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1. Deppe G, Baumann P: Advances in ovarian cancer chemotherapy. Curr Opin Oncol; 2000 Sep;12(5):481-91
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  • [Title] Advances in ovarian cancer chemotherapy.
  • Traditionally, surgery and radiation represented the pillars of cancer therapy.
  • In contrast to the European approach, in the United States chemotherapy for ovarian cancer has replaced radiation for a long time.
  • With the recognition that aggressiveness in therapy many times did not correlate with improved survival time, paradigms in the treatment of women with reproductive organ cancers have shifted lately.
  • Modern antiproliferative therapy strives for both, maximizing survival time as well as quality of life.
  • New therapeutic concepts as well as an abundance of new drugs await the conclusion of clinical trials to identify their potential role in the advancement of ovarian cancer therapy.
  • This article reviews the most recent literature available on systemic and intraperitoneal chemotherapy of early-stage and advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, high-dose chemotherapy, and biologic and gene therapy.
  • Chemotherapy of germ cell and malignant ovarian stromal tumors is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 10975557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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2. Nelsen LL, Muirhead DM, Bell MC: Ovarian small cell carcinoma, hypercalcemic type exhibiting a response to high-dose chemotherapy. S D Med; 2010 Nov;63(11):375-7
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  • [Title] Ovarian small cell carcinoma, hypercalcemic type exhibiting a response to high-dose chemotherapy.
  • No ovarian masses were noted during ultrasound exam at the prior pregnancy, less than one year earlier.
  • An exploratory laparotomy revealed a 20-cm right ovarian mass.
  • Frozen section was performed and a sex cord-stromal tumor was favored.
  • Permanent sections of the specimen, however, revealed round, closely packed neoplastic cells with a high nuclear to cytoplasm ratio and high mitotic rate growing in a diffuse pattern with scattered follicle-like, ill-defined microcystic spaces.
  • Immunohistochemical stains revealed the neoplasm to be focally positive for keratin and negative for inhibin.
  • The final diagnosis rendered was small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type.
  • Current literature suggests a very poor prognosis for these neoplasms despite aggressive therapy, with an overall survival rate of 10 percent.
  • Rare response has been noted, however, with high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Genes, BRCA1. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Paraneoplastic Syndromes. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 21117517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] South Dakota medicine : the journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] S D Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; CCE protocol
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3. Gupta PR, Taly A, Joshi N, Gupta S, Meena RC, Jain S: Chylothorax in a patient with ovarian tumour. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci; 2005 Jan-Mar;47(1):43-6
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  • [Title] Chylothorax in a patient with ovarian tumour.
  • A rare case of chylothorax complicating sex cord tumour of ovary in a young girl is being reported here.
  • It was successfully managed by using a multipronged strategy consisting of chemotherapy, total parentral nutrition and bleomycin pleurodesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chylothorax / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Pleurodesis / methods

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  • (PMID = 15704715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9343
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; CISCA protocol
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4. Stuart GC, Dawson LM: Update on granulosa cell tumours of the ovary. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol; 2003 Feb;15(1):33-7
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  • [Title] Update on granulosa cell tumours of the ovary.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Granulosa cell tumours of the ovary are an uncommon ovarian sex-cord stromal tumour.
  • Surgery represents the primary therapy for early stage disease; however, management of women with advanced disease is less clear.
  • Because of their relative rarity, evidence to support decision-making in the management of granulosa cell tumours is limited.
  • The purpose of this review is to provide the clinician with an updated knowledge of the clinical and molecular aspects of granulosa cell tumours in order to guide therapy.
  • However, these tumours may demonstrate heterogeneous genetic aberrations that can predict behaviour and response to therapy.
  • Case series and reports suggest that postoperative combination chemotherapy is of most benefit in advanced disease.
  • SUMMARY: The pathology and treatment of women with granulosa cell tumours of the ovary is complex.
