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1. Al-Sayes FM: Gastrointestinal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a clinico-pathological study. Saudi J Gastroenterol; 2006 Sep-Dec;12(3):118-22
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a clinico-pathological study.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the clinico-pathological features of primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (GI NHL) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, and to compare our results to those reported in the literature.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three adult patients with primary GI NHL diagnosed over a 5-year period (2000 through 2005) were retrospectively studied clinically and histopathologically.
  • RESULTS: Of the 23 patients with primary GI NHL, 14 (60.9%) were Saudis, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3:1.
  • Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom (78.3%), and the most common primary site was the stomach (73.9%), followed by the small bowel (13%).
  • The most frequent histologic subtype was the diffuse large B cell lymphoma, accounting for 60.9% of all cases, followed by the marginal-zone cell lymphoma (MALT type), which was Helicobacter pylori associated (39.1%).
  • A large proportion of patients with primary GI NHL had early disease (Stage IE - 20%, Stage IIE - 58.6%).
  • With regards to treatment, 15 patients (65.2%) had chemotherapy, while only 2 patients (8.7%) were treated by Helicobacter pylori eradication.
  • CONCLUSION: The data demonstrated that primary GI NHL is more common among males, mainly in their sixth decade.
  • Diffuse large B cell lymphoma is the most frequent histologic subtype, followed by extranodal marginal-zone B cell lymphoma (MALT type), which was Helicobacter-associated.
  • A majority of cases have early disease (stage IE and IIE), mostly treated by combination chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 19858597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4049
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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2. Palanivelu C, Rangarajan M, Senthilkumar R, Annapoorni S: Laparoscopic management of an obstructing granulocytic sarcoma of the jejunum causing intussusception in a nonleukemic patient: report of a case. Surg Today; 2009;39(7):606-9
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  • Granulocytic sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract frequently involves the small intestine and often presents with abdominal pain and obstruction.
  • This type of manifestation has never before been reported.
  • The initial pathological findings were high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; immunohistochemistry confirmed a diagnosis of granulocytic sarcoma.
  • This condition is often mistaken for lymphoma and confirmation is necessary by immunohistochemistry.
  • Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice and surgery is indicated only in the event of complications, such as bowel obstruction, bleeding, or perforation.

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  • (PMID = 19562450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Olnes MJ, Nicol T, Duncan M, Bohlman M, Erlich R: Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma: a rare malignancy responsive to ABVD chemotherapy. Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Apr;43(4):817-21
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  • [Title] Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma: a rare malignancy responsive to ABVD chemotherapy.
  • Patients with this malignancy have been treated with chemotherapy regimens used against non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • Staging of the tumor with CT scan, PET scan, and bone marrow biopsy demonstrated inguinal and abdominal lymphadenopathies, a large mass encasing the small bowel, and extensive liver infiltration.
  • Morphologic and cytochemical analysis of biopsies from the abdominal mass and inguinal node were consistent with a diagnosis of IDCS, and immunohistochemical stains of the lymph node were positive for CLA, Kp-1, S-100, while negative for CD1a, CD3, CD20, CKER, and HMB45.
  • Treatment of this patient with ABVD chemotherapy resulted in rapid clinical improvement with a marked decrease in tumor burden after two cycles of ABVD, and a complete response after six cycles of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dendritic Cells / pathology. Sarcoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12153170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ABVD protocol
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4. Horneff G: [Malignancy and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in juvenile idiopathic arthritis]. Z Rheumatol; 2010 Aug;69(6):516-26
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  • INTRODUCTION: Reports on malignancies observed in children exposed to TNF-inhibitors have raised questions about a potentially increased risk for lymphoma in particular.
  • To date, the number of children exposed to biologicals is small.
  • In addition, knowledge about the background incidence of malignancies in children with JIA and the influence of co-medication is limited.
  • RESULTS: Between 2001 and 2009 five cases of malignancy were documented in the German JIA Etanercept in Children Registry covering 1200 patients, including one case each of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, thyroid cancer, yolk sac cancer, and cervical dysplasia.
  • All five patients had been treated with a number of other drugs including cytotoxic drugs (methotrexate, leflunomide, azathioprine, cyclosporine A) before institution of etanercept therapy.
  • Malignancy appeared after an etanercept treatment period of between 3 weeks and more than 6 years.
