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1. Sharov AA, Mardaryev AN, Sharova TY, Grachtchouk M, Atoyan R, Byers HR, Seykora JT, Overbeek P, Dlugosz A, Botchkarev VA: Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist noggin promotes skin tumorigenesis via stimulation of the Wnt and Shh signaling pathways. Am J Pathol; 2009 Sep;175(3):1303-14
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  • [Title] Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist noggin promotes skin tumorigenesis via stimulation of the Wnt and Shh signaling pathways.
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play pivotal roles in the regulation of skin development.
  • To study the role of BMPs in skin tumorigenesis, BMP antagonist noggin was used to generate keratin 14-targeted transgenic mice.
  • In contrast to wild-type mice, transgenic mice developed spontaneous hair follicle-derived tumors, which resemble human trichofolliculoma.
  • Global gene expression profiles revealed that in contrast to anagen hair follicles of wild-type mice, tumors of transgenic mice showed stage-dependent increases in the expression of genes encoding the selected components of Wnt and Shh pathways.
  • Specifically, expression of the Wnt ligands increased at the initiation stage of tumor formation, whereas expression of the Wnt antagonist and tumor suppressor Wnt inhibitory factor-1 decreased, as compared with fully developed tumors.
  • In contrast, expression of the components of Shh pathway increased in fully developed tumors, as compared with the tumor placodes.
  • Consistent with the expression data, pharmacological treatment of transgenic mice with Wnt and Shh antagonists resulted in the stage-dependent inhibition of tumor initiation, and progression, respectively.
  • Furthermore, BMP signaling stimulated Wnt inhibitory factor-1 expression and promoter activity in cultured tumor cells and HaCaT keratinocytes, as well as inhibited Shh expression, as compared with the corresponding controls.
  • Thus, tumor suppressor activity of the BMPs in skin epithelium depends on the local concentrations of noggin and is mediated at least in part via stage-dependent antagonizing of Wnt and Shh signaling pathways.

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  • (PMID = 19700758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K01 AR056771; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR 49778; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R56 AR049778; United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / / BB/E023010/1; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR049778
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Morphogenetic Proteins; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / SHH protein, human; 0 / Shh protein, mouse; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 148294-77-3 / noggin protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2731148
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2. Egles C, Huet HA, Dogan F, Cho S, Dong S, Smith A, Knight EB, McLachlan KR, Garlick JA: Integrin-blocking antibodies delay keratinocyte re-epithelialization in a human three-dimensional wound healing model. PLoS One; 2010;5(5):e10528
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  • The alpha6beta4 integrin plays a significant role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis through modulation of growth factor signaling, and is a potentially important therapeutic target.
  • However, alpha6beta4-mediated cell-matrix adhesion is critical in normal keratinocyte attachment, signaling and anchorage to the basement membrane through its interaction with laminin-5, raising potential risks for targeted therapy.
  • Bioengineered Human Skin Equivalent (HSE), which have been shown to mimic their normal and wounded counterparts, have been used here to investigate the consequences of targeting beta4 to establish toxic effects on normal tissue homeostasis and epithelial wound repair.
  • We tested two antibodies directed to different beta4 epitopes, one adhesion-blocking (ASC-8) and one non-adhesion blocking (ASC-3), and determined that these antibodies were appropriately localized to the basal surface of keratinocytes at the basement membrane interface where beta4 is expressed.
  • While normal tissue architecture was not altered, ASC-8 induced a sub-basal split at the basement membrane in non-wounded tissue.
  • In addition, wound closure was significantly inhibited by ASC-8, but not by ASC-3, as the epithelial tongue only covered 40 percent of the wound area at 120 hours post-wounding.
  • These results demonstrate beta4 adhesion-blocking antibodies may have adverse effects on normal tissue, whereas antibodies directed to other epitopes may provide safer alternatives for therapy.