  • A better understanding of the molecular pathology may assist treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Inhibins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12544499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-872X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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5. Zeng DY, Shen K, Huang HF, Wu M, Pan LY, Yang JX, Lang JH: [Analysis of prognostic factors of malignant ovarian tumor after fertility-preserving treatment]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Sep 21;85(36):2562-5
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  • [Title] [Analysis of prognostic factors of malignant ovarian tumor after fertility-preserving treatment].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the prognostic factors of malignant ovarian tumor after fertility-preserving treatment.
  • METHODS: 189 patients with malignant ovarian tumor who had undergone fertility-preserving management in the past 20 years were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Among the patients, 136 cases suffered from ovarian germ cell tumor (OGCT), 31 cases suffered from ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor (OSCST), and 22 cases suffered from epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
  • The median follow-up time of different groups was 50 months for OGCT, 46 months for OSCST, 45 months for EOC respectively.
  • Standard chemotherapy was the most important prognostic factor for OGCT.
  • FIGO stage and standard chemotherapy were favourable factors for prognosis in OSCST group.
  • CONCLUSION: Fertility-preserving treatment should be considered for OGCT without limitation of FIGO stage, whereas it should be performed individually for OSCST and EOC.
  • The treatment outcome for OGCT is the best, for EOC the worst.
  • [MeSH-major] Fertility / physiology. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16321304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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6. Pectasides D, Pectasides E, Psyrri A: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Cancer Treat Rev; 2008 Feb;34(1):1-12
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are uncommon neoplasms that arise from the sex-cord stromal cells of the ovary.
  • Occasionally, tumor rupture causes abdominal pain and hemoperitoneum.
  • GCT is usually associated with a mass on pelvic examination which is subsequently confirmed with imagine techniques.
  • In postmenopausal women and those with more advanced disease a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the appropriate surgical treatment.
  • The most important prognostic factor associated with a higher risk of relapse is the stage of disease.
  • The role of post-operative chemo- or radiotherapy in stage I disease and those with completely resected tumor has not been defined.
  • Nevertheless, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy has sometimes been associated with prolonged disease-free survival and possibly overall survival.
  • Chemotherapy should be considered for patients with advanced, recurrent or metastatic disease and the BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin) is the currently preferable regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Estradiol / analysis. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17945423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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7. Oztekin O, Soylu F, Yigit S, Sarica E: Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumors in a patient using tamoxifen: report of a case and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):1694-7
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  • [Title] Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumors in a patient using tamoxifen: report of a case and review of literature.
  • However, only a few cases of endometrial stromal sarcomas have been reported to be linked with tamoxifen usage.
  • Postoperative histologic diagnosis was a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumors, which is an exceedingly rare entity itself.
  • The present case is the first designated diagnosis of this rare tumor, with a possible association of tamoxifen usage.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16884388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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8. Chauhan A, Dahiya P, Singh H, Gill M, Verma S: Isolated breast metastasis from granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Dec;280(6):997-9
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  • [Title] Isolated breast metastasis from granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms arising from sex-cord stromal cells.
  • These tumors usually present with stage I disease as they are frequently associated with hormonal effects.
  • Only a small percentage of such tumors metastasize and the common sites of metastasis are lung, liver, and brain.
  • Granulosa cell tumor of ovary metastasizing to breast has never been reported in literature.
  • We present such a case of ovarian granulosa cell tumor with metastasis to the breast, which was the presenting symptom.
  • The patient was treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy which was followed by chemotherapy.
  • The patient is relapse free 2 years after completion of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Granulosa Cell Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19306013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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9. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Wessalowski R, Pathmanathan R, Harms D, Göbel U: Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors. Klin Padiatr; 2002 Jul-Aug;214(4):173-8
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  • [Title] Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors are rare tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ cell component such as granulosa, Sertoli or Leydig cells.
  • Among these, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) constitute the largest subgroup of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors during childhood and adolescence.
  • In local disease (FIGO stage I), the beneficial role of tumor-ovarectomy is well established.
  • In contrast, life expectancy in patients with advanced JGCT (FIGO stage >/= II) is short even after complete tumor resection.
  • The current literature provides only limited and inconclusive data regarding the value of adjuvant chemotherapy in such patients with advanced disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Therefore, we analyzed the patients with FIGO stage >/= II JGCT who were prospectively documented as follow-up patients of the German MAKEI trials for non-testicular germ cell tumors and received the recommended cisplatin-based chemotherapy in an adjuvant setting.
