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1. Karavasilis V, Seddon BM, Ashley S, Al-Muderis O, Fisher C, Judson I: Significant clinical benefit of first-line palliative chemotherapy in advanced soft-tissue sarcoma: retrospective analysis and identification of prognostic factors in 488 patients. Cancer; 2008 Apr 1;112(7):1585-91
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  • [Title] Significant clinical benefit of first-line palliative chemotherapy in advanced soft-tissue sarcoma: retrospective analysis and identification of prognostic factors in 488 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The efficacy of palliative chemotherapy was investigated in a large group of patients with advanced soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) treated on routine palliative protocols.
  • METHODS: Patients with STS who had first-line chemotherapy for advanced and/or metastatic disease between 1991 and 2005 were identified from the Royal Marsden Hospital's sarcoma database.
  • Patients with Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, desmoplastic small round cell tumor, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors were excluded from the study.
  • The median age was 49 years and the majority (83%) received chemotherapy for metastatic disease.
  • The most common histologic subtypes were leiomyosarcoma (35%) synovial sarcoma (13%), liposarcoma (10%), and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (10%).
  • In all, 61% received single-agent chemotherapy, usually doxorubicin.
  • An objective response was reported in 33% of patients (53% in those with synovial sarcoma); 22% had stable disease and 45% derived 'clinical benefit' (objective responses + stable disease for >or= 6 months).
  • Patients treated with combination chemotherapy experienced longer OS than those treated with a single agent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Palliative chemotherapy may be beneficial in approximately half of patients with advanced STS.
  • Synovial sarcoma and liposarcoma subtypes have a better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / drug therapy. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18278813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Mensah-Osman EJ, Thomas DG, Tabb MM, Larios JM, Hughes DP, Giordano TJ, Lizyness ML, Rae JM, Blumberg B, Hollenberg PF, Baker LH: Expression levels and activation of a PXR variant are directly related to drug resistance in osteosarcoma cell lines. Cancer; 2007 Mar 1;109(5):957-65
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  • [Title] Expression levels and activation of a PXR variant are directly related to drug resistance in osteosarcoma cell lines.
  • The study investigated the hypothesis that the resistance of osteosarcoma to chemotherapy may be related to the expression of a pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR) variant protein and its role as the major inducer of P450 3A4 in these tumors.
  • Real-time PCR and CYP3A catalytic activity using 7-benzyl-trifluoromethyl coumarin (BFC) as the probe substrate were used to measure the induction of P450 3A4 or MDR1. siRNA transfections were performed for PXR and cytotoxicity determined by a colorimetric based assay or Annexin v-Fitc staining.
  • RESULTS: Differences were observed in the molecular size of the PXR protein expressed in sarcoma cell lines when compared with the wildtype PXR expressed in normal liver, kidney, or small intestine.
  • A polyclonal PXR antibody raised against the N-terminus of the wildtype PXR did not detect PXR expressed in these sarcoma cell lines.
  • In the osteosarcoma cell lines, etoposide and doxorubicin were better inducers of P450 3A4 and MDR1 than rifampin. siRNA against PXR down-regulated P450 3A4 expression only in the osteosarcoma cell line.
  • Cytotoxicity assays showed that the resistance of the osteosarcoma cell lines to etoposide correlated with PXR protein expression levels and activation of P450 3A4 and could be prevented by ketoconazole.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that PXR plays a critical role in the regulation of P450 3A4 expression in osteosarcoma and that its expression and activation in these tumors may influence the effect of chemotherapeutic agents on the induction of target genes implicated in drug resistance.

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  • [ErratumIn] Cancer. 2013 Mar 1;119(5):1115
  • (PMID = 17279585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092739-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA092739; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA092739-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / pregnane X receptor; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.13.67 / CYP3A4 protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A; VJT6J7R4TR / Rifampin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS301306; NLM/ PMC3125968
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3. Cho SH, Rhim SC, Hyun SJ, Bae CW, Khang SK: Intradural involvement of multicentric myxoid liposarcoma. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2010 Sep;48(3):276-80
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  • Liposarcomas are malignant tumors of the soft tissue, with myxoid liposarcoma being the second most common subtype, tending to occur in the limbs, particularly in the thighs.
  • Radiological evaluation revealed multiple masses in her cervical spine, abdominal wall, liver, heart and right thigh, all of which were resected.
