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1. Menon S, Pai P, Sengar M, Aggarwal JP, Kane SV: Sinonasal malignancies with neuroendocrine differentiation: case series and review of literature. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Jan-Mar;53(1):28-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sinonasal malignancies with neuroendocrine differentiation: case series and review of literature.
  • Primary sinonasal tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation (SCND) are uncommon tumors with considerable overlap of histological features.
  • Based on their neuroendocrine differentiation they can be sub categorized into sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC), sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC), esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC).
  • Aim : To study the clinicopathological characteristics of sinonasal neuroendocrine malignancies at our institute.
  • Material and Methods : We searched our institute's pathology database for the period from 2002 to 2007, for the four subcategories of sinonasal tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • The clinical treatment and follow- up data were retrieved from the case files in available cases.
  • Results : A total of 37 cases were retrieved from our database which include 14 cases of SNUC, 14 cases of ENB and nine cases of SNEC.
  • The cases of SNUC were immunopositive for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen and weakly for neuron-specific enolase.
  • All cases of SNUC and SNEC were of high grade and stage whereas 50% of ENB cases were of grade II but high stage tumors.
  • Most of the SNUC and SNEC patients had been treated with multimodality treatment regimens including upfront chemotherapy followed by surgery and loco- regional radiation.
  • In contrast, ENB patients had undergone surgical extirpation followed by radiation therapy in majority of cases.
  • With limited follow-up data, it was observed that four out of five SNUC patients and three out of four SNEC patients developed either loco-regional (three of SNUC and two of SNEC) or distant metastasis (one patient each of SNUC and SNEC).
  • Conclusion : Sino nasal tumors with neuroendocrine differentiation are a heterogenous group of tumors with overlapping histo-morphological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20090218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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2. Rosenthal DI, Barker JL Jr, El-Naggar AK, Glisson BS, Kies MS, Diaz EM Jr, Clayman GL, Demonte F, Selek U, Morrison WH, Ang KK, Chao KS, Garden AS: Sinonasal malignancies with neuroendocrine differentiation: patterns of failure according to histologic phenotype. Cancer; 2004 Dec 1;101(11):2567-73
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  • [Title] Sinonasal malignancies with neuroendocrine differentiation: patterns of failure according to histologic phenotype.
  • BACKGROUND: Sinonasal neuroendocrine tumors are rare malignancies that are represented by a spectrum of histologies, including esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC), neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), and small cell carcinoma (SmCC).
  • The authors reviewed their institutional experience to determine whether sinonasal neuroendocrine tumors of different histologies have distinct clinical characteristics that warrant individualized treatment approaches.
  • METHODS: The authors treated 72 adults with pathologically proven, nonmetastatic, primary sinonasal neuroendocrine tumors from 1982 to 2002.
  • There were 31 patients with ENB, 16 patients with SNUC, 18 patients with NEC, and 7 patients with SmCC.
  • Patients with ENB usually were treated with local therapy alone (surgery and/or radiotherapy); only 3 of 31 patients (9.7%) received treatment (radiation) to regional lymphatics, and only 5 of 31 patients (16.1%) received chemotherapy.
  • In contrast, patients with non-ENB histologies usually received chemotherapy (10 of 16 patients with SNUC, 12 of 18 patients with NEC, and 5 of 7 patients with SmCC), and nonsurgical locoregional therapy was used more frequently (6 of 16 patients with SNUC, 4 of 18 patients with NEC, and 5 of 7 patients with SmCC).
  • The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at 5 years was 93.1% for patients with ENB, 62.5% for patients with SNUC, 64.2% for patients with NEC, and 28.6% for patients with SmCC (P = 0.0029; log-rank test).
  • The local control rate at 5 years also was superior for patients who had ENB (96.2%) compared with patients who had SNUC (78.6%), NEC (72.6%), or SmCC (66.7%) (P = 0.04).
  • The regional failure (RF) rate at 5 years was 8.7% for patients with ENB, 15.6% for patients with SNUC, 12.9% for patients with NEC, and 44.4% for patients with SmCC.
  • The distant metastasis rate at 5 years was 0.0% for patients with ENB, 25.4% for patients with SNUC, 14.1% for patients with NEC, and 75.0% for patients with SmCC.
  • Patients with ENB had excellent local and distant control rates with local therapy alone.
