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1. Bae WK, Shim HJ, Choi YD, Kim JW, Cho SH, Kang HC, Chung IJ: Severe hypothyroidism induced by thyroid metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma. Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Mar;41(1):56-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Severe hypothyroidism induced by thyroid metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma.
  • We report a case of severe hypothyroidism in a cholangiocarcinoma patient with metastasis to the thyroid gland.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) demonstrated the presence of a 4.7-cm tumor in the right hepatic lobe, and core needle biopsy revealed it to be cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Neck CT showed a diffuse, low attenuation thyroid gland, and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Thyroid function tests were initially normal, but the size of the thyroid gland decreased and severe hypothyroidism developed after chemotherapy was implemented for cholangiocarcinoma.
  • In a patient with malignant disease and a goiter, the possibility of a metastatic tumor involving the thyroid should be seriously considered.
  • Metastatic thyroid cancer and thyroid dysfunction are probably infrequent, but diagnosis is important in the institution of appropriate therapy.

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  • [Cites] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Feb;62(2):236-41 [15670202.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1950 Jan;3(1):74-85 [15405683.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Surg. 1964 Aug;160:169-77 [14209716.001]
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  • [Cites] Eur J Surg Oncol. 2004 Aug;30(6):583-8 [15256229.001]
  • [Cites] AMA Arch Pathol. 1955 Mar;59(3):291-311 [14349472.001]
  • (PMID = 19688074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2699092
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cholangiocarcinoma / Hypothyroidism / Thyroid metastasis
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2. Fagin JA: How thyroid tumors start and why it matters: kinase mutants as targets for solid cancer pharmacotherapy. J Endocrinol; 2004 Nov;183(2):249-56
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  • [Title] How thyroid tumors start and why it matters: kinase mutants as targets for solid cancer pharmacotherapy.
  • Treatment of patients with thyroid cancer is usually successful, and most patients are cured of the disease.
  • However, we do not have effective therapies for patients with invasive or metastatic thyroid cancer if the disease is not surgically resectable and does not concentrate radio-iodine.
  • Conventional external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy are of marginal benefit.
  • In other types of cancer, new therapies are being developed that take advantage of our knowledge of cancer pathogenesis to interfere with the activity of specific oncoproteins believed to be important in disease causation.
  • Because these approaches are being considered for thyroid cancer, I will briefly describe in this review examples of recent breakthroughs in medical therapy of certain hematological malignancies and some solid tumors using drugs that work in this fashion, focusing in particular on compounds that block the enzymatic activity of specific tyrosine kinase oncoproteins.
  • This makes the choice of molecular target a difficult and critical decision if these approaches are to succeed.
  • Here I will argue that priority should be given to blocking the function of oncoproteins activated early in tumor development.
  • We have a fairly good understanding of the genetic changes involved in thyroid cancer initiation, and hence these cancers may prove to be particularly well suited for oncoprotein-specific therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Humans. Mutation. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Oncogenes. Phenylurea Compounds. Phosphotransferases / antagonists & inhibitors. Phosphotransferases / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Pyridines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15531713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA50706
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.- / Phosphotransferases; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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3. Youn JC, Rhee Y, Park SY, Kim WH, Kim SJ, Chung HC, Hong SW, Lim SK: Severe hypothyroidism induced by thyroid metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Endocr J; 2006 Jun;53(3):339-43
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  • [Title] Severe hypothyroidism induced by thyroid metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • An 85-year-old man who had undergone a right hemicolectomy for colon cancer presented with severe hypothyroidism and hoarseness 21 months after the operation.
  • Symptoms of hoarseness and neck swelling were already evident 4 months prior at which time tests for normal thyroid function were performed.
  • An enlarged thyroid with some calcification was noticed in the neck ultrasonography with multiple cervical lymphadenopathies.
  • Core biopsy of the thyroid gland showed invasion of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells.
  • There were multiple lung parenchymal nodules and adrenal masses at the time of evaluation.
  • The patient was started on palliative chemotherapy with thyroid hormone replacement and gradually became euthyroid.
