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1. Ferlito A, Silver CE, Bradford CR, Rinaldo A: Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx: an overview. Head Neck; 2009 Dec;31(12):1634-46
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx: an overview.
  • Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx are rare but are the most common nonsquamous tumors of this organ.
  • In the past, there has been considerable confusion about the nature and classification of these neoplasms, but the current consensus is that there are 4 different types of laryngeal neuroendocrine tumors composed of paraganglioma, typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid tumor, and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Carcinoids and small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are epithelial neoplasms, whereas paragangliomas are of neural origin.
  • Diagnosis is based primarily on light microscopy and confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy.
  • Precise diagnosis is essential because the natural history, treatment, and prognosis vary widely for the different neoplastic categories.
  • They are treated by partial or total laryngectomy with elective or therapeutic neck dissection.
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are highly aggressive and should be considered disseminated at initial diagnosis.
  • The treatment is by irradiation and chemotherapy as surgery has proven to be of a little benefit.
  • Atypical carcinoid tumors have a 5-year survival rate of approximately 50%, which decreases with time.
  • The prognosis of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx is dismal, with 5-year survival rates of 5%.
  • The biological behavior of laryngeal paraganglioma is generally benign and the prognosis is excellent.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Laryngectomy / methods. Male. Neck Dissection / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Paraganglioma / mortality. Paraganglioma / pathology. Paraganglioma / therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19536850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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2. Capelli M, Bertino G, Morbini P, Villa C, Zorzi S, Benazzo M: Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the upper airways: a small case series with histopathological considerations. Tumori; 2007 Sep-Oct;93(5):499-503
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the upper airways: a small case series with histopathological considerations.
  • In the head and neck region they are most common in the larynx, where they represent 0.5-1% of epithelial cancers.
  • Diagnosis requires the recognition of the typical neuroendocrine architecture and morphology and the immunohistochemical confirmation of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • In the 1991 WHO classification laryngeal neuroendocrine carcinomas have been divided into carcinoids, atypical carcinoids, small cell carcinomas and paragangliomas.
  • We present the clinical and histopathological features of 2 moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas of the larynx, one large cell poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the oropharynx, and one small cell carcinoma of the minor salivary glands of the tongue.
  • The patient with small cell carcinoma was free from disease 26 months after radical surgery, while the other patients showed liver, lung and bone metastases 18, 26 and 24 months after the diagnosis despite radical surgery or concomitant intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18038886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Bauer JA, Trask DK, Kumar B, Los G, Castro J, Lee JS, Chen J, Wang S, Bradford CR, Carey TE: Reversal of cisplatin resistance with a BH3 mimetic, (-)-gossypol, in head and neck cancer cells: role of wild-type p53 and Bcl-xL. Mol Cancer Ther; 2005 Jul;4(7):1096-104
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  • [Title] Reversal of cisplatin resistance with a BH3 mimetic, (-)-gossypol, in head and neck cancer cells: role of wild-type p53 and Bcl-xL.
  • Organ preservation protocols in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are limited by tumors that fail to respond.
  • We observed that larynx preservation and response to chemotherapy is significantly associated with p53 overexpression, and that most HNSCC cell lines with mutant p53 are more sensitive to cisplatin than those with wild-type p53.
  • To investigate cisplatin resistance, we studied two HNSCC cell lines, UM-SCC-5 and UM-SCC-10B, and two resistant sublines developed by cultivation in gradually increasing concentrations of cisplatin.
  • The cisplatin-selected cell lines, UM-SCC-5PT and UM-SCC-10BPT, are 8 and 1.5 times more resistant to cisplatin than the respective parental cell lines, respectively.
  • The parental lines overexpress p53 and contain p53 mutations but the cisplatin-resistant cell lines do not, indicating that cells containing mutant p53 were eliminated during selection.
  • Thus, cisplatin selected for wild-type p53 and high Bcl-x(L) expression in these cells.
  • We tested a small-molecule BH3 mimetic, (-)-gossypol, which binds to the BH3 domain of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), for activity against the parental and cisplatin-resistant cell lines.
  • Thus, cisplatin-resistant cells seem to depend on wild-type p53 and Bcl-x(L) for survival and BH3 mimetic agents, such as (-)-gossypol, may be useful adjuncts to overcome cisplatin resistance in HNSCC.