  • Taken together, we conclude that these three-dimensional tissue models provide a biologically relevant platform to identify toxic effects induced by candidate therapeutics, which will allow generation of findings that are more predictive of in vivo responses early in the drug development process.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Blocking / pharmacology. Epithelium / metabolism. Integrins / immunology. Keratinocytes / drug effects. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Models, Biological. Wound Healing / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibody Specificity / drug effects. Biological Assay. Cell Adhesion Molecules / immunology. Cell Movement / drug effects. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Integrin beta4 / immunology. Male. Protein Binding / drug effects. Skin, Artificial. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 20502640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Blocking; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Integrin beta4; 0 / Integrins; 0 / kalinin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2873945
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3. Ku TK, Crowe DL: Coactivator-mediated estrogen response in human squamous cell carcinoma lines. J Endocrinol; 2007 Apr;193(1):147-55
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • Estrogen signaling in non-reproductive tract tissues such as skin is less well characterized and the effectiveness of anti-estrogen therapy for cancer arising from these tissues is unknown.
  • We show that tamoxifen (TAM) treatment inhibited cell cycle progression and proliferation of human cancer lines derived from stratified squamous epithelium squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • The E2 treatment promoted displacement of the NCoR from ERalpha and recruitment of CBP to the receptor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western / methods. Breast Neoplasms. CREB-Binding Protein / genetics. CREB-Binding Protein / metabolism. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Humans. Lipids / administration & dosage. Lipids / genetics. Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection / methods

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  • (PMID = 17400812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CREBBP protein, human; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Lipofectamine; 0 / Transcription Factors; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; EC 2.3.1.48 / CREB-Binding Protein; EC 2.3.1.48 / Histone Acetyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.48 / NCOA1 protein, human; EC 2.3.1.48 / Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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4. Hammers HJ, Verheul HM, Salumbides B, Sharma R, Rudek M, Jaspers J, Shah P, Ellis L, Shen L, Paesante S, Dykema K, Furge K, Teh BT, Netto G, Pili R: Reversible epithelial to mesenchymal transition and acquired resistance to sunitinib in patients with renal cell carcinoma: evidence from a xenograft study. Mol Cancer Ther; 2010 Jun;9(6):1525-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reversible epithelial to mesenchymal transition and acquired resistance to sunitinib in patients with renal cell carcinoma: evidence from a xenograft study.
  • Although treatment with TKIs has shown clinical benefit, these drugs will eventually fail patients.
  • To address this question, we obtained an excisional biopsy of a skin metastasis from a patient with clear cell renal carcinoma who initially had a response to sunitinib and eventually progressed with therapy.
  • Tumor pieces were grafted s.c. in athymic nude mice.
  • Tumor size, microvascular density, and pericyte coverage were determined.
  • Plasma as well as tissue levels for sunitinib were assessed.
  • A tumor-derived cell line was established and assessed in vitro for potential direct antitumor effects of sunitinib.
  • To our surprise, xenografts from the patient who progressed on sunitinib regained sensitivity to the drug.
  • More interestingly, histologic examination of the original skin metastasis revealed evidence of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, whereas the xenografts showed reversion to the clear cell phenotype.
  • In vitro studies showed no inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth at pharmacologically relevant concentrations.
  • In conclusion, the histologic examination in this xenograft study suggests that reversible epithelial to mesenchymal transition may be associated with acquired tumor resistance to TKIs in patients with clear cell renal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20501804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8514
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / P30 CA006973-48; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / S10 RR026824; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / S10 RR026824-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973-48
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; EC 6.3.2.19 / Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS274514; NLM/ PMC3049816
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5. van Staveren HJ, Speelman OC, Witjes MJ, Cincotta L, Star WM: Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of ethyl nile blue A in animal models of (pre)malignancies. Photochem Photobiol; 2001 Jan;73(1):32-8
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  • Discrimination between normal and premalignant tissues by fluorescence imaging and/or spectroscopy may be enhanced by a tumor-localizing fluorescent drug.
  • The pharmacokinetics and tissue-localizing properties were investigated in a rat palate model with chemically induced premalignant mucosal lesions (0.5 mg/kg EtNBA intravenous [i.v.
  • ]), a hairless mouse model with UVB-induced premalignant skin lesions (1 mg/kg EtNBA intraperitoneal) and in a rat skin-fold observation chamber model on the back of a rat with a transplanted solid tumor (2.5 mg/kg EtNBA i.v.).
  • Fluorescence images and spectra were recorded in vivo (600 nm excitation, 665-900 nm detection) and in frozen tissue sections at several time points after EtNBA administration.
