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1. Kim KO, Lee HY, Chun SH, Shin SJ, Kim MK, Lee KH, Hyun MS, Bae SH, Ryoo HM: Clinical overview of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma. J Korean Med Sci; 2006 Oct;21(5):833-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical overview of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma.
  • The objective of this study was to review the natural history of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC) with specific emphasis on clinical features, response to treatment and survival.
  • The primary sites of tumor were the esophagus and thymus in 6 patients (17.6%) each, pancreas and stomach in 5 patients each (14.7%); other sites included were the cervix, abdominal lymph nodes, abdominal wall, bladder, colon, maxillary sinus, nasal cavity, ovary, parotid gland and liver.
  • As a result of its frequent recurrence, multimodal therapy has a better outcome even in cases of limited disease.
  • Combination chemotherapy plays a central role for treatment of extensive disease in EPSCC.
  • Further multicenter studies are now needed to determine more details regarding disease sub-class and optimal treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / mortality. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / mortality. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / mortality. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy. Survival Rate. Thymus Neoplasms / mortality. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17043415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2721992
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2. Davies AM, Ho C, Metzger AS, Beckett LA, Christensen S, Tanaka M, Lara PN, Lau DH, Gandara DR: Phase I study of two different schedules of bortezomib and pemetrexed in advanced solid tumors with emphasis on non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol; 2007 Dec;2(12):1112-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase I study of two different schedules of bortezomib and pemetrexed in advanced solid tumors with emphasis on non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Tumor types included lung (n = 16), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 2), prostate (n = 2), sarcoma (n = 2), breast (n = 1), thymus (n = 1), head and neck (n = 1), and gastrointestinal(n = 2).
  • Of the 16 patients with non-small cell lung cancer, 2 (12.5%) had partial response and 9 had stable disease, for a disease control rate of 68.8%.
  • Based on the observed efficacy, a phase II study in non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Boronic Acids / administration & dosage. Boronic Acids / adverse effects. Bortezomib. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glutamates / administration & dosage. Glutamates / adverse effects. Guanine / administration & dosage. Guanine / adverse effects. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasms / pathology. Pemetrexed. Pyrazines / administration & dosage. Pyrazines / adverse effects. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18090584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Glutamates; 0 / Pyrazines; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib
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3. Dham A, Truskinovsky AM, Dudek AZ: Thymic carcinoid responds to neoadjuvant therapy with sunitinib and octreotide: a case report. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Jan;3(1):94-7
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  • [Title] Thymic carcinoid responds to neoadjuvant therapy with sunitinib and octreotide: a case report.
  • Carcinoids are malignant neuroendocrine tumors consisting of a spectrum of neoplasms from low-grade typical carcinoid to high-grade small cell carcinoma.
  • We report a case of atypical thymic carcinoid that responded to neoadjuvant therapy with octreotide and sunitinib, an oral multikinase inhibitor.
  • After 3 weeks of treatment, tumor size significantly decreased to allow for a safe surgical resection with clear margins.
  • We believe that further study of sunitinib and octreotide with the neoadjuvant intent of preparing tumors for resection is warranted as a strategy to improve curative management of neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Male. Necrosis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Radiography, Thoracic. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18166847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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4. Igawa S, Murakami H, Yamamoto N: Thymic small cell carcinoma shows marked response to amrubicin. J Thorac Oncol; 2009 Jun;4(6):778
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thymic small cell carcinoma shows marked response to amrubicin.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Pleural Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pleural Neoplasms / secondary. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 19461410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 93N13LB4Z2 / amrubicin
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5. Togashi K, Hosaka Y, Saito M, Sato K, Usuda H, Emura I: [Thymoma transformed to thymic carcinoma with brain and bone metastases 6 years after recurrence]. Kyobu Geka; 2007 Mar;60(3):187-91
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  • [Title] [Thymoma transformed to thymic carcinoma with brain and bone metastases 6 years after recurrence].
  • We report a man who developed brain and bone metastases 6 years after resection of recurrent thymoma.
  • Seven months after the second surgery, he developed recurrence of pleural dissemination.
  • The patient refused any further aggressive treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • Thereafter, the patient developed left hemiparesis due to brain metastases, followed by bone metastases.