  • At the time of diagnosis, three patients were still on etanercept, five on methotrexate and one on infliximab.
  • CONCLUSION: This case series of JIA and malignancy shows that prior to starting treatment with TNF-inhibitors careful consideration needs to be given to the possible benefits and risks.
  • [MeSH-major] Antirheumatic Agents / adverse effects. Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Arthritis, Juvenile / drug therapy. Biological Products / adverse effects. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adalimumab. Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Child. Cross-Sectional Studies. Drug Therapy, Combination. Etanercept. Germany. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / adverse effects. Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use. Leukemia / chemically induced. Leukemia / epidemiology. Lymphoma / chemically induced. Lymphoma / epidemiology. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use. Registries. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 20532787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-1250
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Rheumatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Biological Products; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; FYS6T7F842 / Adalimumab; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
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5. Toubai T, Tanaka J, Ota S, Mori A, Ibata M, Shono Y, Mashiko S, Sugita J, Miura Y, Kato N, Umehara S, Kahata K, Toyoshima N, Asaka M, Imamura M: Successful reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST) for a patient with malignant lymphoma and an ileostomy. Intern Med; 2005 May;44(5):476-9
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  • [Title] Successful reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST) for a patient with malignant lymphoma and an ileostomy.
  • A 56-year-old man was admitted for treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • He had undergone a partial small bowel and colon resection and had ileostomy due to bowel perforation induced by chemotherapy.
  • After the operation, his disease status was in partial remission (PR), and reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation (RIST) was therefore performed for further improvement of disease status.
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was performed using cyclosporin and short-term methotrexate.
  • [MeSH-major] Ileostomy. Intestinal Perforation / surgery. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Biopsy. Colon / radiography. Colon / radionuclide imaging. Colon / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Mediastinum / pathology. Mediastinum / radiography. Mediastinum / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Rupture, Spontaneous. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15942098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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6. Koch P, del Valle F, Berdel WE, Willich NA, Reers B, Hiddemann W, Grothaus-Pinke B, Reinartz G, Brockmann J, Temmesfeld A, Schmitz R, Rübe C, Probst A, Jaenke G, Bodenstein H, Junker A, Pott C, Schultze J, Heinecke A, Parwaresch R, Tiemann M, German Multicenter Study Group: Primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: I. Anatomic and histologic distribution, clinical features, and survival data of 371 patients registered in the German Multicenter Study GIT NHL 01/92. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Sep 15;19(18):3861-73
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  • [Title] Primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: I. Anatomic and histologic distribution, clinical features, and survival data of 371 patients registered in the German Multicenter Study GIT NHL 01/92.
  • PURPOSE: The study was initiated to obtain epidemiologic data and information on anatomic and histologic distribution, clinical features, and treatment results in patients with primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (PGI NHL).
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were stratified according to histologic grading, stage, and whether surgery had been carried out or not.
  • Within the intestine, the small bowel and the ileocecal region were involved in 8.6% and 7.0% of the cases, respectively.
  • Forty percent of PGL were of low-grade mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue type.
  • Most intestinal NHL were germinal-center lymphomas.
  • In gastric and ileocecal lymphoma, event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly higher as compared with the small intestine or MGI (median time of observation, 51 months).
  • In PGL, localized disease was prognostic for EFS and OS.
  • Numbers in intestinal lymphomas were too small for subanalyses.
  • Larger studies are needed for stages III and IV and for intestinal NHL.
  • A uniform reporting system for PGI NHL, in terms of definitions and histologic and staging classifications, is needed to facilitate comparison of treatment results.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11559724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Hata S, Pietsch J, Shankar S: Intestinal complications in children undergoing chemotherapy for mediastinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Dec;21(8):707-10
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  • [Title] Intestinal complications in children undergoing chemotherapy for mediastinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Toxicities involving gastrointestinal tract are common in patients undergoing aggressive chemotherapy for cancer.
  • However, it is uncommon to develop severe ulceration or perforation of the small intestine in absence of direct involvement of the bowel with the malignancy.
  • The authors describe two children who developed severe gastrointestinal complications requiring surgical intervention following initial chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Both patients had no evidence of small bowel involvement by lymphoma on clinical staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / toxicity. Intestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Mediastinal Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 15739625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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8. Aguayo P, Ho B, Fraser JD, Gamis A, St Peter SD, Snyder CL: Bowel obstruction after treatment of intra-abdominal tumors. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Jul;20(4):234-6
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  • [Title] Bowel obstruction after treatment of intra-abdominal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumors of the solid viscera are one of the most common types of pediatric malignancies.