  • In the rat palate the EtNBA fluorescence was maximum almost immediately after injection, whereas in the mouse skin and the observation chamber the fluorescence maximum was reached between 2 and 3 h after injection.
  • EtNBA cleared from tissues after 8-24 h.
  • EtNBA localizes in the transplantable solid tumor, but is not targeted specifically to the dysplastic location in the rat palate and mouse skin.
  • However, in the rat palate the EtNBA fluorescence increased significantly with increasing dysplasia, apparently due to the increasing thickness of the upper keratinized layer of the epithelium where the dye was found to localize.
  • Localization in this layer occurred both in the rat palate and in hairless mouse skin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Mice. Mice, Hairless. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Palatal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spectrometry, Fluorescence. Spectrophotometry

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  • (PMID = 11202363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-8655
  • [Journal-full-title] Photochemistry and photobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photochem. Photobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oxazines; 2381-85-3 / Nile Blue
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6. Añibarro Laca E, Pérez-Irezabal Pindado JC, Ibáñez Calle T, Llarena Ibarguren R: [Metastases from a rectal adenocarcinoma to the prepuce]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Sep;59(7):737-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Metastasis subcutáneas en prepucio secundarias a adenocarcinoma de recto.
  • METHODS: 61-year-old patient with the diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma treated 18 months before by surgery and chemotherapy.
  • He presents with a painful enlargement of the penis associated with outgrowing erythematous lesions in the skin of the prepuce that bled on touch and did not allow the vision of the meatus and the glans penis.
  • RESULTS: The pathologic study reported a moderately differentiated intestinal type adenocarcinoma with high mitotic index infiltrating the squamous cell flat epithelium of the prepuce.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although extremely rare, tumor implants in the prepuce secondary to extra urologic tumors are exceptional.
  • Surgical excision confirms the origin and may avoid bleeding and discomfort, and also may help with catheterization, which is many times necessary in the final stages.

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Esp Urol. 2006 Nov;59(9):926; author reply 927 [17190224.001]
  • (PMID = 17078400.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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7. Müller-Decker K: [Cyclooxygenases in the skin]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2004 Aug;2(8):668-75
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

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  • [Title] [Cyclooxygenases in the skin].
  • Cyclooxygenases (COX)-1 and COX-2 catalyse the key steps of prostaglandin biosynthesis and are the major target for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • In general, COX-1 but not COX-2 is expressed in healthy tissues of adults.
  • The development of UV-induced erythema and edema as well as of skin tumours is significantly governed by COX-2 activity.
  • Squamous cell carcinomas and actinic keratoses are prominent examples of epithelial tumours with COX-2 overexpression in the tumour parenchyma, inflammatory infiltrate and associated vessels.
  • According to multi-stage carcinogenesis studies in mouse skin and experiments with transgenic mice, there is a causal relationship between aberrant COX-2 expression and activity in the epithelium and tumour promotion and tumour progression.
  • The transgenic overexpression of COX-2 causes an "autopromoted" skin phenotype, i.e. it dramatically sensitizes the tissue for the development of squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Vice versa, the genetic ablation of COX-2, as well as of COX-1, results in a reduced tumour burden in murine skin.
  • A major mechanism by which COX-2 contributes to epidermal tumour formation seems to be the disturbance of terminal keratinocyte differentiation.
  • Because of these data, selective COX-2 inhibitors are ranked among the most promising agents for skin cancer prevention and therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Models, Biological. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Mice. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'

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  • (PMID = 16279229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
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8. Lee RG, Vecchiotti MA, Heaphy J, Panneerselvam A, Schluchter MD, Oleinick NL, Lavertu P, Alagramam KN, Arnold JE, Sprecher RC: Photodynamic therapy of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus-induced papillomas in a severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft system. Laryngoscope; 2010 Mar;120(3):618-24
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus-induced papillomas in a severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft system.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 for treating an animal model of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP).
  • METHODS: Rabbit skin was grafted onto the dorsum of severe combined immunodeficient mice, two xenografts per animal.
  • When papillomas developed, Pc 4 (0.6 or 1.0 mg/kg) was administered systemically, and 48 hours later, one papilloma of the two on each animal was exposed to 675-nm photoactivating light at either 100 or 150 J/cm(2).