  • Two patients received laparoscopic tumor resection, which was incomplete in both.
  • All patients received 4 or 6 cycles of adjuvant cisplatin-based three-agent chemotherapy in analogy to the current therapeutic concept applied in malignant germ cell tumors.
  • One patient with a large tumor and multiple peritoneal metastases additionally received 40 Gy abdominal irradiation.
  • RESULTS: All patients achieved complete clinical remission after initial surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • One patient developed a metachronous tumor of the contralateral ovary after 126 months follow-up and is still alive but currently in therapy of another recurrence.
  • Another patient suffered a tumor recurrence after 12 months but achieved a second complete remission with cisplatin chemotherapy after a follow-up of currently 4 months.
  • One patient achieved complete clinical remission but suffered a diffuse peritoneal tumor recurrence with massive ascites and finally died as a result of tumor progression.
  • In summary, at the time of this report 6 of 7 patients are alive after a median of 47 (15 - 138) months.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis clearly demonstrates that advanced JGCT can be successfully treated with surgery followed by adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, this study reveals encouraging therapeutic perspectives in these otherwise fatal tumors that merit further investigation in a prospective cooperative trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12165898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Koukourakis GV, Kouloulias VE, Koukourakis MJ, Zacharias GA, Papadimitriou C, Mystakidou K, Pistevou-Gompaki K, Kouvaris J, Gouliamos A: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: tumor review. Integr Cancer Ther; 2008 Sep;7(3):204-15
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: tumor review.
  • Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms that originate from sex-cord stromal cells.
  • The long natural history of granulosa cell tumors and their tendency to recur years after the initial diagnosis are the most prominent of their characteristics.
  • Abdominal pain and hemoperitoneum, which occasionally can occur, are attributable to tumor rupture.
  • The most common finding in pelvic examination is a tumor mass, which is subsequently confirmed with imaging techniques.
  • Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the appropriate surgical treatment for postmenopausal women and those with more advanced disease.
  • There are no clear conclusions regarding the role of postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy in stage I disease and in those with completely resected tumor.
  • The use of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy has sometimes been associated with prolonged disease-free survival and possibly overall survival.
  • Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for patients with advanced, recurrent, or metastatic disease, and BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin) is the preferred regimen.
  • Although the overall rate of response to treatment is high, the impact of treatment on disease-free or overall survival is unknown.
  • Prolonged surveillance is mandatory because tumors tend to recur years after the initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 18815151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-7354
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative cancer therapies
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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11. Tao X, Sood AK, Deavers MT, Schmeler KM, Nick AM, Coleman RL, Gershenson DM, Brown J: Antiangiogenic therapy for granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):5574

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antiangiogenic therapy for granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.
  • : 5574 Background: Sex-cord stromal ovarian tumors (SCSTs) tend to respond poorly to chemotherapy agents.
  • Therefore, we examined the clinical efficacy of bevacizumab with or without concurrent chemotherapy and evaluated the angiogenic characteristics of these patients' tumors.
  • VEGF and CD31 immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was performed when tissue was available; microvessel density (MVD) was measured based on CD31 counts.
  • Of these, 7 had adult granulosa cell tumors (GCT) and one had a juvenile GCT.
  • All patients were treated for recurrent disease and had been previously treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy, with a median of 3.5 prior regimens (range, 1-6).
  • Of the 8 patients, 5 had tissue available for IHC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VEGF therapy is highly effective in patients with ovarian granulosa cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 27962607.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Chan JK, Zhang M, Kaleb V, Loizzi V, Benjamin J, Vasilev S, Osann K, Disaia PJ: Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--a multivariate analysis. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jan;96(1):204-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--a multivariate analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prognostic factors that impacts the survival of women with sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary (SCST).
  • METHODS: Cases were identified from tumor registry databases at three academic institutions between 1975 and 2003.