  • Given the higher rates of systemic failure for patients with SNUC, NEC, and SmCC, the authors favor the use of combined-modality therapy for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 15517582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA06294
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Mendenhall WM, Mendenhall CM, Riggs CE Jr, Villaret DB, Mendenhall NP: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol; 2006 Feb;29(1):27-31
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  • [Title] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the treatment and outcomes for patients with sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Most series contain a limited number of patients treated with various combinations of surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy.
  • The risk of local-regional recurrence after treatment is probably 20% to 30% or higher, depending on the extent of disease.
  • Better outcomes are observed in patients treated with craniofacial resection combined with pre- or postoperative RT alone or with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Patients with incompletely resectable tumors are best treated with definitive RT and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The optimal treatment is craniofacial resection combined with adjuvant RT alone or with chemotherapy.
  • Patients with incompletely resectable tumors may sometimes be cured with definitive chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Nose Neoplasms. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16462499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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4. Enepekides DJ: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: an update. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Aug;13(4):222-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: an update.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is a rare and extremely malignant tumor of the paranasal sinuses.
  • Historically, treatment outcomes have been poor.
  • This review presents recent data on the management of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and examines treatment trends that may result in improved locoregional control and survival.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Patients who receive aggressive multimodality treatments have improved outcomes.
  • In particular, a chemoradiotherapy regimen including concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy given preoperatively or postoperatively to patients with resectable disease seems to result in better disease-free survival.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, although strongly advocated by some, is currently not offered by many.
  • Although surgery seems to be an important part of the treatment for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, its ideal timing, either upfront or after radiotherapy, remains uncertain.
  • SUMMARY: Overall, outcomes for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma are poor.
  • An aggressive approach using surgery, platinum-based chemotherapy, and radiation seems to offer the greatest chance for significant locoregional control and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16012246.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9508
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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5. Sakamoto M, Nakamura K, Nishimura S: An alternative therapeutic procedure for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2001 Jul;258(5):226-9
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  • [Title] An alternative therapeutic procedure for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • We describe two cases of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm of the paranasal sinuses.
  • Case 1 had first been diagnosed as esthesioneuroblastoma, and intra-arterial and systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy were performed.
  • Case 2 received systemic chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy, with daily venous administration of cisplatin during radiotherapy.
  • Although the therapy failed, chemoradiotherapy has some possibility of controlling the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11548899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Parbhu KC, Galler KE, Murphy BA, Pitchford CW, Mawn LA: Primary ocular presentation of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2010 Jan-Feb;26(1):61-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary ocular presentation of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • The authors describe 2 consecutive patients who presented to Vanderbilt University Medical Center with primary orbital presentation of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and were treated from July 2005 to April 2009.
  • Imaging studies demonstrated large soft tissue masses originating in the sinuses with extension in the orbit in both cases.
  • Both patients were treated with carboplatin, paclitaxel, and dexamethasone as induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy.
  • This treatment regimen resulted in significant tumor shrinkage, resolution of symptoms, and no evidence of recurrence while avoiding surgical intervention and allowing orbital preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20090496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-2677
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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7. Kramer D, Durham JS, Sheehan F, Thomson T: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: case series and systematic review of the literature. J Otolaryngol; 2004 Feb;33(1):32-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: case series and systematic review of the literature.
  • Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is a rare, highly aggressive malignancy.
  • Most authors recommend aggressive management with a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, but the numbers in the individual studies are too small to produce a definitive opinion on the standard of care.
  • In an attempt to determine the optimal treatment for this condition, we have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to evaluate all cases of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma that have been published since its initial description in 1986.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15291274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0381-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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8. Tanzler ED, Morris CG, Orlando CA, Werning JW, Mendenhall WM: Management of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Head Neck; 2008 May;30(5):595-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Our aim was to report the outcomes of treatment for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC).
  • METHODS: Between September 1992 and October 2005, 15 patients were treated with curative intent with surgery (n=1), surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (n=9), and definitive radiotherapy (RT) (n=5).
  • RESULTS: Seven patients (47%) developed a recurrence from 3 to 50 months (median, 9) after treatment.
  • The local control rates versus treatment modality were: surgery, 0/1 (0%); surgery and postoperative RT, 7/7 (100%); preoperative RT and surgery, 2/2 (100%); and definitive RT, 2/5 (40%).
