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1. Chung MS, Ha TK, Lee KG, Paik SS: A case of long survival in poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma of the pancreas. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Aug 21;14(31):4964-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of long survival in poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma of the pancreas.
  • Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is rare.
  • It has similar histological features to pulmonary small cell carcinoma and is equally aggressive.
  • Most patients with SCC in the pancreas reported in case studies died within 1 year after diagnosis.
  • We present a case of unusually long-term survival after surgery and combined chemotherapy for SCC of the pancreas.
  • Computed tomography revealed dilated common bile duct caused by external compression of the mass in the pancreatic head.
  • Exploratory laparotomy and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) was performed with histopathological analysis confirming a primary small cell carcinoma of the pancreas.
  • After an uneventful postoperative recovery, the patient was treated with 6 cycles of combined chemotherapy consisting of cisplantin and ectoposide.
  • During the follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence and the patient has remained in a good health condition for 36 mo since the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pancreatectomy. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18756608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2739953
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2. Tanaka H, Nakazawa T, Yoshida M, Miyabe K, Okumura F, Naitoh I, Hayashi K, Ando T, Ohara H, Joh T: Metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis in a patient with small cell carcinoma of the lungs. JOP; 2009;10(5):557-61
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  • [Title] Metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis in a patient with small cell carcinoma of the lungs.
  • CONTEXT: Pancreatic metastases are relatively common in advanced lung cancers (both small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma), but metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis is very unusual.
  • CASE REPORT: A 51-year-old woman with small cell carcinoma of the lung developed acute pancreatitis as the initial manifestation.
  • Conventional treatment did not improve her condition.
  • However, aggressive chemotherapy resulted in a dramatic recovery from the acute pancreatitis and significant improvement in her general condition.
  • CONCLUSION: When cases of acute pancreatitis in patients with small cell lung carcinoma are encountered, we must consider the possibility of metastasis-induced acute pancreatitis and that, should pancreatic metastases be found in these patients, chemotherapy may provide substantial benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatitis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19734638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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3. Ochi N, Takigawa N, Yasugi M, Ishida E, Kawamoto H, Taniguchi A, Harada D, Hayashi E, Toda H, Yanai H, Tanimoto M, Kiura K: Obstructive jaundice at the initial presentation in small-cell lung cancer. Int Med Case Rep J; 2010;3:9-12

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  • [Title] Obstructive jaundice at the initial presentation in small-cell lung cancer.
  • Obstructive jaundice sometimes may develop in association with advanced small-cell lung cancer (SCLC); however, SCLC initially presenting with obstructive jaundice is rare.
  • This report presents the cases of two SCLC patients with obstructive jaundice at the initial diagnosis.
  • A 64-year-old male presented with obstructive jaundice due to a tumor at the head of the pancreas.
  • Both cases were successfully treated with systemic chemotherapy after endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage.

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  • (PMID = 23754881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-142X
  • [Journal-full-title] International medical case reports journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Med Case Rep J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3658212
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; biliary obstruction / jaundice / metastasis / small-cell lung carcinoma
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4. Kinoshita K, Minami T, Ohmori Y, Kanayama S, Yoshikawa K, Tsujimura T: Curative resection of a small cell carcinoma of the pancreas: report of a case of long survival without chemotherapy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2004 Sep;19(9):1087-91
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  • [Title] Curative resection of a small cell carcinoma of the pancreas: report of a case of long survival without chemotherapy.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a slightly enhanced heterogeneous mass, measuring about 5 cm in diameter, adjacent to the pancreas tail and spleen.
  • At operation the tumor was connected to the pancreas tail and attached to the spleen, and no metastasis was evident.
  • On histological examination the tumor cells had no ductal or architectural organization and were continuous to the normal pancreatic tissues.
  • The tumor was diagnosed as a small cell carcinoma of the pancreas, which is a rare disease.
  • In our case, however, curative resection of the tumor was done, and the patient is healthy with no signs of recurrence for 56 months after the operation and with no additional therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Pancreatectomy

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  • (PMID = 15304133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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5. Yamagami Y, Ueshima S, Mizutani S, Uchikoshi F, Ohyama T, Yoshidome K, Tori M, Hiraoka K, Takahashi H, Sueyoshi K, Taira M, Kido T, Sakamaki Y, Yasukawa M, Oka K, Tsujimoto M, Nakahara M, Nakao K: [An autopsied case of giant small cell carcinoma of the pancreas]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Jan;36(1):123-5
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  • [Title] [An autopsied case of giant small cell carcinoma of the pancreas].
  • The liver biopsy showed a small cell carcinoma pattern, but no definitive origin of the tumor was determined.