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  • (PMID = 16020667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA97248; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097248; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA83087; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / P30 DC005188; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM07767; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE13346; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / T32 DC00011; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / P30 DC05188
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bax protein (53-86); 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; KAV15B369O / Gossypol; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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4. Thakur JS, Minhas RS, Mohindroo NK, Sharma DR, Mohindroo S, Thakur A: Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the infratemporal fossa: a rare case report. Head Neck Oncol; 2009;1:20
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  • The patient was diagnosed as having a small lymphocytic NHL.
  • The tumor was excised and again the patient underwent chemotherapy.
  • The patient remained symptomatic and developed a second primary squamous cell carcinoma in the right retromolar trigone.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / pathology. Temporal Bone
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Otolaryngology. 1978 Sep-Oct;86(5):ORL-704-9 [114932.001]
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  • (PMID = 19545392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1758-3284
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2711953
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100629
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5. Hakuba N, Hyodo M, Yokoi T, Sato H: Irinotecan (CPT-11) combined with cisplatin for small cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2006 Mar;33(1):67-70
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  • [Title] Irinotecan (CPT-11) combined with cisplatin for small cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity.
  • We describe a case of small cell carcinoma arising in the nasal cavity using combined chemotherapy with irinotecan (CPT-11)/cisplatin followed by surgical salvage which successfully avoided a radical operation.
  • Ours is the first report of the use of combined irinotecan (CPT-11)/cisplatin chemotherapy in small cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16168589.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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6. Shikani AH, Domb AJ: Polymer chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope; 2000 Jun;110(6):907-17
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  • [Title] Polymer chemotherapy for head and neck cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study a new method of delivery of chemotherapy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the head and neck, to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of four anticancer agents (cisplatin, fluorouracil [5-FU], methotrexate [MTX], and paclitaxel) loaded into the biodegradable polymer, polyanhydride polymer poly(FAD:SA), and to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of the drug-polymer combination against human SCCs, both in vitro and in vivo.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Poly(FAD:SA) was loaded with different chemotherapeutic drugs and its in vitro and in vivo drug release and tissue penetration characteristics were studied.
  • The biocompatibility and toxicity of the polymer-drug combination were determined.
  • The effectiveness of the drug-polymer was evaluated against three different human SCCs (larynx O11, pharynx FADU, and floor of mouth UM- SCC1) cultured in vitro and in nude mice carrying human SCC xenografts.
  • METHODS: The in vitro drug release pharmacokinetics of the drugs were performed using atomic absorption spectrometry for cisplatin and high-pressure liquid chromatography for the 5-FU, MTX, and paclitaxel studies.
  • RESULTS: All four chemotherapy drugs demonstrated a continuous release that followed first-order kinetics from the polymer.
  • When a small amount of polymer (1-2 g) was added to the cell culture and left for 7 days, 96.6% of the UM-SCC1 cells, 86.9% of the FADU cells, and 94.6% of the O11 cells were killed.
  • Different amounts of cisplatin were incorporated into the polymers (5% and 7% drug/polymer at a weight/weight [wt/wt] load).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The study results indicate that polymer chemotherapy is effective against a variety of SCCs of the head and neck, both in vitro and in vivo, and may become a useful therapeutic option for head and neck cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Polymers
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biodegradation, Environmental. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / pharmacokinetics. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Carriers. Humans. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / pharmacokinetics. Mice. Mice, Nude

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  • (PMID = 10852503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Polymers; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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7. Yuan ZY, Guan ZZ, Zhou ZM, Xia Y, Huang WZ, Yang XL: [Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma in 52 patients]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Sep;25(9):1131-3
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  • [Title] [Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma in 52 patients].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The majority of small cell carcinoma occurs in the lung.
  • Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (ESCC) has been recognized as a clinicopathologic entity distinct from small cell carcinoma of the lung.
  • The study was to investigate the clinical characteristics, therapy, and prognosis of ESCC.
  • Of the 53 cases of ESCC, 33 (62.3%) were detected in the esophagus, 5 in the cervix, 4 in the larynx, 3 in the pharynx, 2 in the upper sinus, 2 in the rectum and sublingual gland, 1 in the thyroid gland, 1 in the pleura, and 1 in the liver.
