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1. Chan JK, Loizzi V, Burger RA, Rutgers J, Monk BJ: Prognostic factors in neuroendocrine small cell cervical carcinoma: a multivariate analysis. Cancer; 2003 Feb 1;97(3):568-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors in neuroendocrine small cell cervical carcinoma: a multivariate analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathologic factors associated with survival in patients with neuroendocrine (NE) cervical carcinoma.
  • METHODS: All patients with NE cervical carcinoma diagnosed between 1979-2001 were identified from tumor registry databases at two hospitals.
  • The impact of clinical and pathologic risk factors on the survival of patients with small cell NE carcinoma of the cervix was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier life table analyses and log-rank tests.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (median age, 42 years) were diagnosed with neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma, which included 21 with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage I disease, 6 with FIGO Stage II disease, 5 with FIGO Stage III disease, and 2 with FIGO Stage IV disease.
  • Fourteen women received adjuvant therapy with pelvic radiation and/or cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Ten women received primary radiotherapy with (n = 5) or without (n = 4) chemotherapy and the remaining patient refused therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Smoking and advanced stage are reported to be poor prognostic factors for survival in patients with NE small cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • The role of primary or postoperative radiation with or without chemotherapy is unclear and yields uniformly poor results, particularly in patients with advanced lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / mortality. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / mortality

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11086
  • (PMID = 12548598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Deng GH, Zhang X, Wu LY: [Clinicopathological analysis of nine cases of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Mar;32(3):199-202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinicopathological analysis of nine cases of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, therapy and prognostic factors of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCCC).
  • METHODS: Nine patients with SCCC underwent radical hysterectomy at the Cancer Hospital of CAMS between 2000 to 2009.
  • All tumors were composed of small-sized cells with scant cytoplasm, darkly stained round to oval nuclei, finely dispersed chromatin and absence of nucleoli.
  • All patients received postoperative chemotherapy, with or without radiotherapy.
  • Correct diagnosis of SCCC depends on the combination of light microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis.
  • It is necessary to use multimodality treatment for SCCC, especially the chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Hysterectomy. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Survival Rate. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Taxoids / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20450588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; TP protocol
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3. Saga Y, Suzuki M, Tamura N, Ohwada M, Sato I: Establishment and characterization of a new cell line (SKS) from neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and its chemosensitivity. Oncology; 2001;60(4):367-72
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  • [Title] Establishment and characterization of a new cell line (SKS) from neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and its chemosensitivity.
  • A new cell line (SKS) established from ascites of a patient with neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix had a good tumorigenicity and caused marked peritoneal dissemination, and was also highly sensitive to gemcitabine in an in vitro chemosensitivity test.
  • SKS cells were small round cells with a high nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio and grew into colony-like aggregates, forming spherical aggregates of floating cells.
  • The population doubling time was 44 h.
  • On examination of the ultrastructure, membrane-bound dense-core neurosecretory-type granules were observed in the cytoplasm.
  • Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was immunocytochemically positive in the cytoplasm, and 9.3 ng/ml of NSE was detected in the cell culture supernatant.
  • SKS exhibited good tumorigenicity, and the tumor doubling time was 11 days.
  • SKS cells are useful as a model of neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix, and chemotherapy using gemcitabine may possibly be effective in this malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Cell Division / drug effects. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Karyotyping. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Mutation. Papillomaviridae. Phenotype. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / blood. Tumor Virus Infections


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4. Yu A, Zhang P, Lou H: Clinicophathologic characteristics and treatment of small cell carcinoma of uterine cervix. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2002 Jul;24(4):400-3
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  • [Title] Clinicophathologic characteristics and treatment of small cell carcinoma of uterine cervix.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic characteristics, prognostic factors, response to chemotherapy, chemotherapy-caused disease-free interval and overall survival of small cell carcinoma of uterine cervix (SCCUC).
  • All 12 samples were assessed through immunohistochemical methods including epithelial cell markers and neuroendocrine cell markers, showing positive results in all.
  • Five of these 9 patients had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCH) once or twice before operation, three patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (ACH) once to six times after operation.
  • Three patients with advanced lesions received concurrent chemotherapy twice to four times.
  • The success rate of surgery in the NCH group was 100%, 60% of whom showed chemotherapy response pathologically.
  • CONCLUSION: Poor prognosis of small cell carcinoma of uterine cervix, even the early lesions, is due to its high incidence of pelvic lymph metastasis.
  • The risk factor of this lesion is high sensitivity to chemotherapy, but chemotherapeutic long-term survival should be studied further with more allotted material.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12408776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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5. Albores-Saavedra J, Latif S, Carrick KS, Alvarado-Cabrero I, Fowler MR: CD56 reactivity in small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Apr;24(2):113-7
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  • [Title] CD56 reactivity in small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix, like its pulmonary counterpart, is a rare but distinctive neoplasm that should be separated from nonendocrine carcinomas because of its highly aggressive clinical course and response to chemotherapy and irradiation.