  • From these findings and the clinical observations, thyroid metastasis with hypothyroidism developing acutely from metastatic colon adenocarcinoma was diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Goiter / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyroxine / blood

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  • (PMID = 16714841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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4. Kloos RT, Ringel MD, Knopp MV, Hall NC, King M, Stevens R, Liang J, Wakely PE Jr, Vasko VV, Saji M, Rittenberry J, Wei L, Arbogast D, Collamore M, Wright JJ, Grever M, Shah MH: Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr 1;27(10):1675-84
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Based on the pivotal role of Ras-Raf-MAP-ERK signaling and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we conducted a phase II clinical trial of sorafenib targeting RAF and VEGF receptor kinases in PTC.
  • Secondary end points included response correlation with serum thyroglobulin (Tg); functional imaging; tumor genotype; and signaling inhibition in tumor biopsies.
  • Using a Simon minimax two-stage design, 16 or 25 chemotherapy-naïve metastatic PTC patients were to be enrolled in arm A (accessible tumor for biopsy).
  • Arm B patients had other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma or prior chemotherapy, and did not require tumor biopsies.
  • Four of 10 paired tumor biopsies from PTC patients showed a reduction in levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor phosphorylation, ERK phosphorylation, and in VEGF expression during sorafenib therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Sorafenib is reasonably well-tolerated therapy with clinical and biologic antitumor activity in metastatic PTC.


5. Poon D, Toh HC, Sim CS: Two case reports of metastases from colon carcinoma to the thyroid. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2004 Jan;33(1):100-2
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  • [Title] Two case reports of metastases from colon carcinoma to the thyroid.
  • INTRODUCTION: Secondary malignancy of the thyroid gland is uncommon, but it is a problem requiring ongoing recognition.
  • As it is more common than primary thyroid malignancy, metastatic disease involving the thyroid gland should be actively excluded in a patient with enlarging or abnormal thyroid gland and a previously known primary tumour.
  • CLINICAL PICTURE: We report 2 cases of primary colon carcinoma with metastasis to the thyroid gland that mimicked thyroid anaplastic carcinoma.
  • TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: Emergency tracheostomy was necessary in the first case with subsequent oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy providing palliation of symptom of breathlessness, with significant reduction in size of thyroidal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Our case report highlights the importance of early recognition of thyroidal metastases from a colonic primary as life-threatening airway compromise may otherwise rapidly ensue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15008573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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6. Tan A, Xia N, Gao F, Mo Z, Cao Y: Angiogenesis-inhibitors for metastatic thyroid cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2010;(3):CD007958
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis-inhibitors for metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Systemic cytostatic therapies for advanced, metastatic thyroid carcinomas have been poorly effective.
  • Tumor growth and metastasis depend on blood supply and blood vessel formation (angiogenesis).
  • Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis may represent a promising target for cancer therapy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and risks of angiogenesis-inhibitors for metastatic thyroid cancer when given alone, or in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: We planned to include randomized controlled trials that compared angiogenesis-inhibitors with other treatments, no treatment, or placebo in participants who had pathologically confirmed advanced thyroid cancer.
  • MAIN RESULTS: We did not identify any studies which met our full inclusion criteria.
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is currently no reliable evidence available from randomized controlled trials regarding the bene fi ts and harms of the use of angiogenesis-inhibitors for treating advanced thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 20238360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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7. Smetak M, Weigang-Koehler K, Hanauske A, Ohnmacht U, Lahn M, Wilhelm M, Birkmann J: Reduction of HLA-DR+ lymphocytes after treatment with enzastaurin in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer. Chemotherapy; 2008;54(4):268-73
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  • [Title] Reduction of HLA-DR+ lymphocytes after treatment with enzastaurin in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic anti-tumor agents like methotrexate or cyclophosphamide have been used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases although the exact mechanism of their immunomodulatory function is unclear.
  • By contrast, molecularly targeted anti-tumor agents, such as the serine/threonine kinase inhibitor enzastaurin, have not been evaluated for treatments other than cancer.
  • METHODS: Blood was sampled from patients with metastatic thyroid cancer treated with enzastaurin followed by the combination treatment of enzastaurin and the anti-folate pemetrexed.