  • Patients with ED mostly received platinum-based chemotherapy, for which the response rate was 69.2%.
  • Patients with LD were treated with a variety of therapeutic modalities: 7 were treated with surgery plus radiochemotherapy, 3 with surgery plus radiotherapy, 18 with surgery plus chemotherapy, 6 with radiotherapy plus chemotherapy, 4 with radiotherapy alone, and 2 with chemotherapy alone.
  • The median survival time (MST) was 20 months for all patients, and the 1-and 3-year survival rates were 41.3% and 31.4%.
  • Multimodality therapy has become increasingly used for the majority of patients with LD-ESCC.
  • Combination chemotherapy has been a major treatment for patients with ED-ESCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell. Esophageal Neoplasms. Radiotherapy, High-Energy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cobalt Radioisotopes. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Laryngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Particle Accelerators. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16965656.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes
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8. Sone M, Uchida I, Tominaga M, Sugiura S, Nagasaka T, Nakashima T: Small cell carcinoma of the larynx treated with irinotecan and cisplatin. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2006 Jun;33(2):223-5
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the larynx treated with irinotecan and cisplatin.
  • We report a case of advanced small cell carcinoma in the larynx, which was treated with Irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) chemotherapy.
  • The patient was free of disease for 4 years after treatment.
  • Several chemotherapeutic agents for small cell carcinoma have been proposed; however, median survival time has been miserable, especially in advanced cases.
  • For the cure of the aggressive lethal behavior of this disease, chemotherapy with CPT-11 might be effective to improve median survival of patients with small cell carcinomas of the larynx.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Laryngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16376504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Herchenhorn D, Dias FL, Ferreira CG, Araújo CM, Lima RA, Small IA, Kligerman J: Impact of previous tracheotomy as a prognostic factor in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx submitted to concomitant chemotherapy and radiation. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2008;70(6):381-8
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  • [Title] Impact of previous tracheotomy as a prognostic factor in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx submitted to concomitant chemotherapy and radiation.
  • HYPOTHESIS: The combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is a standard nonsurgical treatment for locally advanced laryngeal cancer.
  • Nevertheless, there are no validated markers to predict the outcome of nonsurgical therapies.
  • Prognostic factors such as stage, age, performance status, number of chemotherapy cycles, radiotherapy dose, stage VIb disease, and previous tracheotomy were analyzed using the Cox's proportional hazard model.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with stage III/IV laryngeal carcinoma were prospectively selected.
  • Treatment consisted of cisplatin 100 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks for 3 cycles, radiotherapy to a total dose of 70.2 Gy and salvage surgery.
  • RESULTS: Forty-nine patients were analyzed; tracheotomy was performed in 12 patients (24.5%) before therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Previous tracheotomy is a negative prognostic factor for patients submitted to chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and should be considered as a negative clinical prognostic factor in the selection of patients for more aggressive treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Airway Obstruction / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Laryngeal Neoplasms / mortality. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Tracheotomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Probability. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18984974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0275
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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10. Kovac L, Gjurić M, Branica S, Dawidowsky K, Seiwerth S: Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in the petrous apex. J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Jan;120(1):74-6
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  • [Title] Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in the petrous apex.
  • With the exception of moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the larynx, neuroendocrine carcinomas are very rare head and neck malignancies.
  • We report a case of a small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in the petrous apex of the temporal bone.
  • We confirmed the location and extent of the primary tumour by positron-emission tomography scan.
  • The final histopathological diagnosis was of small cell carcinoma, and this was confirmed by immunohistochemistry.
  • We treated this patient with surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • After the treatment was completed there was subtotal remission of the tumour, with no distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Skull Neoplasms / diagnosis. Temporal Bone
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16359139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Sano M, Kitahara N, Toma M: Hypopharyngeal small cell carcinoma: a case report. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2005 Sep;32(3):319-22
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  • [Title] Hypopharyngeal small cell carcinoma: a case report.
  • We report a 67-year-old woman with small cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx, a very rare entity with few reports.
  • Our treatment consisted of carboplatin (CBDCA) and etoposide (VP-16) in the same way as small cell carcinoma of the lung is treated.