  • Considering the extensive peritoneal invasion and multiple liver metastases, he received 2 / courses of cisplatin/etoposide chemotherapy, but his tumor became larger with concomitant abdominal pain and nausea.
  • The autopsy revealed a pathological diagnosis of primary small cell carcinoma of the pancreas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Giant Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Autopsy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19151577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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6. Saif MW: Primary pancreatic lymphomas. JOP; 2006;7(3):262-73
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  • Clinically, primary pancreatic lymphomas usually present with symptoms of carcinoma of the pancreatic head.
  • Common clinical manifestations include abdominal pain, jaundice, acute pancreatitis, small bowel obstruction, and diarrhea.
  • An accurate cytopathologic diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is imperative because the primary treatment is non-surgical.
  • FNA coupled with flow cytometry analysis appears to be highly accurate in the diagnosis of primary pancreatic lymphomas.
  • Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation technique has been established its role in the diagnosis of lymphoid malignancies, including primary pancreatic lymphomas.
  • Treatment usually consists of a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, or stem cell transplantation.
  • Primary pancreatic lymphomas has a much better prognosis than adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16685107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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7. Kyriazi MA, Sofoudis C, Katsouri M, Kappos T, Zafeiris C, Trihia E, Diamantopoulos P, Nomikos IN: Acute cholangitis due to pancreatic metastasis from squamous cell lung carcinoma: a case report and review of literature. Cases J; 2009;2:9113

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  • [Title] Acute cholangitis due to pancreatic metastasis from squamous cell lung carcinoma: a case report and review of literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: The pancreas is a well-documented but relatively uncommon site of non-small-cell cancer metastases.
  • However, at the time of diagnosis the disease is usually locoregionally advanced, therefore therapeutic management is mostly palliative and symptomatic.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 77-year-old Caucasian male patient who presented initially with a clinical picture of acute cholangitis approximately 2 years after a left lower lobectomy for a low-grade squamous lung carcinoma.
  • Cytological examination of the aspirate collected by FNA of the pancreatic lession under EUS guidance revealed cells consistent with a low grade squamous lung carcinoma.
  • Following remission of the patient's attack of acute cholangitis and excessive vomiting he was released from the hospital and instructed to initiate chemotherapy with vinorelbine.
  • CONCLUSION: Symptomatic metastatic lesions of the pancreas from squamous cell carcinoma of the lung are infrequent.
  • Typically, the patients remain asymptomatic until their disease reaches a fairly advanced stage and therapeutic options are limited to palliative measures.
  • A high index of suspicion is the only way of early detection and potentially effective treatment for this rare localization of metastatic squamous lung carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20062690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803910
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8. Saif MW: Pancreatoblastoma. JOP; 2007;8(1):55-63
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  • Pancreatoblastoma (PB), or infantile pancreatic carcinoma, is an extremely rare pancreatic tumor in childhood, comprising 0.5% of pancreatic non-endocrine tumors.
  • Mechanical obstruction of the upper duodenum and gastric outlet by tumor in the head of the pancreas may be associated with vomiting, jaundice and gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • Histologically, PB is characterized with distinct acinar and squamoid cell differentiation.
  • The majority of these tumors arise in the head of the pancreas.
  • Ultrasound and CT scan may be useful but preoperative diagnosis is often quite difficult.
  • The treatment of choice is complete resection, that may often be curative.
  • The role of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy is still under discussion due to small number of patients treated as yet.
  • Chemotherapy regimens consisting of cyclophosphamide, etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin have been used in neoadjuvant setting with anecdotal benefit.
  • On the whole, PB is regarded to be a curable tumor; hence the clinical diagnosis should be made early.
  • Awareness of this rare tumor of pancreas is essential for early detection and proper management.
  • The author review the clinical presentation, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of PB in this presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreas / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17228135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8577
  • [Journal-full-title] JOP : Journal of the pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JOP
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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9. Sakamoto H, Kitano M, Komaki T, Noda K, Chikugo T, Kudo M: Small cell carcinoma of the pancreas: role of EUS-FNA and subsequent effective chemotherapy using carboplatin and etoposide. J Gastroenterol; 2009;44(5):432-8
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the pancreas: role of EUS-FNA and subsequent effective chemotherapy using carboplatin and etoposide.
  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is a rare entity, with only a few cases reported in the literature.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combination chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide (CE) in SCC of the pancreas.
  • All patients were treated with combination chemotherapy using a schedule consisting of intravenous (IV) carboplatin (150 mg/m(2)) on day 1 and IV etoposide (80 mg/m(2)) on days 1, 2, and 3 every 28 days.