  • Due to the intra-abdominal location of many of these neoplasms, laparotomy and/or bowel resection are often necessary, predisposing patients to postoperative intestinal obstruction.
  • Additionally, chemotherapy and radiation therapy may lead to acute and chronic bowel injury, also potentially predisposing these patients to postoperative bowel obstruction.
  • METHODS: A retrospective data analysis of all patients diagnosed with intra-abdominal Wilms' tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, and Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a single institution from 1997 to 2007 was conducted.
  • Data collected included demographic factors, operations, incidence of small bowel obstruction (SBO) and the use of adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy.
  • Patients who developed SBO were compared to those who did not develop obstruction.
  • Data comparisons were analyzed statistically using Fisher's exact test, 2-tailed Student's t-Test, or chi-square proportional analysis with significance reported for p<0.05.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 8.1+/-5.8 years.
  • Tumor distribution was as follows: Wilms' tumor: 56 (19%); non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: 71 (24%); Hodgkin's lymphoma: 64 (22%); rhabdomyosarcoma: 32 (11%); and neuroblastoma: 68 (24%).
  • There were a total of 12 bowel obstructions in 11 patients (3.7%).
  • Children with bowel obstruction were more likely to be male (4.5:1, p=0.061) and younger (4.2 years versus 8.1 years; p=0.087).
  • Wilms' tumor accounted for 45% of patients with bowel obstruction, but made up only 19% of the study population.
  • The incidence of bowel obstruction in patients with Wilms' tumor was 8.9% compared to an overall incidence of 3.8% (p=0.043).
  • CONCLUSION: Bowel obstruction is relatively uncommon after intra-abdominal malignancies in children.
  • Wilms' tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma and Burkitt's lymphoma appear to be associated with the highest risk of bowel obstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / surgery. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Laparotomy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20496318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-359X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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9. Kumar R, Xiu Y, Potenta S, Mavi A, Zhuang H, Yu JQ, Dhurairaj T, Dadparvar S, Alavi A: 18F-FDG PET for evaluation of the treatment response in patients with gastrointestinal tract lymphomas. J Nucl Med; 2004 Nov;45(11):1796-803
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET for evaluation of the treatment response in patients with gastrointestinal tract lymphomas.
  • (18)F-FDG PET is highly sensitive and specific for evaluation of the treatment response of nodal and extranodal diseases in patients with malignant lymphomas.
  • However, no data are available in the literature with regard to (18)F-FDG PET for evaluation of the treatment response in patients with lymphomas with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) involvement.
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET in monitoring the response to the treatment of lymphomas in this setting.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 19 patients with different types of lymphomas (10 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 4 follicular lymphomas, 3 mantle cell lymphomas, and 2 Hodgkin's disease) involving GIT.
  • Among 19 patients, 4 had gastric involvement, 13 had small bowel involvement, and 2 had small bowel plus colon involvement by lymphomas.
  • All patients underwent (18)F-FDG PET before and after the completion of therapy.
  • Posttreatment CT scans were negative for 10 patients but showed persistent disease in the remaining 9 patients.
  • Of the 9 patients who showed persistent disease, 6 (67%) relapsed and 3 (33%) remained in remission after the mean follow-up of 20 mo.
  • Patients with positive (18)F-FDG PET results had statistically significantly lower disease-free survival (DFS) (0%) than did those with positive CT results (33%) (P = 0.04).
  • CONCLUSION: A positive (18)F-FDG PET scan after the completion of chemotherapy in patients with lymphomas with GIT involvement is a strong predictor of relapse. (18)F-FDG PET has higher diagnostic accuracy than CT in the detection of residual disease after therapy.
  • Despite the mild physiologic (18)F-FDG uptake in the GIT, (18)F-FDG PET has potential value in monitoring the response to treatment in patients with GIT lymphomas, particularly when pretreatment PET results are positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15534046.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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10. Mori M, Niitsu N, Takagi T, Tomiyama J, Matsue T, Nakagawa Y, Okamoto R: Reduced-dose chop therapy for elderly patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 Apr;41(3-4):359-66
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  • [Title] Reduced-dose chop therapy for elderly patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • While CHOP therapy is effective for malignant lymphoma, the optimum schedule for elderly patients remains controversial.