  • During this sequential treatment, blood was drawn every 14 days to monitor changes in the lymphocyte population.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest an immunomodulatory effect of enzastaurin in addition to the anti-tumor effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. HLA-DR Antigens / immunology. Indoles / therapeutic use. Lymphocytes / drug effects. Lymphocytes / immunology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunophenotyping. Lymphocyte Count. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / immunology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18667816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9794
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Indoles; UC96G28EQF / enzastaurin
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8. Hirama M, Takahashi K, Takagi Y, Ohhashi R, Suzuki K, Sato K, Seyama K, Uekusa T, Fukuchi Y: [A case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with a metastatic thyroid tumor improved following chemotherapy]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2004 Jan;42(1):94-8
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  • [Title] [A case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with a metastatic thyroid tumor improved following chemotherapy].
  • Metastatic thyroid tumor is rarely diagnosed clinically.
  • We report here a case of a 59-year-old male of a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with metastatic thyroid tumor diagnosed by an ultrasonography-guided aspiration cytology.
  • A squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (c-T4N3M1 stage IV) was diagnosed in March 2001, and so chemotherapy using carboplatin and paclitaxel was tried initially.
  • Then, he was re-admitted to our hospital because his thyroid gland was swollen.
  • Ultrasonography-guided aspiration cytology of the thyroid tumor was performed and revealed a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma from the lung cancer.
  • The patient was given chemotherapy using gemcitabine and docetaxel as second line chemotherapy.
  • This reduced the thyroid tumor size and improved the symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 14768372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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9. Robbins RJ, Driedger A, Magner J, U.S. and Canadian Thyrogen Compassionate Use Program Investigator Group: Recombinant human thyrotropin-assisted radioiodine therapy for patients with metastatic thyroid cancer who could not elevate endogenous thyrotropin or be withdrawn from thyroxine. Thyroid; 2006 Nov;16(11):1121-30
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  • [Title] Recombinant human thyrotropin-assisted radioiodine therapy for patients with metastatic thyroid cancer who could not elevate endogenous thyrotropin or be withdrawn from thyroxine.
  • The value of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) as preparation for radioiodine therapy was assessed in 115 patients with metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • After rhTSH, the serum TSH levels rose to >or=25mU/L in every patient in whom levels were measured (n = 112).
  • Cancer-related symptoms were improved in approximately 25%.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyrotropin / administration & dosage. Thyroxine / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypothyroidism / drug therapy. Hypothyroidism / prevention & control. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Recombinant Proteins / administration & dosage. Recombinant Proteins / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17123339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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10. Short SC, Suovuori A, Cook G, Vivian G, Harmer C: A phase II study using retinoids as redifferentiation agents to increase iodine uptake in metastatic thyroid cancer. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2004 Dec;16(8):569-74
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  • [Title] A phase II study using retinoids as redifferentiation agents to increase iodine uptake in metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • AIMS: Radio-iodine is effective in treating metastatic differentiated thyroid cancers.
  • In 20% of cases, however, these tumours fail to take up radio-iodine, and treatment options are then limited.
  • Retinoids redifferentiate a variety of cell types and increase iodine uptake in thyroid tumour cells in vitro.
  • The aim of this study was to assess whether oral isotretinoin could increase radio-iodine uptake in patients with iodine-uptake-negative metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Patients who had iodine-uptake-negative metastatic papillary or follicular thyroid cancers were selected from the thyroid database at The Royal Marsden Hospital and enrolled to an open-label, non-randomised phase II trial.
  • Sites of metastatic disease were assessed using computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and absence of iodine uptake was confirmed using a diagnostic radio-iodine scan before study entry.
  • Response was assessed within 2 weeks of completing treatment with repeat radio-iodine scan.
  • All patients were reviewed every 2 weeks during treatment for assessment of toxicity.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients were treated with isotretinoin between January 2001 and July 2002: nine with metastatic papillary thyroid cancer, five with metastatic follicular cancer and two with Hurthle cell carcinoma.
  • In one patient, radio-iodine uptake increased after retinoid administration; however, this was not large enough to permit a significant dose of iodine to be given to sites of metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment with isotretinoin does not reliably increase radio-iodine uptake in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • This treatment alone does not enable radio-iodine to be used for further treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Isotretinoin / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15630851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
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11. Haraguchi S, Hioki M, Yamashita K, Orii K, Matsumoto K, Shimizu K: Metastasis to the thyroid from lung adenocarcinoma mimicking thyroid carcinoma. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2004 Jul;52(7):353-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis to the thyroid from lung adenocarcinoma mimicking thyroid carcinoma.