  • She was histologically diagnosed with small round cell myxoid sarcoma and underwent adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • However, the patient died of multiple metastases 18 months after the first diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 21082059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-7876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2966733
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cervical spine / Metastasis / Multicentric / Myxoid liposarcoma / lntradural
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4. Liu J, Hajibeigi A, Ren G, Lin M, Siyambalapitiyage W, Liu Z, Simpson E, Parkey RW, Sun X, Oz OK: Retention of the radiotracers 64Cu-ATSM and 64Cu-PTSM in human and murine tumors is influenced by MDR1 protein expression. J Nucl Med; 2009 Aug;50(8):1332-9
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  • Tumor hypoxia is often associated with resistance to chemotherapy.
  • Multidrug resistance type 1 (MDR1) protein is a member of the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) proteins, some of which are involved in the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in tumors.
  • Many studies have focused on the role of these proteins in modulating drug resistance, but their effect on retention of imaging agents is less well studied.
  • To study the role of MDR1 expression on the accumulation of (64)Cu-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) ((64)Cu-ATSM) and (64)Cu-pyruvaldehyde-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) ((64)Cu-PTSM) in human tumors in vitro and in vivo, we used a model system composed of a low MDR1-expressing parent uterine sarcoma cell line and a daughter cell line selected for overexpression of MDR1.
  • Aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice that spontaneously developed liver tumors were used as an additional in vivo model to study the effect of MDR expression on (64)Cu-ATSM and -PTSM retention.
  • METHODS: Biodistribution experiments after injection of (64)Cu-ATSM or -PTSM were performed in wild-type mice, ArKO mice, and ArKO mice bearing liver tumors (n = 3-5/group), and in nude mice bearing human tumor xenografts for in vivo PET/CT.
  • Liver expression of Abcb1a and Abcb1b, the MDR1 proteins in mouse liver, was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. (64)Cu-ATSM and -PTSM accumulation and efflux studies were conducted in tumor cell lines.
  • The uptake experiments were repeated after knockdown of MDR1 protein expression using MDR1-specific small interfering RNAs.
  • RESULTS: In vivo, the hepatic tumors had a lower percentage injected dose per gram of (64)Cu-ATSM or -PTSM and more highly expressed Abcb1b than did wild-type liver or nontumor-bearing ArKO liver.
  • These results may have implications for clinical hypoxia imaging in tumors and the therapeutic efficacy of (64)Cu-ATSM.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Organometallic Compounds / pharmacokinetics. P-Glycoprotein / metabolism. Thiosemicarbazones / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Mice. P-Glycoproteins. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 19617332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCB1 protein, human; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / P-Glycoproteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Thiosemicarbazones; 0 / copper (II) diacetyl-di(N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone); 19976-14-8 / copper pyruvaldehyde bis(N(4)-methylthiosemicarbazone) complex
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5. Ohgaki K, Horiuchi K, Mizutani S, Sato M, Kondo Y: Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney that responded to low-dose chemotherapy with ifosfamide, etoposide, and doxorubicin. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Apr;15(2):210-4
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  • [Title] Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney that responded to low-dose chemotherapy with ifosfamide, etoposide, and doxorubicin.
  • A primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a small round cell tumor that arises from the nerve crest.
  • This tumor usually occurs in the central nervous system or soft tissue, but it can occur in the kidney in rare cases.
  • Herein we report a case with severe multiple liver metastases after surgery for right renal PNET.
  • Some of the cells formed a rosette structure and the tumor cells were positive for CD99, leading to diagnosis of PNET.
  • Severe multiple liver metastases occurred 6 months after surgery, and six courses of chemotherapy with ifosfamide, etoposide and doxorubicin were performed.
  • After this treatment, residual tumor was removed, but the tumor cells were absent histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nephrectomy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Ewing / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20186557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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6. Kasper B, Ho AD, Egerer G: Is there an indication for high-dose chemotherapy in the treatment of bone and soft-tissue sarcoma? Oncology; 2005;68(2-3):115-21
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  • [Title] Is there an indication for high-dose chemotherapy in the treatment of bone and soft-tissue sarcoma?
  • Sarcomas represent a rare and heterogeneous disease, and the prognosis of patients with unresectable or advanced metastatic bone and especially soft-tissue sarcomas remains poor, with a disease-free survival of less than 10% at 5 years.