  • Patient characteristics, surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy, pathologic and follow-up information were collected from hospital charts and clinic records.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-three women (median age: 49 years) with SCST of the ovary, including 73 with granulosa and 10 with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors were identified.
  • Furthermore, age <50 (P = 0.003), premenopausal status (P = 0.013), tumor size < 10 cm (P = 0.003), lack of lymph node invasion (P < 0.0005), and absence of residual disease (P = 0.002) were all significant predictors for improved survival.
  • Of the patients who received adjuvant treatment, chemotherapy did not impact survival (P = 0.11).
  • In multivariate analysis, age <50, smaller tumor size, and absence of residual disease remained as independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age <50, smaller tumor size, and absence of residual disease are important predictors for improved survival in patients with SCST of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15589602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Mehta H, Trivedi P, Parikh B, Shukla K, Shah MJ: Clinicopathological prognostic factors of adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary--a study of 37 cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Oct;48(4):439-43
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological prognostic factors of adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary--a study of 37 cases.
  • Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is the most common malignancy amongst the sex cord stromal tumors.
  • Clinical stage, age, tumor size, residual disease and several histologic factors have been reported to be of prognostic significance.
  • There were 839 ovarian malignancies at our institute during the period from 1998 to 2002.
  • Out of 54 granulosa cell tumors, 40 cases were evaluable which includes 37 cases of adult GCT and 3 cases of juvenile GCT.
  • All patients were treated surgically and 62.1% of adult GCTs were given post-operative chemotherapy.
  • Clinical stage, presence of residual disease and tumor volume were the most important prognostic factors.
  • Age of patient, menstrual status, post-operative chemotherapy, mitosis or histological patterns were of little significance in our study.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. India / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16366090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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14. Geetha P, Nair MK: Granulosa cell tumours of the ovary. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol; 2010 Jun;50(3):216-20
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumours of the ovary.
  • Granulosa cell tumours are rare, potentially malignant sex cord stromal tumours of the ovary.
  • Many of them are hormone-producing and this property helps them to present early unlike other epithelial ovarian cancers.
  • As a result, most of them will be in an early stage at the time of initial diagnosis.
  • The tumour can manifest in young girls as a juvenile form and conservative management with unilateral salpingo-opherectomy may be an option in them as 95% are unilateral.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice and initial staging laparatomy a determinant recurrence.
  • Advance stage of the tumour, its size (>5 cm), mitotic figures (>10/hpf), nuclear atypia and absence of call-exner bodies are poor prognostic factors.
  • Tumour markers such as inhibin and estradiol are useful in follow-up.
  • Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have very little role in the initial treatment and may be suggested in case of recurrences.
  • With appropriate treatment, a better survival rate can be achieved as against other ovarian malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20618236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-828X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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15. Powell JL, Dulaney DP, Shiro BC: Androgen-secreting steroid cell tumor of the ovary. South Med J; 2000 Dec;93(12):1201-4
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  • [Title] Androgen-secreting steroid cell tumor of the ovary.
  • We present the case of a 93-year-old virilized woman with an androgen-secreting ovarian tumor.
  • This rare ovarian sex cord stromal tumor behaved in a malignant fashion.
  • Various aspects of the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / secretion. Ovarian Neoplasms. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors. Virilism / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11142457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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16. Colombo N, Parma G, Zanagnolo V, Insinga A: Management of ovarian stromal cell tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jul 10;25(20):2944-51
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  • [Title] Management of ovarian stromal cell tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the clinical management of ovarian stromal cell tumors, which are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that develop from the sex cords and the ovarian stroma.
  • DESIGN: We reviewed the current evidence on the clinical management of these relatively rare ovarian malignancies, which are typically detected at an early stage and may recur as late as 30 years following the initial treatment.
  • The overall prognosis is favorable with a long-term survival ranging from 75% to 90% for all stages.
  • Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is the most common malignancy among these tumors.
  • RESULTS: Surgery is the cornerstone of initial treatment.
  • In women of childbearing age and with disease limited to one ovary, a fertility-sparing surgery can be a reasonable approach.
  • Tumor stage represents the most important clinical parameter of prognostic relevance.