  • Immunochemical studies of the metastatic tumors demonstrated that these lesions seemed to be poorly differentiated thymic carcinoma (small cell carcinoma) on WHO classification.
  • We concluded that the thymoma transformed to thymic carcinoma with brain and bone metastases during 6 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17352134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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6. Kaira K, Watanabe R, Takise A, Endou K, Kamiyoshihara M, Mori M: [Thymic cancer effectively treated by combination chemotherapy of carboplatin and etoposide with concurrent radiotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Nov;32(12):1989-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Thymic cancer effectively treated by combination chemotherapy of carboplatin and etoposide with concurrent radiotherapy].
  • Percutaneous needle biopsy showed that the mass was an advanced thymic cancer (squamous cell carcinoma).
  • The patient was treated by combination chemotherapy of carboplatin and etoposide with concurrent radiotherapy (44 Gy).
  • After 3 courses of chemotherapy, the mass showed an approximately 81% reduction in tumor size and disappearance of the pericardial effusion.
  • Finally, the thymic cancer and small pulmonary metastatic lesions were all resected.
  • This concurrent chemoradiotherapy can be effective against inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the thymus.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Thymectomy

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  • (PMID = 16282742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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7. Mirza IA, Shahab N: Small cell cancer of the pleura, kidney, and thymus. Semin Oncol; 2007 Feb;34(1):67-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small cell cancer of the pleura, kidney, and thymus.
  • Small cell carcinoma is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that usually arises in the lung but also can originate in extrapulmonary sites, such as the pleura, thymus, and kidney.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the kidney and renal pelvis is rare.
  • Although nephrectomy has been used for treatment it does not appear to confer any significant benefit.
  • Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has improved the median survival from 8 months to 20 months.
  • Only isolated cases of small cell carcinoma of the pleura and thymus have been reported.
  • Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy have been used in the management of these tumors with variable results.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell. Kidney Neoplasms. Pleural Neoplasms. Thymus Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17270669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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8. Koizumi T, Takabayashi Y, Yamagishi S, Tsushima K, Takamizawa A, Tsukadaira A, Yamamoto H, Yamazaki Y, Yamaguchi S, Fujimoto K, Kubo K, Hirose Y, Hirayama J, Saegusa H: Chemotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma: clinical response to cisplatin, doxorubicin, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (ADOC chemotherapy). Am J Clin Oncol; 2002 Jun;25(3):266-8
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma: clinical response to cisplatin, doxorubicin, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide (ADOC chemotherapy).
  • The role of systemic chemotherapy and optimal regimen in thymic carcinoma remains uncertain.
  • We evaluated the clinical responsiveness of ADOC (cisplatin, doxorubicin, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy for advanced thymic carcinoma that have distant metastatic or unresectable lesions.
  • From 1996 to 2000, we treated eight cases of thymic carcinoma.
  • Histologic subtypes were as follows: four cases were squamous cell carcinoma, two cases were undifferentiated, and two were small-cell carcinoma.
  • Six patients obtained a partial response after ADOC chemotherapy and the overall clinical response rate was 75%.
  • Cisplatin plus VP-16 chemotherapy (PVP) was performed in three cases before the ADOC regimen, but PVP chemotherapy did not show beneficial effects in two patients.
  • Median survival time was 19 months.
  • ADOC chemotherapy appears to have significant activity against thymic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12040285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; ADOC protocol
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9. Mukai S, Yao H, Yamamura M, Tanaka H, Nakagawa T, Ryomoto M, Yoshioka Y, Miyamoto T: [Thymic carcinoma (mixed small cell undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma); report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2003 Jun;56(6):509-12
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  • [Title] [Thymic carcinoma (mixed small cell undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma); report of a case].
  • A chest X-ray and computed tomography on admission showed evidence of a mass in the left anterior mediastinum.
  • The patient was treated with combination chemotherapy [cisplatin (CDDP), etoposide (VP-16)] and radiation therapy (2 gray x 25 days), preoperatively.
  • Microscopically and immunohistochemically, the tumor was diagnosed mixed small cell and undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma documented by Snover et al.
  • We reported a rare case of thymic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Thymectomy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 12795160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; VP-P protocol
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10. Kim JH, Lee SH, Park J, Kim HY, Lee SI, Nam EM, Park JO, Kim K, Jung CW, Im YH, Kang WK, Lee MH, Park K: Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma: a single-institution experience. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2004 May;34(5):250-4
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  • [Title] Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma: a single-institution experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) has been recognized as a clinicopathological entity distinct from small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung.