  • The impact of adjuvant chemotherapy is unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis


9. Sharara N, Muller S, Olson J, Grist WJ, Grossniklaus HE: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma with orbital invasion: report of three cases. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2001 Jul;17(4):288-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma with orbital invasion: report of three cases.
  • PURPOSE: To report three patients with sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) that invaded the orbit.
  • The clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of three patients with SNUC were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Three patients with SNUC that invaded the orbit were evaluated.
  • Two patients were treated with surgical resection and postoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation.
  • One patient was treated with preoperative radiation and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is a high-grade tumor that arises in the nasal and paranasal sinuses and may invade the orbit.
  • SNUC should be distinguished from other small, round, blue cell tumors, in particular, esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Keratins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11476180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucin-1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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10. Sohsman M, Yang HM, Cassarino DS: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma metastatic to the skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Dec;37(12):1241-4
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  • [Title] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma metastatic to the skin.
  • Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) is an aggressive malignancy of disputed histogenesis that arises in the sinonasal tract and has an extremely poor prognosis.
  • Despite multimodality treatment with surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy, recurrence is common.
  • We report a case of a 58-year-old woman diagnosed with SNUC who underwent surgical resection of the tumor followed by chemoradiation.
  • Two months after this procedure, she developed multiple dermal nodules in the head and neck region, clinically suspicious for metastases.
  • Biopsy of a nodule from the right neck revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma, with morphological and immunohistochemical findings consistent with a metastasis of the patient's known SNUC.
  • We conclude that the skin may be a rare site of metastasis of SNUC, and in some cases may be the presenting sign of tumor recurrence despite aggressive multimodality treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / metabolism. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19682175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma
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11. Rischin D, Porceddu S, Peters L, Martin J, Corry J, Weih L: Promising results with chemoradiation in patients with sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Head Neck; 2004 May;26(5):435-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Promising results with chemoradiation in patients with sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) is an uncommon malignancy associated with poor prognosis.
  • The optimal treatment approach for SNUC has not been established was performed.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients with SNUC seen at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre over a 12-year period.
  • RESULTS: Ten patients with SNUC were identified, with nine having locally advanced disease (T4).
  • One patient with a T1N0 nasal cavity tumor treated with radiation alone has not relapsed.
  • CONCLUSION: Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation is promising treatment strategy for SNUC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 26: 435-441, 2004.
  • (PMID = 15122660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Gorelick J, Ross D, Marentette L, Blaivas M: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: case series and review of the literature. Neurosurgery; 2000 Sep;47(3):750-4; discussion 754-5
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  • [Title] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: case series and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: We report on four cases of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC), a relatively newly described clinicopathological entity of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
  • SNUC tends to present with advanced-stage disease, often with intracranial invasion, and requires an aggressive treatment approach that includes surgical resection.
  • A review of the literature identified several reports of SNUC in pathology and otolaryngology journals since its initial description in 1986, but no report has yet appeared in the neurosurgery literature.
  • All patients were noted to have masses in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses, with or without intracranial extension.
  • INTERVENTION: All four patients underwent multimodal treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy (60-65 Gy), and aggressive surgical resection via a combined bifrontal craniotomy and a subcranial approach to the anterior cranial fossa.
  • CONCLUSION: SNUC is a rare neoplasm with a poor prognosis despite an aggressive multimodal approach to treatment.
  • On the basis of our experience, we advocate radical resection as part of the initial combined therapy for patients who present with locally advanced, nonmetastatic disease but we suggest reserving surgery for patients with early brain invasion until there has been a radiographically proven central nervous system response to adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Female. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Frontal Lobe / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 10981763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-396X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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13. Kumar A, Bentley T: Sinonasal poorly differentiated carcinoma presenting clinically as esthesioneuroblastoma. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5605

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sinonasal poorly differentiated carcinoma presenting clinically as esthesioneuroblastoma.
  • : 5605 Background: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma presenting clinically as esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare finding.
  • METHOD: A 54 year old white male presented with progressive double vision, left nasal congestion, proptosis of left eye and intermittent pain in left eye and frontal sinus region of 7-8 months duration.
  • Examination revealed a large deforming mass involving the left proximal nasal cavity extending into the mid forehead protruding through the frontal bone.
  • Intranasal cavity revealed edematous mucosa with soft tissue mass filling mid aspect of nasal cavity on the left.
  • CT scan revealed a large destructive mass involving the left nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus extending into the left orbit with displacement of the globe and destruction of the anterior cranial fossa including the frontal bone.
