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1. Haji AG, Sharma S, Vijaykumar DK, Mukherjee P, Babu RM, Chitrathara K: Primary mammary small-cell carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2009 Jan;30(1):31-4
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  • [Title] Primary mammary small-cell carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature.
  • Only a few cases of primary small-cell carcinoma of the breast have been documented in the current medical literature.
  • A confident diagnosis can only be made if a nonmammary site is excluded or if an in-situ component can be demonstrated histologically.
  • We describe a case of a 68-year-old lady with left breast lump, which was diagnosed as breast cancer on fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy.
  • Metastatic workup was negative for disease elsewhere, and she received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery (modified radical mastectomy).
  • Present surgical treatment options are similar to those in cases of invasive ductal breast cancer, as appropriate for the size and stage of the lesion.

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  • (PMID = 20668605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2902213
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Small cell carcinoma / mammary / neuroendocrine tumor
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2. Chen J, Emara N, Solomides C, Parekh H, Simpkins H: Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in lung cancer cell lines. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2010 Nov;66(6):1103-11
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  • [Title] Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in lung cancer cell lines.
  • PURPOSE: A series of six lung cancer cell lines of different cell origin (including small cell and mesothelioma) were characterized immunohistochemically and the role of a series of protein candidates previously implicated in drug resistance were investigated.
  • METHODS: These include colony-forming and cell growth assays, immunohistochemistry, siRNA knockouts, real-time PCR and western blots.
  • The relationship appeared to hold true for those cell lines derived from lung epithelial primary tumors but not for the neuroendocrine/small-cell and mesothelioma cell lines. siRNA knockouts to DDH-1 and DDH-2 were prepared with the cell line exhibiting the greatest resistance to cisplatin (A549) resulting in marked decreases in the DDH isoforms as assessed by real-time PCR, western blot and enzymatic activity.
  • CONCLUSION: Thus, sensitivity to cisplatin appeared to be associated with DDH levels in epithelial lung cancer cell lines with the DDH-1 isoform producing the greatest effect.
  • Results in keeping with transfection experiments with ovarian and other cell lines.

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  • (PMID = 20953859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098804-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098804; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098804-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA098804
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Platinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; EC 1.1.- / Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.- / AKR1C2 protein, human; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS184351; NLM/ PMC2957658
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3. Kitakata H, Yasumoto K, Sudo Y, Minato H, Takahashi Y: A case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(4):414-9
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  • [Title] A case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast.
  • We report a rare case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast.
  • A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a mass in her left breast.
  • Fine-needle biopsy revealed small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation resembling small cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • Systemic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no primary site in the lung or any other organ.
  • Histological examination revealed that the tumor was composed of small round to oval cells with a large nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio.
  • The tumor cells were positive for neuroendocrine differentiation markers such as synaptophysin, CD56, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), but negative for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), leukocyte common antigen (LCA), estrogen receptor (ER), and progesterone receptor (PR).
  • The patient was given adjuvant chemotherapy for axillary lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla / pathology. Biomarkers / metabolism. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17986808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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4. Kinoshita S, Hirano A, Komine K, Kobayashi S, Kyoda S, Takeyama H, Uchida K, Morikawa T, Nagase J, Sakamoto G: Primary small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: report of a case. Surg Today; 2008;38(8):734-8
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  • [Title] Primary small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: report of a case.
  • Primary small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare and aggressive neoplasm without an established treatment protocol because so few cases have been described.
  • We report a case of primary small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in a 31-year-old woman.
  • The patient came to our hospital 10 days after consulting another clinic, where a diagnosis of locally advanced breast cancer suitable for neoadjuvant chemotherapy had been made.
  • Core needle biopsy under ultrasonographic guidance revealed invasive carcinoma.
  • The doubling time of the tumor progression was calculated as 12 days based on ultrasonographic measurement.
  • Definitive histopathological examination revealed primary small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Local and mediastinal recurrence with multiple liver metastases developed only 5 weeks after surgery.
  • Cisplatin plus irinotecan combination chemotherapy was started; however, the patient died of aggressive recurrent tumor progression 6 months after surgery, in spite of the transient tumor regression achieved by chemotherapy.