  • RESULTS: Pathological diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in all patients.
  • Three patients treated with the combination chemotherapy achieved remission, two with a complete response and one with a partial response.
  • One of the two patients with a complete response survived for 56 months following the diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combination chemotherapy with CE may be effective for the treatment of SCC of the pancreas; EUS-FNA plays an important role in distinguishing SCC from other pancreatic malignancies, leading to the appropriate treatment being given.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Endosonography. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 19333541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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10. Gyorffy H, Tihanyi T, Gyökeres T, Zsirka-Klein A, Kádár P, Kaszás I, Kovács M: [Pancreas pseudocyst or metastasis?]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Oct 23;146(43):2223-6
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  • [Title] [Pancreas pseudocyst or metastasis?].
  • [Transliterated title] Pancreas-pseudocysta vagy metasztázis?
  • By imaging techniques (abdominal US and CT scan) a cystic lesion, measuring 40 x 35 x 30 mm in diameter was found, and was diagnosed as pseudocyst in the region of the tail of the pancreas.
  • The tumour, however, was found independent of the pancreas (90 x 80 x 50 mm).
  • Both histologically and immunohistochemically the lesion proved to be the metastasis of a germ cell (yolk-sac) tumour.
  • Following the morphological diagnosis, detailed urological and medical check up was performed.
  • A previously nonpalpable small tumour was found in the left testis which was radically resected.
  • The testicular tumour measuring 9 x 9 x 5 mm in diameter was diagnosed as embryonal carcinoma.
  • Later on the patient underwent chemotherapy.
  • The possibility of a metastasis, especially of germ cell origin, should be excluded (not only by physical examination, but by ultrasound of testis also) in case of retroperitoneal cystic tumours even with unusual morphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Pseudocyst / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16323569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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11. Nakamura Y, Tajiri T, Uchida E, Arima Y, Aimoto T, Katsuno A, Naito Z: Changes to levels of serum neuron-specific enolase in a patient with small cell carcinoma of the pancreas. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2005;12(1):93-8
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  • [Title] Changes to levels of serum neuron-specific enolase in a patient with small cell carcinoma of the pancreas.
  • Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is a rare disease, with an extremely poor prognosis; only 24 cases have been reported in the literature.
  • However, as some patients have been successfully treated with combination chemotherapy, it is important to obtain both a definite diagnosis and a precise evaluation of the effect of the treatment.
  • The patient was diagnosed with SCC of the pancreas after surgery and had two courses of combination chemotherapy (cisplatin and etoposide).
  • Initially, the tumor disappeared completely on computed tomography (CT) scans, but she died of disease recurrence 3 months after completing the chemotherapy.
  • NSE levels had already increased above the upper limit of normal 8 months before the patient's admission to our hospital, and levels changed concurrently not only with tumor growth but also subsequently with remission and then relapse of the disease after treatment.
  • These results indicate that NSE is a good marker, both as a diagnostic indicator for SCC of the pancreas and as a means of evaluating response to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / blood. Pancreatic Neoplasms / blood. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / blood

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  • (PMID = 15754108.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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12. Buxhofer V, Ruckser R, Kier P, Habertheuer KH, Zelenka P, Tatzreiter G, Dorner S, Vedovelli H, Sebesta C, Hinterberger W: [High dosage therapy with stem cell transplantation in neuroendocrine carcinoma]. Acta Med Austriaca Suppl; 2000;52:37-9
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  • [Title] [High dosage therapy with stem cell transplantation in neuroendocrine carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Hochdosistherapie mit Stammzelltransplantation beim neuroendokrinen Karzinom.
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) are highly responsive to chemo- and radiotherapy.
  • At the 2nd department of medicine in the Donauspital, 4 pts. with neuroendocrine carcinomas of different primary sites underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASTx). Pt.
  • 2 from a small-cell carcinoma of the pancreas. Pt.
  • 3 had a metastatic small-cell abdominal bulky tumor and pt.
  • 4 presented with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate.
  • After 4-6 cycles induction chemotherapy pts. were consolidated with 1 cycle of HDCht and ASTx.
  • He is still in CR with a disease-free survival of 23 month after ASTx and 30 month after diagnosis. Pt.
  • 1, 2 and 4 died from relapse 10, 16 and 5 month after ASTx and 16, 22 and 9 month after diagnosis. Pts. with neuroendocrine carcinomas might be suitable candidates for HDCht and ASTx.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11261277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8181
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Austriaca. Supplement
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Austriaca Suppl
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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13. Kaiho T, Tanaka T, Tsuchiya S, Yanagisawa S, Takeuchi O, Miura M, Saigusa N, Hayasaka A, Matsuzaki O, Miyazaki M: A case of small cell carcinoma of the common bile duct. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Mar-Apr;52(62):363-7
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  • [Title] A case of small cell carcinoma of the common bile duct.
