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1. Skubitz KM, Manivel JC: Giant cell tumor of the uterus: case report and response to chemotherapy. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:46
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the uterus: case report and response to chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Giant cell tumor (GCT) is usually a benign but locally aggressive primary bone neoplasm in which monocytic macrophage/osteoclast precursor cells and multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells infiltrate the tumor.
  • The role of chemotherapy in metastatic GCT is not well defined.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of an aggressive GCT of the uterus with rapidly growing lung metastases, and its response to chemotherapy with pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and bevacizumab, along with a review of the literature.
  • CONCLUSION: Aggressive metastasizing GCT may arise in the uterus, and may respond to combination chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Giant Cell Tumors / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17359524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 57
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1832205
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2. Gelderblom H, Hogendoorn PC, Dijkstra SD, van Rijswijk CS, Krol AD, Taminiau AH, Bovée JV: The clinical approach towards chondrosarcoma. Oncologist; 2008 Mar;13(3):320-9
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  • This review provides an overview of the histopathology, classification, diagnostic procedures, and therapy of skeletal chondrosarcoma.
  • Chondrosarcomas that arise de novo are primary chondrosarcomas, whereas chondrosarcomas developing superimposed on pre-existing benign cartilage neoplasms such as enchondromas or osteochondromas are referred to as secondary chondrosarcomas.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to delineate the extent of the intraosseous and soft tissue involvement preoperatively.
  • Computed tomography is especially recommended in the pelvis and other flat bones where it may be difficult to discern the pattern of bone destruction and the presence of matrix mineralization.
  • Wide, en-bloc excision is the preferred surgical treatment in intermediate- and high-grade chondrosarcoma.
  • In low-grade chondrosarcoma confined to the bone, extensive intralesional curettage followed by local adjuvant treatment and filling the cavity with bone graft has promising long-term clinical results and satisfactory local control.
  • Chondrosarcomas are relatively radiotherapy resistant; therefore, doses >60 Gy are needed in attempts to achieve local control after incomplete resection.
  • Chemotherapy is only possibly effective in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, and is of uncertain value in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma.
  • Potential new systemic treatment targets are being discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Chondrosarcoma, Mesenchymal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Mesoderm / pathology. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Oncologist. 2008 May;13(5):618
  • (PMID = 18378543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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3. Woitge HW, Pecherstorfer M, Horn E, Keck AV, Diel IJ, Bayer P, Ludwig H, Ziegler R, Seibel MJ: Serum bone sialoprotein as a marker of tumour burden and neoplastic bone involvement and as a prognostic factor in multiple myeloma. Br J Cancer; 2001 Feb 2;84(3):344-51
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  • To test the potential of immunoreactive BSP, a non-collagenous bone matrix component, as a clinical guide in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, serum BSP concentrations were measured in 62 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) followed over a period of 4 years, in 46 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in 71 patients with untreated benign vertebral osteoporosis (OPO), and in 139 healthy adults.
  • After chemotherapy, BSP reflected the response to treatment and correlated with the change in monoclonal protein (r = 0.55, P< 0.001).
  • We conclude that in MM, BSP levels are associated with skeletal involvement and tumour cell burden.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Multiple Myeloma / pathology. Sialoglycoproteins / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Amino Acids / drug effects. Amino Acids / urine. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers / blood. Bone and Bones / drug effects. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Bone and Bones / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Osteocalcin / blood. Osteocalcin / drug effects. Osteoporosis / blood. Osteoporosis / pathology. Paraproteinemias / blood. Paraproteinemias / drug therapy. Paraproteinemias / pathology. Prognosis. Radioimmunoassay / methods. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11161399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / IBSP protein, human; 0 / Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 63800-01-1 / pyridinoline; 90032-33-0 / deoxypyridinoline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2363749
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4. Basu S, Baghel NS, Puri A, Shet T, Merchant NH: 18 F-FDG avid lesion due to coexistent fibrous dysplasia in a child of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: source of false positive FDG-PET. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Jan-Mar;6(1):92-4
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  • With increasing use of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in the current oncological practice, there is a growing body of evidence of false positive scans due to various benign conditions.
  • The patient was a case of ERMS (presenting with left cervical mass with intrathoracic extension) who was treated successfully with chemotherapy and was referred for FDG-PET to evaluate the disease status.