  • We herein report a case of metastasis to the thyroid from lung adenocarcinoma mimicking thyroid carcinoma.
  • The thyroid tumor was palpated in the left lobe of the thyroid and diagnosed as primary thyroid carcinoma by fine-needle aspiration cytology.
  • The patient also had a large pulmonary tumor and tiny pulmonary nodules, which were respectively diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung and intrapulmonary metastases from the main large lung carcinoma by the pathological examination of the biopsy specimens obtained by video-assisted thoracic surgery.
  • The thyroid tumor was diagnosed as metastasis to the thyroid from lung adenocarcinoma, because it showed mucin production, positive immunoreactivity for carcinoembryonic antigen and negative immunoreactivities for thyroglobulin and calcitonin.
  • The patient received systemic chemotherapy and died of the disease 1 year and 7 months after the diagnosis was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Thyroidectomy

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1962 May-Jun;15:557-65 [13911946.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Intern Med. 1987 Feb;147(2):311-2 [3813749.001]
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  • (PMID = 15296034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyobu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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12. Wood K, Vini L, Harmer C: Metastases to the thyroid gland: the Royal Marsden experience. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2004 Aug;30(6):583-8
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  • [Title] Metastases to the thyroid gland: the Royal Marsden experience.
  • AIM: A review of patients seen at the Royal Marsden Hospital with metastases to the thyroid gland.
  • Most had metastatic disease elsewhere at the time of presentation (9/15).
  • Diagnosis was made by fine needle aspiration cytology (5), tru-cut biopsy (1), or surgery (9); surgery comprised total thyroidectomy (3), subtotal thyroidectomy (3) or lobectomy (3).
  • Chemotherapy was used to treat local recurrence in two patients post-operatively.
  • The interval from diagnosis of the primary tumour to thyroid metastasis varied from 0 months to 15 years.
  • Thyroid gland metastasis was the initial manifestation of metastatic disease in five patients.
  • Five patients are alive, with one disease free 7 years following resection of the thyroid metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid metastases are clinically rare, with the kidney the most common primary site of origin.
  • They usually occur when there are metastases elsewhere, sometimes many years after diagnosis of the original primary tumour.
  • Surgical resection of an isolated metastasis may result in prolonged disease-free survival.
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy may be of value in specific situations.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Middle Aged. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 15256229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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13. Wirtz G, Quoix E, Grunenberger F, Massard G, Mennecier B: [Thyroid metastasis of lung cancer and abnormal thyroid function--a case report]. Rev Pneumol Clin; 2009 Feb;65(1):27-31
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  • [Title] [Thyroid metastasis of lung cancer and abnormal thyroid function--a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase thyroïdienne d'un cancer bronchique et dysthyroïdie--à propos d'un cas.
  • The thyroid gland is a very rare location of metastasis and the metastatic involvement of the thyroid is mostly asymptomatic.
  • The authors report one of the first cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma associated with painful metastatic involvement of the thyroid gland.
  • The fine needle biopsy confirmed the metastatic origin of these nodules.
  • The evolution after five cycles of chemotherapy by cisplatine and docetaxel was marked by a complete regression of the thyroid metastasis and an improvement in the thyroid function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Hyperthyroidism / etiology. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary


14. Karavitaki N, Vlassopoulou V, Tzanela M, Tzavara I, Thalassinos N: Recurrent and/or metastatic thyroid cancer: therapeutic options. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2002 Jul;3(7):939-47
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  • [Title] Recurrent and/or metastatic thyroid cancer: therapeutic options.
  • Thyroid cancer is relatively rare, accounting for 0.5 - 10 cases per 100,000 individuals per year.
  • Despite their generally favourable prognosis, patients with differentiated thyroid cancer are at risk of tumour recurrence for decades after diagnosis.
  • Therapeutic interventions in recurrent and metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer depend on the type of initial treatment, the site and the extent of disease.
  • Chemotherapy has not provided consistently successful results.
  • Various therapeutic approaches for anaplastic carcinoma give poor results, making the development of novel treatments necessary.