  • CD56 (neural cell adhesion molecule) has recently been shown to be the best marker for the diagnosis of pulmonary SCC.
  • In this study, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of CD56 in the diagnosis of SCC of the uterine cervix compared with those of chromogranin and synaptophysin.
  • Twenty-two (88%) of 25 SCCs of the uterine cervix labeled with CD56 in a predominantly membranous and diffuse pattern, whereas 16 of 25 (64%) stained with synaptophysin in a predominantly diffuse pattern and 8 of 25 (32%) showed predominantly focal immunoreactivity for chromogranin.
  • In contrast, 3 of 21 (14%) moderately to poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas and 1 of 16 (6%) moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas showed focal immunoreactivity for CD56.
  • Although not specific, CD56 seems to be the most sensitive marker for the diagnosis of SCC of the uterine cervix.
  • Moreover, its diffuse reactivity reduces the possibility of obtaining negative results in small biopsy samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Sensitivity and Specificity. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15782066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin
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6. Chen J, Macdonald OK, Gaffney DK: Incidence, mortality, and prognostic factors of small cell carcinoma of the cervix. Obstet Gynecol; 2008 Jun;111(6):1394-402
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  • [Title] Incidence, mortality, and prognostic factors of small cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence, mortality, and presentation of small cell carcinoma of the cervix with other histologies.
  • METHODS: From 1977 to 2003, 290 women with small cell carcinoma of the cervix uteri were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.
  • Also, 27,527 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and 5,231 patients with adenocarcinoma of the cervix were identified for comparison.
  • RESULTS: The mean annual incidence for small cell carcinoma was 0.06 per 100,000 women, compared with 6.6 and 1.2 for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, respectively.
  • There were significant differences at presentation between small cell carcinoma compared with squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma for race, treatment, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, and lymph node involvement (P<.05).
  • A trend for improved survival was identified for adenocarcinoma (P=.036) and squamous cell carcinoma (P<.001) but not for small cell carcinoma (P=.672).
  • Five-year survival for small cell carcinoma (35.7%) was worse compared with squamous cell carcinoma (60.5%, hazard ratio 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-0.69) and adenocarcinoma (69.7%, hazard ratio 0.48; 95% CI 0.37-0.61).
  • On multivariable analysis, age, stage, and race were prognostic for survival in women with small cell carcinoma (P<.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Small cell carcinoma is a rare histology of cervical cancer associated with a worse prognosis and a predilection for nodal and distant metastasis.
  • Because of the high rates of nodal involvement even with early-stage disease, multimodality treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18515524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Conner MG, Richter H, Moran CA, Hameed A, Albores-Saavedra J: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2002 Dec;6(6):345-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the cervix: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases.
  • Twenty-three patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix are presented.
  • Nuclear molding, single cell necrosis, and high mitotic activity were found in all tumors.
  • There was a minor component of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in three cases, while foci of adenocarcinoma were identified in two cases.
  • Ten small cell carcinomas were immunoreactive for chromogranin, 13 for synaptophysin, and 10 expressed p53 protein.
  • Treatment modalities included hysterectomy alone or combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
  • A few patients received chemotherapy and/or radiation alone.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a highly aggressive neoplasm.
  • However, early diagnosis and combined therapeutic modalities may lead to longer survival in some patients.
  • Although the use of immunohistochemistry may be helpful in the diagnosis, small cell carcinoma still remains a morphologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Biomarkers. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 12478483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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8. Liu J, Li Y, Li S, Wang D, Hu T, Meng Y, Ma D, Cai H, Wang Z, Xiong C, Zhang H: Clinicopathological features and prognosis of small cell carcinoma of the cervix. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2010 Oct;30(5):626-30
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features and prognosis of small cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • Small cell carcinoma of cervix (SCCC) is a rare disease with highly aggressive behaviour and is pathologically hard to diagnose.
  • In this study, the clinicopathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the condition were examined.
  • Pathological examination revealed that the stroma was diffusely infiltrated with small monomorphous cells ranging from round to oval shape.
  • One case was accompanied with squamous cell cancer.
  • On the basis of their stages of condition, one subject with stage III b underwent chemotherapy, and one with stage Ib2 received extensive hysterectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy, while the other 5 cases were treated by extensive hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in combination with pre- and/or post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Early-stage patients should be treated by extensive hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in combination with pre- and/or post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21063846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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9. Collinet P, Lanvin D, Declerck D, Chevalier-Place A, Leblanc E, Querleu D: Neuroendocrine tumors of the uterine cervix. Clinicopathologic study of five patients. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2000 Jul;91(1):51-7
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors of the uterine cervix. Clinicopathologic study of five patients.
  • Four main clinicopathologic features of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the cervix may be stressed: primary diagnosis at an advanced stage, early nodal metastasis even for low disease, early failure of appropriate local treatment (surgery and/or radiation therapy) and aggressive clinical treatment.