  • This study aimed to review the clinical features, therapy and natural course of patients with EPSCC in Oriental single-institution series.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-four patients with EPSCC were identified and primary sites were various: uterine cervix in seven (29%), urinary bladder in five, colon or rectum in three, kidney in two and stomach, esophagus, pancreas, common bile duct, larynx, parotid gland, thymus in one each.
  • Patients with ED received mostly platinum-based chemotherapy, for which the response rate was 57%, but showed an aggressive natural history, with median overall survival (OS) of 9.2 months.
  • Patients with LD were treated with a variety of therapeutic modalities.
  • Regardless of the primary site or disease stage, EPSCC of sites other than cervix was usually a fatal disease with a discouraging outcome for various treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


11. Nagata Y, Ohno K, Utsumi T, Sasaki Y, Suzuki Y: Large cell neuroendocrine thymic carcinoma coexisting within large WHO type AB thymoma. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2006 Jun;54(6):256-9
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine thymic carcinoma coexisting within large WHO type AB thymoma.
  • Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare type of thymic epithelial tumor.
  • It is recognized as a different entity from other thymic tumors on account of it having a more aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis.
  • We report an extremely rare case of a very small, "large cell neuroendocrine thymic carcinoma" coexisting within a large thymoma that could not be detected by usual biopsy.
  • Surgery as the initial treatment has the significance of definitive diagnosis and curative treatment for LCNEC of the thymus.
  • To make a successful differential diagnosis, application of detailed immunohistochemical stains may be of aid, since thymic epithelial tumor is not always morphologically homogenous.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thymectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16813109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyōbu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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12. Yano M, Sasaki H, Yokoyama T, Yukiue H, Kawano O, Okuda K, Fujii Y: Thymic carcinoma with dissemination: a retrospective analysis of ten patients. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2008 Jul;56(7):335-9
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  • [Title] Thymic carcinoma with dissemination: a retrospective analysis of ten patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Thymic carcinoma is a rare mediastinal neoplasm with frequent pleural or pericardial dissemination.
  • METHODS: Ten thymic carcinoma patients with dissemination have been treated since 1987.
  • RESULTS: Pretreatment tumor biopsy was performed and demonstrated squamous cell carcinomas in nine and small cell carcinoma in one.
  • These patients were basically regarded as inoperable and treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • Four other patients were diagnosed as cT3 preoperatively but were found to have dissemination at the time of thoracotomy.
  • They underwent total resection of the thymic tumor and all visible pleural dissemination but without pericardial dissemination.
  • Radiotherapy was performed pre-or postoperatively with or without chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Among thymic carcinoma patients with pleural or pericardial dissemination, there seem to be some patients who show good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Pericardium / pathology. Pleura / pathology. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thoracotomy. Thymectomy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18607680.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-6705
  • [Journal-full-title] General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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13. Mochizuki T, Numata T, Kimura A, Onodera R, Kojima A, Kotajima F, Satou T, Tai H, Satou S, Akiba N, Yosimura K, Ito H, Oka T: [Thymic carcinoma. A clinicopathological study of seven patients]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2004 Jul;42(7):634-9
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  • [Title] [Thymic carcinoma. A clinicopathological study of seven patients].
  • The treatment of seven cases of thymic carcinoma is reported.
  • Five were identified histopathologically as squamous cell carcinoma, one as undifferentiated carcinoma, and one as small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Surgery was performed during the course of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in 5 cases, and in 2, the organs infiltrated by neoplastic cells were partially excised together.
  • Radiotherapy was performed as adjuvant therapy in one case of partial excision.
  • In another case, after six years of chemotherapy and radiotherapy that yielded a partial response (PR), cancerous infiltration of the chest wall occurred, and partial removal of the chest wall became necessary.
  • After the remaining case showed a PR to chemotherapy, complete macroscopic excision of the tumor was undertaken, but mediastinal lymph gland metastasis was present, and so radiotherapy was also initiated.
  • One of these was treated with chemotherapy alone, the other, only with radiotherapy.