  • Although combination therapy with different chemotherapeutic substances results in higher response rates, superiority against single-agent chemotherapy in terms of survival has not been demonstrated yet.
  • Regarding anthracyclines, and ifosfamide in particular, a dose-response relationship has been shown, and high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support has also been evaluated by several investigators.
  • However, all studies comprised small patient cohorts and included very heterogeneous histological subtypes of soft-tissue sarcoma.
  • Nevertheless, higher doses of chemotherapy result in higher response rates possibly correlating with longer survival.
  • Finally, well-designed randomized trials should be performed, preferably in younger patients and in the context of an interdisciplinary treatment approach.
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the literature concerning high-dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell support in the treatment of bone and soft-tissue sarcomas.
  • On the basis of our own data, we would like to emphasize the importance of high-dose chemotherapy in the treatment of sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Osteosarcoma / drug therapy. Sarcoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 15886503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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7. Olnes MJ, Nicol T, Duncan M, Bohlman M, Erlich R: Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma: a rare malignancy responsive to ABVD chemotherapy. Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Apr;43(4):817-21
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  • [Title] Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma: a rare malignancy responsive to ABVD chemotherapy.
  • Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma (IDCS) is an aggressive neoplasm of which fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the world literature.
  • Patients with this malignancy have been treated with chemotherapy regimens used against non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • Staging of the tumor with CT scan, PET scan, and bone marrow biopsy demonstrated inguinal and abdominal lymphadenopathies, a large mass encasing the small bowel, and extensive liver infiltration.
  • Morphologic and cytochemical analysis of biopsies from the abdominal mass and inguinal node were consistent with a diagnosis of IDCS, and immunohistochemical stains of the lymph node were positive for CLA, Kp-1, S-100, while negative for CD1a, CD3, CD20, CKER, and HMB45.
  • Treatment of this patient with ABVD chemotherapy resulted in rapid clinical improvement with a marked decrease in tumor burden after two cycles of ABVD, and a complete response after six cycles of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dendritic Cells / pathology. Sarcoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12153170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ABVD protocol
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8. Grdina DJ, Murley JS, Kataoka Y, Baker KL, Kunnavakkam R, Coleman MC, Spitz DR: Amifostine induces antioxidant enzymatic activities in normal tissues and a transplantable tumor that can affect radiation response. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Mar 1;73(3):886-96
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  • [Title] Amifostine induces antioxidant enzymatic activities in normal tissues and a transplantable tumor that can affect radiation response.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether amifostine can induce elevated manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in murine tissues and a transplantable SA-NH tumor, resulting in a delayed tumor cell radioprotective effect.
  • At selected time intervals after the last injection, the heart, liver, lung, pancreas, small intestine, spleen, and SA-NH tumor were removed and analyzed for SOD2, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzymatic activity.
  • RESULTS: SOD2 activity was significantly elevated in selected tissues and a tumor 24 h after amifostine treatment.
  • If limited to normal tissues, this delayed radioprotective effect offers an additional potential for overall radiation protection.
  • However, amifostine-induced elevation of SOD2 activity in tumors could have an unanticipated deleterious effect on tumor responses to fractionated radiation therapy, given that the radioprotector is administered daily just before each 2-Gy fractionated dose.

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  • (PMID = 19215822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099005-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA086862-069012; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA086862; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA086862; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA99005; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA086862-069012; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA099005-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mercaptoethylamines; 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents; 31098-42-7 / WR 1065; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 1.15.1.1 / superoxide dismutase 2; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS96732; NLM/ PMC2668222
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9. Ferrari A, Grosso F, Stacchiotti S, Meazza C, Zaffignani E, Marchianò A, Casanova M: Response to vinorelbine and low-dose cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in two patients with desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Nov;49(6):864-6
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  • [Title] Response to vinorelbine and low-dose cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in two patients with desmoplastic small round cell tumor.
  • We report two cases of abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) that showed a clinical response to the vinorelbine/low-dose cyclophosphamide combination that has been claimed to be effective for rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • This observation may prompt further investigation into the activity of such a regimen in DSRCT patients with recurrent or refractory disease, with a view to a possible future role as maintenance therapy in controlling minimal residual disease in patients who achieve complete remission with intensive induction multimodality therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm, Residual. Remission Induction. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16302215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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10. Kelly MJ, Martin L, Alonso M, Altura RA: Liver transplant for relapsed undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma in a young child. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Dec;44(12):e1-3
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  • [Title] Liver transplant for relapsed undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma in a young child.
  • Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver is a rare hepatic malignancy of childhood with a historically poor prognosis.
  • Recent improvements in outcomes have been reported in small numbers of cases with the use of combination therapy involving aggressive surgical resection and chemotherapy.
  • Here we report a case of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver that recurred along surgical hepatic vein margins in a 9-year-old boy who subsequently underwent orthotopic liver transplantation from a cadaveric donor.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Sarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome


11. Al Zolibani AA, Al Robaee AA: Primary palmoplantar Kaposi's sarcoma: an unusual presentation. Skinmed; 2006 Sep-Oct;5(5):248-9
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  • [Title] Primary palmoplantar Kaposi's sarcoma: an unusual presentation.
  • These lesions started as small faint purple-red macules and gradually increased in number and size.
  • A systemic clinical examination was unremarkable other than an amputation of the distal phalanx of the left index.
  • Result of routine laboratory investigations including complete blood cell count, liver and renal function tests, and chest x-ray were normal.
  • The treatment options, including cryotherapy and intralesional chemotherapy, were discussed with the patient but, unfortunately, he did not return for follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot Diseases / pathology. Hand. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16957440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9740
  • [Journal-full-title] Skinmed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skinmed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Al Balushi Z, Bulduc S, Mulleur C, Lallier M: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor in children: a new therapeutic approach. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 May;44(5):949-52
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  • [Title] Desmoplastic small round cell tumor in children: a new therapeutic approach.
  • PURPOSE: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare, highly aggressive malignancy with distinctive histologic and immunohistochemical features occurring in a young population with a male predominance.
  • The diagnosis of DSRCT was made on the basis of clinical examination, computed tomographic scan, and explorative laparotomy with biopsy, and biochemical markers were negative.
  • RESULTS: Three patients (BMT recipients) responded to treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: The patients DSRCT are sensitive to an aggressive combination of chemotherapy, surgical debulking, and radiation therapy, followed by autologous BMT.
  • It appears that this new multifaceted treatment offers good palliation, which may prolong survival and a possible cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Pelvic Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sarcoma, Small Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / ultrastructure. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / ultrastructure. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Splenic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary. Translocation, Genetic. Transplantation, Autologous. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19433176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / EWS1-WT1 fusion protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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13. Hornick JL, Jaffe ES, Fletcher CD: Extranodal histiocytic sarcoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 14 cases of a rare epithelioid malignancy. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Sep;28(9):1133-44
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  • [Title] Extranodal histiocytic sarcoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 14 cases of a rare epithelioid malignancy.
  • Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in lymph nodes, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Only small numbers of bona fide examples exist in the world literature; cases arising primarily at extranodal sites are not well described and often seem to go unrecognized.
  • Seven tumors arose in soft tissue (6 lower limb; 1 upper limb), 5 in the gastrointestinal tract (1 involving both stomach and colon, 1 ileum, 2 rectum, 1 anus), 1 in the nasal cavity, and 1 in the lung.
  • Three gastrointestinal tract tumors also involved regional lymph nodes, and 1 involved the liver.
  • Six patients were treated with postoperative radiation and 7 with chemotherapy (CHOP or ProMACE-MOPP).
  • Two tumors recurred locally, and 5 patients developed distant spread: 3 to lymph nodes, 1 to lung, and 1 to bone.
  • At the last follow-up, 2 patients have died of disseminated disease, 4 and 5 months following initial diagnosis.
  • Histiocytic sarcoma may arise primarily in soft tissue and shows reproducible histologic features, including abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate.
  • Metastatic carcinoma, metastatic melanoma, and large cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas should be excluded by immunohistochemistry.
  • Histiocytic sarcoma has the potential for an aggressive clinical course, most often with lymph node involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15316312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Steinert DM, Blakely LJ, Patel SR, Burgess MA, Chen LL, Trent JC, Raymond AK, Benjamin RS: Outcomes of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and other intra-abdominal sarcomas (IAS) in the era of imatinib therapy. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):9047

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcomes of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and other intra-abdominal sarcomas (IAS) in the era of imatinib therapy.