  • The computed tomography (CT) scan of the same region showed cortical thickening and increased density within the medullary cavity in the shaft of the tibia.
  • The present case is a useful addition to the current body of literature of false positive 18 F-FDG-PET study due to a benign skeletal pathology and underscores the importance of high index of suspicion and careful clinicoradiopathologic correlation, whenever one comes across such an unusual PET finding.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Radiopharmaceuticals. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / radionuclide imaging. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tibia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20479556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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5. Dobashi Y, Suzuki S, Sato E, Hamada Y, Yanagawa T, Ooi A: EGFR-dependent and independent activation of Akt/mTOR cascade in bone and soft tissue tumors. Mod Pathol; 2009 Oct;22(10):1328-40
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  • [Title] EGFR-dependent and independent activation of Akt/mTOR cascade in bone and soft tissue tumors.
  • To gain the insight into the involvement of signaling mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the phenotype and biological profiles of tumors and tumor-like lesions of the bone and soft tissue, we analyzed the expression and phosphorylation (activation) of mTOR and its correlation with the status of upstream and downstream modulator proteins Akt, p70S6-kinase (S6K), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), which we refer to collectively as mTOR cassette proteins.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of 140 cases showed activation of Akt in 55% (61% in malignant and 27% in benign), and mTOR expression in 61% (66% in malignant and 39% in benign).
  • The preponderance of mTOR activation was found in tumors of peripheral nerve sheath (malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and schwannoma), skeletal muscle origin (rhabdomyosarcoma), and in those exhibiting epithelial nature (chordoma and synovial sarcoma).
  • Overall, these results suggest that inhibitors of mTOR cassette may be useful as novel components of combined chemotherapy for a defined subset of bone and soft tissue sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / analysis. Bone Neoplasms / enzymology. Phosphoproteins / analysis. Protein Kinases / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / analysis. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa / analysis. Signal Transduction. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Enzyme Activation. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Mutation. Neoplasm Staging. Phosphorylation. Prognosis. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases

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  • (PMID = 19648884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / EIF4EBP1 protein, human; 0 / Phosphoproteins; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa
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6. Ossendorf C, Studer GM, Bode B, Fuchs B: Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: case presentation and a systematic review. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2008 Jun;466(6):1485-91
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  • In sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF), a rare variant of low-grade fibrosarcoma, treatment results and therapeutic options are poorly characterized.
  • We systematically analyzed the data of all 89 patients (43 female, 46 male; mean age, 47 years [range, 14-87 years]) reported in the literature concerning clinical presentation, histopathology, differential diagnosis, treatment, survival rates, and prognosis, and we present an additional case.
  • Information detailing treatment, disease control, and followup was available in 60 (67%), 75 (84%), and 68 patients (76%), respectively.
  • Low cellularity, mild pleomorphy, and sclerotic hyaline matrix of SEF suggest a benign clinical behavior, and cell morphology allows for the wide differential diagnosis of benign, pseudosarcomatous, and malignant proliferations.
  • In addition to surgery, 11 patients (15%) had chemotherapy, 22 (29%) had postoperative radiation therapy, and three (4%) had a combination of both.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Ulna

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  • (PMID = 18340502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2384045
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7. Leitner Y, Shabat S, Boriani L, Boriani S: En bloc resection of a C4 chordoma: surgical technique. Eur Spine J; 2007 Dec;16(12):2238-42
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Neck Injuries and Disorders.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The prognosis of aggressive benign and low-grade malignant tumors in the spine as in the limbs, seems to be mostly related to the feasibility of en bloc resection, while in the treatment of high-grade malignant tumors the protocols of treatment include the combination of chemotherapy, radiation and surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / surgery. Chordoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decompression, Surgical / instrumentation. Decompression, Surgical / methods. Humans. Internal Fixators. Laminectomy / instrumentation. Laminectomy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neck / anatomy & histology. Neck / surgery. Neck Pain / pathology. Neck Pain / physiopathology. Neck Pain / surgery. Radiculopathy / etiology. Radiculopathy / physiopathology. Radiculopathy / surgery. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Spinal Fusion / instrumentation. Spinal Fusion / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17713796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2140125
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8. Fritz MA, Sade B, Bauer TW, Wood BG, Lee JH: Benign fibrous histiocytoma of the pterygopalatine fossa with intracranial extension. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Jan;148(1):73-6; discussion 76

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benign fibrous histiocytoma of the pterygopalatine fossa with intracranial extension.