  • Five patients with NET of the uterine cervix (small cell carcinoma type) are reported (one stage I, two stages II, one stage III and one stage IV).
  • One patient was treated by surgery combined with radiation therapy, one by surgery combined with chemotherapy and one by surgery with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Two patients received radiation therapy alone.
  • Three early stage patients are alive with no evidence of disease 8, 26 and 41 months after diagnosis.
  • The two patients with advanced stage died of disease, 3 and 12 months respectively, after diagnosis.
  • Combination chemotherapy (cisplatin and etoposide) is warranted in disseminated NETs.
  • Neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy should be combined with radiation therapy and surgery even in early stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 10817879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
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10. Cheng M, Wu LY, Bai P, Zhang R, Zheng S: [Clinicopathologic characteristics of eight patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Mar;43(3):189-92
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic characteristics of eight patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, therapy and prognostic factors of small cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • Histopathologic findings showed the small tumor cells had scant cytoplasm, round nuclei, absence of nucleoli, and finely dispersed chromatin.
  • Three patients with stage I b disease and 1 patient with stage III b disease underwent radical hysterectomy and postoperative chemotherapy, with or without radiotherapy, and the survival period was 64, 22, 14 and 6 months respectively.
  • Two patients with stage II b disease and 2 with stage III b disease underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and the survival period was 25, 9, 10 and 5 months respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis using several kinds of neuroendocrine markers is helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis in addition to focusing on characteristic histopathological features.
  • It is necessary to use comprehensive treatment including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy for patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • Chemotherapy may play an important role in the treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Microscopy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18788567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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11. Zivanovic O, Leitao MM Jr, Park KJ, Zhao H, Diaz JP, Konner J, Alektiar K, Chi DS, Abu-Rustum NR, Aghajanian C: Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: Analysis of outcome, recurrence pattern and the impact of platinum-based combination chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Mar;112(3):590-3
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  • [Title] Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: Analysis of outcome, recurrence pattern and the impact of platinum-based combination chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix (SCNEC), and to determine whether platinum-based combination chemotherapy is beneficial for this population.
  • Patients were excluded if pathologic diagnosis was not confirmed at our institution.
  • Median time to progression was 9.1 months.
  • In the early-stage disease group, the 3-year distant recurrence-free survival rate was 83% for patients who received chemotherapy and 0% for patients who did not receive chemotherapy as part of their initial treatment (P=0.025).
  • The estimated 3-year OS rate was 83% for patients who received and 20% for patients who did not receive chemotherapy as part of their initial treatment (P=0.36).
  • CONCLUSION: Given the rarity of SCNEC this retrospective analysis is limited by a small number of patients.
  • However, the natural history of this rare disease is akin to small cell lung cancer and the prognosis is poor due to the tumor's propensity for distant spread.
  • The treatment should conform to the treatment of small cell lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


12. Delaloge S, Pautier P, Kerbrat P, Castaigne D, Haie-Meder C, Duvillard P, Guivarch C, Goupil A, Borel C, Lhommé C: Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: what disease? What treatment? Report of ten cases and a review of the literature. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2000;12(6):357-62
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: what disease? What treatment? Report of ten cases and a review of the literature.
  • Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (NESCCC) is an entity with very aggressive behaviour.
  • The optimal initial therapeutic approach to this rare disease has not yet been clearly defined.
  • One patient had metastatic disease at presentation; three developed metastases during initial treatment.
  • Eight patients underwent surgery and eight received radiation therapy.
  • Six patients received pre- or postoperative cisplatinumvepeside (PE) combination chemotherapy, either alone or concurrently with radiation therapy.
  • PE alone as primary chemotherapy led to disease stabilization in the two patients so treated; concurrent PE and radiation therapy resulted in a pathological complete response in one patient.
  • Eight patients relapsed within 16 months and died of their disease within 29 months from the initial diagnosis.
  • Our series confirms the previously described very poor prognosis of NESCCC, despite initial aggressive multidisciplinary treatment.
  • It may be that the introduction of chemotherapy, especially combined primary chemoradiotherapy, might allow patients to do a little better, although at the moment there is no good evidence one way or the other.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant


13. Ohwada M, Suzuki M, Hironaka M, Irie T, Sato I: Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix showing polypoid growth and complicated by pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Apr;81(1):117-9
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix showing polypoid growth and complicated by pregnancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is an aggressive disease, and it rarely is complicated by pregnancy.
  • CASE: A polypoid tumor was found in the uterine cervix in a 27-year-old Japanese woman at 27 weeks of gestation.
  • The polyp was excised and diagnosed as neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma by histological examination, including Grimelius, neuron-specific enolase, and chromogranin staining.
