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1. Vijay K, Venkateswaran K, Shetty AP, Rajasekaran S: Spinal extra-dural metastasis from Merkel cell carcinoma: a rare cause of paraplegia. Eur Spine J; 2008 Sep;17 Suppl 2:S267-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spinal extra-dural metastasis from Merkel cell carcinoma: a rare cause of paraplegia.
  • We report a rare case of Merkel cell carcinoma with extra-dural spinal metastasis causing paraplegia.
  • MRI showed multiple epidural soft tissue masses causing neural compression.
  • A biopsy from the truncal skin lesion was diagnosed as Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC).
  • Histopathology of the epidural tumor was consistent with MCC and the diagnosis was confirmed by immuno-histochemistry staining for cytokeratin-20.
  • She was started on chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • One month after diagnosis she died due to extensive metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Epidural Space / pathology. Paraplegia / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Decompression, Surgical. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Keratin-20 / analysis. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / therapy. Neurosurgical Procedures. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18057968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-20
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2525916
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2. Hassoun A, Ibrahim F: Use of intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe Clostridium difficile colitis. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother; 2007 Mar;5(1):48-51
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  • [Title] Use of intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe Clostridium difficile colitis.
  • BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium responsible for most of the hospital-acquired diarrhea in developed countries.
  • He had had recent chemotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma of the right ear.
  • Medical history included hypothyroidism for 10 years and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in remission for 4 years after a stem cell transplant.
  • He had severe infection secondary to chemotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma; in addition, he had failed to respond to metronida-zolc and vancomycin treatment, with the resulting development of colon dilatation and hypoalbuminemia.
  • At that point, the patient was given 1 dose of IV immunoglobulin (IVIG) 400 mg/kg; vancomycin treatment was continued.
  • Two days after IVIG therapy, the patient's diarrhea improved, with complete resolution after 6 days; bowel dilatation resolved completely after 7 days; and oral intake improved after 2 days.
  • Tissue culture assay is the best diagnostic test to detect the cytotoxin; enzyme immunoassay is the test used in most hospitals, but it has a sensitivity of only -75%.
  • Treatment options remain limited to eradicate this serious infection.
  • Antibiotic therapy, infection control measures, and early diagnosis are essential components of successful outcome for this disease.
  • This patient's infection resolved with the addition of IVIG with no recurrence, suggesting the possible benefit of this treatment in certain patients with severe colitis who do not respond to standard therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Clostridium difficile / drug effects. Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / drug therapy. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / complications. Cytotoxins / analysis. Diarrhea / drug therapy. Ear Neoplasms / complications. Esomeprazole. Humans. Levofloxacin. Male. Metronidazole / therapeutic use. Ofloxacin. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Thyroxine. Vancomycin / administration & dosage. Vancomycin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17608247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-5946
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of geriatric pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Geriatr Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Cytotoxins; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole; 6GNT3Y5LMF / Levofloxacin; 6Q205EH1VU / Vancomycin; A4P49JAZ9H / Ofloxacin; N3PA6559FT / Esomeprazole; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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3. Barkdull GC, Healy JF, Weisman RA: Intracranial spread of Merkel cell carcinoma through intact skull. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2004 Sep;113(9):683-7
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  • [Title] Intracranial spread of Merkel cell carcinoma through intact skull.
  • We report an unusual case of Merkel cell carcinoma presenting as a frontal scalp mass with apparent invasion into underlying brain parenchyma through grossly intact calvaria.
  • Despite wide local excision, craniectomy, intracranial tumor resection, and postoperative adjuvant irradiation, widespread systemic metastases resistant to chemotherapy developed, and the patient died 9 months after surgery.
  • This case report confirms that Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck, already known to be an aggressive tumor, has the capacity for rapid intracranial extension.
  • We found contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging to be superior to computed tomography for defining soft tissue extent and marrow space involvement within underlying bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Frontal Bone. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Scalp. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skull Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / surgery. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Cerebral Cortex / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Disease Progression. Dura Mater / pathology. Dura Mater / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15453522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Lee WJ, Kim CH, Chang SE, Lee MW, Choi JH, Moon KC, Koh JK: Cutaneous metastasis from large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder expressing CK20 and TTF-1. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Apr;31(2):166-9
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastasis from large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder expressing CK20 and TTF-1.
  • Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the urinary bladder is very rare.