  • The aggressive nature of our patient's tumor confirms previous observations that an aggressive radiographic appearance has prognostic value when dealing with skeletal and soft tissue tumors.
  • The benefit of multimodal therapy has not been established in these rare head and neck lesions.
  • In the subset of fibrous histiocytomas that invade bone, however adjunctive treatment with radiation and or chemotherapy may be appropriate.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Palate, Hard. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 16200478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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9. Ilaslan H, Schils J, Joyce M, Marks K, Sundaram M: Radiofrequency ablation: another treatment option for local control of desmoid tumors. Skeletal Radiol; 2010 Feb;39(2):169-73

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiofrequency ablation: another treatment option for local control of desmoid tumors.
  • Desmoid tumors are fibrous neoplasms that are infiltrative and locally aggressive.
  • Although they are histologically benign with negligible metastatic potential, recurrence after surgical resection is common.
  • Pharmacotherapy and radiation treatment have been utilized when surgery has been considered unsuitable.
  • Complications were seen in two patients; one patient had cellulitis and another had soft tissue necrosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19816682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2161
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Rosenthal DI, Treat ME, Mankin HJ, Rosenberg AE, Jennings CL: Treatment of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of bone using a novel combined approach. Skeletal Radiol; 2001 Apr;30(4):219-22
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bone Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of bone using a novel combined approach.
  • Radiofrequency (RF) treatment has been used for a variety of malignant and benign conditions.
  • However, treatment of a bone malignancy has yet to be reported.
  • The authors present a 21-year old woman with multifocal epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EH) treated by a combination of surgical excision, chemotherapy and four RF ablations.
  • Follow-up radiographs of the RF-treated sites reveal no evidence of recurrent disease 71, 58, 49 and 33 months, respectively, after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Catheter Ablation. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Foot Bones. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Leg Bones

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  • (PMID = 11392296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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11. von Falck C, Rosenthal H, Gratz KF, Galanski M: Nonossifying fibroma can mimic residual lymphoma in FDG PET: additional value of combined PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Aug;32(8):640-2
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  • Chemotherapy was given according to standard pediatric protocols.
  • At the end of therapy, an F-18 FDG PET/CT examination was performed to evaluate the therapeutic response.
  • The scan demonstrated focal uptake of FDG in the right distal femur and residual lymphoma was taken into consideration.
  • However, findings in the coregistered CT scan were consistent with nonossfiying fibroma, a common benign skeletal lesion.
  • Combined PET/CT imaging can be helpful to identify benign bone lesions mimicking metastatic or residual disease in F-18 FDG PET as illustrated by this case.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibroma / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Subtraction Technique

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  • (PMID = 17667441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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12. Papagelopoulos PJ, Mavrogenis AF, Badekas A, Sim FH: Foot malignancies: a multidisciplinary approach. Foot Ankle Clin; 2003 Dec;8(4):751-63
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Malignant osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot are rare and should be considered in patients who have foot-related symptoms.
  • In addition to benign and malignant neoplasms, pseudotumorous conditions mimic neoplastic lesions and should be differentiated before any treatment is undertaken.
  • The foot is a terminal anatomic structure, with closed and tight compartments and well-vascularized tissues, that predispose it to hematogenous and lymphatic metastases.
  • Patients who have a malignant foot tumor should be referred to an orthopedic oncologist for further evaluation and treatment.
  • The goals of treatment include local tumor control, restoration of function and stability during standing and walking, long-term survival, and improved quality of life.
  • Recent advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy have allowed limb salvage procedures with wide tumor resections.
  • Because overall survival is greatly improved in these patients, the reconstruction of skeletal defects needs to be more functional and durable.
  • After tumor resection, reconstruction of the skeletal and soft tissue defects is possible by using bone allografts or vascularized autografts, arthrodesis, and free vascularized musculocutaneous flaps.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Foot Diseases / surgery. Sarcoma / surgery. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Osteosarcoma / radiography. Osteosarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 14719840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot and ankle clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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13. Bertoni F, Bacchini P, Staals EL: Malignancy in giant cell tumor. Skeletal Radiol; 2003 Mar;32(3):143-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Malignant giant cell tumor is a confusing term that in the past has been used to describe different types of giant cell-rich tumors.