  • Our case suggests that chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide is effective for small cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Photomicrography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15927428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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12. Hatoum GF, Patton B, Takita C, Abdel-Wahab M, LaFave K, Weed D, Reis IM: Small cell carcinoma of the head and neck: the university of Miami experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Jun 1;74(2):477-81
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the head and neck: the university of Miami experience.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the University of Miami experience in the treatment of small cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 12 patients with nonmetastatic small cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated between April 1987 and September 2007.
  • Radiotherapy was the primary local treatment modality for 8 patients.
  • The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the proportion of small cell head-and-neck cancer patients surviving to 1 and 2 years was 63% and 26%, respectively.
  • The median survival time was 30 months in the tonsil/parotid group compared with 15.2 months in the other group (patients with small cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavity, nasopharynx, and larynx).
  • A total of 4 patients developed recurrence, 3 of whom had a distant failure component.
  • The treatment modality was not associated with a difference in disease-specific survival.
  • The 1-year disease-specific survival rate was 73% in the radiotherapy or radiotherapy/chemotherapy group compared with 67% in the other group.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy is a reasonable alternative to surgery for patients with small cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • Patients with tonsillar or parotid small cell carcinomas did better than other sites.
  • More aggressive treatment might be warranted for patients with sinonasal carcinoma.
  • The outcome, however, continues to be suboptimal, and more effective therapy is needed because most patients had a component of local and distant failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / radiotherapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Florida. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Laryngeal Neoplasms / mortality. Laryngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / mortality. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Nose Neoplasms / drug therapy. Nose Neoplasms / mortality. Nose Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Parotid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Parotid Neoplasms / mortality. Parotid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Tonsillar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / mortality. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Universities

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  • (PMID = 19004574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Pignon JP, Bourhis J, Domenge C, Designé L: Chemotherapy added to locoregional treatment for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma: three meta-analyses of updated individual data. MACH-NC Collaborative Group. Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy on Head and Neck Cancer. Lancet; 2000 Mar 18;355(9208):949-55
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy added to locoregional treatment for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma: three meta-analyses of updated individual data. MACH-NC Collaborative Group. Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy on Head and Neck Cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite more than 70 randomised trials, the effect of chemotherapy on non-metastatic head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma remains uncertain.
  • We did three meta-analyses of the impact of survival on chemotherapy added to locoregional treatment.
  • We included patients with carcinoma of the oropharynx, oral cavity, larynx, or hypopharynx.
  • FINDINGS: The main meta-analysis of 63 trials (10,741 patients) of locoregional treatment with or without chemotherapy yielded a pooled hazard ratio of death of 0.90 (95% CI 0.85-0.94, p<0.0001), corresponding to an absolute survival benefit of 4% at 2 and 5 years in favour of chemotherapy.
  • There was no significant benefit associated with adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy given concomitantly to radiotherapy gave significant benefits, but heterogeneity of the results prohibits firm conclusions.
  • Meta-analysis of six trials (861 patients) comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy with concomitant or alternating radiochemotherapy yielded a hazard ratio of 0.91 (0.79-1.06) in favour of concomitant or alternating radiochemotherapy.
  • Three larynx-preservation trials (602 patients) compared radical surgery plus radiotherapy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy in responders or radical surgery and radiotherapy in non-responders.
  • The hazard ratio of death in the chemotherapy arm as compared with the control arm was 1.19 (0.97-1.46).
  • INTERPRETATION: Because the main meta-analysis showed only a small significant survival benefit in favour of chemotherapy, the routine use of chemotherapy is debatable.
  • For larynx preservation, the non-significant negative effect of chemotherapy in the organ-preservation strategy indicates that this procedure must remain investigational.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / mortality. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / mortality. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Laryngeal Neoplasms / mortality. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / mortality. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Proportional Hazards Models. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome


14. Sengoz M, Abacioglu U, Salepci T, Eren F, Yumuk F, Turhal S: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma: multimodality treatment results. Tumori; 2003 May-Jun;89(3):274-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma: multimodality treatment results.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is a distinct entity that can occur in many sites, and it is pathologically similar to small-cell lung cancer.