  • MRI revealed a large sinonasal tumor (5.2x7x7.5cm) extending through the cribriform plate, anteromedial floor of the middle cranial fossa and through the inner and outer table of the frontal bones, more to the left than to the right of midline.
  • RESULT: Biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • He is currently being treated with combined radiation therapy and chemotherapy (carboplatin/paclitaxel).
  • CONCLUSION: Here we describe a patient who initially presented with signs and symptoms clinically and radiologically highly suspicious for esthesioneuroblastoma(ONB) but found to have carcinoma as per histology, which is a rare presentation.
  • ONB is a rare tumor located in the roof of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
  • Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma(SUC) cells are reactive for cytokeratin (90%) and EMA (65%).
  • Multimodality approaches (eg, sequential chemotherapy, radiation therapy and craniofacial resection) can cure some patients with localized disease.

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  • (PMID = 28015298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Kim BS, Vongtama R, Juillard G: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: case series and literature review. Am J Otolaryngol; 2004 May-Jun;25(3):162-6
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  • [Title] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: case series and literature review.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to understand the natural history and progression of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) to establish optimal management guidelines.
  • Methods and materials We analyzed 8 consecutively treated patients diagnosed with SNUC between 1995 and 2002 at UCLA Medical Center.
  • Four of these 5 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy, with 2 patients receiving it concurrently with chemotherapy (cisplatinum/5-fluorouracil).
  • One patient received surgery alone as definitive management.
  • Of the remaining 3 patients who did not receive surgical treatment, concurrent chemotherapy and radiation was used.
  • RESULTS: At last follow-up, 6 of the 8 patients were still alive (overall survival 75%) with mean survival time of 20.6 months.
  • However, only 2 of the 6 were alive and free of disease (disease-free survival 25%) with a mean disease-free survival time of 12.3 months.
  • Time to recurrence ranged from 3 to 30 months.
  • Two of the 4 patients with distant metastasis were found to have locoregional disease recurrence at the same time.
  • Time to metastasis ranged from 2 to 30 months.
  • Results also show that the 5 patients who received surgery are still alive with a mean survival time of 23 months at last follow-up.
  • Meanwhile, 1 of the 3 patients who received no surgical therapy is alive, with a mean survival time of 16.7 months in this group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SNUC has proven to have a poor prognosis.
  • Although limited by small numbers, this study along with reported series in the past appear to suggest longer survival results with aggressive multimodality therapy, especially with the incorporation of complete surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 15124164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Smullen JL, Amedee RG: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: a review of the literature. J La State Med Soc; 2001 Oct;153(10):487-90
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  • [Title] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: a review of the literature.
  • Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma is a relatively rare and aggressive malignancy of the nose and paranasal sinuses.
  • It is often difficult to distinguish from other poorly differentiated sinonasal malignancies.
  • Since it was first described in 1986, advances have been made in the understanding of the histology and immunohistochemical markers of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, but the treatment options and prognosis remain poor.
  • While no treatment is standard for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, several modalities and combinations including chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery have been used with varied success.
  • The several case series reported are examined and future directions of therapy discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / physiopathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / physiopathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18350705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-6921
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society : official organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J La State Med Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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16. Smith SR, Som P, Fahmy A, Lawson W, Sacks S, Brandwein M: A clinicopathological study of sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Laryngoscope; 2000 Oct;110(10 Pt 1):1617-22
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  • [Title] A clinicopathological study of sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) and sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) are relatively newly recognized, rare entities requiring further clinicopathological analysis to advance our understanding and determine prognostic distinctions between them.
  • Histological and immunohistochemical findings, patient demographics, treatment regimens, and outcomes were analyzed and compared.
  • Four patients were classified with SNEC, six as having SNUC.
  • The predominant site was the superior nasal cavity or ethmoids (seven cases), followed by the maxilla (four cases).
  • Disease in four patients was clinically staged as N1 (three with SNUC, one with SNEC), and in six patients as NO (three with SNEC, three with SNUC).
  • Of the nine patients who were treated initially with surgical resection, seven received postoperative radiation therapy alone, one received postoperative radiation and chemotherapy, and one had only limited postoperative chemotherapy.