  • We consider two types of malignancy in giant cell tumor of bone: "primary" when it arises in juxtaposition to a benign giant cell tumor and 'secondary' when it arises at the site of a previously treated giant cell tumor.
  • After curettage, the permanent histology slides showed areas of highly malignant osteosarcoma juxtaposed to areas of benign giant cell tumor.
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapy and wide resection of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Osteosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12605278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. Dhingra K: Selective estrogen receptor modulation: the search for an ideal hormonal therapy for breast cancer. Cancer Invest; 2001;19(6):649-59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Selective estrogen receptor modulation: the search for an ideal hormonal therapy for breast cancer.
  • Female hormones, especially estrogens, play an important role in the pathogenesis of breast neoplasms and are a principal determinant of their biological behavior.
  • Tamoxifen, a triphenylethylene estrogen receptor modulator, is currently the most widely used hormonal treatment for breast cancer.
  • It has been conclusively demonstrated to reduce the risk of relapse following definitive local therapy (and systemic chemotherapy, when indicated) of invasive or noninvasive breast cancer.
  • Newer drugs, which are "pure antiestrogens" or inhibitors of estrogen biosynthesis, are devoid of such estrogen-agonist activity and may not have the liability of many of these side effects.
  • However, these agents would also be expected to lack the potentially beneficial effects of tamoxifen on lipids and skeletal system.
  • The ability of tamoxifen to act as an estrogen-agonist or estrogen-antagonist in a tissue-specific fashion has led to the concept of selective estrogen-receptor modulation.
  • Raloxifene is already approved for prevention of osteoporosis and has potential efficacy for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.
  • An analogue of raloxifene, LY353381, is currently in Phase II clinical trials for treatment of breast cancer, with promising early results.
  • These compounds may provide better treatment and chemoprevention alternatives for breast cancer as compared to tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, and pure antiestrogens.
  • In addition, they may also prove to be useful for the treatment and prevention of prostate cancer as well as for treating benign gynecological diseases such as fibroids and endometriosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Receptors, Estrogen / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Design. Female. Humans. Raloxifene Hydrochloride / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11486708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 4F86W47BR6 / Raloxifene Hydrochloride
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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15. Sundaram M, Inwards CY, Shives TE, Anderson PM: Ewing's sarcoma of the humerus mimicking fibrous dysplasia on imaging and biological behavior. Skeletal Radiol; 2005 May;34(5):285-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We present the case of a 12-year-old girl who presented with a pathological fracture through a benign-appearing osteolytic lesion that was presumed to represent fibrous dysplasia.
  • The disease was locally controlled by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone / diagnostic imaging. Fractures, Spontaneous / etiology. Humerus / diagnostic imaging. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Radiography

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  • [Cites] Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2000 Oct 1;122(1):30-2 [11104029.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1994 Mar 1;73(5):1411-24 [8111708.001]
  • [Cites] Skeletal Radiol. 1997 Dec;26(12 ):722-4 [9453106.001]
  • (PMID = 15838704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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16. Joyner DE, Damron TA, Aboulafia A, Bokor W, Bastar JD, Randall RL: Heterogeneous expression of melanoma antigen (hMAGE) mRNA in mesenchymal neoplasia. Tissue Antigens; 2006 Jul;68(1):19-27
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CT antigens are encoded by cancer-germline genes (e.g., hMAGE family) that are expressed in tumors and male germline cells but typically not in normal tissues.
  • At present, little information is available regarding CT expression in mesenchymal neoplasms, and it remains uncertain whether CT immunotherapy will serve as a viable alternative or adjunct to current sarcoma therapies involving resection, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • In this study, hMAGEA2, hMAGEA3, hMAGEA4, and hMAGEC1 mRNA content in 21 benign mesenchymal tumors (representing seven histotypes) and 28 primary sarcomas (10 histotypes) was inventoried using real-time-PCR and then compared against hMAGE mRNA expression in non-sarcomatous malignancies, three cell lines, and muscle. hMAGEA2, hMAGEA3, and hMAGEC1 transcripts were infrequent in mesenchymal tissues in general, whereas hMAGEA4 mRNA was present in 84% of all mesenchymal tumors, 100% of non-sarcomatous tumors, all three cell lines, and in four of five muscle samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasms, Connective Tissue / metabolism. Sarcoma / metabolism. Testis / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis

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  • [ErratumIn] Tissue Antigens. 2006 Aug;68(2):192
  • (PMID = 16774536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2815
  • [Journal-full-title] Tissue antigens
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tissue Antigens
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / MAGEA1 protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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17. Ogawa T, Hara K, Kawarai Y, Nishizaki K, Nomiya S, Takeda Y, Akagi H, Kariya S: A case of infantile neuroblastoma with intramucosal metastasis in a paranasal sinus. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2000 Sep 15;55(1):61-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Neuroblastoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • His initial treatment included chemotherapy and surgery, with complete response (CR) being achieved at the initial site.