  • The patient had been treated with partial cystectomy and chemotherapy for LCNEC of the urinary bladder, but a year later, he visited our clinic with a reddish mass on his scalp that was diagnosed as a cutaneous metastasis from LCNEC.
  • Most NECs, except for Merkel cell carcinomas, do not express CK20, whereas most urothelial carcinomas do express CK20.
  • These results suggest that a histogenetic link may exist between NEC of the urinary bladder and urothelial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secondary. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers / metabolism. Biopsy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Rituximab. Scalp. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19318803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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5. Boyse K, Foley EH, Bradley V, Scarborough D: Merkel cell carcinoma: a case report with treatment summary and updates. Cutis; 2004 Dec;74(6):350-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Merkel cell carcinoma: a case report with treatment summary and updates.
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare primary cutaneous neoplasm known for its propensity to develop early regional and distant metastasis.
  • Because of its aggressive nature, MCC is often resistant to surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy regimens.
  • Standardized treatment patterns have not been established, and difficulty arises finding appropriate treatment for the elderly, who comprise the majority of patients with MCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Palliative Care

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  • [CommentIn] Cutis. 2006 Feb;77(2):109-10; author reply 110 [16570674.001]
  • (PMID = 15663071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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6. Patnaik AK, Post GS, Erlandson RA: Clinicopathologic and electron microscopic study of cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma in a cat with comparisons to human and canine tumors. Vet Pathol; 2001 Sep;38(5):553-6
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic and electron microscopic study of cutaneous neuroendocrine (Merkel cell) carcinoma in a cat with comparisons to human and canine tumors.
  • Malignant neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel cell tumor) was diagnosed in an 18-year-old spayed female Maine Coon Cat.
  • The diagnosis was made on the basis of morphologic and electron microscopic findings.
  • The tumor's malignancy contrasted with the benign nature of Merkel cell tumors reported in dogs and was consistent with the malignancy of Merkel cell tumors reported in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / veterinary. Cat Diseases / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / veterinary. Skin Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Dogs. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / veterinary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / veterinary. Microscopy, Electron / methods. Microscopy, Electron / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 11572564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Tijink BM, De Bree R, Van Dongen GA, Leemans CR: How we do it: Chemo-electroporation in the head and neck for otherwise untreatable patients. Clin Otolaryngol; 2006 Oct;31(5):447-51
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  • Keypoints * Chemo-electroporation therapy with bleomycin is a locoregional treatment modality for head and neck and skin cancer, with the potential to preserve function.
  • * In our institution, chemo-electroporation therapy is used for patients that can no longer be treated by surgery or radiotherapy, or for whom surgical treatment would be very extensive and thus declined by the patient.
  • * This paper describes in detail the technique of bleomycin-electroporation therapy.
  • * The main focus of the trial is to determine the safety, effectiveness, and burden of bleomycin-electroporation therapy for the patient.
  • * All 17 tumours responded to therapy.
  • * Based on the outcome of the clinical trial, bleomycin-electroporation therapy has the potential to become a valuable addition to the late-stage treatment options for patients with head and neck or skin tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Electroporation / methods. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Netherlands. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / secondary. Sarcoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17014460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1749-4478
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical otolaryngology : official journal of ENT-UK ; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin
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8. Lenormand C, Pelletier C, Goeldel AL, Chenard MP, Grange F: Second malignant neoplasm occurring years after hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion for melanoma. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Mar;146(3):319-21
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  • BACKGROUND: Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) is a useful therapeutic option in patients with locally advanced melanoma of the extremities.
  • Because HILP allows very high doses of cytotoxic agents to be administered without systemic leakage, the theoretical risk of a secondary malignant neoplasm is real, particularly in the treated limb.
  • OBSERVATIONS: We describe 2 cases of secondary rare cancers in 2 elderly women: 1 fatal pleomorphic sarcoma and 1 Merkel cell carcinoma, which developed on the same limb 16 years after HILP for melanoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because long-term survivors of regionally advanced melanoma, although rare, do exist, candidates for HILP should be warned of the risk of long-term development of nonmelanoma secondary cancers.
  • The risk-benefit balance of high-dose local chemotherapy should be carefully evaluated in the light of these findings, especially in patients with early-stage melanoma or other non-life-threatening medical conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / etiology. Hyperthermia, Induced / adverse effects. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Perfusion / adverse effects. Sarcoma / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20231505.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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