  • The value of postoperative adjuvant therapy for high-risk patients has not been proven by prospective randomized studies.
  • Platinum-based chemotherapy is used currently for patients with advanced stages or recurrent disease, with an overall response rate of 63% to 80%.
  • Taxane and platinum combination chemotherapy seems to be a reasonable candidate for future trials.
  • Little evidence exists for the use of radiation or hormonal therapy, and these modalities should be restricted to selected cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgery remains the most effective treatment for ovarian stromal tumors and, whenever feasible, for relapsing disease.
  • Platinum-based chemotherapy is currently used in metastatic or recurrent tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Medical Oncology / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17617526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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17. Gupta D, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Malignant melanoma involving the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Jun;28(6):771-80
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma involving the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases.
  • Ovarian malignant melanoma (MM), primary or metastatic, is an extremely rare tumor and in the absence of a previous diagnosis can represent a diagnostic challenge.
  • A previous history of MM was definitively obtained in 14 patients; in these cases, the interval between the primary MM and the ovarian metastasis ranged from 15 to 228 months (mean 77.7 months).
  • The tumor was unilateral in 19 and bilateral in 4 cases.
  • The tumor size ranged from 4.5 to 23 cm (average 10 cm); the melanoma arising in a cystic teratoma was 0.2 mm in thickness.
  • The tumor was grossly pigmented in 8 cases (35%).
  • The tumor cell type was epithelioid in 19 cases, spindled in 2 cases, mixed epithelioid and spindled in 1 case, and small cell in 1 case.
  • In 8 cases, initial diagnoses included sex cord stromal tumor, germ cell tumor, sarcoma, or undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • Treatment performed in 18 of the cases are as follows: oophorectomy with/without chemotherapy (10); total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with/without chemotherapy (6); vaginal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and chemotherapy (1); and total abdominal hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy (1).
  • In conclusion, MM involving the ovary is a rare disease, predominantly seen in women of reproductive age, and is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • The tumor is most often metastatic from another site and is unilateral in most cases.
  • Nodular or diffuse pattern and epithelioid cell type are most frequently seen, and the tumor can be mistaken for germ cell and sex cord stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Calbindin 2. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Ethnic Groups. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor. Middle Aged. Monophenol Monooxygenase / analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis. Teratoma / pathology. Transcription Factors / analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15166669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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18. Loeffen JL, Wijnen M, Schijf CP, van Wieringen P: [Ovarian tumour in a girl with chronic abdominal pain and distension]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 Mar 25;150(12):677-80
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  • [Title] [Ovarian tumour in a girl with chronic abdominal pain and distension].
  • [Transliterated title] Ovariumtumor bij een meisje met chronische buikpijn en zwelling van de buik.
  • The cause was a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour originating in the left ovary.
  • The cyst and ovary were resected.
  • Ovarian tumours are rarely seen in children.
  • The sex cordstromal tumours constitute a heterogeneous subgroup.
  • Two of the most frequently observed sex cord-stromal tumours are the juvenile granulosa cell tumour and the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour.
  • In addition, pressure from the tumour mass may result in symptoms in adjacent organ systems.
  • Patients with advanced disease may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Chronic abdominal pain is frequently observed in children and, in some rare cases, may be caused by ovarian tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sertoli Cell Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16613252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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19. Kommoss F, Kommoss S, Eichhorn J, Schmidt D: [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):209-14
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  • [Title] [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features].
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary (TCC-O) is a less common type of malignant surface epithelial-stromal tumor of the ovary, still with uncertain incidence.
  • Histologically, TCC-O resembles urothelial carcinoma of the urinary system, and by definition does not contain a Brenner tumor component.
  • TCC-O may not be a bona fide urothelial neoplasm, however, but rather a lesion of the Müllerian type derived from the ovarian surface epithelium.
  • This notion is supported by the existence of mixed tumors consisting of TCC-O and other histological types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as the observation that TCC-O has a Müllerian type but not a urothelial-like immunohistochemical profile.
  • Besides metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract, the other types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as sex cord-stromal tumors such as adult granulosa cell tumors, have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of TCC-O.