  • This case reinforces the importance of an early correct diagnosis and the standardization of a treatment regimen for this very rare tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ultrasonography, Mammary

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  • (PMID = 18668318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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5. Gilbert JA, Frederick LM, Ames MM: The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res; 2000 Nov;6(11):4365-72
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  • [Title] The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells.
  • The carcinoid tumor is an uncommon neuroendocrine neoplasm the hallmark of which is excessive serotonin production.
  • Here, we report Western and Northern analyses detecting large quantities of AAAD polypeptide and mRNA in human carcinoid primary as well as metastatic tumors compared with normal surrounding tissues.
  • To assess the feasibility of targeting these high AAAD levels for chemotherapy, AAAD inhibitors carbidopa (alpha-methyl-dopahydrazine), alpha-monofluoromethyldopa (MFMD), and 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD-1015) were incubated (72 h) with NCI-H727 human lung carcinoid cells.
  • On exposure to other human tumor lines, carbidopa was lethal only to NCI-H146 and NCI-H209 small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) lines (IC50 = 12 +/- 1 microM and 22 +/- 5 microM, respectively).
  • Carbidopa (100 microM) decreased growth of (but did not kill) SK-N-SH neuroblastoma and A204 rhabdomyosarcoma cells and did not affect proliferation of DU 145 prostate, MCF7 breast, or NCI-H460 large cell lung carcinoma lines.
  • For lung tumor lines (carcinoid, two SCLC, and one large cell lung carcinoma), AAAD activity was correlated with the potency of carbidopa-induced cytotoxicity.
  • However, carcinoid cell death was not solely attributable to complete inhibition of either AAAD activity or the serotonin synthetic pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors. Carbidopa / pharmacology. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Humans. Ileum / enzymology. Liver / enzymology. Microscopy, Electron. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11106255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 58450
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; MNX7R8C5VO / Carbidopa
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6. Yuan R, Kay A, Berg WJ, Lebwohl D: Targeting tumorigenesis: development and use of mTOR inhibitors in cancer therapy. J Hematol Oncol; 2009 Oct 27;2:45
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  • [Title] Targeting tumorigenesis: development and use of mTOR inhibitors in cancer therapy.
  • Consequently, inhibitors of mTOR, including temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus (formerly deforolimus) have been developed and assessed for their safety and efficacy in patients with cancer.
  • Temsirolimus is an intravenously administered agent approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • Everolimus is an oral agent that has recently obtained US FDA and EMEA approval for the treatment of advanced RCC after failure of treatment with sunitinib or sorafenib.
  • The use of mTOR inhibitors, either alone or in combination with other anticancer agents, has the potential to provide anticancer activity in numerous tumor types.
  • Cancer types in which these agents are under evaluation include neuroendocrine tumors, breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, sarcoma, endometrial cancer, and non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Drug Discovery. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19860903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-8722
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hematology & oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 103
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2775749
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7. Ochsenreither S, Marnitz-Schultze S, Schneider A, Koehler C, Daum S, Loddenkemper C, Budach V, Thiel E, Keilholz U, Schmittel A: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC): 10 years' multi-disciplinary experience at Charité. Anticancer Res; 2009 Aug;29(8):3411-5
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  • [Title] Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC): 10 years' multi-disciplinary experience at Charité.
  • BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a rare disease of highly proliferating neuroendocrine tumor cells.
  • Therapy and outcome of EPSCC patients treated at our institution were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Stage of disease, therapy, treatment response, time to progression and overall survival were assessed.
  • Primary tumor sites were genitourinary tract, head and neck, gastrointestinal tract, breast, and unknown primary.
  • Four out of seven LD patients receiving chemotherapy plus local treatment remained free of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Prolonged survival can be achieved in patients with LD by multimodal therapy.
  • Overall survival in patients with ED is comparable to patients with ED small cell lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Cells / pathology. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Germany. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19661365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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8. Shaco-Levy R, Dyomin V, Kachko L, Sion-Vardy N, Geffen DB, Koretz M: Small cell carcinoma of the breast: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(2):142-4
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the breast: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor with fewer than 30 cases reported in the literature.