  • Innovative strategies, including recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone, retinoic acid redifferentiation therapy and gene therapy, may lead to further improvement in the management of thyroid cancer arising from follicular cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. General Surgery. Genetic Therapy. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12083993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-6566
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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15. Gong Y, Jalali M, Staerkel G: Fine needle aspiration cytology of a thyroid metastasis of metaplastic breast carcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2005 May-Jun;49(3):327-30
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of a thyroid metastasis of metaplastic breast carcinoma: a case report.
  • Because of the heterogeneous nature of this tumor, cytologic interpretation on fine needle aspirates can be quite challenging.
  • This is especially true of metastatic lesions of this rare tumor type.
  • Metastasis to the thyroid has not been previously reported.
  • CASE: A 57-year-old woman with a history of metaplastic breast carcinoma for which she underwent mastectomy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy 2 years earlier presented with a fast-growing left thyroid mass with progressive hoarseness and dysphasia.
  • Clinical presentation and findings from a neck computed tomographic scan were strongly suggestive of a primary thyroid malignancy.
  • CONCLUSION: This case emphasizes the value of clinical information and the importance of generous sampling in achieving a correct diagnosis of metastatic metaplastic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15966298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Hacker U, Lenz G, Brehm G, Müller-Höcker J, Schalhorn A, Hiddemann W: Metastasis of a rectal adenocarcinoma to the thyroid gland: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Anticancer Res; 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6D):4973-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis of a rectal adenocarcinoma to the thyroid gland: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
  • BACKGROUND: Overt metastasis from solid tumors to the thyroid gland is a rare finding.
  • Only single cases of metastasis from the gastrointestinal tract have been reported.
  • We describe a rare case of metastasis to the thyroid gland from a rectal adenocarcinoma which had been treated by rectum extirpation and a combined radiochemotherapy seven years earlier.
  • Since the lesion in the thyroid gland was the only tumor manifestation in this patient, total thyroidectomy was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a history of cancer, primary neoplasms of the thyroid gland are not likely to be the cause of a thyroidal tumor.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the appropriate diagnostic procedure to define the histological diagnosis.
  • Potentially curative resection should be performed if metastasis to the thyroid gland is the only tumor manifestation.
  • Palliative chemotherapy should be considered if additional tumor manifestations are detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 14981954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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17. Cotellese R, Noccioli P, Francione T, Angelucci D, Zappacosta R, Napolitano L: [Thyroid metastasis from renal carcinoma. Clinical case]. Chir Ital; 2002 Nov-Dec;54(6):861-7
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  • [Title] [Thyroid metastasis from renal carcinoma. Clinical case].
  • [Transliterated title] Metastasi tiroidea da carcinoma renale. Caso clinico.
  • Metastatic thyroid tumours are uncommon among reported clinical cases, but are more frequent in autopsy series.
  • The clinical presence of thyroid tumefaction, whether associated or not with compressive symptoms, in a patient with a history of surgical treatment for renal cell carcinoma should lead to the suspicion of a metastatic nodule.
  • Total thyroidectomy, whether associated or not with radiation therapy, is the procedure of choice in these cases, when possible, above all in the presence of regional symptoms.
  • In spite of treatment, however, the prognosis of metastatic disease is very poor.
  • Therapeutic measures allow a mean survival of 34 months in the various reported series.
  • The woman presented an increased thyroid volume mainly on the right side, with signs of tracheal compression.
  • Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland and fine needle aspiration cytology showed malignant features.
  • Since computed tomography revealed secondaries in the lungs, the patient is still being managed with chemotherapy, with arrest of the metastatic progression, and is in a fairly good clinical condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 12613336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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18. Valo I, Verrièle V, Giraud P, Lorimier G, Guyétant S, Sommelet D: [Thyroid metastases of an adrenocortical carcinoma 41 years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor]. Ann Pathol; 2004 Jun;24(3):264-7
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  • [Title] [Thyroid metastases of an adrenocortical carcinoma 41 years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastases thyroïdiennes d'un corticosurrénalome 41 ans après le diagnostic de la tumeur initiale.
  • Thyroid metastasis are rare and represent less than 4% of malignant thyroid tumors in clinical series.