  • One of the two who survived for over four years had squamous cell carcinoma, the other, undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • The case of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was assessed as having a PR, and so complete extraction of the thymic neoplasm was carried out, and followed with radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 15357265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Kong FM, Zhao L, Hayman JA: The role of radiation therapy in thoracic tumors. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2006 Apr;20(2):363-400
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  • [Title] The role of radiation therapy in thoracic tumors.
  • Radiation plays an important role in the treatment of thoracic tumors.
  • During the last 10 years there have been several major advances in thoracic RT including the incorporation of concurrent chemotherapy and the application of con-formal radiation-delivery techniques (eg, stereotactic RT, three-dimensional conformal RT, and intensity-modulated RT) that allow radiation dose escalation.
  • Radiation as a local measure remains the definitive treatment of medically inoperable or surgically unresectable disease in NSCLC and part of a multimodality regimen for locally advanced NSCLC, limited stage SCLC, esophageal cancer, thymoma, and mesothelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods. Thoracic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Humans. Incidence. Mesothelioma / radiotherapy. Thymoma / radiotherapy. Thymus Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16730299.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 219
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15. Miyazawa M, Yamanda T, Kaneko K, Yoshida K, Machida E, Hanaoka T, Takasuna K, Kondo R, Numanami H, Makiuchi A, Haniuda M, Amano J: [Clinical study of operated nine thymic carcinomas]. Kyobu Geka; 2001 Feb;54(2):89-93; discussion 93-6
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  • [Title] [Clinical study of operated nine thymic carcinomas].
  • Nine cases of thymic carcinoma (5 males and 4 females) were operated in our hospital between 1990 and 1998.
  • These cases included 4 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 small cell carcinomas, 2 undifferentiated carcinomas and one adenocarcinoma.
  • Preoperative chemotherapy were performed in 3 cases.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy were administered in 4 cases and re-operation were performed in 2 cases.
  • Within 2 years after operation, 3 cases (two complete resection cases and one exploratory thoracotomy case) were died of the carcinoma.
  • However, two cases of squamous cell carcinoma have been alive more than 5 years after surgery followed by chemoradiation.
  • The remaining 4 patients are alive either with or without the carcinoma after 7 to 28 months after operation.
  • Thymic carcinoma is not so common mediastinal tumor but is expected to increase in the future.
  • The treatment of thymic carcinoma remains a controversial matter and the survival is poor compared with invasive thymoma, but multimodal-therapy would contribute to improvement of the results in treatment for thymic carcinoma especially in squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Small Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11211776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Tanaka A, Osawa H, Yamauchi A, Asahina H, Kikuchi H, Ogura S, Yamamoto K, Ikeda H, Koshiba R: [Clinical study of eight thymic carcinomas]. Kyobu Geka; 2002 Oct;55(11):971-5
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  • [Title] [Clinical study of eight thymic carcinomas].
  • Eight patients with thymic carcinoma were surgically treated at Sapporo City General Hospital from September 1990 to January 2002.
  • The histological subtypes of thymic carcinoma were squamous cell in 5, undifferentiated in 2, and small cell in one.
  • Of 3 cases with intra pericardial malignant effusion, one patient survived 7 years without recurrence of the tumor after the exploratory operation followed by mediastinal irradiation without chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12391695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; ADOC protocol
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17. Kozak KR, Hong TS, Sluss PM, Lewandrowski EL, Aleryani SL, Macdonald SM, Choi NC, Yock TI: Cardiac blood biomarkers in patients receiving thoracic (chemo)radiation. Lung Cancer; 2008 Dec;62(3):351-5
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  • Thirty patients receiving radiation therapy to the thorax with or without concurrent chemotherapy were evaluated.
  • Serum was collected at baseline, 2 weeks into treatment and at the completion of radiation therapy.
  • In the one patient with detectable serum TnT, levels did not change significantly with treatment.
  • Elevations in these markers during treatment merit further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / blood. Creatine Kinase, MB Form / blood. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Natriuretic Peptide, Brain / blood. Peptide Fragments / blood. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy. Troponin T / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / blood. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / blood. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / drug therapy. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18462828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Troponin T; 0 / pro-brain natriuretic peptide (1-76); 114471-18-0 / Natriuretic Peptide, Brain; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase, MB Form
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18. Meister M, Schirmacher P, Dienemann H, Mechtersheimer G, Schnabel PA, Kern MA, Herpel E, Xu EC, Muley T, Thomas M, Rieker RJ: Mutational status of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in thymomas and thymic carcinomas. Cancer Lett; 2007 Apr 18;248(2):186-91
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  • [Title] Mutational status of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in thymomas and thymic carcinomas.