  • After surgery, four cycles of combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide were administered, and the patient is disease-free as of 13 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Division / physiology. Female. Humans. Polyps / drug therapy. Polyps / pathology. Polyps / surgery. Pregnancy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11277662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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14. Hoskins PJ, Swenerton KD, Pike JA, Lim P, Aquino-Parsons C, Wong F, Lee N: Small-cell carcinoma of the cervix: fourteen years of experience at a single institution using a combined-modality regimen of involved-field irradiation and platinum-based combination chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Sep 15;21(18):3495-501
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  • [Title] Small-cell carcinoma of the cervix: fourteen years of experience at a single institution using a combined-modality regimen of involved-field irradiation and platinum-based combination chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy and toxicity of a combined-modality regimen of irradiation with platinum-based combination chemotherapy in small-cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCCC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with SCCC were seen and treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency between May 1988 and November 2002.
  • Both protocols used cisplatin, etoposide, and involved-field irradiation (essentially pelvis plus or minus para-aortics) with concurrent chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: SCCC can be successfully treated in approximately 55% of patients with a combination of irradiation and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12972526.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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15. Trinh XB, Bogers JJ, Van Marck EA, Tjalma WA: Treatment policy of neuroendocrine small cell cancer of the cervix. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004;25(1):40-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment policy of neuroendocrine small cell cancer of the cervix.
  • Small cell cancers of the cervix are very rare and aggressive tumours.
  • There are no clinical trials, due to their rarity, that would suggest optimal treatment.
  • The present report describes a patient with a neuroendocrine small cell cancer of the cervix Stage IB2 with a positive lymph node.
  • The treatment consisted of radical hysterectomy and node dissection, adjuvant chemotherapy, chemoradiation and brachytherapy.
  • Since 1996, there has been a classification for neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the cervix in four categories (large cell, small cell, typical carcinoid and atypical carcinoid).
  • The aggressive behaviour of neuroendocrine small cell cancer is demonstrated by the high percentage of early lymphatic node and vessel invasion (68 and 90%).
  • Multimodal therapy for these tumours appears to give good response but often implies severe side-effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Decision Trees. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging


16. Ota T, Kitano T, Miyai K, Ogishima D, Yoshida M, Miyake K, Kinoshita K: Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix metastasizing to the bone marrow: a case report. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2008 Aug;34(4 Pt 2):692-5
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix metastasizing to the bone marrow: a case report.
  • We report a case of small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the uterine cervix that metastasized to the bone marrow.
  • A 60-year-old woman with stage IIB SmCC of the cervix was treated with three courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical hysterectomy.
  • Because of the presence of a large residual tumor, the patient underwent postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Two months after the last course of chemotherapy, severe pancytopenia developed, and erythroblastic cells were found in the peripheral blood.
  • The patient died of the disease 8 months after the initial diagnosis.
  • This case suggests that SmCC of the cervix can metastasize to bone marrow, that such metastasis can occur in isolation and lead to severe pancytopenia, influencing the clinical course of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


17. Korcum AF, Aksu G, Bozcuk H, Pestereli E, Simsek T: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix: a case report. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Apr;277(4):367-70
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the cervix: a case report.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix accounts for 1-3% of all cervix cancers.
  • It is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis.
  • To date, no effective treatment protocol has been determined.
  • Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy have been used either alone or in combination.
  • Recent data suggests that survival in patients with early staged small cell carcinoma of the cervix is better with surgery combined with chemo-radiotherapy.
  • Here, we presented two patients with stage IB1 small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • For both patients, definitive surgery was performed with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy.
  • Subsequently, they were treated with pelvic external radiotherapy and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy with concurrent cisplatin based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17828547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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18. Weed JC Jr, Graff AT, Shoup B, Tawfik O: Small cell undifferentiated (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the uterine cervix. J Am Coll Surg; 2003 Jul;197(1):44-51
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small cell undifferentiated (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • BACKGROUND: Small cell undifferentiated (neuroendocrine) carcinoma of the cervix is a rare and agressive tumor.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Fifteen patients with small cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the cervix were treated between 1977 and 1997.
  • Clinical data including age, pregnancy history, tumor stage, recurrence, type of therapy, presenting symptoms, location of metastasis, and survival were studied.
  • RESULTS: The ages of patients ranged from 20 to 83 years, with a mean of 47 years.
  • Five patients (33%) were stage I, three (20%) stage II, one (7%) stage III, and six (40%) stage IV at diagnosis.
  • Five patients (33%) progressed without response to treatment, and seven (47%) experienced a recurrence of their cancer, on average after 15 months.
  • Treatments included surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination of them.
  • Extrapelvic metastases developed in five patients with stage I or stage II disease.
  • Three patients (20%) developed brain metastasis.
  • Thirteen patients died of their disease, one remained alive 80 months after diagnosis, and one was lost to followup.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our experience with this rare and aggressive tumor raises the question of increased incidence of central nervous system metastases with small cell undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • Present therapy has not significantly improved outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Parity. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12831923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Crowder S, Tuller E: Small cell carcinoma of the female genital tract. Semin Oncol; 2007 Feb;34(1):57-63
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the female genital tract.
  • Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the female genital tract is rare, constituting less than 2% of all gynecologic malignancies.
  • It occurs most frequently in the cervix but can also occur in the endometrium, ovary, fallopian tube, vagina, and vulva.
  • In general, these tumors have an aggressive clinical course with a propensity for extensive local invasion and distant metastases.
  • Therapy has included surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy akin to those regimens used for SCC of the lung.
  • Although there are no randomized clinical trials, it appears that multimodality therapy is associated with the best results and is the treatment of choice for most patients.
  • Despite aggressive therapy, however, the prognosis for SCC of the female genital tract is poor, with only a minority of patients enjoying a prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell. Genital Neoplasms, Female
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cranial Irradiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17270667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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20. Niwa K, Nonaka-Shibata M, Satoh E, Hirose Y: Cervical large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with cytologic presentation: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):977-80
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cervical large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with cytologic presentation: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare and aggressive cervical neoplasm.
  • The cervical smears showed cells dispersed as single cells or arranged as loosely cohesive sheets or glandlike aggregate and the nuclear size was almost 3-5 times larger than that of small lymphocytes.
  • The patient underwent a radical hysterectomy and then received radiation and systemic chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytologic and colposcopic findings for LCNEC of the uterine cervix are reported.
  • Early diagnosis of the tumor is important.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Colposcopy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 21053581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Cohen JG, Kapp DS, Shin JY, Urban R, Sherman AE, Chen LM, Osann K, Chan JK: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix: treatment and survival outcomes of 188 patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Oct;203(4):347.e1-6
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the cervix: treatment and survival outcomes of 188 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinicopathologic factors associated with survival in neuroendocrine small cell cervical cancer patients.
  • A total of 55.3% underwent surgery, 16.0% had chemoradiation, 12.8% radiation, and 3.2% chemotherapy alone.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation was associated with improved survival in patients with stages IIB-IVA disease compared with those who did not receive chemotherapy (17.8% vs 6.0%; P = .04).
  • On multivariable analysis, early-stage disease and use of chemotherapy or chemoradiation were independent prognostic factors for improved survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation was associated with higher survival in small cell cervical cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / mortality. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Registries

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  • [Copyright] Copyright ¬© 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20579961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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22. Sato Y, Shimamoto T, Amada S, Asada Y, Hayashi T: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a clinicopathological study of six cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2003 Jul;22(3):226-30
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a clinicopathological study of six cases.
  • Six cases of cervical large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC) were found among 972 patients (0.6%) with invasive cervical carcinoma.
  • All patients underwent radical hysterectomy and received adjuvant chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy.
  • On histologic examination, the tumor cells were arranged in an organoid growth pattern and were larger than those of typical small cell carcinoma.
  • The results of this study confirm the aggressive nature of cervical LCNECs.
  • The recognition of LCNECs is necessary to establish the most effective treatment for these aggressive tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Hemorrhage. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 12819387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Erhan Y, Dikmen Y, Yucebilgin MS, Zekioglu O, Mgoyi L, Terek MC: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine corpus metastatic to brain and lung: case report and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004;25(1):109-12
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine corpus metastatic to brain and lung: case report and review of the literature.
  • Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine corpus is a rare aggressive tumor with a similar unfavorable outcome to that of the cervix.
  • The large cell type is considerably rarer than the small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine corpus.
  • We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with a large cell neuroendocrine tumor of the uterine corpus with very aggressive clinical behavior, cerebral and pulmonary metastases six and four months after initial diagnosis and adjuvant radiotherapy, respectively.
  • Despite successful surgical extirpation of the cerebral metastatic lesion she did not respond to chemotherapy and died four months after disease recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 15053077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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24. Lee SS, Lee JL, Ryu MH, Chang HM, Kim TW, Kim WK, Lee JS, Jang SJ, Khang SK, Kang YK: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma: single center experience with 61 patients. Acta Oncol; 2007;46(6):846-51
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  • [Title] Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma: single center experience with 61 patients.
  • Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a clinicopathological entity distinct from small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung.
  • The aim of this study was to review the clinico-pathologic features, treatment modalities, and factors prognostic for survival in patients with EPSCC.
  • The most common primary sites were the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (56%) and uterine cervix (18%).
  • Overall survival (OS) at 1 and 3 years was 59% and 29%, respectively, with a median survival of 16 months (range, 1 approximately 56 months).
  • Treatment information was available for 51 patients, 34 with LD and 17 with ED.
  • Surgery was the only treatment modality in five patients, two of whom remained alive and disease free at last follow-up, 27 and 47 months after surgery, respectively.
  • Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was administered to 11 patients, nine of whom (82%) had distant failure with a median overall survival of 23 months.
  • Of the eight patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, four (50%) had distant failure, with a median survival of 21.7 months.