  • In the era of kit immunohistochemistry and imatinib mesylate therapy the outcome of IASs is unknown.
  • METHODS: We analyzed 268 consecutive patients who were referred to our institution for evaluation of the diagnosis of GIST from 12/15/00 to 9/1/01.
  • Patients diagnosed with GIST were treated with imatinib mesylate, and patients diagnosed with other IAS were treated with standard sarcoma chemotherapy.
  • A single sarcoma pathologist reviewed all patients' tumor blocks.
  • RESULTS: Of 268 patients, 4 patients were excluded because of diagnoses other than sarcoma.
  • Another 46 patients were excluded because no data were available at the time of this abstract.
  • Of the remaining 218 patients, 159 (72.9%) were GIST and 59 (27.1%) were IAS specifically: 31 leiomyosarcoma, 10 spindle cell tumors, 4 unclassified sarcomas, and 14 other types of sarcoma.
  • The most common primary tumor sites for patients with GIST were stomach (37.1%), small bowel (34%), and colon (6.3%); whereas, patients with other intra-abdominal sarcomas occurred in the retroperitoneum (25.4%), abdominal viscera (18.6%), and pelvis (11.9%).
  • The most common metastatic sites seen in patients with GIST were liver (68.6%) and peritoneum (51.6%); whereas other IASs metastasized to the liver (39%) and peritoneum (30.5%).
  • While median survival from the time of diagnosis has not been reached in patients with GIST, in other IAS median survival is 63.8 months.
  • Time to progression in patients with GIST was 16.4 months after imatinib and 5.1 months in patients with IAS treated with standard sarcoma chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Survival and time to progression are worse for IAS compared to GISTs.
  • New therapies for these tumors are needed.

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  • (PMID = 28014121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ferrucci PF, Martinoni A, Cocorocchio E, Civelli M, Cinieri S, Cardinale D, Peccatori FA, Lamantia G, Agazzi A, Corsini C, Tealdo F, Fiorentini C, Cipolla CM, Martinelli G: Evaluation of acute toxicities associated with autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell reinfusion in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2000 Jan;25(2):173-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of acute toxicities associated with autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell reinfusion in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy.
  • Peripheral blood progenitor cell reinfusion (PBPC) in patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) for poor prognosis malignancies, has been described as causing possible acute gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting), allergic (oedema, bronchospasm, anaphyl- axis), renal (proteinuria, haematuria) and/or cardiovascular (hypotension, arrhythmia, conduction disturbances, transient ischaemic phenomena) toxicities.
  • To establish the clinical relevance of these observations and the possible relationship with different HDC regimens used, we performed a clinical and instrumental evaluation on 33 patients with advanced breast cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, relapsed ovarian cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, extragonadal germinal tumour and small cell lung cancer.
  • No patient had a previous history of cardiovascular disease or significant intercurrent illness such as diabetes or liver, renal or neurologic impairment.
  • To evaluate cardiovascular function, we continuously monitored 12-lead ECGs, with arterial pressure (AP) measurements every 5 min from the beginning of the procedure to 15 min after the reinfusion ended.
  • We did not observe any significant differences between basal and subsequent steps in AP, heart rate, PQ and QTc time, P wave and QRS complex duration or P wave and QRS electrical axes.
  • No patient showed any ST-T tract pathological abnormality, but one patient developed a transient ectopic atrial rhythm, without any haemodynamic disfunction and with spontaneous reversion to sinus rhythm.
  • In one patient a tonic-clonic seizure occurred during a vomiting episode, but no patient developed allergic or renal toxicities.
  • We conclude that PBPC reinfusion, if managed according to the procedure we propose in patients without organic impairment, is a safe procedure not associated either with increased risk of acute arrhythmias or ischaemic or significant systemic acute toxicities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002 Mar;29(6):544 [11960281.001]
  • (PMID = 10673676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
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16. Sharykina NI, Bukhtiarova TA, Kudriavtseva IG, Pavlovskaia GP: [Cytostatic effects of bifolar and chlofiden. Effect on protein synthesis and cell cycle]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999); 2004 Jan-Feb;76(1):123-9

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  • [Title] [Cytostatic effects of bifolar and chlofiden. Effect on protein synthesis and cell cycle].
  • Study of influence of new antitumor preparations bifolar and chlofiden on rat liver protein biosynthesis in vivo and on sarcoma-45 in vitro was carried out using labeled precursor 3H-leucine.