  • A recent analysis of a large series of advanced ovarian carcinomas treated by radical surgery and postoperative chemotherapy confirms studies that had suggested that TCC-O has a better prognosis (with current treatment) than that of the other histological types of ovarian carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17447068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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20. Gao YN, Jiang GQ, Liu JX, Tang WS, Chen LZ: [Preoperational misdiagnosis of extragastrointestinal stromal tumors as ovarian cancer: report of three cases with literature review]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2005 May;40(5):339-41
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  • [Title] [Preoperational misdiagnosis of extragastrointestinal stromal tumors as ovarian cancer: report of three cases with literature review].
  • OBJECTIVE: This report was to review how extragastrointestinal stromal tumor (EGIST) was similar to ovarian cancer, its differential diagnosis and treatment.
  • RESULTS: The cases of EGIST were presented with peritoneal and pelvic mass, or ascites, diagnosed as ovarian cancer at first, and finally diagnosed as EGIST by pathological method and positive CD(117) and CD(34) expression.
  • Surgery in combination with chemotherapy was an effective therapeutic method.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clinical presentation of EGIST is similar to ovarian cancer in some aspects.
  • Detection of CD(117) and CD(34) positive expression is helpful in the diagnosis of EGIST.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15938787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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21. Shiina H, Oka K, Okane M, Tanno W, Kawasaki T, Nakayama M: Coexisting true hermaphroditism and partial hydatidiform mole developing metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors. A case report. Virchows Arch; 2002 Nov;441(5):514-8
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  • [Title] Coexisting true hermaphroditism and partial hydatidiform mole developing metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors. A case report.
  • We report a fetal autopsy case that was diagnosed with a mole coexistent with a live fetus at an early gestation and finally showed coexisting true hermaphroditism of 46,XX/46,XY mosaicism and partial hydatidiform mole, developing metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors in the lungs of the mother.
  • A 23-year-old Japanese female had a mole coexistent with a fetus and showed a high chorionic gonadotropin titer in urine and serum at 10 weeks of gestation.
  • A chromosome analysis demonstrated 46,XX and 46,XY mosaicism in both umbilical cord blood and mole samples.
  • The testis had seminiferous tubules containing primitive germ cells, immature Sertoli cells, and cytomegalic Leydig cells.
  • The ovary in the ovotestis had numerous primitive germ cells and a few stromal cells.
  • The patient presented multiple metastatic pulmonary tumors at 1 month after the interruption, and was treated with chemotherapy for the clinical diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic tumor metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Disorders of Sex Development / pathology. Fetus / abnormalities. Hydatidiform Mole / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Therapeutic. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Mosaicism / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 12447683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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22. Kesic V: Fertility after the treatment of gynecologic tumors. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2008;178:79-95
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  • [Title] Fertility after the treatment of gynecologic tumors.
  • Fertility-sparing surgery may be safe in early ovarian cancer of certain histological subtypes such as ovarian tumors of low malignant potential, malignant ovarian germ cell tumors, and ovarian sex cord stromal tumors.
  • For women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer who have early-stage disease, fertility-sparing surgery may be an option.
  • In some cases, fertility-sparing surgery may be followed by postoperative chemotherapy.
  • Nonsurgical options such as hormonal therapy may be considered for women with early-stage, low-grade endometrial cancer.
  • Improvements in cancer cure rates and the development of conservative treatments mean that many young women with early gynecologic cancer can hope to start a new pregnancy after the treatment.
  • Patients are generally advised to wait 2 years after treatment for any malignancy before attempting pregnancy, but the optimal interval between cure and conception must be carefully determined by a multidisciplinary team including oncologist and obstetrician.
  • Management of young women diagnosed with gynecologic cancer should be individualized, with the risk of conservative therapy balanced against the disadvantages of more radical treatment.
  • The alternatives to the traditional and standard radical procedures should be discussed, and the limitation of data regarding many conservative treatment options should be explained.
  • The patients should be aware that by accepting fertility-sparing treatment they are assuming a small but undefined risk for recurrence of the disease.
  • They need to know that these conservative therapeutic approaches are yet not considered "standard."