  • Overall, the response to various treatment modalities and the median survival time observed were discouraging.
  • Fifty six percent of patients with a GI primary tumor had ED at the time of diagnosis, whereas 100% of patients with SCC of the uterine cervix had LD at the time of diagnosis and showed a favorable clinical course.
  • The majority of patients with LD SCC who underwent surgery, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, showed tumor recurrence and/or systemic metastases.
  • Clinical trials are needed to define adequate treatment strategies for EPSCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Oncol. 2009;48(2):317-8 [18752083.001]
  • (PMID = 17653910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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25. Huang CY, Chen YL, Chu TC, Cheng WF, Hsieh CY, Lin MC: Prognostic factors in women with early stage small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Oncol Res; 2009;18(5-6):279-86
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors in women with early stage small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCCUC) is an uncommon, aggressive disease accounting for less than 5% of all cervical cancers.
  • Due to its rarity, definitive treatment strategies have not been developed.
  • Our aim was to analyze the clinical factors, treatment modalities, sites of relapse, and overall survival of women with early stage SCCUC and thus determine prognostic factors.
  • The clinical records of 18 women diagnosed with stage IB1 to IIA SCCUC were reviewed, and patient characteristics and treatment modalities were analyzed to determine the prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS).
  • Radical hysterectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in higher 2-year survival rates compared to radical hysterectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (62.5% vs. 16.7%); however, the difference was not statistically significant due to the small sample size.
  • Further larger scale analysis is warranted to determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy may facilitate a better prognosis than adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20225765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0965-0407
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Malpica A, Moran CA: Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of two cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2002 Oct;6(5):281-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of two cases.
  • Two cases of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the cervix are presented.
  • The two female patients are 35 and 51 years of age who presented with abnormal uterine bleeding of several weeks' duration.
  • On gynecologic examination, a mass in the cervical area was palpated and a biopsy was obtained.
  • The initial biopsy was interpreted as possible small cell carcinoma in both women.
  • Grossly, in both cases, the uterine cervix showed an ill-defined tumor involving the ectocervix and endocervix, measuring 3.0 and 4.0 cm in greatest dimension, respectively, and showing areas of necrosis and hemorrhage.
  • Histologic sections showed the presence of a malignant neoplasm arranged in cords and with a vague nesting pattern.
  • The neoplastic cells were characterized by having indistinct cell borders, small round to oval nuclei, and inconspicuous nucleoli.
  • Both patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and remain alive 5 and 18 months after initial diagnosis, respectively.
  • The present cases highlight the importance of keeping primitive neuroectodermal tumors in the differential diagnosis of small cell neoplasms of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA)
  • (PMID = 12376920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Petru E, Pasterk C, Reich O, Obermair A, Winter R, Breitenecker G: Small-cell carcinoma of the uterus and the vagina: experience with ten patients. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2005 Apr;271(4):316-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small-cell carcinoma of the uterus and the vagina: experience with ten patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinomas (small-CCs) of the uterine cervix are rare and highly malignant neoplasms.
  • Patients tend to develop distant metastasis early and thus are potential candidates for systemic therapy.
  • We reviewed the experience with small-CCs of the uterus and vagina at two Austrian University hospitals.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients (median age, 50 years; range, 18-92) with small-CC of the cervix (n=7), uterine corpus (n=2), and the vagina (n=1) were treated at the two centers between 1988 and 1998.
  • Eight patients underwent radical surgery, 7 of whom also received chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: All Pap smears were suspicious for cervical malignancy.
  • Of the 7 patients with small-CC of the cervix only one, who had FIGO stage IIB disease and positive pelvic nodes, survived long-term (86 months) with no evidence of disease.
  • She had received six courses of dose-intensive platinum chemotherapy after radical surgery.
  • All three patients with small-CC of the uterine corpus or vagina developed recurrence within the first year after diagnosis.
  • Of the 7 patients who received chemotherapy, 5 developed progressive or recurrent disease in the paraaortic region (n=2), peritoneum (n=1), liver (n=1), or pelvis (n=1).
  • CONCLUSION: These results confirm the particularly unfavorable prognosis of patients with small-CC of the genital tract.
  • The optimal treatment for these patients most probably including concurrent chemo-radiotherapy remains to be defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15197564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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28. Sengoz M, Abacioglu U, Salepci T, Eren F, Yumuk F, Turhal S: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma: multimodality treatment results. Tumori; 2003 May-Jun;89(3):274-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma: multimodality treatment results.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is a distinct entity that can occur in many sites, and it is pathologically similar to small-cell lung cancer.
  • We report the results of a retrospective study of a multimodality treatment of 16 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Primary tumor site was prostate in 2, gallbladder in 2, uterine cervix in 2, liver in 2, endometrium in 1, epididymis in 1, colon in 1, larynx in 1, breast in 1, and unknown primary tumor in 3 patients.