  • It was shown that the preparations inhibited protein synthesis in normal and malignant tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Ethylamines / pharmacology. Mitosis / drug effects. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Phosphoramide Mustards / pharmacology. Protein Biosynthesis / drug effects. Sarcoma, Experimental / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Intestine, Small / drug effects. Intestine, Small / metabolism. Intestine, Small / pathology. Liver / drug effects. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Mice. Neoplasm Transplantation. Rats. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15909427.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ukraïnsʹkyĭ biokhimichnyĭ z︠h︡urnal (1999 )
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chlofiden; 0 / Ethylamines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Phosphoramide Mustards; 1950-04-5 / Preparation F-11
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17. Kravtsov VG, Zaĭrat'iants OV: [Clinical and morphological characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumors]. Arkh Patol; 2007 Sep-Oct;69(5):54-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • GIST are stromal tumors and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and some other organs of spindle-cell or epithelioid-cell structure expressing CD117 (C-kit, KIT), as well as those at different rates and in different combinations, CD34, smooth muscle and/or neurogenic differentiation antigens.
  • This is supported by successful chemotherapy for GIST with a KIT receptor inhibitor.
  • The histogenesis of GIST is associated with GIT somatic stem, the Cajal cell precursors.
  • Many GISTs behave like sarcomas and they are characterized by an infiltrating growth, hematogenic (mainly into the liver) and implantational (along the peritoneum) cancer spread.
  • There are opinions that all such neoplasms are potentially malignany and small-sized GISTs are benign and have the minimum mitotic activity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD34 / genetics. Apoptosis / genetics. Enzyme Activation / genetics. Epithelioid Cells / metabolism. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Mitosis / genetics. Mutation. Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / metabolism. Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / genetics. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Sarcoma / genetics. Sarcoma / metabolism. Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18074824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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18. Eilber FC, Eilber KS, Eilber FR: Retroperitoneal sarcomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2000 Aug;1(3):274-8
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  • Imaging of the abdomen and pelvis by computed tomography (CT) provides both an imaging modality and a method by which to obtain tissue for diagnosis.
  • Because a histologic diagnosis is essential in treatment planning, adequate tissue can usually be obtained by a CT-guided core biopsy.
  • If the diagnosis is sarcoma, additional tests necessary for staging include plain chest radiography and evaluation of the liver by either CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • The treatment options for primary retroperitoneal sarcomas include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, or a combination of these modalities; therefore, a multidisciplinary group best manages treatment planning.
  • Primary radiation therapy for cure is seldom effective for retroperitoneal sarcomas but can provide palliation in select cases.
  • Systemic chemotherapy for chemosensitive lesions, such as poorly differentiated liposarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), synovial cell sarcoma, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), can be useful when used in a neoadjuvant manner.
  • Consequently, surgical resection continues to be the mainstay of treatment for retroperitoneal sarcomas and requires en bloc resection of the primary tumor.
  • Frequently this includes adjacent organs such as colon, small bowel, kidney, adrenal, and pancreas.
  • Postoperative adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy or radiation has not been proven to be of any additional benefit.
  • Overall treatment results are predominantly influenced by tumor stage, grade, size, and margins of surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy / methods. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Radiotherapy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12057171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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19. Cvetkovic RS, Figgitt DP, Plosker GL: ET-743. Drugs; 2002;62(8):1185-92; discussion 1193-4
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  • It has significant cytotoxic activity against soft tissue sarcomas (STS).
  • It also has in vitro activity against melanoma, breast, ovarian, colon, renal, non-small cell lung and prostate carcinomas.
  • The drug has unique mechanism of action which includes in vitro inhibition of transcription-dependent nucleotide excision repair pathways and inhibition of cell cycle progression leading to p53-independent apoptosis.
  • It also selectively inhibits transcriptional activation of multidrug-resistance (MDR1) gene in human sarcoma cells in vivo.
  • Patients receiving ET-743 as second- or third-line treatment had partial tumour response rates of 6 to 8%.
  • Patients receiving ET-743 as first-line chemotherapy had a partial response rate of 18%.
  • A pooled analysis of the three multicentre phase II trials showed the following: median overall survival time of 10.2 months, 1-year survival rate of 40% and 6-month progression-free rate of 27.2%.