  • One patient was treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy alone, without surgical resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SNUC and SNEC are both aggressive tumors, usually presenting in middle age as a nasal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinuses
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11037813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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17. De Simone P, Coletti L, Campani D, Falcone A, Filipponi F: Liver transplantation for metastatic sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: a case report. Transplant Proc; 2008 Dec;40(10):3821-2
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  • [Title] Liver transplantation for metastatic sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: a case report.
  • Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) is a relatively newly described malignancy of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses with a reported 25% to 30% risk for distant metastases.
  • We have reported herein the case of a patient who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatic metastases of SNUC.
  • Despite the limited follow-up, the present case suggests that a long disease-free survival after primary surgery, absence of local-regional recurrence, and stability of disease after chemotherapy may represent selection criteria to refer patients for OLT.
  • However, continued follow-up and larger series are necessary to test this hypothesis in the long-term and to assess the role of posttransplantation chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome


18. Tetzlaff MT, Liu P, O'Malley BW Jr, LiVolsi VA, Elder D: Report of a case of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma arising in a background of extensive nasal gliomatosis. Head Neck; 2008 Apr;30(4):549-55
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  • [Title] Report of a case of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma arising in a background of extensive nasal gliomatosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) is a relatively rare, aggressive malignancy of adulthood.
  • Nasal glial heterotopia is a benign congenital condition in which mature benign brain tissue develops outside the central nervous system.
  • METHODS: A 37-year-old man was seen with right nasal obstruction, epistaxis, and headache.
  • Biopsy and subsequent resection were performed in the evaluation and treatment of this lesion.
  • Histologic and immunohistochemical assessments of the biopsy and resection specimens on the pathology material classified the lesional tissue.
  • RESULTS: Histology and immunohistochemistry of the biopsy specimen demonstrated an SNUC that was subsequently resected following chemotherapy.
  • In addition to SNUC, the resection specimen revealed extensive, multifocal nasal glial heterotopia (so called "nasal glioma").
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Neuroglia / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Respiratory Mucosa / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Humans. Male. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17972313.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Chen AM, Daly ME, El-Sayed I, Garcia J, Lee NY, Bucci MK, Kaplan MJ: Patterns of failure after combined-modality approaches incorporating radiotherapy for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma of the head and neck. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Feb 1;70(2):338-43
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  • [Title] Patterns of failure after combined-modality approaches incorporating radiotherapy for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • PURPOSE: To report the clinical outcome of patients treated with combined-modality approaches for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) of the head and neck.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The records of 21 patients with SNUC treated with curative intent at the University of California, San Francisco between 1990 and 2004 were analyzed.
  • Primary tumor sites included the nasal cavity (11 patients), maxillary sinus (5 patients), and ethmoid sinus (5 patients).
  • Local-regional treatment included surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for 17 patients; neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for 2 patients; and definitive chemoradiotherapy for 2 patients.
  • There was no difference in local control according to initial treatment approach, but among the 19 patients who underwent surgery the 5-year local control rate was 74% for those with gross tumor resection, compared with 24% for those with subtotal tumor resection (p = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: The suboptimal outcomes suggest a need for more effective therapies.
  • Gross total resection should be the goal of all treatments whenever possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Ethmoid Sinus. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / mortality. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / mortality. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18207030.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Ejaz A, Wenig BM: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: clinical and pathologic features and a discussion on classification, cellular differentiation, and differential diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2005 May;12(3):134-43
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  • [Title] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: clinical and pathologic features and a discussion on classification, cellular differentiation, and differential diagnosis.
  • Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) is an uncommon, highly aggressive, and clinicopathologically distinctive carcinoma of uncertain histogenesis.
  • SNUC typically presents as a rapidly enlarging tumor mass involving multiple (sinonasal tract) sites, often with evidence of extension beyond the anatomic confines of the sinonasal tract.
  • Adjunct analyses (eg, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and molecular biologic studies) are often required in the diagnosis of SNUC and in differentiating it from other undifferentiated malignant neoplasms.
  • The treatment of SNUC includes aggressive multimodality therapy, including surgical resection and adjuvant therapy (ie, radiotherapy, chemotherapy).
  • The prognosis associated with SNUC is poor, and death due to disease often occurs within short periods following the diagnosis.
  • We believe that the histologic definition of SNUC can be expanded to include tumors with limited differentiated foci (ie, squamous cell differentiation) predicated on the caveats that the clinical parameters (ie, rapidly enlarging and destructive sinonasal lesions) and the majority of the histologic findings (ie, undifferentiated pleomorphic cell population) match those features that have heretofore defined SNUC.