  • Histologically, 14 were pure extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma and 2 were mixed with squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • All patients, except the one with a breast primary, were treated with chemotherapy (mostly platinum-based regimens).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment results for extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma are comparable to those of small-cell carcinomas of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12908782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Righetti PG, Castagna A, Antonucci F, Piubelli C, Cecconi D, Campostrini N, Rustichelli C, Antonioli P, Zanusso G, Monaco S, Lomas L, Boschetti E: Proteome analysis in the clinical chemistry laboratory: myth or reality? Clin Chim Acta; 2005 Jul 24;357(2):123-39
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the field of cancer research, it is here shown that stathmin (Op18) becomes heavily phosphorylated in cancerous mantle cell lymphomas and that the progression of the disease can be followed by the progression of phosphorylation of Op18 and by the appearance of additional phosphorylated spots.
  • Also chemoresistance of different tumors has been evaluated via 2D-PAGE through quantitative, differential proteomics: among up- and down-regulated proteins in a human cervix squamous cell carcinoma cell line (A431), rendered resistant to cisplatin, one particular protein was found to appear in large quantities by de novo synthesis: 14-3-3, a protein known to impart resistance to apoptosis to cells.
  • In the field of brain disorders, we could set up an easy test for detecting pathological prions in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), by simply searching for those pathological forms in the olfactory mucosa (up to this finding, diagnosis could only be confirmed post-mortem).
  • By this test, sCJD could be differentiated from all the other degenerative dementias, which are 14-3-3 negative (in sCJD, the rapid and massive brain cell damage releases large quantities of 14-3-3 in the cerebrospinal fluid).
  • Another protein that appears very promising as a marker for sCJD is cystatin C, that is strongly up-regulated in this pathology.
  • They consist in a library of combinatorial ligands coupled to small beads.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain Diseases / metabolism. Humans. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / metabolism


30. Stanley MA: Prognostic factors and new therapeutic approaches to cervical cancer. Virus Res; 2002 Nov;89(2):241-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors and new therapeutic approaches to cervical cancer.
  • Recent advances in the detection and therapy of carcinoma of the cervix and its squamous intra-epithelial precursor lesions exploit the knowledge that these lesions are a consequence of infection with high risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • HPV infections over-ride cell cycle controls and antibody based immunodetection of proteins that regulate DNA replication may facilitate mass automated cervical smear screening.
  • Detection of HR HPV DNA in smears from selected patient groups will improve detection of high grade precursor lesions and immunodetection of the cell cycle dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) seems to specifically and sensitively identify HGSIL.
  • Immunisation with HPV early proteins has been shown to have both prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in animal papillomavirus infections and immunotherapies for low grade intra-epithelial lesions are realistic.
  • (1) apoptosis as a consequence of small molecule or anti-sense targeting of individual HPV oncoproteins and (2) replicative senescence by down regulation of the early promoter by E2 or small molecule homologues.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Papillomaviridae / immunology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Viral Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / drug therapy. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Female. Genes, p16. Humans. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy. Prognosis. Tumor Virus Infections / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12445663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-1702
  • [Journal-full-title] Virus research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virus Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Viral Vaccines
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31. Viswanathan AN, Deavers MT, Jhingran A, Ramirez PT, Levenback C, Eifel PJ: Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: outcome and patterns of recurrence. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Apr;93(1):27-33
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: outcome and patterns of recurrence.
  • OBJECTIVES: To analyze the sites of relapse and overall survival in women with neuroendocrine marker-positive small cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • METHODS: The records of all women who had their initial treatment for cervical cancer at The University of Texas M.D.
  • Anderson Cancer Center between 1980 and 2000 were reviewed.
  • Fifty-one patients had stages I-III cancers that were originally described as "small cell" or "neuroendocrine."
  • Histological material was available for reexamination in 45 cases; of these, 21 were found to have small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC) as indicated by positive staining for chromogranin, synaptophysin, or CD56.
  • Local treatment consisted of a radical hysterectomy in six patients and radiation therapy in 15.
  • Thirteen patients received chemotherapy as part of their initial treatment.
  • The median time to first relapse from the initiation of treatment was 8.4 months (range, 3.6-28 months).
  • Most patients developed hematogenous distant metastases before their death.
  • Only 2 of 15 patients who were treated with radiation therapy had a recurrence within the radiation fields.
  • However, five patients had a recurrence above the radiation fields in the paraaortic lymph nodes, and two patients had a recurrence distal to the pelvic fields in the vagina.
  • However, two patients developed brain metastases concurrently with lung metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with small cell neuroendocrine cervical cancer have a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15047210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Menell JH, Chi DS, Hann LE, Hricak H: The use of MRI in the diagnosis and management of a bulky cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Jun;89(3):517-21
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The use of MRI in the diagnosis and management of a bulky cervical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In the treatment of gynecologic cancer, surgical planning depends on the site and extent of disease.
  • On speculum examination the cervix was not visible.
  • Surgery for presumed ovarian carcinoma was planned.