  • We report the results of a retrospective study of a multimodality treatment of 16 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Primary tumor site was prostate in 2, gallbladder in 2, uterine cervix in 2, liver in 2, endometrium in 1, epididymis in 1, colon in 1, larynx in 1, breast in 1, and unknown primary tumor in 3 patients.
  • Histologically, 14 were pure extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma and 2 were mixed with squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • All patients, except the one with a breast primary, were treated with chemotherapy (mostly platinum-based regimens).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment results for extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma are comparable to those of small-cell carcinomas of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12908782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Lecanu JB, Monceaux G, Périé S, Angelard B, St Guily JL: Conservative surgery in T3-T4 pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: an alternative to radiation therapy and to total laryngectomy for good responders to induction chemotherapy. Laryngoscope; 2000 Mar;110(3 Pt 1):412-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conservative surgery in T3-T4 pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma: an alternative to radiation therapy and to total laryngectomy for good responders to induction chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possibility of preservation of the larynx after neoadjuvant chemotherapy by performing a conservative surgery instead of total laryngectomy initially planned, in patients with previously untreated laryngeal and piriform sinus squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • METHODS: A total of 115 patients treated at Tenon Hospital with induction chemotherapy from 1985 to 1995, all with initial indication of radical surgery, were available for the study.
  • The clinical tumor response was evaluated after three cycles of chemotherapy.
  • According to this response, to preserve laryngeal functions, some patients had a modification of the treatment initially planned: radiation therapy essentially for complete responders, and conservative surgery for some partial responders.
  • RESULTS: Of 69 patients with laryngeal cancer, 14 were treated by partial laryngectomy and 19 by radiation therapy; of 46 patients with piriform sinus cancer, 8 were treated by partial surgery and 12 by radiation therapy; the other patients were treated as was initially planned (total laryngectomy with partial pharyngectomy).
  • Overall survival rates, estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, were not statistically different between the three treatment groups.
  • The laryngeal functions were preserved in 54% of the patients who were alive at 3 years.
  • CONCLUSION: This report is a retrospective study, but these results suggest the possibility of using conservative surgery, instead of initially planned total laryngectomy, for good responders to induction chemotherapy with a small residual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Laryngectomy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 10718429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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16. George A, Uppal H, Phelan C, Hughes R: Extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma of the neopharynx: case report and review of neopharyngeal tumours after total laryngectomy. J Laryngol Otol; 2010 Feb;124(2):216-9
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  • [Title] Extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma of the neopharynx: case report and review of neopharyngeal tumours after total laryngectomy.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the first documented case in the world literature of primary extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma occurring in the neopharynx following laryngectomy.
  • METHOD: We present a case report and a review of the world literature regarding the management of tumours of the neopharynx and extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The paucity of cases of extra-pulmonary small cell carcinoma has resulted in many departments managing this neoplasm similarly to pulmonary small cell cancer.
  • However, the site of the primary can have an impact on disease survival and treatment options.
  • CONCLUSION: Neopharyngeal small cell carcinoma has not previously been reported.
  • It should be managed in the same way as other extra-pulmonary small cell carcinomas occurring within the pharynx or larynx, with combined multi-drug chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Laryngectomy. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19640316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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17. Kim JH, Lee SH, Park J, Kim HY, Lee SI, Nam EM, Park JO, Kim K, Jung CW, Im YH, Kang WK, Lee MH, Park K: Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma: a single-institution experience. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2004 May;34(5):250-4
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  • [Title] Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma: a single-institution experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) has been recognized as a clinicopathological entity distinct from small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung.
  • This study aimed to review the clinical features, therapy and natural course of patients with EPSCC in Oriental single-institution series.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-four patients with EPSCC were identified and primary sites were various: uterine cervix in seven (29%), urinary bladder in five, colon or rectum in three, kidney in two and stomach, esophagus, pancreas, common bile duct, larynx, parotid gland, thymus in one each.
  • Patients with ED received mostly platinum-based chemotherapy, for which the response rate was 57%, but showed an aggressive natural history, with median overall survival (OS) of 9.2 months.
  • Patients with LD were treated with a variety of therapeutic modalities.