  • Small cell carcinoma occasionally occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, but rarely in the biliary tract.
  • We report a case of small cell carcinoma which occurred in the common bile duct.
  • Computed tomography and ultrasonography showed a mass near the pancreas head and dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Postoperative pathological examination revealed well-differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma on the surface of the bile duct lumen, but a large part of the extraductal component was small cell carcinoma.
  • Upon immunohistochemical examination, synaptophysin and chromogranin A were found to be focally positive in small cell carcinoma, but negative for L-26 and CEA.
  • The patient then underwent two postoperative courses of systemic chemotherapy.
  • Further therapeutic trials are needed to improve survival in such cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15816436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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14. Huang YW, Yang JC, Chang YL, Tsang YM, Wang TH: Acute pancreatitis combined with acute Budd-Chiari syndrome as the initial manifestation of small cell lung cancer. J Formos Med Assoc; 2005 Jun;104(6):431-5
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  • [Title] Acute pancreatitis combined with acute Budd-Chiari syndrome as the initial manifestation of small cell lung cancer.
  • Tumor metastasis to the pancreas is a rare but recognized cause of acute pancreatitis.
  • Autopsy series have reported a 24-40% of pancreatic involvement in small cell lung cancer.
  • We report a 68-year-old woman with extensive small cell lung cancer with the unusual initial presentation of both acute pancreatitis and acute Budd-Chiari syndrome.
  • Severe epigastralgia with radiation to back and progressive jaundice developed 2 days prior to admission.
  • Poorly differentiated carcinoma cells were found in ascites and bone marrow.
  • The patient died on the ninth day of hospitalization before chemotherapy was initiated.
  • Prompt diagnosis of extensive-stage small cell lung cancer may allow early chemotherapy treatment which favorably influences recovery when the pancreatitis is mild.
  • Although prolonged survival might have been expected had this patient recovered from pancreatitis and received chemotherapy, diagnosis was delayed due to difficulty in immunohistochemical diagnosis of the tumor and the unusual clinical presentation.
  • The use of stains employing antibodies against neurofilament and neuron-specific enolase cell antigens is important for early diagnosis of poorly differentiated metastatic tumor cells.


15. Spigel DR, Hainsworth JD, Greco FA: Neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown primary site. Semin Oncol; 2009 Feb;36(1):52-9

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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown primary site.
  • Most of these carcinomas probably arise from an occult/clinically undetectable primary site in one of several locations (bronchus, pancreas, stomach, colon, rectum and several other sites).
  • Patients with these tumors are a subset of unknown primary carcinoma with relatively favorable prognoses.
  • Targeted therapies may have a role in the treatment of low-grade tumors.
  • The high-grade or poorly differentiated carcinomas, including small cell and large cell neuroendocrine tumors, are rapidly growing and aggressive but responsive to platinum-based combination chemotherapy.
  • Poorly differentiated large cell neuroendocrine tumors, first reported in 1988, are usually not recognized by routine hematoxylin and eosin light microscopy but require immunohistochemical stains or electron microscopy for their diagnosis.
  • A review of cytotoxic chemotherapy for patients with high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas, including a series of 99 patients, revealed an overall response rate of 70%, with a 20% complete response rate.
  • Tumor grade/differentiation currently is an important determinant of the management of these patients, and therapy in the future will be based on a more precise knowledge of the unique biology of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19179188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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16. Blaszyk H, Hartmann A, Bjornsson J: Cancer of unknown primary: clinicopathologic correlations. APMIS; 2003 Dec;111(12):1089-94
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  • Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) accounts for 5-10% of all malignant tumors at presentation and remains the death certificate diagnosis in 0.5-5% of patients.
  • We reviewed 9,436 consecutive autopsies performed between 1984 and 1999 at the Mayo Clinic, matched with 177,167 cancer patients treated in the same time period.
  • Antemortem pathologic diagnoses were obtained in 57 patients, agreed with postmortem diagnoses in 98%, and included adenocarcinoma (n=44), undifferentiated carcinoma (n=7), squamous cell carcinoma (n=3), and others (n=3).
  • Of 43 patients evaluated for tumor-specific therapy, only six received no further oncologic treatment and untreated patients survived a median of 57 (range 10-280) days, compared with 225 (range 19-1,129) days for patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (n=37).