  • Irrespective of its cell of origin and perhaps even in the face of differentiated foci in limited parts of the tumor, given its rather unique clinicopathologic characteristics, this tumor should be identified and classified as SNUC, thereby differentiating it from the other specific types of sinonasal carcinomas and nonepithelial malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Humans. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / pathology. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15900114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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21. Spitellie PH, Jordan DR, Brownstein S, Gooi P, Burns B: Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma with a frozen globe. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2008 May-Jun;24(3):225-7
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  • [Title] Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma with a frozen globe.
  • CT showed soft-tissue infiltration involving the posterior ethmoids, pterygopalatine fossa, and posterior inferior orbit.
  • Histopathologic analysis of a biopsy specimen disclosed a highly aggressive and undifferentiated neoplasm with an immunophenotype and ultrastructural features consistent with an epithelial origin, which was most consistent with a diagnosis of sinonasal indifferentiated carcinoma.
  • The tumor was unresectable and the patient was started on a course of radiation and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18520842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Diaz EM Jr, Kies MS: Chemotherapy for skull base cancers. Otolaryngol Clin North Am; 2001 Dec;34(6):1079-85, viii

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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for skull base cancers.
  • This article focuses on treatment options for select skull base problems that have decreased post-treatment morbidity and, in many cases, improved survival.
  • The select skull base cancers covered include nasopharyngeal carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, and salivary gland carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Skull Base Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / drug therapy. Humans. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11728933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6665
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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23. Day TA, Beas RA, Schlosser RJ, Woodworth BA, Barredo J, Sharma AK, Gillespie MB: Management of paranasal sinus malignancy. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2005 Jan;6(1):3-18
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  • [Title] Management of paranasal sinus malignancy.
  • Malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses represent a wide spectrum of histologies, tissues of origin, and anatomic primary sites.
  • The inherent difficulty in generalizing treatment approaches is obvious, given the numerous variables associated with the broadly-based term, paranasal sinus malignancy (PNSCa).
  • Nevertheless, the majority of epithelial and salivary malignancies of this region (ie, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and esthesioneuroblastoma) require surgical intervention as part of any treatment regimen.
  • Nonepithelial malignancies, including the wide variety of sarcomas arising in this region, most commonly require multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery for definitive treatment.
  • Moreover, the proximity of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses to structures including the orbit, dura, brain, cranial nerves, and carotid arteries mandates careful radiologic and neurologic evaluations throughout the course of the disease.
  • However, additional clinical trials are necessary to systematically evaluate the locoregional control, organ-preservation strategies, and survival related to the variety of treatments currently available.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery. Sarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diet. Humans. Life Style. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 15610711.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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24. Luong A, Citardi MJ, Batra PS: Management of sinonasal malignant neoplasms: defining the role of endoscopy. Am J Rhinol Allergy; 2010 Mar-Apr;24(2):150-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of sinonasal malignant neoplasms: defining the role of endoscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: Preliminary reports support the role of endoscopic techniques in the management of selected sinonasal malignancies.
  • The objectives of this review are (1) to assess outcomes for patients undergoing definitive endoscopic tumor extirpation and (2) to elucidate the role of endoscopy in the management of sinonasal malignancies.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of patients with sinonasal malignancy managed via endoscopic techniques from September 1998 to December 2007 was conducted.
  • The five most common pathologies were squamous cell carcinoma (21), melanoma (10), esthesioneuroblastoma (8), adenocarcinoma (7), and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (3).
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy was used in 29 of the 50 patients (58%).
  • For those patients undergoing definitive treatment, the disease-free and overall survival rates were 69.2 and 84.6% at mean of 34.5 and 42.7 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The endoscope is a versatile tool for management of sinonasal malignant neoplasms.
  • Although the role was once just limited to biopsy, endoscopic approaches allow for definitive resection for curative intent and palliative resection for patient comfort with acceptable survival.
  • Moreover, endoscopy facilitates three-dimensional tumor mapping and posttreatment surveillance in patients undergoing definitive chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Endoscopy. Nose Neoplasms / therapy. Paranasal Sinuses / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20338116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-8932
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of rhinology & allergy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Rhinol Allergy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Cohen ZR, Marmor E, Fuller GN, DeMonte F: Misdiagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma. Neurosurg Focus; 2002 May 15;12(5):e3
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  • OBJECT: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ON) is a rare neoplasm arising from the olfactory epithelium and found in the upper nasal cavity.