  • Transient and reversible elevation of hepatic transaminases, nausea, vomiting and asthenia were common but seldom severe and never treatment-limiting.
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Liver / drug effects. Liver / pathology. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Survival Analysis. Tetrahydroisoquinolines. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced

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  • [ErratumIn] Drugs 2002;62(11):1634
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  • (PMID = 12010079.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Dioxoles; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / Tetrahydroisoquinolines; ID0YZQ2TCP / trabectedin
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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20. Strumberg D: Preclinical and clinical development of the oral multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in cancer treatment. Drugs Today (Barc); 2005 Dec;41(12):773-84
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  • [Title] Preclinical and clinical development of the oral multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in cancer treatment.
  • Tumor survival, growth and metastasis depend on efficient tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis, and targeting both of these processes simultaneously could prove to be therapeutically relevant.
  • The RAS/RAF signaling pathway is an important mediator of tumor cell proliferation, and angiogenesis and is often aberrantly activated in human tumors due to the presence of activated Ras or mutant B-Raf, or elevation of growth factor receptors.
  • Sorafenib, which belongs chemically to a class that can be described as bis-aryl ureas, was selected for further pharmacologic characterization based on potent inhibition of Raf-1 and its favorable kinase selectivity profile.
  • Further characterization showed that sorafenib suppresses both wild-type and V599E mutant B-Raf activity in vitro.
  • Preclinically, sorafenib showed broad-spectrum antitumor activity in colon, breast and non-small-cell lung cancer xenograft models.
  • A total of four phase I studies using oral sorafenib as a single agent have been completed, and the compound showed a favorable safety profile with mild to moderate diarrhea being the most common treatment-related adverse event.
  • Single-agent phase II trials reported so far demonstrated antitumor activity of sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, sarcoma and renal cell cancer (RCC).
  • Food and Drug Administration for this indication is pending.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Pyridines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Sarcoma / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Prous Science
  • (PMID = 16474853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3993
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain : 1998)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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21. Maity P, Chakraborty S, Bhattacharya P: A general survey of glutamine level in different tissues of murine solid tumor bearing mice before and after therapy with purified glutaminase. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2000 Jun;19(2):161-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A general survey of glutamine level in different tissues of murine solid tumor bearing mice before and after therapy with purified glutaminase.
  • Distribution of glutamine level in different tissues of tumor bearing mice such as brain, liver, kidney, spleen, large and small intestine and the tumor itself were studied in three solid tumor models, viz, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Sarcoma-180 and methylcholanthrene induced carcinoma.
  • Tumor bearing mice were subjected to therapy for 7 days with the glutaminase purified from malignant S-180 cell.
  • The results exhibit a significant decrease in tumor burden after enzyme therapy.
  • Host tissue glutamine levels were significantly elevated in tumor bearing untreated mice in comparison to the normal ones, while significant lower values were obtained after enzyme therapy.
  • It therefore appears that elevated levels of glutamine in host tissue are associated with the tumor burden.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor / drug therapy. Glutaminase / therapeutic use. Glutamine / metabolism. Sarcoma 180 / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / metabolism. Intestines / metabolism. Kidney / metabolism. Liver / metabolism. Male. Methylcholanthrene / toxicity. Mice. Spleen / metabolism. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 10965812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ITALY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0RH81L854J / Glutamine; 56-49-5 / Methylcholanthrene; EC 3.5.1.2 / Glutaminase
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22. O'Connell JB, Maggard MA, Ko CY: Cancer-directed surgery for localized disease: decreased use in the elderly. Ann Surg Oncol; 2004 Nov;11(11):962-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies report underuse of radiation and chemotherapy in the elderly, yet few have examined the rates of use (or underuse) of surgery.
  • METHODS: By using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End RESULTS database (1988-1997), patients (> or =40 years) were identified with localized adenocarcinoma of the breast, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, or rectum; non-small-cell lung carcinoma; and sarcoma (n = 200,360).
  • For example, age significantly decreased the odds of receiving CDS beginning at 60 years for lung cancer (odds ratio [OR], .550; P = .03), at 70 years for liver cancer (OR, .109; P = .003), and at 80 years for pancreatic cancer (OR, .120; P < .05).

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2004 Nov;11(11):951-2 [15525821.001]
  • (PMID = 15525824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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