  • Our findings show that (1) autopsy studies provide a valuable tool for quality control in the setting of CUP, and (2) treated patients have a small but significant survival benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Autopsy. Biliary Tract / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cohort Studies. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 14678017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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17. Minami S, Komuta K, Asai M: [A case of amylase-producing lung cancer]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2003 Oct;41(10):717-21
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  • The diagnosis was not confirmed bronchoscopically.
  • Amylase isozyme patterns identified the salivary types.
  • The pancreas and salivary glands were unlikely to have any clinical involvement in the hyperamylasemia, but lung cancer with subcutaneous metastasis was strongly suspected clinically as the source.
  • Chemotherapy failed to prevent tumor progression and the patient eventually died of respiratory failure.
  • Immunohistological examination of the subcutaneous lesion showed positive staining for salivary-type amylase, whereas that of the lung primary lesion disclosed small cell carcinoma and negative staining for amylase.
  • Amylase-producing small cell carcinoma is very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Amylases / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / enzymology. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Isoenzymes / analysis. Isoenzymes / biosynthesis. Male. Neoplasms, Connective Tissue / secondary. Subcutaneous Tissue

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  • (PMID = 14584392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 3.2.1.- / Amylases
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18. Kianmanesh R, O'toole D, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J: [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors]. J Chir (Paris); 2005 May-Jun;142(3):132-49
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement chirurgical des tumeurs endocrines gastro-entéro-pancréatiques.
  • They are classified into two principal types: gastrointestinal ET's (formerly called carcinoid tumors) which are the most common, and pancreaticoduodenal ET's.
  • Poorly-differentiated ET's have a poor prognosis and are treated by chemotherapy.
  • Surgical excision is the only curative treatment of well-differentiated ET's.
  • The most common sites of gastrointestinal ET's ( carcinoids) are the appendix and the rectum; these are often small (<1 cm), benign, and discovered fortuitously at the time of appendectomy or colonoscopic removal.
  • Ileal ET's, even if small, are malignant, frequently multiple, and complicated in 30-50% of cases by bowel obstruction, mesenteric invasion, or bleeding.
  • They are usually malignant and of advanced stage at diagnosis presenting as a palpable or obstructing mass or as liver metastases.
  • Insulinoma and gastrinoma (cause of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) are the most common functional ET's. 80% are sporadic; in these cases, tumor size, location, and malignant potential determine the type of resection which may vary from a simple enucleation to a formal pancreatectomy.
  • In 10-20% of cases, pancreaticoduodenal ET presents in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia (NEM type I), an autosomal-dominant genetic disease with multifocal endocrine involvement of the pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas, and adrenal glands.
  • For insulinoma with NEM-I, enucleation of lesions in the pancreatic head plus a caudal pancreatectomy is the most appropriate procedure.
  • The lesions are frequently small, multiple, and widespread and recurrence is frequent after excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / surgery. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / diagnosis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Pancreatectomy. Postoperative Care. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / surgery. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16142076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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19. Alexopoulou A, Koskinas J, Deutsch M, Delladetsima J, Kountouras D, Dourakis SP: Acute liver failure as the initial manifestation of hepatic infiltration by a solid tumor: report of 5 cases and review of the literature. Tumori; 2006 Jul-Aug;92(4):354-7
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  • The primary tumors were colon, gastric, small cell lung, pancreas and cancer of unknown origin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant infiltration of the liver should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive liver failure.
  • Although effective chemotherapy has improved the survival of patients with metastatic liver disease, there has been no change in the course and outcome of acute liver failure due to malignant infiltration of the liver over the last 2 decades.
  • A proper diagnosis by liver biopsy is mandatory to prevent such patients from being considered for liver transplant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Liver Failure, Acute / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17036530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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20. Barlési F, Villani P, Doddoli C, Gimenez C, Kleisbauer JP: Gemcitabine-induced severe pulmonary toxicity. Fundam Clin Pharmacol; 2004 Feb;18(1):85-91
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  • Activity of gemcitabine is demonstrated in the treatment of many solid tumors, like pancreas, ovarian and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Although gemcitabine is considered as a drug with a good safety profile, cases of gemcitabine-induced severe pulmonary toxicity (GISPT) were reported as for Ara-C.
  • After the differential diagnosis were ruled out, the discontinuation of the drug and the early initiation of steroids and diuretics are the most frequently performed treatments.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / complications. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Drug Interactions. Dyspnea / chemically induced. Dyspnea / epidemiology. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Radiography, Thoracic / adverse effects. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 14748759.001).
  • [ISSN] 0767-3981
  • [Journal-full-title] Fundamental & clinical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fundam Clin Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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