  • The authors studied the frequency with which ON is misdiagnosed with other tumors of the paranasal sinuses such as neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), pituitary adenoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC).
  • Based on the belief that misdiagnosis commonly occurs, they emphasized the importance of establishing the correct diagnosis, because the treatment regimens and prognosis of these tumor types are often significantly different.
  • Demographic data were collected, physical findings and mode of treatments were documented, and neuroimaging studies were assessed.
  • Lesions in 10 patients were misdiagnosed; there were two cases of melanoma, three cases of NEC, three cases of pituitary adenoma, and two cases of SNUC.
  • Eight of 10 patients in whom lesions were misdiagnosed required significant alteration in the initially proposed treatment plan.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neurosurgeons should be acutely aware of the variety of neoplasms that occur in the paranasal region.
  • The correct diagnosis should be ensured before initiating treatment to provide the optimum therapy and spare the patients from needless and potentially toxic treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blindness / etiology. Case Management. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Ethmoid Sinus / pathology. Humans. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Iatrogenic Disease. Male. Middle Aged. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Sphenoid Sinus / pathology. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects


26. Madison Michael L 2nd, Sorenson JM, Samant S, Robertson JH: The treatment of advanced sinonasal malignancies with pre-operative intra-arterial cisplatin and concurrent radiation. J Neurooncol; 2005 Mar;72(1):67-75
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  • [Title] The treatment of advanced sinonasal malignancies with pre-operative intra-arterial cisplatin and concurrent radiation.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignancies of the nasal and paranasal sinuses are uncommon tumors, accounting for only 3% of all aerodigestive tract neoplasms.
  • Despite advances in surgical techniques and continued evolution of adjuvant therapies, the 5-year mortality remains unusually high at greater than 50%.
  • In 1996, we begin utilizing a novel strategy in the treatment of advanced sinonasal carcinomas.
  • This consisted of neoadjuvant selective intra-arterial cisplatin with concurrent radiation therapy (acronym RADPLAT) followed by a conservative craniofacial resection.
  • METHODS: Between July 1996 and April 2003, 11 patients with advanced sinonasal malignancies underwent treatment utilizing the RADPLAT protocol followed by a planned surgical resection via a craniofacial approach.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological analysis of the tumors revealed seven squamous cell carcinomas (64%), two adenocarcinomas (18%), one adenoid cystic carcinoma (9%), and one sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (9%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of advanced sinonasal malignancies with pre-operative intra-arterial cisplatin and concurrent radiation results in a significant improvement in survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Premedication. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15803378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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27. Esposito F, Kelly DF, Vinters HV, DeSalles AA, Sercarz J, Gorgulhos AA: Primary sphenoid sinus neoplasms: a report of four cases with common clinical presentation treated with transsphenoidal surgery and adjuvant therapies. J Neurooncol; 2006 Feb;76(3):299-306
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  • [Title] Primary sphenoid sinus neoplasms: a report of four cases with common clinical presentation treated with transsphenoidal surgery and adjuvant therapies.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary neoplasms of the sphenoid sinus are a rare occurrence, accounting for approximately 1-2% of all paranasal sinus tumors.
  • METHODS: Four patients with sphenoid sinus neoplasms were identified (1%), all treated during the year 2003.
  • MRIs in all patients demonstrated large sphenoid sinus masses with partial clival and sellar bone erosion but with clear visualization of the pituitary gland above the mass.
  • Cavernous sinus invasion was present in all four cases, including one patient with tumor in the ethmoid sinus and intra-tumoral hemorrhage.
  • Tumor histology included neuroendocrine carcinoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and giant cell tumor.
  • Metastatic work-ups were negative in all patients, and all received fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy; three received chemotherapy.
  • In this small series, they presented with cavernous sinus symptoms and headache but not endocrinopathy.
  • Their aggressive nature warrants a multimodality treatment plan including surgical debulking, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in some cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurosurgical Procedures. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Sphenoid Sinus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16163447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Hanna E, DeMonte F, Ibrahim S, Roberts D, Levine N, Kupferman M: Endoscopic resection of sinonasal cancers with and without craniotomy: oncologic results. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Dec;135(12):1219-24
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  • [Title] Endoscopic resection of sinonasal cancers with and without craniotomy: oncologic results.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the oncologic outcomes of patients with sinonasal cancer treated with endoscopic resection.