  • The reported age of incidence of mammary small cell carcinoma is similar to that of breast carcinoma of the usual types.
  • CASE: The clinicopathologic findings of a primary mammary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma occurring in a 28-year-old female are presented with a review of pertinent literature.
  • She was treated with lumpectomy and sentinel node biopsy as well as chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest patient with primary small cell carcinoma of the breast reported in the English literature, indicating that these tumors occur in a wide age range.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17479680.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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9. Yamasaki T, Shimazaki H, Aida S, Tamai S, Tamaki K, Hiraide H, Mochizuki H, Matsubara O: Primary small cell (oat cell) carcinoma of the breast: report of a case and review of the literature. Pathol Int; 2000 Nov;50(11):914-8
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  • [Title] Primary small cell (oat cell) carcinoma of the breast: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • A case of primary small cell (oat cell) carcinoma of the breast in a 41-year-old woman is presented.
  • The patient was alive and well without disease 16 months after modified radical mastectomy and subsequent chemotherapy.
  • The tumor cells revealed morphologic similarity to oat cell carcinoma of the lung and immunohistochemical expression of neuroendocrine markers.
  • Review of nine previously reported cases and this case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast has revealed that this type of tumor shows prominent vascular invasion, frequent lymph node metastasis, infrequent expression of estrogen receptor, and also very poor prognosis.
  • Immunohistochemical study for the c-kit proto-oncogene product, which has been reported to be a specific marker for pulmonary small cell carcinoma, demonstrated positive reactivity in approximately 80% of the tumor cells of this case, which is the first report according to our knowledge.
  • The expression of c-kit might be some aid to the diagnosis of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cytoplasmic Granules / ultrastructure. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neurosecretory Systems / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 11107070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] AUSTRALIA
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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10. Samli B, Celik S, Evrensel T, Orhan B, Tasdelen I: Primary neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the breast. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2000 Feb;124(2):296-8
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  • [Title] Primary neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the breast.
  • A 60-year-old Turkish woman presented with a left breast mass, which was considered for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • By the end of the treatment cycles, the tumor had decreased in size, and the patient underwent modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection.
  • Pathologic examination of the tumor revealed a small cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine features confirmed by immunohistochemical stains.
  • Multiple axillary lymph nodes were involved by metastatic small cell carcinoma carrying the same morphologic characteristics noted in the primary breast tumor.
  • We hereby present this case as a primary neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the breast.
  • This entity occurs very rarely in the breast, and fewer than a dozen cases have been reported in the literature.
  • Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of the breast is reportedly a very aggressive tumor for which no consensus for treatment has yet been drawn.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 10656743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9985
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; FEC protocol
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11. Rosti G, Ferrante P, Ledermann J, Leyvraz S, Ladenstein R, Koscileniak E, Crown J, Dazzi C, Cariello A, Marangolo M: High-dose chemotherapy for solid tumors: results of the EBMT. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2002 Feb;41(2):129-40
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  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy for solid tumors: results of the EBMT.
  • The European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), formerly known as European Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation, was established in 1974 in the Netherlands to share experiences, to promote research and clinical studies and to set up registries in the field of hematopoietic tissue transplantation.
  • At the present time more 400 European and non-European centers are members of the EBMT group.
  • In 1984 a new Working Party was created (Solid Tumors) with the aim to investigate the role of high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell support in the fields of adult and pediatric solid tumors.
  • By January 2000 more than 14000 patients were registered, and at the present time this Registry is the world largest database on this subject.
  • Several phase III randomized clinical trials have recently started on behalf of the Group in different diseases (breast carcinoma, small cell lung cancer, ovarian carcinoma, germ cell tumors and Ewing's family sarcoma).
  • Hundreds of randomized patients will finally produce clearer information on this still experimental therapeutic modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11856589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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12. Shin SJ, DeLellis RA, Ying L, Rosen PP: Small cell carcinoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of nine patients. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 Sep;24(9):1231-8
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the breast: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of nine patients.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon neoplasm that has been reported rarely in the literature.
  • Nine examples of mammary small cell carcinoma were retrieved from the authors' consultation files and reviewed.