  • A metastatic lesion was found in the right maxillary sinus 32 months after his initial treatment.
  • The results of biopsy were negative and the differential diagnosis from the imaging studies of CT included odontogenic disease, fungal infection, paranasal sinus cyst or hematoma, and benign tumors.
  • The local field was irradiated with 20 Gy of linear accelerator (linac) radiation, then the local field was eradicated.
  • Extensive skeletal metastases were subsequently found by bone scintigraphy.
  • Despite further treatment his general condition deteriorated rapidly and he died 24 months after starting treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroblastoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 10996238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
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18. Chi AC, Barnes JD, Budnick S, Agresta SV, Neville B: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the maxillary gingiva. J Periodontol; 2007 Sep;78(9):1839-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm of primitive mesenchyme exhibiting skeletal muscle differentiation.
  • The tissue was boggy and tender on palpation.
  • The patient was treated by surgical resection with postoperative chemotherapy and radiation.
  • The patient had no evidence of disease at a follow-up examination 1 month after completion of therapy.
  • Pain is a variable presenting symptom, and early lesions may be mistaken for benign neoplastic, inflammatory, or infectious processes.
  • Over several decades, a multidisciplinary treatment approach that includes surgical removal if resectable, in combination with multiagent chemotherapy and possibly radiation therapy, has improved survival rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Gingival Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17760557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of periodontology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Periodontol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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19. Rossi S, Fletcher CD: Angiosarcoma arising in hemangioma/vascular malformation: report of four cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol; 2002 Oct;26(10):1319-29
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  • Malignant change in a benign vascular tumor is exceedingly rare, and there have been only five previously reported convincing cases.
  • MRI disclosed the presence of two separate soft tissue masses in both thighs in one patient.
  • Radiotherapy/chemotherapy was given in all cases.
  • Two patients were disease free 2 and 14 months after surgery and two developed metastases.
  • Grossly, the tumors were described as frankly hemorrhagic masses or as firm, whitish areas with hemorrhagic nodules and were centered in skeletal muscle in three cases.
  • In three cases the benign and the malignant components were variably intermixed, whereas in one case the HVM was mainly located at the edge of the malignant tumor.
  • The benign component showed features of an arteriovenous hemangioma (three cases) or intramuscular capillary hemangioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12360047.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Aoki J: [Roles of magnetic resonance imaging in management of bone tumors]. Nihon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai Zasshi; 2000 May;60(6):295-301
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  • The roles of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and treatment of bone tumors are reviewed.
  • Detailed analysis by plain radiography is still the most reliable method for differentiating between benign and malignant bone tumors.
  • In characterizing the histologic types of bone tumors, MRI is of some advantage.
  • MRI is now indispensable for the preoperative delineation of malignant bone tumors, because of its excellent soft tissue contrast and multiplanar imaging capability.
  • In this article, the guidelines for evaluation of the surgical margin advocated by the JOA Musculo-skeletal Tumor Committee are introduced for radiologists.
  • MRI monitoring of malignant bone tumors after chemotherapy or surgery can reveal change in the size of enhanced areas that may reflect viable tumors.
  • Dynamic MRI is helpful to differentiate recurrent tumors from granulation tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 10860379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-0428
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Igaku Hōshasen Gakkai zasshi. Nippon acta radiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Igaku Hoshasen Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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21. Mercier I, Vuolo M, Jasmin JF, Medina CM, Williams M, Mariadason JM, Qian H, Xue X, Pestell RG, Lisanti MP, Kitsis RN: ARC (apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain) is a novel marker of human colon cancer. Cell Cycle; 2008 Jun 1;7(11):1640-7
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  • The ability of cells to escape apoptosis is critical for carcinogenesis as well as resistance to radiation and chemotherapy.