  • The present study investigated the usefulness of reduced-dose CHOP therapy for elderly patients.
  • Previously untreated patients aged 65 years or older with intermediate to high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were given up to 6 courses of reduced-dose CHOP therapy at 3-week intervals.
  • Fifty-seven patients were evaluable and the scheduled therapy was completed in 37.
  • Grade 3 cardiac plus renal failure, grade 3 peritonitis due to small bowel perforation, and grade 3 liver dysfunction occurred in 1 patient each.
  • In conclusion, it seems that in the elderly patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, response to reduced-dose ((5/6) dose) CHOP therapy is comparable to that for standard CHOP in younger adults, mainly because of improved dose-intensity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / toxicity. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / toxicity. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / toxicity. Female. Humans. Male. Pilot Projects. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / toxicity. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 11378549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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11. Liauw SL, Yeh AM, Morris CG, Olivier KR, Mendenhall NP: Whole-abdomen radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using twice-daily fractionation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Dec 1;66(5):1440-5
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  • [Title] Whole-abdomen radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using twice-daily fractionation.
  • PURPOSE: To report the tolerability and efficacy of twice-daily whole-abdomen irradiation (WAI) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Of 123 patients treated for NHL with WAI, 37% received previous chemotherapy, 28% received WAI as part of comprehensive lymphatic irradiation (CLI), and 32% received WAI for palliation.
  • The median dose to the whole abdomen was 25.0 Gy, followed by a median tumor boost of 9.8 Gy in 58 patients.
  • Fractionation was 1.0 Gy once daily (54%) or 0.8 Gy twice daily (46%).
  • Median time of WAI was 42 days for once-daily treatment and 32 days for twice-daily treatment.
  • Overall, acute thrombocytopenia was the most frequent side effect of treatment; 24 of 96 patients (25%) with available hematologic data had Grade 3+ toxicity.
  • There was no acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and no late small bowel obstruction.
  • Multiple regression indicated that patients with four or less involved sites and disease size < or =6 cm had improved local control and overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Twice-daily WAI using 0.8 Gy/fraction does not appear to have any greater toxicity compared with once-daily treatment using 1 Gy/fraction.
  • Small doses per fraction (0.8-1 Gy/fx) are effective, tolerated well in the acute setting, and associated with a low rate of late toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16997504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Khomov DA, Sinev IuV, Sotnikov VM: [Evaluation of the small bowel in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma during and late after chemoradiation therapy]. Vestn Rentgenol Radiol; 2008;(2-3):43-8
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of the small bowel in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma during and late after chemoradiation therapy].
  • The paper describes the experience in using capsule endoscopy to diagnose small bowel lesions during and after chemoradiation therapy in patients with diagnosed Hodgkin's lymphoma and an attempt to compare the current views of normal tissue response to ionizing radiation, as well as drugs used for chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Capsule Endoscopy. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Intestinal Diseases / pathology. Intestine, Small / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Radiotherapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 21337763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Vestnik rentgenologii i radiologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vestn Rentgenol Radiol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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13. Rawls RA, Vega KJ, Trotman BW: Small Bowel Lymphoma. Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol; 2003 Feb;6(1):27-34
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  • [Title] Small Bowel Lymphoma.
  • Treatment of small bowel lymphoma requires the expertise of medical and surgical subspecialists.
  • The two most important factors that determine the optimal treatment are histology and staging of small bowel lymphoma.
  • Other factors that may affect treatment include age, multiple areas of involvement, tumor size, and perforation.
  • At present, the best treatment for gastrointestinal lymphoma (stage IE disease) is limited resection of the tumor, followed by postoperative radiotherapy.
  • The cure rate is approximately 75% for stage IE patients, even for those with aggressive histologic types.
  • Chemotherapy is reserved for advanced-staged tumors.
  • In patients with regional nodal involvement or extranodal involvement confined to one side of the diaphragm (pathologic stage IIE disease), chemotherapy should be combined with radiation therapy.
  • The best chemotherapy regimen depends on the histology of the tumor.
  • For diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the most frequently diagnosed subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), the CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) is still the gold standard.