  • Because a vaginal Pap smear revealed squamous-cell carcinoma, MRI was performed for further evaluation.
  • MRI demonstrated a blood distended uterus with a large cervical tumor obstructing the endocervical os.
  • After cervical dilatation under sonographic guidance, evacuation of the hematometrium was performed.
  • Multiple biopsies of the cervix confirmed the diagnosis of a bulky Stage IIA squamous-cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • The patient was subsequently treated with concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Follow-up MRI demonstrated an excellent treatment response.
  • Modified radical hysterectomy was performed demonstrating very small residual tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging, through multiplanar capabilities and high-contrast resolution, is a valuable tool that can assist the clinician in the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of challenging gynecologic malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 12798721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Alvarez-Salas LM, DiPaolo JA: Molecular approaches to cervical cancer therapy. Curr Drug Discov Technol; 2007 Oct;4(3):208-19
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular approaches to cervical cancer therapy.
  • Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide.
  • Expression of viral oncogenes E6 and E7 disrupt the cell cycle by interfering with p53 and p107(Rb).
  • Furthermore, persistence of HPV-16 or 18 in women does not necessarily result in cancer.
  • The multi-step cervical carcinogenesis process is amendable to molecular therapeutics such as therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs).
  • TNA-based therapies for cervical carcinoma include ribozymes, antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ODNs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs).
  • In vitro experiments with TNAs successfully inhibited E6/E7 expression and caused induction of apoptosis and/or senescence in cervical carcinoma cells.
  • Early ribozyme and AS-ODN approaches showed promise as therapeutic moieties for cervical cancer.
  • Despite the very high in vitro efficiency of siRNA-based therapies they present the same issues that burdened clinical development of ribozymes and AS-ODNs.
  • Ribozymes are useful for functional genomic studies including diagnosis.
  • Moreover, AS-ODNs appear better suited for clinical protocols because recent advances in nucleic acid chemistry allow higher cell uptake with very low off-target effects leading to actual AS-ODNs clinical applications.
  • By using combined treatments with multiple targets it will be possible to apply TNAs directly to the cancerous cervix to destroy viral RNA and obliterate the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Oncogene Proteins, Viral / genetics. RNA Interference. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17986003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1570-1638
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug discovery technologies
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Drug Discov Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / oncogene protein E7, Human papillomavirus type 16
  • [Number-of-references] 138
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34. Alphandery C, Dagrada G, Frattini M, Perrone F, Pilotti S: Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix associated with endocervical adenocarcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jul-Aug;51(4):589-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix associated with endocervical adenocarcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is an uncommon member of the neuroendocrine group of cervical carcinomas that is frequently intermixed with a non-SCC component in the form of an adenocarcinoma (ADC) or squamous carcinoma.
  • CASE: Colposcopy revealed a cervical mass in a 41-year-old woman and a Pap smear the presence of some tumor cells from SCC, which was confirmed by subsequent biopsy.
  • The patient received 3 cycles of chemotherapy and then underwent major surgery.
  • The cervical samples showed areas of endocervical ADC adjacent to and intermixed with the SCC.
  • On subsequent molecular investigation to assess clonality by microsatellite analysis, the presence of HR-HPV DNA18 on real-time polymerase chain reaction, p16(INK4a) fluorescence in situ hybridization status and the corresponding immunohistochemical expression supported the hypothesis that the two components of the tumor shared the same cell origin.
  • CONCLUSION: SCC of the cervix is a rare but distinct HR-HPV-18-related cervical carcinoma often intermixed with a clonally related non-small cell component consisting of an ADC or squamous carcinoma.
  • The presence of SCC tumor cells in a cervical smear should prompt a search for malignant glandular or squamous tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Biopsy. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Papanicolaou Test. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 17718130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Synaptophysin
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35. Silver SA, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Mezzetti TP, Tavassoli FA: Mesonephric adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix: a study of 11 cases with immunohistochemical findings. Am J Surg Pathol; 2001 Mar;25(3):379-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mesonephric adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix: a study of 11 cases with immunohistochemical findings.
  • Mesonephric adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of cervical carcinoma with relatively few, well-documented cases reported.
  • Microscopically, the carcinomas showed various morphologies, most commonly a small tubular pattern or a ductal pattern resembling endometrioid adenocarcinoma; one tumor had an associated malignant spindle cell component.
  • In a patient with stage IB disease, a mediastinal metastasis and a malignant pleural effusion developed 5.6 years after diagnosis, and the patient died of disease at 6.2 years.
  • Another patient with stage IB disease and a positive vaginal cuff margin that recurred locally after 1.7 years received chemotherapy and was alive and clinically free of disease at 2.5 years.
  • This staining profile is similar to that of mesonephric remnants and may be useful in the distinction of mesonephric carcinoma from mullerian endometrioid adenocarcinoma, with which it may be confused.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesonephroma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate






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