  • ARC is expressed predominantly in terminally differentiated cells such as cardiac and skeletal myocytes and neurons.
  • Recently, however, the abundance of ARC was noted to be markedly increased in the epithelium of primary human breast cancers compared with benign breast tissue and to confer chemo- and radiation-resistance.
  • In this study, we assessed the abundance and subcellular localization of ARC in 21 human colon cancer cell lines and in 44 primary human colon adenocarcinomas and adjacent benign colonic tissue.
  • Levels of ARC in the cytoplasm were increased in well, moderately, and poorly differentiated cancers compared with benign tissue, while levels of nuclear ARC were increased only in moderately differentiated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / metabolism. Muscle Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18469522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-098779; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-120876; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-80250; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01HL60665; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01HL61550; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01HL80607
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / NOL3 protein, human
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22. Saad F, Abrahamsson PA, Miller K: Preserving bone health in patients with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: the role of bisphosphonates. BJU Int; 2009 Dec;104(11):1573-9
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  • Men with prostate cancer initiating androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) may have multiple factors that threaten their skeletal health, including increased fracture risk from bone loss during ADT and the propensity to develop bone metastases, which may lead to skeletal-related events (SREs).
  • Bisphosphonates have utility in oncology for patients with bone metastases to prevent bone loss during hormonal therapy and in the benign setting to treat osteoporosis.
  • Patients with bone metastases from HSPC who received 4 mg zoledronic acid every 3 or 4 weeks had a low incidence of skeletal complications, although controlled study data have not been reported.
  • Bisphosphonate treatment in men with HSPC may be effective for the prevention of ADT-related bone loss, underscoring the importance of treating early to avoid SREs and potentially delay disease progression to metastatic bone disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bone Density. Bone Neoplasms / prevention & control. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoporosis / prevention & control. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20053188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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23. Sommer J, Itani DM, Homlar KC, Keedy VL, Halpern JL, Holt GE, Schwartz HS, Coffin CM, Kelley MJ, Cates JM: Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase and activated insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/insulin receptor: potential therapeutic targets in chordoma. J Pathol; 2010 Apr;220(5):608-17
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  • [Title] Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase and activated insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/insulin receptor: potential therapeutic targets in chordoma.
  • Currently there is no effective chemotherapy for chordoma.
  • Another gene in this region, methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP), is an essential enzyme of the purine salvage pathway and has therapeutic relevance because MTAP-deficient cells are particularly sensitive to inhibitors of de novo purine synthesis.
  • We investigated whether these pathways might be potential therapeutic targets for chordoma.
  • Paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 30 chordomas were analysed by immunohistochemistry for expression of the phosphorylated isoforms of IGF1R or the insulin receptor (pIGF1R/pIR) and selected downstream signalling molecules, including BCL2-associated agonist of cell death protein (BAD).
  • Skeletal chondrosarcomas, benign notochordal cell tumours, and fetal notochord were studied for comparison.
  • Phosphorylated IGF1R/IR was detected in 41% of chordomas, together with activated downstream signalling molecules, and pIGF1R/pIR was absent in benign notochordal cell tumours and fetal notochord.
  • Aberrant signalling cascades and disrupted metabolic pathways such as these may represent opportunities for novel targeted therapeutic approaches for the treatment of chordoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chordoma / metabolism. Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase / metabolism. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Chondrosarcoma / metabolism. Chondrosarcoma / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Notochord / metabolism. Phosphorylation. Prognosis. Signal Transduction. Survival Analysis. Tissue Array Analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20140939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / BLRD VA / BX / I01 BX000458
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.4.2.1 / Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase; EC 2.4.2.28 / 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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24. Dodd LG, Major N, Brigman B: Malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts. Skeletal Radiol; 2004 May;33(5):295-9
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  • To date, there are no consistently reliable criteria, either clinical or histologic, to separate the benign from more aggressive lesions.
  • The patient presented with a fungating skin and soft tissue mass and concurrent pulmonary nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Leg / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Osteosarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Rare Diseases / drug therapy. Rare Diseases / pathology. Rare Diseases / surgery

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2000 Feb;24(2):248-56 [10680893.001]
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  • (PMID = 14997349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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25. Heidenreich A: Bisphosphonates in the management of metastatic prostate cancer. Oncology; 2003;65 Suppl 1:5-11
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  • Prostate cancer (PCA) frequently metastasizes to the bones, and skeletal metastases represent the most common cause of morbidity in advanced PCA.