  • Some papillomas and residual skin were harvested for histological assessment.
  • Histological analysis confirmed the absence of residual tumor following complete response and replacement with near-normal epithelium.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pc 4-PDT is highly effective in treating virally induced (CRPV) papillomas in a murine model of RRP, and thus warrants further study as a treatment for HPV-induced papillomas.

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  • (PMID = 20091778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA048735; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106491; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA48735
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indoles; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / phthalocyanine Pc 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS695135; NLM/ PMC4459584
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9. Uchida N, Tsuzuki Y, Ando T, Mochida Y, Yoshikawa M, Sekihara M, Kobayashi M, Ide M, Ohno Y, Kuwano H: Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor in the skin over the breast: a case report. Breast Cancer; 2000 Jan;7(1):79-82
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  • [Title] Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor in the skin over the breast: a case report.
  • A proliferating trichilemmal tumor is relatively uncommon.
  • It is composed of multiple cysts consisting of squamous epithelium with trichilemmal keratinization without granular layer interposition.
  • We describe a 67-year-old woman with a malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor in the skin over the breast.
  • Eight months postoperatively, a tumor appeared in her right axilla and progressively enlarged.
  • We subsequently excised the tumor.
  • To the best of our knowledge, only one case of a proliferating trichilemmal tumor occurring in the skin over the breast has been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Hair Diseases / pathology. Hair Follicle / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diagnostic Errors. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Fadrozole / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Radical. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11029776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; H3988M64PU / Fadrozole; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Tsuchisaka A, Usui Y, Goto H, Nagai T, Matsubayashi J, Izumi M, Suzuki S: [Two cases of orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with chromosome aberration]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Apr;114(4):374-80
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  • MRI revealed a tumor in the orbit.
  • The tumor grew rapidly resulting in eye ball displacement and corneal epithelium disorder, and was subsequently removed.
  • MRI revealed a tumor under the skin of the upper palpebra extending to the orbit.
  • The tumor grew rapidly to the extent that the eyelids could not be opened spontaneously.
  • Both patients subsequently underwent chemotherapy and local radiotherapy and no recurrence has been detected over 1 year.
  • CONCLUSION: Although rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit often progresses rapidly and may cause visual disturbances, favorable outcome can be expected by proper management especially in cases with certain histopathological types.

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  • (PMID = 20432963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-0203
  • [Journal-full-title] Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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11. Ejaz A, Wenig BM: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: clinical and pathologic features and a discussion on classification, cellular differentiation, and differential diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2005 May;12(3):134-43
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  • SNUC typically presents as a rapidly enlarging tumor mass involving multiple (sinonasal tract) sites, often with evidence of extension beyond the anatomic confines of the sinonasal tract.
  • The tumor cells are medium to large sized and round to oval and have pleomorphic and hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous to prominent nucleoli, varying amount of eosinophilic cytoplasm, high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, marked increase in mitotic activity frequently with atypical mitoses, tumor necrosis, and apoptosis.
  • The treatment of SNUC includes aggressive multimodality therapy, including surgical resection and adjuvant therapy (ie, radiotherapy, chemotherapy).
  • The presence of squamous cell differentiation would correlate to origin in the Schneiderian epithelium, thereby conferring an ectodermal derivation to these tumors.
  • Irrespective of its cell of origin and perhaps even in the face of differentiated foci in limited parts of the tumor, given its rather unique clinicopathologic characteristics, this tumor should be identified and classified as SNUC, thereby differentiating it from the other specific types of sinonasal carcinomas and nonepithelial malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Humans. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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12. Cardiff RD, Anver MR, Boivin GP, Bosenberg MW, Maronpot RR, Molinolo AA, Nikitin AY, Rehg JE, Thomas GV, Russell RG, Ward JM: Precancer in mice: animal models used to understand, prevent, and treat human precancers. Toxicol Pathol; 2006;34(6):699-707
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  • An expert panel, the Mouse Models Group (MMG) evaluated the status of mouse models of precancer emphasizing genetically engineered mouse models, especially of lining epithelium and their utilitarian value to human carcinogenesis.