  • Two patients had a previous history of cutaneous malignant melanoma and one had prior lobular carcinoma in situ and atypical duct hyperplasia in the same breast as the small cell carcinoma.
  • Eight patients presented with a mass in the breast; one patient had an axillary tumor.
  • Histologically, the nine tumors had characteristics of small cell carcinoma with high mitotic activity and necrosis.
  • In one instance, this consisted of small cell carcinoma merging with invasive lobular carcinoma.
  • In three cases, small cell carcinoma was present together with invasive, poorly differentiated duct carcinoma; invasive carcinoma with "lobular and gland-forming elements"; and focal squamous differentiation, respectively.
  • An in situ component was seen in seven tumors; five were of the small cell type in ducts and two were of the ductal type with high nuclear grade.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed consistent staining for cytokeratin markers but variable staining with neuroendocrine markers.
  • Eight underwent an axillary dissection that revealed metastatic carcinoma in four patients.
  • Seven patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and four patients received radiation.
  • Two patients also received tamoxifen treatment.
  • Metastases developed in two patients (22%) with a follow-up period of 11 and 32 months.
  • All patients were alive at last follow up 3 to 35 months after treatment.
  • When compared with published reports of mammary small cell carcinoma, our results show that the prognosis in these patients may not be as poor as previously suggested.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2001 Jun;25(6):831-2 [11395567.001]
  • (PMID = 10976697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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13. Quirós Rivero J, Muñoz García JL, Cabrera Rodríguez JJ, González Ferreira JA, Samper Ots P, Ríos Kavadoy Y: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma in breast and prostate. Clin Transl Oncol; 2009 Oct;11(10):698-700
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  • [Title] Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma in breast and prostate.
  • Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma in breast and prostate are uncommon neoplasms.
  • Histologically, they bear striking similarities to small cell carcinomas of the lung and usually show evidence of additional histologies.
  • Treatment, which may include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, is based on the clinical stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Semin Oncol. 2007 Feb;34(1):64-6 [17270668.001]
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  • (PMID = 19828414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Rineer J, Choi K, Sanmugarajah J: Small cell carcinoma of the breast. J Natl Med Assoc; 2009 Oct;101(10):1061-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the breast.
  • We report the case of an 81-year-old woman with limited-stage small cell carcinoma of the left breast who presented with multiple painful nodules in the left breast.
  • The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy and consolidation radiation therapy without undergoing surgery.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of small cell carcinoma of the breast managed definitively with chemotherapy and local-regional irradiation for which the details of treatment are explicitly described.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 19860307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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15. Mirza IA, Shahab N: Small cell carcinoma of the breast. Semin Oncol; 2007 Feb;34(1):64-6
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the breast.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the breast (SCCB) is an uncommon neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of primary breast cancers.
  • Histologically, these tumors have striking similarities to small call carcinoma of the lung, usually with evidence of associated ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) with areas of ductal, lobular, or papillary differentiation.
  • Immunoreactivity for neuroendocrine markers is documented in two thirds of cases, while 33% to 50% are positive for estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR).
  • Treatment, which may include surgery, radiotherapy, and combination chemotherapy, is based on clinical stage and the presence of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Small Cell

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  • (PMID = 17270668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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16. Hojo T, Kinoshita T, Shien T, Terada K, Hirose S, Isobe Y, Ikeuchi S, Kubochi K, Matsumoto S, Sadako AT: Primary small cell carcinoma of the breast. Breast Cancer; 2009;16(1):68-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary small cell carcinoma of the breast.
  • Primary small cell carcinoma of the breast is a very rare disease, and only a few case reports have described small cell carcinoma of the breast that responds to chemotherapy.
  • Here, we report a case of primary small cell carcinoma of the breast that was treated with surgery and chemotherapy for postoperative local recurrence in the chest wall and metastasis to the liver.
  • The metastatic lesions showed a partial response (PR) to carboplatin and irinotecan, but did not respond to subsequent Taxotere and doxifluridine (5'-DFUR) treatment.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the breast is as aggressive as its pulmonary counterpart.