  • Clinical trials have been conducted evaluating the new monoclonal antibody rituximab, along with the CHOP regimen for primary NHL.
  • The use of rituximab in the treatment of extranodal lymphoma is still being evaluated.
  • Low-grade lymphomas have a more indolent course and do not respond as well to combination chemotherapy agents as the high-grade tumors.
  • Some promising results have been reported using the chemoimmunotherapy agent rituximab alone or in combination with fludarabine for the treatment of low-grade NHL.
  • In patients with nodal involvement on both sides of the diaphragm or other extranodal involvement such as bone marrow or liver (pathologic stages IIIE and IVE), the disease is managed primarily with combination chemotherapy.
  • Radiation therapy is reserved for treatment of initially bulky tumor sites, treatment of residual disease following chemotherapy, or serious local problems.
  • The disease can be controlled in 25% to 40% of patients with stage IIIE or IVE disease.
  • As with stage IIE disease, the optimal chemotherapy regimen depends on the histologic subtype of NHL.

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  • (PMID = 12521569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-8472
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in gastroenterology
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14. Ramia JM, Sancho E, Lozano O, Santos JM, Garrido F: [Primary small bowel lymphoma]. Cir Esp; 2007 Jan;81(1):46-8
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  • [Title] [Primary small bowel lymphoma].
  • We present four patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the small bowel.
  • Three patients had large B-cell lymphomas and the remaining patient had a T-cell lymphoma associated with celiac disease.
  • Different combinations of chemotherapy were administered.
  • Only the patient with T-cell lymphoma died due to disease progression.
  • Clinical aspects and the therapeutic strategy used in these tumors are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ileal Neoplasms. Jejunal Neoplasms. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse. Lymphoma, T-Cell

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  • (PMID = 17263959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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15. Psyrri A, Papageorgiou S, Economopoulos T: Primary extranodal lymphomas of stomach: clinical presentation, diagnostic pitfalls and management. Ann Oncol; 2008 Dec;19(12):1992-9
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  • [Title] Primary extranodal lymphomas of stomach: clinical presentation, diagnostic pitfalls and management.
  • Gastrointestinal lymphoma is the most common form of extranodal lymphoma, accounting for 30%-40% of cases.
  • The most commonly involved site is the stomach (60%-75% of cases), followed by the small bowel, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum.
  • The most common histological subtypes are diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).
  • Helicobacter pylori infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of MALT gastric lymphoma, but its role in gastric diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is controversial.
  • The therapeutic approach for patients with gastric NHL has been revised over the last 10 years.
  • Conservative treatment with anthracycline-based chemotherapy alone or in combination with involved-field radiotherapy has replaced gastrectomy as standard therapy in cases with DLBCL.
  • Nevertheless, various therapeutic aspects for primary gastric lymphomas are still controversial and several questions remain unanswered.

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  • (PMID = 18647965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2733120
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16. Toffoli G, Corona G, Basso B, Boiocchi M: Pharmacokinetic optimisation of treatment with oral etoposide. Clin Pharmacokinet; 2004;43(7):441-66
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  • [Title] Pharmacokinetic optimisation of treatment with oral etoposide.
  • Etoposide is a derivative of podophyllotoxin widely used in the treatment of several neoplasms, including small cell lung cancer, germ cell tumours and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • Oral administration of etoposide represents the most feasible and economic strategy to maintain effective concentrations of drug for extended times.
  • Nevertheless, the efficacy of oral etoposide therapy is contingent on circumventing pharmacokinetic limitations, mainly low and variable bioavailability.
  • Inhibition of small bowel and hepatic metabolism of etoposide with specific cytochrome P450 inhibitors or inhibition of the intestinal P-glycoprotein efflux pump have been attempted to increase the bioavailability of oral etoposide, but the best results were obtained with daily oral administration of low etoposide doses (50-100 mg/day for 14-21 days).
  • Pharmacokinetic parameters such as plasma trough concentration between two oral administrations (C(24,trough)), drug exposure time above a threshold value and area under the plasma concentration-time curve have been correlated with the pharmacodynamic effect of oral etoposide.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacokinetics. Etoposide / pharmacokinetics. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Area Under Curve. Biological Availability. Half-Life. Humans. Intestinal Absorption. Structure-Activity Relationship. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 15139794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0312-5963
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical pharmacokinetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Pharmacokinet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
  • [Number-of-references] 178
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17. Chen CQ, Yin L, Peng CH, Zhao R, Chen GM, Zhou HJ, Li HW: [Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of small bowel: a clinical analysis of 34 cases]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May;10(3):249-52
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  • [Title] [Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of small bowel: a clinical analysis of 34 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics,treatment and prognosis of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of small bowel.