  • Epithelial tumours of the thymus (thymoma, thymic carcinoma) are rare tumours of the anterior mediastinum.
  • Current treatment options of advanced stage thymomas and thymic carcinomas include a multimodal therapy with radio- and chemotherapy as well as surgery.
  • In recent years, new therapeutic targets such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), COX-2 and KIT have emerged as new potential therapeutic targets.
  • So far, EGFR mutational status of different subtypes of epithelial tumours of the thymus has been analyzed only inappropriately.
  • We have investigated 20 different subtypes of thymomas (type A, AB, and B3) and thymic carcinomas for mutations in exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 of the EGFR gene and performed immunohistochemistry for EGFR.
  • Although sequence alterations were found in four samples, none of these alterations led to amino acid changes in the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR comparable to those in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Thus EGFR-expression in thymic tumours does not rely on mutations in critical functional (activation) domains of the EGFR-gene.
  • Experimental and therapeutic approaches have to consider this difference.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, erbB-1. Thymoma / genetics. Thymus Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16919868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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19. van Loon J, Janssen MH, Ollers M, Aerts HJ, Dubois L, Hochstenbag M, Dingemans AM, Lalisang R, Brans B, Windhorst B, van Dongen GA, Kolb H, Zhang J, De Ruysscher D, Lambin P: PET imaging of hypoxia using [18F]HX4: a phase I trial. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2010 Aug;37(9):1663-8

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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Noninvasive PET imaging of tumour hypoxia could help in the selection of those patients who could benefit from chemotherapy or radiation with specific antihypoxic treatments such as bioreductive drugs or hypoxic radiosensitizers.
  • METHODS: Patients with a histologically proven solid cancer without curative treatment options were eligible for this study.
  • RESULTS: Six patients with stage IV carcinoma were included, four with non-small-cell lung carcinoma, one with thymus carcinoma, and one with colon carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The findings of this study showed that [(18)F]HX4 PET imaging for the detection of hypoxia is not associated with any toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Nitroimidazoles / adverse effects. Positron-Emission Tomography. Triazoles / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Hypoxia. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasms / pathology. Time Factors

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  • [Cites] Eur J Cancer. 2007 Jun;43(9):1392-8 [17512190.001]
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  • (PMID = 20369236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3-fluoro-2-(4-((2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)propan-1-ol; 0 / Nitroimidazoles; 0 / Triazoles
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20. Mourtada-Maarabouni M, Pickard MR, Hedge VL, Farzaneh F, Williams GT: GAS5, a non-protein-coding RNA, controls apoptosis and is downregulated in breast cancer. Oncogene; 2009 Jan 15;28(2):195-208
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  • Effective control of both cell survival and cell proliferation is critical to the prevention of oncogenesis and to successful cancer therapy.
  • Using functional expression cloning, we have identified GAS5 (growth arrest-specific transcript 5) as critical to the control of mammalian apoptosis and cell population growth.
  • We have found that, in some cell lines, GAS5 expression induces growth arrest and apoptosis independently of other stimuli.
  • GAS5 transcript levels were significantly reduced in breast cancer samples relative to adjacent unaffected normal breast epithelial tissues.
  • The GAS5 gene has no significant protein-coding potential but expression encodes small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) in its introns.
  • Taken together with the recent demonstration of tumor suppressor characteristics in the related snoRNA U50, our observations suggest that such snoRNAs form a novel family of genes controlling oncogenesis and sensitivity to therapy in cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. RNA, Neoplasm / physiology. RNA, Small Nucleolar / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / radiation effects. Cell Adhesion. Cell Line / drug effects. Cell Line / metabolism. Cell Line / radiation effects. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor / radiation effects. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Down-Regulation. Expressed Sequence Tags. Female. Humans. Mice. Radiation Tolerance / genetics. Thymoma / metabolism. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / metabolism. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Stem Cell Assay. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 18836484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/E005896/1; United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / ; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Small Nucleolar; 0 / growth arrest specific transcript 5; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
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