  • They may also consider ovarian tissue, oocyte, or embryo cryopreservation before definitive cancer therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Fertility / physiology. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Pregnancy Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18080446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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23. Ye L, Wu XL, Xu L, Huang Q, Sun L, He Y, Yang KX: [Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic study]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Aug;36(8):516-20
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  • [Title] [Ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified: a clinicopathologic study].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features, diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis and treatment options of ovarian steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified (NOS).
  • METHODS: Light microscopy and immunohistochemical study was carried out in 8 cases of ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS.
  • RESULTS: The 7 cases of benign ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS were composed mainly of polygonal cells with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and larger cells with vacuolated cytoplasm.
  • The single case of malignant ovarian steroid cell tumor had evidence of significant cellular pleomorphism, haemorrhage and coagulative tumor necrosis.
  • Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells expressed calretinin and alpha-inhibin.
  • Differential diagnosis included oxyphilic granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli cell tumor and clear cell carcinoma.
  • The treatment options of benign ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS was local excision or ipsilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, while the malignant counterpart should be treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, including administration of GnRH agonist.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS, is the most common type of ovarian steroid cell tumors.
  • Most of which are associated with a benign clinical outcome.
  • The treatment options of ovarian steroid cell tumor, NOS depend on its malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Inhibins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Calbindin 2. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Ovariectomy / methods. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Thecoma / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17980097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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24. Huang YC, Hsu KF, Chou CY, Dai YC, Tzeng CC: Ovarian fibrosarcoma with long-term survival: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2001 Jul-Aug;11(4):331-3
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  • [Title] Ovarian fibrosarcoma with long-term survival: a case report.
  • Primary ovarian fibrosarcoma is an exceedingly rare malignant ovarian stromal tumor which has a poor prognosis.
  • She received hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy due to a provisional diagnosis of uterine and ovarian tumors.
  • At surgery, an 8-cm ovarian solid multilobular tumor was found.
  • Frozen section examination revealed an ovarian fibrosarcoma.
  • Final pathologic examination revealed that the tumor exhibited densely packed spindle cells in storiform configuration with obvious increased mitotic activity.
  • In addition, the flow cytometric study showed marked elevated percentage of tumor cells in the S phase (13.1%).
  • After surgery, the patient received six courses of combination chemotherapy with epirubicin, ifosfamide, and dacarbazine (DTIC).
  • The patient stood the treatment well and is free from disease 6 years later.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Survivors. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11520377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Lenhard M, Kuemper C, Ditsch N, Diebold J, Stieber P, Friese K, Burges A: Use of novel serum markers in clinical follow-up of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours. Clin Chem Lab Med; 2007;45(5):657-61
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  • BACKGROUND: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumours of the ovary account for only 0.2% of malignant ovarian tumours.
  • Two-thirds of all patients become apparent due to the tumour's hormone production.
  • Diagnostic imaging was suspicious for an ovarian cancer.
  • The standard tumour marker for ovarian cancer (CA 125) was elevated to 984 U/mL.
  • RESULTS: Surgical exploration of the abdomen revealed a mouldering tumour of both adnexes extending to the level of the navel.
  • The final histological report described a malignant sex-cord stroma tumour, a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour, emanating from both ovaries.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy and regional hyperthermia were performed due to the malignant potential and incomplete resection of the tumour.
  • As only two-thirds of patients with this rare disease present with elevated hormone levels, new markers deserve further investigation to offer more specific, individualised tumour monitoring.

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  • (PMID = 17484630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-6621
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / antigen CYFRA21.1; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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26. Merras-Salmio L, Vettenranta K, Möttönen M, Heikinheimo M: Ovarian granulosa cell tumors in childhood. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Apr-May;19(3):145-56
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ovarian Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian granulosa cell tumors in childhood.
  • Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary are prepubertal in 5% of the patients.
  • These juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) are usually benign.
  • GCTs belong to ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, the more common ovarian tumors being epidermal and germinal.
  • However, more widely spread tumors are difficult to treat and cause mortality.
  • Cisplatin-containing chemotherapy can induce remissions in adult GCTs.