  • METHODS: The records of 34 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of small bowel, registered between Jan.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients had B-cell lymphoma and 7 had T-cell lymphoma of the small bowel.
  • The major symptoms included abdominal pain and intestinal obstruction.
  • According to Ann Arbor staging classification, 22 patients belonged to stage I~II, including 20 cases of B-cell lymphoma and 2 cases of T-cell lymphoma, and 12 patients belonged to stage III~IV, including 7 cases of B-cell lymphoma and 5 cases of T-cell lymphoma.
  • Compared with T-cell lymphoma patients, B-cell lymphoma patients had lower lymphoma stages (P<0.05).
  • Fourteen patients were treated with six cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP) chemotherapy, and 8 patients were treated with Rituximab at the same time.
  • T-cell lymphoma patients were more often treated with emergent operation than B-cell lymphoma patients would (P<0.05).
  • It happened more frequently that B-cell lymphoma patients reached complete remission and their accumulative survival rate was longer than T-cell lymphoma patients did (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with stages I and II B-cell lymphoma of small bowel respond well to surgery and chemotherapy, and the treatment and prognosis of patients with T-cell lymphoma of small bowel are unsatisfactory.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestine, Small / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies


18. Novakovic BJ, Novakovic S, Frkovic-Grazio S: A single-center report on clinical features and treatment response in patients with intestinal T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Oncol Rep; 2006 Jul;16(1):191-5
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  • [Title] A single-center report on clinical features and treatment response in patients with intestinal T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • Intestinal T cell lymphomas are rare, but highly aggressive in their clinical course.
  • Generally diagnosed in advanced stages and presenting as surgical emergencies, they also respond poorly to standard anti-lymphoma therapies.
  • Since these lymphomas are still not well characterized, we aimed our retrospective research at the evaluation of clinical features and treatment response in patients with intestinal T cell lymphomas diagnosed between February 1996 and November 2004.
  • Details of history, physical examination, staging investigation, treatment and outcome were taken from patient records.
  • Ten (67%) patients had enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL) and 5 (33%) had peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL).
  • Surgery was performed on 11 patients with 8 cases on an emergency basis; all visible disease was resected in only 3 patients.
  • In the continuation of treatment, all 15 patients received chemotherapy (predominantly CHOP).
  • Six patients were treated with field radiotherapy as a part of the first treatment.
  • In total, complete response was achieved in 6 patients (40%) with a median duration of 5.3 months (range, 2 to 12 months), stable disease in 3 patients (20%), and progressive disease in 6 patients (40%).
  • Results were better in patients with limited disease.
  • The most frequent treatment complications were small bowel perforation, obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding, and infection.
  • Even though some patients underwent second- and third-line treatment, 13 (87%) of the total 15 patients died from progressive disease or complications of treatment.
  • The prognosis and standard treatment of patients with intestinal T cell lymphomas are unsatisfactory with only a few long-term survivors.
  • Therefore, earlier diagnosis and the development of more effective treatments are urgently required to improve the prospects of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Intestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16786145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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19. Bai M, Katsanos KH, Economou M, Kamina S, Balli C, Briasoulis E, Kappas AM, Agnantis N, Tsianos EV: Rectal Epstein-Barr virus-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with Crohn's disease: case report and review of the literature. Scand J Gastroenterol; 2006 Jul;41(7):866-9
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  • [Title] Rectal Epstein-Barr virus-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with Crohn's disease: case report and review of the literature.
  • We present the case of a 35-year-old man with Crohn's disease diagnosed at the age of 27, several months after an operation for small-bowel adenocarcinoma.
  • Seven years after the adenocarcinoma diagnosis, the patient presented with severe continuous anal pain and diarrhea.
  • In parallel with antibiotic administration, the patient was given treatment with Infliximab, but without clinical symptom amelioration.