  • Therefore, the best therapy for primary small cell carcinoma of the breast may be surgery followed by adjuvant therapy similar to that recommended for small cell lung carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Thoracic Wall / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18504641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7673326042 / irinotecan; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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17. Sridhar P, Matey P, Aluwihare N: Primary carcinoma of breast with small-cell differentiation. Breast; 2004 Apr;13(2):149-51
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoma of breast with small-cell differentiation.
  • We present a case of primary carcinoma of breast with neuro-endocrine small-cell features in a 58-year-old female.
  • She underwent breast conserving surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15019697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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18. Chow LQ, Eckhardt SG: Sunitinib: from rational design to clinical efficacy. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Mar 1;25(7):884-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sunitinib (SU011248) is an oral small molecular tyrosine kinase inhibitor that exhibits potent antiangiogenic and antitumor activity.
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as SU6668 and SU5416 (semaxanib) demonstrated poor pharmacologic properties and limited efficacy; therefore, sunitinib was rationally designed and chosen for its high bioavailability and its nanomolar-range potency against the antiangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)--vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR).
  • Sunitinib inhibits other tyrosine kinases including, KIT, FLT3, colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), and RET, which are involved in a number of malignancies including small-cell lung cancer, GI stromal tumors (GISTs), breast cancer, acute myelogenous leukemia, multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B, and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Sunitinib demonstrated robust antitumor activity in preclinical studies resulting not only in tumor growth inhibition, but tumor regression in models of colon cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer, melanoma, renal carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma, which were associated with inhibition of VEGFR and PDGFR phosphorylation.
  • Clinical activity was demonstrated in neuroendocrine, colon, and breast cancers in phase II studies, whereas definitive efficacy has been demonstrated in advanced renal cell carcinoma and in imatinib-refractory GISTs, leading to US Food and Drug Administration approval of sunitinib for treatment of these two diseases.
  • Studies investigating sunitinib alone in various tumor types and in combination with chemotherapy are ongoing.
  • The clinical benchmarking of this small-molecule inhibitor of members of the split-kinase domain family of RTKs will lead to additional insights regarding the biology, potential biomarkers, and clinical utility of agents that target multiple signaling pathways in tumor, stromal, and endothelial compartments.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Indoles / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Design. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jul 1;25(19):2858-9; author reply 2859-61 [17602094.001]
  • (PMID = 17327610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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19. Tropea F, Baldari S, Restifo G, Fiorillo MT, Surace P, Herberg A: Evaluation of chromogranin A expression in patients with non-neuroendocrine tumours. Clin Drug Investig; 2006;26(12):715-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of chromogranin A expression in patients with non-neuroendocrine tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Chromogranin A (CgA) is well established as a serum marker for neuroendocrine tumours and has also been associated with some non-neuroendocrine tumours, suggesting a possible role for somatostatin analogues such as octreotide in the treatment of these tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure plasma CgA levels in patients with various non-neuroendocrine tumours in order to identify those patients who might benefit from octreotide therapy.
  • METHODS: Plasma CgA levels were tested in 151 patients with metastatic non-neuroendocrine tumours.
  • Patients with highly elevated levels were assessed by OctreoScan scintigraphy to determine their somatostatin receptor status, and those with positive results were offered treatment with the somatostatin analogue octreotide, 20 mg every 4 weeks, and followed up every 3 months.
  • RESULTS: CgA levels were elevated (>18 U/L) in 34/72 patients with breast cancer, 11/21 with lung cancer, 10/28 with gastrointestinal cancer, 7/12 with gynaecological cancer, 6/9 with genitourinary cancer, 5/5 with haematological cancer, and 3/4 with head and neck cancer.
  • Eight patients with CgA levels >150 U/L underwent scintigraphy, five of whom (two colorectal, two prostate, one non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC]) showed positive results and received treatment with octreotide.
  • CONCLUSION: CgA levels were found to be elevated in approximately 50% of patients with non-neuroendocrine tumours.
  • Further studies are required to determine the value of CgA as a marker for non-neuroendocrine tumours and the role of somatostatin analogues as a treatment for these tumour types.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast Neoplasms / blood. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Prospective Studies. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17274678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1173-2563
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical drug investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Drug Investig
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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20. Adams VR, Leggas M: Sunitinib malate for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Clin Ther; 2007 Jul;29(7):1338-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sunitinib malate for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Sunitinib was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 26, 2006, for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) in patients who have failed to respond to imatinib or were unable to tolerate it.
  • OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of sunitinib; potential drug interactions; and the results of clinical trials evaluating its efficacy and tolerability.
  • Search terms included, but were not limited to, sunitinib, SUl1248, renal cell carcinoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, pharmacology, pharmacokinetic, adverse events, and clinical trial.
  • Steady-state concentrations of both active entities are reached after 10 to 14 days of therapy.
  • In a Phase III trial comparing sunitinib with interferon-alfa (IFN-00 as first-line therapy for mRCC, sunitinib was associated with a median progression-free survival of 11 months, compared with 5 months with IFN-cz (P < 0.001).
  • A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating sunitinib as second-line therapy for GIST found a median time to progression of 28.9 weeks in the sunitinib arm, compared with 7 weeks in the placebo arm (hazard ratio = 0.28; P < 0.001).
  • In Phase II trials, sunitinib also had anti-tumor activity in patients with breast cancer, neuroendocrine tumors, and non-small cell lung cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sunitinib is a multiple tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor approved for the treatment of mRCC and GIST.
  • Evidence for long-term clinical benefit in renal cell cancer and other tumors awaits the results of ongoing trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism. Female. Humans. Lactation. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17825686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.13.67 / CYP3A4 protein, human; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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21. Polyzos A: Activity of SU11248, a multitargeted inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and various other solid tumors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2008 Feb;108(3-5):261-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activity of SU11248, a multitargeted inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and various other solid tumors.
  • SU11248 sunitinib malate sutent is a selective inhibitor of certain protein tyrosine kinases including VEGF-R types 1-3 PDGF-R-a and -b, c-kit, and RET.
  • Its antitumor activity may result from both inhibition of angiogenesis and direct antiproliferative effects on certain tumor types.
  • In several phase I/II/III studies, sutent was found to be effective as second and first line treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
  • In fact, with a 37% response rate and an additional 48% stable disease sutent became the drug of choice for first line treatment in RCC.
  • Sutent was also effective as second line treatment in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) with 8% response rate, 70% stable disease and a 20-month median survival.
  • Prolonged stable disease was also documented in neuroendocrine tumors.
  • In addition, a phase II study in multitreated women with breast cancer, sutent demonstrated a moderate activity with 16% clinical benefit.
  • Finally, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients' progressing on chemotherapy sutent was able to achieve a 10% response rate, a level of activity similar to those documented by other agents approved for lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Indoles / therapeutic use. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pyrroles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 17945482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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22. Moody TW, Chan D, Fahrenkrug J, Jensen RT: Neuropeptides as autocrine growth factors in cancer cells. Curr Pharm Des; 2003;9(6):495-509
Guide to Pharmacology. gene/protein/disease-specific - Bombesin receptors - overview and references .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • High levels of bombesin (BB) and neurotensin (NT)-like immunoreactivity are present in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a neuroendocrine tumor.
  • BB-like peptides bind to BB(2) receptors, which are present on the cell surface.
  • Due to the high density of neuropeptide receptors present on the cell surface, SST analogs have been radiolabeled to image neuroendocrine tumors.
  • VIP receptors are present in many epithelial cancers including breast, colon, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pancreatic and prostate cancers.
  • VIP receptor antagonists, such as VIPhybrid, inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo.
  • VIPhybrid and SR48692, a NT receptor antagonist, potentiate the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • These results suggest that neuropeptide receptor antagonists may be useful in the treatment of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neuropeptides / therapeutic use. Receptors, Neuropeptide / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Autocrine Communication. Growth Substances / therapeutic use. Humans. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12570813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1381-6128
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical design
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Pharm. Des.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide
  • [Number-of-references] 189
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23. Antony GK, Bertino E, Franklin M, Otterson GA, Dudek AZ: Small cell lung cancer in never smokers: report of two cases. J Thorac Oncol; 2010 May;5(5):747-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small cell lung cancer in never smokers: report of two cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20421768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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