  • PATIENTS: All patients with biopsy-proved malignant neoplasm of the sinonasal region who were treated with endoscopic resection between 1992 and 2007 were included in the study, and their charts were reviewed for demographics, histopathologic findings, treatment details, and outcome.
  • Of the 120 patients, 41% presented with previously untreated disease, 46% presented with persistent disease that had been partially resected, and 13% presented with recurrent disease after prior treatment.
  • The most common site of tumor origin was the nasal cavity (52%), followed by the ethmoid sinuses (28%).
  • The most common tumor types were esthesioneuroblastoma (17%), sarcoma (15%), adenocarcinoma (14%), melanoma (14%), and squamous cell carcinoma (13%).
  • Other, less common tumors included adenoid cystic carcinoma (7%), neuroendocrine carcinoma (4%), and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (2%).
  • Of the 120 patients, 50% were treated with surgery alone, 37% received postoperative radiation therapy, and 13% were treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest US series to date of patients with malignant tumors of the sinonasal tract treated with endoscopic resection.
  • Our results suggest that, in well-selected patients and with appropriate use of adjuvant therapy, endoscopic resection of sinonasal cancer results in acceptable oncologic outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Craniotomy. Disease-Free Survival. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Ethmoid Sinus. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Nose Neoplasms / mortality. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20026819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Adelstein DJ: The role of chemotherapy for skull base carcinomas and sarcomas. Neurosurg Clin N Am; 2000 Oct;11(4):681-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of chemotherapy for skull base carcinomas and sarcomas.
  • The rarity of most primary skull base carcinomas and sarcomas has prevented a careful examination of the role of chemotherapy in these diseases.
  • For advanced nasopharyngeal cancer, however, convincing data have now been generated supporting the role of systemic chemotherapy in conjunction with definitive locoregional treatment.
  • Chemotherapy also seems to have a role in the management of other squamous cell head and neck cancers, and its use concurrently with radiation may be appropriate when extension to the base of the skull is identified.
  • The role of chemotherapy in the management of the other skull base neoplasms remains less well established.
  • Existing evidence is little more than anecdotal, and the use of systemic chemotherapy should generally be restricted to the palliative treatment setting.
  • The ultimate role of this intervention in the aggressive sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas and primary neuroendocrine carcinomas is unknown, but for these diseases, chemotherapy is a reasonable addition to locoregional treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Skull Base Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 11082178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-3680
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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30. Thompson LD, Wieneke JA, Miettinen M: Sinonasal tract and nasopharyngeal melanomas: a clinicopathologic study of 115 cases with a proposed staging system. Am J Surg Pathol; 2003 May;27(5):594-611
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  • [Title] Sinonasal tract and nasopharyngeal melanomas: a clinicopathologic study of 115 cases with a proposed staging system.
  • Primary sinonasal tract mucosal malignant melanomas are uncommon tumors that are frequently misclassified, resulting in inappropriate clinical management.
  • A total of 115 cases of sinonasal tract mucosal malignant melanoma included 59 females and 56 males, 13-93 years of age (mean 64.3 years).
  • Patients presented most frequently with epistaxis (n = 52), mass (n = 42), and/or nasal obstruction (n = 34) present for a mean of 8.2 months.
  • The majority of tumors involved the nasal cavity (n = 34), septum alone, or a combination of the nasal cavity and sinuses (n = 39) with a mean size of 2.4 cm.
  • Histologically, the tumors were composed of a variety of cell types (epithelioid, spindled, undifferentiated), frequently arranged in a peritheliomatous distribution (n = 39).
  • Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of sinonasal tract mucosal malignant melanomas with positive reactions for S-100 protein, tyrosinase, HMB-45, melan A, and microphthalmia transcription factor.
  • Sinonasal tract mucosal malignant melanomas need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of most sinonasal malignancies, particularly carcinoma, lymphoma, sarcoma, and olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Surgery accompanied by radiation and/or chemotherapy was generally used.
  • The majority of patients developed a recurrence (n = 79), with 75 patients dying with disseminated disease (mean 2.3 years), whereas 40 patients are either alive or had died of unrelated causes (mean 13.9 years).
  • A TNM-type classification separated by anatomic site of involvement and metastatic disease is proposed to predict biologic behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinuses / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Mucosa. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12717245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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