  • In this precancer concept, most preneoplastic lesions are considered as potentially precancerous or at least an earlier stage in cancer development than typical pre-invasive epithelial lesions, which are often seen in these mouse models.
  • These studies suggest that genetically engineered mice are very useful preclinical models for chemoprevention and therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinogens. Neoplasms, Experimental / chemically induced. Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / chemically induced. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Tumor Virus Infections / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / chemically induced. Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / chemically induced. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / chemically induced. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / chemically induced. Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Oncogenes / genetics. Oncogenic Viruses / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17074738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA84291-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA89124; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K26 RR017595; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01- CO-12400; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA071907; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA093373-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089140; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA96823; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA98778-01; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB00561; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA084294; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA105490-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U42 RR14905
  • [Publication-type] Congresses; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Carcinogens
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13. Gordon AN, Granai CO, Rose PG, Hainsworth J, Lopez A, Weissman C, Rosales R, Sharpington T: Phase II study of liposomal doxorubicin in platinum- and paclitaxel-refractory epithelial ovarian cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Sep;18(17):3093-100
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  • [Title] Phase II study of liposomal doxorubicin in platinum- and paclitaxel-refractory epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • Liposomal encapsulation also leads to increased concentration of drug in tumor tissue.
  • Meta-analysis of previous studies has shown that doxorubicin has activity in epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • The current study was developed to examine the activity of Stealth liposomal doxorubicin in platinum- and paclitaxel-refractory ovarian cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients had epithelial ovarian cancer that either progressed on or recurred within 6 months of completion of platinum and paclitaxel chemotherapy.
  • Median time to progression was 19.
  • Ten patients (11.2%) withdrew because of adverse events related to the drug (palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia [PPE], n = 3; asthenia, n = 2; cardiac, n = 2; neutropenia, n = 1; stomatitis, n = 1; and edema, n = 1).
  • There were no drug-related fatal events.
  • There were only eight grade 4 adverse events attributable to the drug.
  • Stomatitis, PPE, and skin lesions were managed with dose reductions and delays in most cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Stealth liposomal doxorubicin has activity in refractory epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Carriers. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Liposomes. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2001 Jan 15;19(2):596-7 [11208859.001]
  • (PMID = 10963637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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14. Riechelmann H, Sauter A, Golze W, Hanft G, Schroen C, Hoermann K, Erhardt T, Gronau S: Phase I trial with the CD44v6-targeting immunoconjugate bivatuzumab mertansine in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol; 2008 Sep;44(9):823-9
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  • CD44v6 is a tumor associated antigen abundantly expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and in normal squamous epithelium.
  • The principal toxic effects were maculopapular rashes, focal blister formation and skin exfoliation.
  • Binding to CD44v6 on skin keratinocytes mediated serious skin toxicity with a fatal outcome in a parallel trial, which led to the termination of the development program of bivatuzumab mertansine and the present study.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / immunology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Immunoconjugates / administration & dosage. Maytansine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antigens, CD44 / immunology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Patient Selection. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18203652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / CD44v6 antigen; 0 / Immunoconjugates; 0 / bivatuzumab mertansine; 14083FR882 / Maytansine
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15. Wolfe CM, Hatfield K, Cognetta AB Jr: Cellulitis as a postprocedural complication of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in the treatment of actinic keratosis. J Drugs Dermatol; 2007 May;6(5):544-8
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  • [Title] Cellulitis as a postprocedural complication of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are a common premalignant tumor of the skin.
  • Several treatment modalities exist for broad-area therapy.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one such treatment modality.
  • Disruption of squamous epithelium locally compromises the normal physical barrier of the skin, potentially allowing bacteria penetration into the dermis.
  • Undiagnosed and untreated this can prolong recovery times and increase patient discomfort.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report 4 cases of cellulitis that developed after treatment of AKs with PDT.
  • These cases developed 1 to 4 days after PDT.
  • METHODS: Standard short-contact 2-hour incubation is performed on patients receiving treatment on the face or scalp.
  • Patients are asked to call immediately if they experience no resolution of discomfort or an abrupt increase in pain in the days following treatment.
  • A culture and sensitivity is performed on those presenting with cellulitis clinically and empiric antibiotic therapy is initiated.