  • Regardless of the primary site or disease stage, EPSCC of sites other than cervix was usually a fatal disease with a discouraging outcome for various treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


18. Renner G: Small cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a review. Semin Oncol; 2007 Feb;34(1):3-14
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a review.
  • Small cell carcinoma (SCC) has become recognized as a distinct, though relatively infrequent, clinical pathology that occurs in multiple sites throughout the head and neck.
  • Among the head and neck sites, the frequency of SCC is greatest in the larynx, with salivary glands and the sinonasal region comprising the other principle areas of origin.
  • Controversy exist as to whether SCC can develop as a distinct entity in the thyroid, with most tumors that previously would have been considered as SCC now found to be lymphomas or variant forms of other types of thyroid malignancy.
  • Treatment may include surgical resection, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or some combination of these modalities.
  • For this reason, recommendations for treatment of SCC arising in the head and neck are based primarily on retrospective data from various small case series and on comparative data for treatment of SCC of bronchogenic and other extrapulmonary origin.
  • Although patients with truly limited local disease may enjoy some prolonged survival, most patients with this tumor do poorly despite all current attempts at treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cranial Irradiation. Female. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Nose Neoplasms / epidemiology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / epidemiology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / epidemiology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17270660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 144
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19. Weng CT, Chu PY, Liu MT, Chen MK: Small cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a single institution's experience and review of the literature. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Dec;37(6):788-93
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the head and neck: a single institution's experience and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: It is well known that small cell carcinoma (SmCC) arising at extrapulmonary sites leads to a poor prognosis for patients.
  • For this reason, recommendations for the treatment of SmCC arising in the head and neck are based primarily on retrospective data from various small case series.
  • In two patients, the SmCCs are in the larynx; in another two patients, in the sinonasal region; and in one patient, in the tonsil.
  • RESULTS: Four patients accepted concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT).
  • Their outcomes are as follows: two patients died, one has adrenal and bone metastasis but is still alive, and one shows no evidence of disease after treatment.
  • Treatment most often involves a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and hope for improved outcomes hinges principally on the development of improved chemotherapies and other systemic treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19128705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1916-0216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of otolaryngology - head & neck surgery = Le Journal d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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20. Yoshizaki T, Endo K, Ren Q, Wakisaka N, Murono S, Kondo S, Sato H, Furukawa M: Oncogenic role of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2007 Mar;34(1):73-8
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  • [Title] Oncogenic role of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and EBV gene expression is considered to be closely associated with the pathogenesis of NPC.
  • METHODS: Two types of EBERs expression vectors (EBERs-high-expression vector and EBERs-low-expression vector) were constructed and transfected into EBV-negative cells, MDCK or EBV-negative clones of NPC-KT cells.
  • Apoptosis was induced by serum deprivation (0.1% concentration of fetal bovine serum) and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) (500 U/ml) treatment.
  • Cell viability was evaluated with a trypan blue exclusion test.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / virology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / virology. RNA, Viral / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Interferon-alpha / pharmacology. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. NF-kappa B. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription Factor AP-1. Transfection. Tumor Virus Infections / drug therapy. Tumor Virus Infections / genetics. Tumor Virus Infections / virology

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  • (PMID = 17129696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 1; 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 2; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-1
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21. Hatta C, Terada T, Okita J, Kakibuchi M, Kubota A, Sakagami M: Clinicopathological study of undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland. Auris Nasus Larynx; 2003 Aug;30(3):273-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological study of undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: Undifferentiated carcinoma of the salivary gland is a rare malignant tumor, and is difficult to distinguish from other poorly differentiated types of carcinoma or sarcoma.
  • The present study investigated clinical and pathological characteristics for undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients with previously untreated carcinoma of the major salivary glands were treated at our institution between 1986 and 1999.
  • Of these, five patients (two males, three females) were diagnosed with undifferentiated carcinoma of the parotid gland and treated.
  • Tumors in these two patients included a small portion of poorly differentiated epidermoid or mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • The remaining three patients did not show any differentiated portions, and histological findings demonstrated heterogeneous patterns of lymphoepithelial carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and unclassified (a pattern of malignant hemangiopericytoma), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Investigation using multislice sections is needed to diagnose undifferentiated carcinoma of the salivary glands.