  • Besides the development of skeletal events due to metastases, patients with PCA are at higher risk for benign osseous complications, such as osteoporosis and fractures.
  • Bisphosphonates (BPs) have emerged as an integral part of the management of skeletal disease related to PCA.
  • In men with already established bone metastases, BPs might be helpful in preventing skeletal-related events in patients who do not respond to alternative therapies and are at high risk for bone fractures or spinal cord compression.
  • Prospective randomized trials will have to explore the clinical role of BPs in the prevention of bone metastases following local therapy with curative intent in men at high risk for PCA recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Male. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Palliative Care / methods. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 12949427.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; UMD7G2653W / ibandronic acid
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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26. Carroll MF, Schade DS: A practical approach to hypercalcemia. Am Fam Physician; 2003 May 1;67(9):1959-66
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  • Clinical manifestations affect the neuromuscular, gastrointestinal, renal, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems.
  • Some other important causes of hypercalcemia are medications and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia.
  • An initial diagnostic work-up should include measurement of intact parathyroid hormone, and any medications that are likely to be causative should be discontinued.
  • Many patients with primary hyperparathyroidism have a benign course and do not need surgery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diuretics / therapeutic use. Drug Overdose. Fluid Therapy. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Neoplasms / complications. Vitamin D / adverse effects

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  • [CommentIn] Am Fam Physician. 2004 Jun 15;69(12):2766; author reply 2766 [15222642.001]
  • (PMID = 12751658.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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27. Meziane M, Boulaadas M, Eabdenbitsen A, Dib N, Essakalli L, Kzadri M: [Intramasseteric hemangioma operated by intraoral approach]. Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac; 2010 Jun;111(3):168-71
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  • [Transliterated title] Hémangiome du masséter opéré par voie intra-orale.
  • INTRODUCTION: Hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors, of unknown origin.
  • Skeletal muscle localization account for less than 1% of cases.
  • In this case, treatment is usually surgery via an extra-oral approach which imposes parotidectomy with dissection of facial nerve branches.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / diagnosis. Masseter Muscle / pathology. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiography. Combined Modality Therapy. Diatrizoate / therapeutic use. Drug Combinations. Embolization, Therapeutic. Fatty Acids / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Oral Surgical Procedures / methods. Propylene Glycols / therapeutic use. Sclerosing Solutions / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Zein / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20553891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1776-257X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de stomatologie et de chirurgie maxillo-faciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Stomatol Chir Maxillofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / Propylene Glycols; 0 / Sclerosing Solutions; 117-96-4 / Diatrizoate; 9010-66-6 / Zein; 91196-33-7 / alcoholic prolamine solution
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28. Heymann D, Ory B, Gouin F, Green JR, Rédini F: Bisphosphonates: new therapeutic agents for the treatment of bone tumors. Trends Mol Med; 2004 Jul;10(7):337-43
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  • [Title] Bisphosphonates: new therapeutic agents for the treatment of bone tumors.
  • Bisphosphonates (BPs) have been used successfully for many years to reduce the skeletal complications associated with the benign and malignant bone diseases that are characterized by enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption.
  • Until recently, it was thought that the clinical efficacy of BPs in the treatment of cancer patients with bone metastases was purely a result of the inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15242682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-4914
  • [Journal-full-title] Trends in molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trends Mol Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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29. Green JR: Bisphosphonates: preclinical review. Oncologist; 2004;9 Suppl 4:3-13
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  • Bisphosphonates effectively inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and are integral in the treatment of benign and malignant bone diseases.
  • Studies conducted over the past decade have elucidated the mechanism of action and pharmacologic properties of the N-BPs.
  • Our increased understanding of the pharmacologic effects of bisphosphonates is shedding light on the mechanisms by which they exert antitumor effects.
  • A growing body of evidence from animal models demonstrates that zoledronic acid and other bisphosphonates can reduce skeletal tumor burden and prevent metastasis to bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Diphosphonates / pharmacology. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Bone Neoplasms / prevention & control. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis / prevention & control. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Osteoclasts / physiology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 15459425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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30. Korf BR: Diagnosis and management of neurofibromatosis type 1. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2001 Mar;1(2):162-7
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder whose major feature is the occurrence of multiple neurofibromas, which are benign tumors of the nerve sheath.
