-I, enucleation of lesions in the pancreatic head plus a caudal pancreatectomy is the most appropriate procedure.
  • For gastrinoma with NEM-I, the benefit of surgical resection for tumors less than 2-3 cm in size is not clear.
  • The lesions are frequently small, multiple, and widespread and recurrence is frequent after excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / surgery. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / diagnosis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Pancreatectomy. Postoperative Care. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / surgery. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16142076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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23. Nehra V, Camilleri M, Burton D, Oenning L, Kelly DG: An open trial of octreotide long-acting release in the management of short bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol; 2001 May;96(5):1494-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An open trial of octreotide long-acting release in the management of short bowel syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the long-acting release (LAR) depot octreotide preparation Sandostatin LAR Depot on stool water and electrolyte losses, fecal fat excretion, and GI transit in patients with short bowel syndrome.
  • Baseline and posttreatment measurements of body weight, stool fat, sodium and potassium, and gastric and small bowel transit of a radiolabeled egg meal were compared by paired analysis.
  • RESULTS: We studied eight patients with short bowel syndrome (five women and three men; mean age 52 yr, range 37-72 yr) who had been TPN dependent for a mean of 11.8 yr (range 1.5-22 yr).
  • The underlying diagnoses were Crohn's disease (n = 6), intestinal ischemia (n = 1), and resection for carcinoid tumor (n = 1).
  • Treatment with Sandostatin LAR Depot significantly increased small bowel transit time (p = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sandostatin LAR Depot for 15 wk significantly prolonged small bowel transit time.
  • Body weight and stool parameters in response to Sandostatin LAR Depot treatment needs to be assessed further in multicenter studies assessing dose, frequency of administration, and a larger sample size.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Short Bowel Syndrome / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Body Weight / drug effects. Delayed-Action Preparations. Diuresis / drug effects. Electrolytes / analysis. Fats / analysis. Feces / chemistry. Female. Gastrointestinal Transit / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11374688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK-02638; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK54681; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00585
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Electrolytes; 0 / Fats; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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24. Biliotti G, Martini F, Vaggelli L, Messerini L, Colagrande S, Pupi A, Seghi P: Multiple effects of somatostatin analogs verified in three cases of metastasized neuroendocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic system. Tumori; 2006 Mar-Apr;92(2):170-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple effects of somatostatin analogs verified in three cases of metastasized neuroendocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic system.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: In neuroendocrine tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system, radiolabeled analogs of somatostatin (SST) are useful to the surgeon in different phases of treatment: preoperatively, to identify the lesion with somato-statin receptor scintigraphy (SRS), intraoperatively for localization using a hand-held gamma probe, and postoperatively acting directly to eliminate any residual tumor cells.
  • Additional features of these analogs that are of value in treating such GEP tumors include their antiproliferative potential, which is in the process of being verified, and, above all, their anti-secretory action, so effective in symptom control.
  • In this study the authors, based on their own experience, evaluate the effectiveness of SST analogs in treating GEP endocrine tumors.
  • In case 1, an insulinoma, the patient underwent four surgical procedures for ablation of the pancreatic tumor and of hepatic and lymph node metastases in addition to local radiofrequency treatment and radiometabolic therapy.
  • Case 2 was a carcinoid tumor of the small intestine with hepatic metastases, managed by ileal resection, local radiofrequency treatment and receptor-mediated radionuclide therapy.
  • In case 3, a non-functioning pancreatic carcinoma with liver and lymph node metastases, the patient underwent four surgical procedures, hepatic chemoembolization, antiproliferative treatment using octreotide (OCT) and metabolic radionuclide therapy.
  • RESULTS: In all three cases SRS proved highly sensitive in the early detection of even the smallest recurrences.
  • There was uncertainty, however, regarding the effectiveness of therapy with radiolabeled SST analogs.
  • Hepatic metastases from the carcinoid were completely unresponsive, but in the case of the insulinoma, the hepatic metastases showed necrosis following treatment, while lymph node metastases were unaffected.
  • In the case of the non-functioning carcinoma, there was a correlation between treatment and a marked improvement in the patient's clinical condition, although the appearance of the lesions themselves remained unchanged.
  • The merits of radiometabolic therapy, on the other hand, were unclear, a finding reported elsewhere in the literature, and in the only case treated by prolonged OCT treatment, no antiproliferative action was observed.
  • The diagnostic usefulness of SRS was thus confirmed and it appears likely that radiolabeled analogs used intraoperatively for tumor localization will prove equally of value.
  • The effectiveness of receptor-mediated radionuclide therapy is still in the process of being verified.
  • Based on the expectation of analogs with an universal affinity for SST receptors (sst), it is reasonable to look forward to a significant increase in the efficacy of this type of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Digestive System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Female. Gamma Rays. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Insulinoma / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Radionuclide Imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16724698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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25. Modlin IM, Kidd M, Latich I, Zikusoka MN, Shapiro MD: Current status of gastrointestinal carcinoids. Gastroenterology; 2005 May;128(6):1717-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Carcinoids are classified based on organ site and cell of origin and occur most frequently in the GI (67%) where they are most common in small intestine (25%), appendix (12%), and rectum (14%).
  • Local manifestations--mass, bleeding, obstruction, or perforation--reflect invasion or tumor-induced fibrosis and often result in incidental detection at emergency surgery.
  • Biochemical diagnosis is established by elevation of plasma chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, or urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), while topographic localization is by Octreoscan, computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan, or endoscopy/ultrasound.
  • Primary therapy is surgical excision to avert local manifestations and decrease hormone secretion.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have minimal efficacy and substantially decrease quality of life.
  • Local endoscopic excision for gastric (type I and II) and rectal carcinoids may be adequate.
  • Somatostatin analogues provide the most effective symptomatic therapy, although interferon has some utility.
  • Overall 5-year survival for carcinoids of the appendix is 98%, gastric (types I/II) is 81%, rectum is 87%, small intestinal is 60%, colonic carcinoids is 62%, and gastric type III/IV is 33%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy






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