  • They can develop many years after diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • We report a case of thyroid metastasis of adrenocortical carcinoma, 41 years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • Based on current literature, we offer a brief review on thyroid metastasis and differential diagnosis of thyroid gland clear cell neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / urine. Humans. Hydrocortisone / urine. Kidney Neoplasms / chemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Nephrectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroidectomy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15480262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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19. Tuttle RM, Leboeuf R: Investigational therapies for metastatic thyroid carcinoma. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2007 Jul;5(6):641-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Investigational therapies for metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Although traditional chemotherapy has yielded disappointing results in the therapy of progressive metastatic thyroid cancer, the recent development of a wide range of novel therapies targeting critical steps in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer has led to a renewed interest in thyroid cancer clinical trials.
  • This review provides an overview of the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer with particular emphasis on specific molecular targets that can be modulated with these novel agents.
  • The article reviews the results for the small number of thyroid cancer patients included in published therapeutic trials and critically examines patient selection criteria for inclusion in clinical trials.
  • Given the dramatic increase in availability of thyroid cancer clinical trials, all patients with radioactive iodine-refractory, progressive metastatic thyroid cancer should be considered for inclusion in a novel therapy trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Therapies, Investigational. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17623615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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20. Wojdas A, Jurkiewicz D, Kenig D, Rapiejko P: [The case of carcinoma adenoides cysticum of the tongue, the trachea and the thyroid gland]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2004;58(6):1151-5
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  • [Title] [The case of carcinoma adenoides cysticum of the tongue, the trachea and the thyroid gland].
  • We present a case of a 65-year-old female patient who was for the first time admitted to the clinic in 1997 due to a tuber of the tongue root.
  • In all cases carcinoma adenoides cysticum has been found, as well as metastasis into the thyroid gland and the lungs.
  • The patient was qualified for chemotherapy in the Institute of Oncology, which she has been going through periodically every two weeks until now.
  • In November 2002, during the surgery a tumorous infiltration of the thyroid gland was found comprehending trachea and reaching the mediastenum.
  • The presented case describes an exceptionally aggressive and polyfocal regrowth and transformation of a polymorphic adenoma into cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tracheal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bronchoscopy / methods. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15732839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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21. Miyakawa M, Sato K, Hasegawa M, Nagai A, Sawada T, Tsushima T, Takano K: Severe thyrotoxicosis induced by thyroid metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Thyroid; 2001 Sep;11(9):883-8
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  • [Title] Severe thyrotoxicosis induced by thyroid metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Although the thyroid gland had been normal before surgery, chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a markedly enlarged thyroid gland only 1 month after surgery.
  • 123I uptake for 24 hours was suppressed to 4% in the thyroid gland with no uptake elsewhere including the lung.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid showed invasion of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells, cytologically identical to the cells obtained from sputum and those infiltrating the resected sections of the lung adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical studies of resected lung tissues did not show positive staining for thyroglobulin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), or surfactant protein A.
  • Clinically, the thyrotoxicosis had spontaneously improved, followed by a hypothyroid state with shrinkage of the thyroid gland after chemotherapy.
  • Despite repeated chemotherapy and the administration of thyroxine for hypothyroidism, the patient died of respiratory failure 9 months after the onset of thyrotoxicosis.
  • From these findings and the clinical course, thyroid metastasis, developing subacutely from lung adenocarcinoma, was diagnosed.
  • We speculate that aggressive invasion of tumor cells into the thyroid gland resulted in highly destructive thyrotoxicosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 11575859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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22. Boyle MJ, Hornicek FJ, Robinson DS, Mnaymneh W: Internal hemipelvectomy for solitary pelvic thyroid cancer metastases. J Surg Oncol; 2000 Sep;75(1):3-10
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  • [Title] Internal hemipelvectomy for solitary pelvic thyroid cancer metastases.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy remains a primary treatment modality for metastatic thyroid carcinoma, but poor tumor uptake of the agent can limit its usefulness.
  • While offering effective palliation, radiation therapy is not curative, and chemotherapy is even less useful.
  • Surgical resection occasionally remains the only hope of offering a long-term cure in the case of isolated metastases.
  • METHODS: We describe 3 cases of thyroid cancer metastatic to the pelvic girdle that were unresponsive to RAI and other nonoperative therapies, which presented over a 15-year time period.