  • Antibiotic therapy is adjusted, if necessary, based on the culture and sensitivity report.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / adverse effects. Cellulitis / etiology. Photochemotherapy / adverse effects. Photosensitizing Agents / adverse effects. Staphylococcal Skin Infections / etiology. Staphylococcus aureus / isolation & purification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Face / pathology. Humans. Keratosis / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Skin / microbiology. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17679192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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16. Zhang H, Gu J: Progress of experimental study on treatment of psoriasis by Chinese medicinal monomer and single or compound recipe in Chinese materia medica. Chin J Integr Med; 2007 Dec;13(4):312-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Progress of experimental study on treatment of psoriasis by Chinese medicinal monomer and single or compound recipe in Chinese materia medica.
  • Psoriasis is a common, chronic, recurrent inflammatory skin disorder whose etiology is still unknown.
  • Since cytokines are key mediators in inflammation, a number of Chinese medicines (CMs) have been reported to have certain antagonist effects on pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), platelet active factor (PAF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8).
  • The most commonly used models for psoriasis are the scaled tails or the vaginal epithelium of mice in China.
  • They were used to observe the histopathological changes after the model mice were treated with CMs with the inhibition on the mitosis of vaginal epithelium or promotion of granular layer in rat tail taken as the indices of clinical efficacy.
  • A variety of signs occur in psoriasis patients with TCM blood-stasis syndrome type and the effect of CMs in activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis on psoriasis suggested that the mechanism of CMs may be partially correlated to hemorrheology and microcirculation.
  • However, the exploration into traditional Chinese medicines' biomechanics in psoriasis and the therapeutic mechanism of CMs by integrative medicine still requires further studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Drugs, Chinese Herbal / administration & dosage. Materia Medica / administration & dosage. Medicine, Chinese Traditional / methods. Psoriasis / therapy. Research / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. China. Cytokines / physiology. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Combinations. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Fibroblasts / physiology. Hemorheology. Humans. Keratinocytes / drug effects. Keratinocytes / physiology. Microcirculation / drug effects. Microcirculation / physiology. Neuropeptides / physiology

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  • [Cites] Int J Dermatol. 1998 Aug;37(8):572-4 [9731999.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Dermatol. 2005 Apr;44(4):337-9 [15811091.001]
  • [Cites] Mediators Inflamm. 2005 Oct 24;2005(5):273-9 [16258194.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Dermatol. 1999 Apr;38(4):241-51 [10321938.001]
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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol Res. 2000 Dec;292(12):590-7 [11214819.001]
  • [Cites] Trends Cell Biol. 2001 Apr;11(4):143-6 [11306276.001]
  • (PMID = 18180899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0415
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese journal of integrative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin J Integr Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal; 0 / Materia Medica; 0 / Neuropeptides
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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17. Leakakos T, Ji C, Lawson G, Peterson C, Goodwin S: Intravesical administration of doxorubicin to swine bladder using magnetically targeted carriers. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2003 Jun;51(6):445-50
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  • This technology is designed for site-specific delivery of a drug to a tumor in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field in order to achieve prolonged release of high localized drug concentrations by retention of MTCs in the region of interest.
  • An intravesical route of administration was evaluated as intravesical chemotherapy is used in the treatment of bladder cancer.
  • A 30-min period of magnetic targeting immediately followed dosing, in which an external magnet was placed on the skin surface over a predetermined site on the bladder.
  • The subsequent retention and distribution of test material was evaluated by measurement of doxorubicin levels in plasma and histopathological examination of the bladder following treatment.
  • Blood samples were taken prior to treatment and at 15 and 30 min after infusion for measurement of doxorubicin.
  • The bladder was drained and rinsed thoroughly following the procedure.
  • RESULTS: Plasma doxorubicin concentrations were less than the assay limit of detection (10 ng/ml) during the 30 min following dosing.
  • MTCs were found within the bladder walls, predominantly at the targeted site where they were present at greater depths within the layers of the epithelium.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MTC delivery may allow greater exposure and specific deposition of drug at a defined site over intravesical administration of doxorubicin alone.
  • The feasibility of this novel method of drug delivery was demonstrated and the results support further study for its potential use in treating bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Delivery Systems. Urinary Bladder / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12802508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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