  • Sigmoidoscopy and subsequent biopsies from an ulcerated rectal area supported the diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV+) primary Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Infliximab administration was immediately discontinued and the patient underwent oncological follow-up and began a course of chemotherapy.
  • Only a few cases with primary gastrointestinal Hodgkin's lymphoma in Crohn's disease patients have so far been reported, including a variety of scenarios on the causal relationship including disease duration, presence of EBV, long-term immunosuppressive treatment and, recently, anti-TNFalpha administration.
  • [MeSH-major] Crohn Disease / complications. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Hodgkin Disease / complications. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Rectal Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / virology

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  • (PMID = 16785203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5521
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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20. Greco L, Maggi P, Ialongo P, Lospalluti M, Polizzi RA, Catalano G: Acute onset of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with bowel perforation in a patient with over 15 years' HIV positivity. A case report. Chir Ital; 2002 Nov-Dec;54(6):893-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acute onset of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with bowel perforation in a patient with over 15 years' HIV positivity. A case report.
  • The authors report a rare case of acute onset of ileal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with acute abdomen due to bowel perforation.
  • The patient had been on continuous, differentiated pharmacological treatment for the previous 5 years, and in the last month had had repeated episodes of fever with no clear aetiopathogenesis.
  • The patient was admitted as an emergency case with a picture of acute abdomen and was immediately operated on; ileal perforation due to multiple lymphomatous lesions in the small bowel was diagnosed.
  • The histological diagnosis was large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma type B.
  • After the operation, the patient was treated by chemotherapy and, currently, after a 12-month follow-up, is in good general condition.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Seropositivity / complications. Intestinal Neoplasms / complications. Intestinal Perforation / etiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / complications. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Humans. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12613342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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21. Salemis NS, Tsiambas E, Liatsos C, Karameris A, Tsohataridis E: Small bowel intussusception due to a primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. An unusual presentation and clinical course. J Gastrointest Cancer; 2010 Dec;41(4):233-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Small bowel intussusception due to a primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. An unusual presentation and clinical course.
  • Symptoms and signs are often vague and non-specific making a preoperative diagnosis difficult.
  • The purpose of this study is to present a rare case of a jejuno-jejunal intussusception due to primary intestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with an unusual clinical course.
  • Computed tomography scan and ultrasonography findings were suggestive of small bowel intussusception.
  • RESULTS: Laparotomy revealed a jejuno-jejunal intussusception caused by a primary B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 20 cm distal to the ligament of Treitz.
  • The patient refused postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Seven months later, he presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and the diagnostic evaluation revealed gastric infiltration of large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Despite chemotherapy, he died of disseminated progressive disease 7 months later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adult jejuno-jejunal intussusception due to primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a rare clinical entity.
  • Appropriate investigations can lead to a prompt preoperative diagnosis.
  • Resection without prior reduction is the treatment of choice.
  • Our patient's refusal of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy likely resulted in relapse of the disease in another part of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Intussusception / etiology. Jejunal Neoplasms / complications. Jejunal Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / complications

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  • (PMID = 20411355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-6636
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointest Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Kella VK, Constantine R, Parikh NS, Reed M, Cosgrove JM, Abo SM, King S: Mantle cell lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract presenting with multiple intussusceptions--case report and review of literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mantle cell lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract presenting with multiple intussusceptions--case report and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that originates from small to medium sized lymphocytes located in the mantle zone of the lymph node.
  • Extra nodal involvement is present in the majority of cases, with a peculiar tendency to invade the gastro-intestinal tract in the form of multiple lymphomatous polyposis.
  • Few cases of mantle cell lymphoma presenting with intussuception have been reported.
  • Here we present a rare case of multiple intussusceptions caused by mantle cell lymphoma and review the literature of this disease.
  • The histology and immuno-histochemistry of the excised small and large bowel revealed mantle cell lymphoma with multiple lymphomatous polyposis and positivity to Cyclin D1 marker.
  • The patient was successfully treated with Rituximab-CHOP chemotherapy and remains in complete remission at one-year follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: This is a rare case of intestinal lymphomatous polyposis due to mantle cell lymphoma presenting with multiple small bowel intussusceptions.
  • Our case highlights laparoscopic-assisted bowel resection as a potential and feasible option in the multi-disciplinary treatment of mantle cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / complications. Ileal Diseases / etiology. Intussusception / etiology. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / complications






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