  • Regarding prognosis, carcinoma that is too poorly differentiated but including slightly-differentiated portions should be considered undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • All patients died of distant metastasis despite radical surgery, suggesting that chemotherapy is needed to improve patient outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12927291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-8146
  • [Journal-full-title] Auris, nasus, larynx
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Auris Nasus Larynx
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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22. Yamamoto R, Hosokawa S, Yamatodani T, Morita S, Okamura J, Mineta H: [Eight cases of neuroendcrine carcinoma of the head and neck]. Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho; 2008 Jul;111(7):517-22
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  • [Title] [Eight cases of neuroendcrine carcinoma of the head and neck].
  • Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck is rare, and diagnosis may be difficult.
  • We reported eight cases of stage IV small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the head and neck, all in men with a mean onset age of 62 years (range: 45 to 80 years).
  • Three cases arose from the maxillary sinus, two from the ethmoid sinus, one from the parotid gland, one from the tonsil, and one from the larynx.
  • Histological analysis by hematoxylin-eosin staining tentatively revealed malignant lymphoma and undifferentiated carcinoma in two cases each, while immunohistological and/or electron microscopy analysis confirmed histological diagnosis.
  • All were treated by chemotherapy (VP-16, CDDP) and seven cases with radiotherapy based on the schedule of small cell carcinoma of the lung and two cases with lesional resection.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were effective locally.
  • Long-term survival thus requires the effective treatment of distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18697475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6622
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai kaiho
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PE regimen
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23. Teknos TN, Myers LL, Bradford CR, Chepeha DB: Free tissue reconstruction of the hypopharynx after organ preservation therapy: analysis of wound complications. Laryngoscope; 2001 Jul;111(7):1192-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Free tissue reconstruction of the hypopharynx after organ preservation therapy: analysis of wound complications.
  • PURPOSE: Previous series have demonstrated a 77% rate of major wound complications in salvage surgery of the larynx following organ preservation protocols.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of wound complications in these patients when microvascular free tissue transfers are used for reconstruction of the hypopharynx.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: We reviewed the medical records of 42 patients with stage III and IV laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with an organ-sparing protocol consisting of induction chemotherapy followed by definitive radiation therapy.
  • Ten of these patients who required surgical salvage were reconstructed using radial forearm free tissue or lateral arm transfer and constitute the study group.
  • One patient in this study group had a small pharyngocutaneous fistula that resolved with conservative therapy after 1 week.
  • The average free tissue flap size was 94.3 cm(2) (range, 45-165 cm(2)).
  • Average harvest and ischemia times were 59 minutes (range, 41-87 min) and 187.7 minutes (range, 120-240 min), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that free tissue transfer reconstruction of the hypopharynx is the preferred method of reconstruction following combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Hypopharynx / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Surgical Flaps. Wound Healing
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laryngectomy. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11568540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Zimmermann C, Freitag L, Schönhofer B: [Undetected tracheal tumours responsible for ventilator-dependency]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2002 Mar 8;127(10):497-9

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  • HISTORY AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: Case 1 A patient with former carcinoma of the larynx became dependent on mechanical ventilation.
  • INVESTIGATIONS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT: Case 1 Performing a bronchoscopy the diagnosis of a central tumor (local recurrence) was found causing nearly total obstruction of the trachea.
  • The ensuing treatment was restricted to palliation.
  • Case 2 After transferral to the weaning center a small cell lung cancer located in the central tracheal was identified by bronchoscopy.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation of the mediastinum were performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fibreoptic bronchoscopy is an essential tool concerning diagnosis and treatment of tracheal tumors which may cause difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchoconstriction / physiology. Tracheal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ventilator Weaning

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  • (PMID = 11884988.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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25. Kübler AC, Scheer M, Zöller JE: Photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancer. Onkologie; 2001 Jun;24(3):230-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancer.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative treatment option for tumours of the head and neck.
  • The principle of PDT is based on a photochemical reaction which is initiated by light activation of a photosensitizing drug causing tumour cell death.
  • This article will review the principle of PDT and the different indications for PDT of tumours of the head and neck, focusing on small and advanced tumours of the oral cavity and the larynx as well as papillomatosis of the larynx.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Equipment Design. Hematoporphyrin Photoradiation. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 11455215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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