  • The authors describe 3 children with GCT and review current data on this rare tumor from molecular biology to clinical aspects.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11936727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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27. Giordano G, Lombardi M, Brigati F, Mancini C, Silini EM: Clinicopathologic features of 2 new cases of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Sep;29(5):459-67
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TAMOXIFEN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features of 2 new cases of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.
  • Uterine neoplasms showing an exclusive sex cord-like differentiation or focal low-grade sarcoma differentiation, designated as uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs), are rare, with only 48 cases described earlier in international literature.
  • On examination of small biopsies, the diagnosis was facilitated by specific immunohistochemical analysis using markers for the sex cord component.
  • In the other case, the neoplasm seemed to be the consequence of tamoxifen treatment for breast carcinoma.
  • After diagnosis, in this second case, the woman underwent hysterectomy that showed a residue of the tumor and cervical metastasis from the earlier breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20736772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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28. Makhlouf AM, Fathalla MM, Zakhary MA, Makarem MH: Sulfatides in ovarian tumors: clinicopathological correlates. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2004 Jan-Feb;14(1):89-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sulfatides in ovarian tumors: clinicopathological correlates.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression of sulfatides in the tissue homogenates of malignant ovarian tumors, benign ovarian tumors, and control tissues and to study the relation between this marker and other clinico-pathological criteria such as the tumor type, grade of differentiation, surgical stage and ovulatory years.
  • SUBJECTS: Forty-six patients had malignant ovarian tumors.
  • Sixteen patients had benign ovarian neoplasm.
  • METHODS: A sample of the tumor or from the normal ovary (the control group) was sent for histopathological and biochemical examination.
  • RESULTS: There was a significant rise in benign tumors [median and range 43 (38-53)], than in the control group, 21 (18-31), P-value = 0.000.
  • In malignant tumors, the median value of sulfatides was significantly higher than in benign tumors [127 (71-193), P-value = 0.000].
  • Sulfatides were significantly higher in patients with more ovulatory years and tumors of advanced stages (stage III/IV) and poor differentiation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sulfatides may play a role in the pathogenesis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors.
  • It is also a candidate to study of their association with response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Sulfoglycosphingolipids / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Germinoma / metabolism. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Cysts / metabolism. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 14764034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Sulfoglycosphingolipids
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29. Koulouris CR, Penson RT: Ovarian stromal and germ cell tumors. Semin Oncol; 2009 Apr;36(2):126-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian stromal and germ cell tumors.
  • Cancers arising from the stromal and germ cell layers of the ovary are rare, heterogeneous, difficult to study, and require specialized multidisciplinary management.
  • These tumors more commonly present in younger patients and have a high cure rate.
  • Surgery is often part of primary treatment, with staging and preservation of fertility being important priorities.
  • Most patients with germ cell tumors require adjuvant chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), as well as careful surveillance.
  • The rarity of these tumors makes basic scientific advances more challenging.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Ovarian Neoplasms. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19332247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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30. Chua IS, Tan KT, Lim-Tan SK, Ho TH: A clinical review of granulosa cell tumours of the ovary cases in KKH. Singapore Med J; 2001 May;42(5):203-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A clinical review of granulosa cell tumours of the ovary cases in KKH.
  • INTRODUCTION: Granulosa cell tumour (GCT) represents the largest group of sex-cord stromal tumours and comprises 1.5-3% of ovarian malignancy.
  • The aim is to determine the incidence of the disease, study the profile of local patients, and assess the use of imaging studies in the diagnosis of the tumour.
  • RESULTS: GCT accounts for 3.5% of ovarian malignancy (54 out of 1552) in Singapore, of which 94.7% are adult GCT.
  • Ultrasound scans are able to predict the size and involvement of the tumour rather accurately.
  • Only one patient required adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Thus, despite the fact that there is no evidence of recurrence of disease in our current study, we still recommend a vigilant follow-up protocol on all patients as literature has proven that with early detection of recurrences, it is possible to achieve complete cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age of Onset. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Endometrial Hyperplasia. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postmenopause. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Singapore / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 11513057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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