  • In addition to neurofibromas, there are many other clinical manifestations, including malignant tumors such as gliomas or malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, and nontumor effects such as skeletal dysplasia and learning disability.
  • Heterozygous effects on some cell types are also likely, however.
  • The role of ras in the pathogenesis of tumors in NF1 has suggested an approach to treatment using ras inhibitors, some of which are likely to begin in clinical trials in NF1 patients in the near future.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurofibromatosis 1 / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Cafe-au-Lait Spots / etiology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Female. Genes, Dominant. Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1. Glioma / etiology. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / therapy. Guanosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Humans. Hypertension / drug therapy. Hypertension / etiology. Learning Disorders / etiology. Learning Disorders / therapy. Leukemia / etiology. Leukemia / therapy. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Neurofibroma / etiology. Neurofibroma / pathology. Neurofibroma / therapy. Neurofibromin 1 / chemistry. Neurofibromin 1 / physiology. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Rhabdomyosarcoma / etiology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy. Scoliosis / etiology. Scoliosis / pathology. ras Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11898512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-4042
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurofibromin 1; 86-01-1 / Guanosine Triphosphate; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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31. Clézardin P: Anti-tumour activity of zoledronic acid. Cancer Treat Rev; 2005;31 Suppl 3:1-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cancer Chemotherapy.

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  • Bisphosphonates are proven to be effective in the treatment of benign or malignant skeletal diseases characterized by enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption.
  • These effects are potentiated when N-BPs are combined with anticancer drugs like taxoids, doxorubicin or imatinib.
  • The future challenge is to focus on optimizing dosing regimens and drug combinations to maximize the anti-tumour potential of zoledronic acid and to take advantage of the observed synergy with standard neoplastic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Imidazoles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16225995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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32. Russell S, Watts RG, Royal SA, Barnhart DC: Group A streptococcal infection of an intramuscular venous malformation: a case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Emerg Care; 2008 Dec;24(12):839-41
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CLINDAMYCIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Intramuscular venous malformations are uncommon benign masses of vascular origin that can occur anywhere in the body.
  • They can be small and clinically insignificant or can be large and violate tissue planes and viscera.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma, Cavernous / diagnosis. Muscle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Muscle, Skeletal / blood supply. Myositis / etiology. Streptococcal Infections / etiology. Streptococcus pyogenes / isolation & purification
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Calcinosis / etiology. Calcinosis / radiography. Child, Preschool. Clindamycin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Fever / etiology. Hemangiosarcoma / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vancomycin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19092562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-1815
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric emergency care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Emerg Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3U02EL437C / Clindamycin; 6Q205EH1VU / Vancomycin
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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33. Scherr D, Pitts WR Jr, Vaughn ED Jr: Diethylstilbesterol revisited: androgen deprivation, osteoporosis and prostate cancer. J Urol; 2002 Feb;167(2 Pt 1):535-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TESTOSTERONE .

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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: During an 18-month period a total of 54 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer and 24 with benign prostatic hyperplasia were evaluated.
  • All patients with prostate cancer were either treated with external beam radiotherapy without androgen deprivation or were started on androgen deprivation therapy.
  • All patients were prospectively followed and evaluated for serum testosterone and estradiol along with urinary collagen type I cross-linked N-telopeptides.
  • All patients with any bone or skeletal abnormalities were excluded from study as were those with osseous metastatic disease.
  • RESULTS: There was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) higher level of urinary N-telopeptides/creatinine in patients on androgen deprivation therapy who were not treated with diethylstilbesterol.
  • Patients on diethylstilbesterol did not have any higher levels of bone breakdown than patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia or those who never received any androgen deprivation.
  • Therefore, diethylstilbesterol should be considered as monotherpy in men who require long-term antiandrogen therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bone Resorption / physiopathology. Diethylstilbestrol / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. Collagen / urine. Collagen Type I. Estradiol / blood. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Peptides / urine. Testosterone / blood

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2002 Oct;168(4 Pt 1):1506-7 [12352441.001]
  • (PMID = 11792913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Peptides; 0 / collagen type I trimeric cross-linked peptide; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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