  • One patient, found postoperatively to have a positive surgical margin, developed a local recurrence at 4 months and died.
  • A second patient developed a local recurrence at 11 months and died.
  • She is alive, disease-free, and ambulatory with the aid of a cane 32 months after the original procedure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We propose this surgical procedure in selected patients with metastatic pelvic thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Hemipelvectomy. Pelvic Bones. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 11025455.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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23. Rossi S, Fiorentini G, Porcu G, Dentico P, Giustarini G, Bernardeschi P: Thyroid metastases from colon cancer case report in a long term survivor. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2003 Dec;22(4 Suppl):243-5
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  • [Title] Thyroid metastases from colon cancer case report in a long term survivor.
  • Colon cancer usually has an hematogenous spread to liver and lung: rarely, or in the case of most advanced disease, also brain and bone can be involved.
  • Thyroid metastasis is generally thought to be infrequent, breast and kidney cancer being the most frequent causes.
  • Herein we present the case of a man affected by liver metastasis from colon cancer, who developed unusual metastasis to thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male

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  • (PMID = 16767939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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24. Kim TY, Kim WB, Gong G, Hong SJ, Shong YK: Metastasis to the thyroid diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Feb;62(2):236-41
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  • [Title] Metastasis to the thyroid diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastasis to the thyroid is uncommon, but the number of cases seems to have increased in recent years.
  • DESIGN: A retrospective review of patients with thyroid metastasis diagnosed by FNAB at the Asan Medical Centre.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen patients presented with a palpable thyroid nodule.
  • Eight patients had an impalpable thyroid nodule that was found incidentally during the various imaging studies.
  • FNAB confirmed metastatic disease in 19 patients and raised suspicion in three patients.
  • The suspicion of metastasis to the thyroid was confirmed by Tru-cut needle core biopsy in one patient and surgery in two patients.
  • Thyroid metastases were found during the initial work-up for primary tumour in eight patients.
  • In the remaining 14 patients, the interval from diagnosis of primary tumour to the detection of thyroid metastasis varied from 8 months to 15 years, with a median of 54 months.
  • Fifteen patients had metastatic disease elsewhere at the time of presentation.
  • Ten patients received chemotherapy.
  • Seven patients are still alive, with one patient disease free for 16 months following resection of the thyroid metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid metastases are uncommon but can be detected more frequently with routine use of FNAB.
  • Breast cancer is the most common tumour that metastasizes to the thyroid.
  • They usually occur when there are metastases elsewhere, sometimes many years after the diagnosis of the original primary tumour and show poor prognosis in general.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15670202.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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25. Robbins RJ, Voelker E, Wang W, Macapinlac HA, Larson SM: Compassionate use of recombinant human thyrotropin to facilitate radioiodine therapy: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2000 Nov-Dec;6(6):460-4
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  • [Title] Compassionate use of recombinant human thyrotropin to facilitate radioiodine therapy: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of recombinant human thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) (rhTSH) to assist in radioiodine therapy in a patient with thyroid carcinoma who was unable to produce sufficient endogenous thyrotropin when hypothyroid and to review the related literature.
  • Some of his metastatic lesions disappeared and his serum thyroglobulin level decreased after the first rhTSH-assisted dose of (131)I was administered.
  • Swelling of some of the metastatic thyroid cancer lesions developed when the patient was hypothyroid and after rhTSH was administered, the latter being much more rapid in onset.
  • CONCLUSION: Therapeutic doses of radioiodine can be delivered with the assistance of rhTSH administration while patients continue to take suppressive doses of thyroxine.
  • Metastatic thyroid carcinoma lesions can swell rapidly after administration of rhTSH.
  • Its safety and efficacy in assisting radioiodine therapy have not been fully determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Drug Synergism. Empathy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins. Thyroxine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11155220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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26. Shirahama T, Ashitani J, Kodama T, Kyoraku Y, Sano A, Matsumoto N, Yonekawa T, Nakazato M: [A case of lung cancer with hyperthyroidism]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Apr;46(4):308-13
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  • [Title] [A case of lung cancer with hyperthyroidism].
  • We here report a case of metastasis from lung cancer to the thyroid.
  • As a result, primary lung cancer with thyroid metastasis was diagnosed based on mediastinal enlargement on chest X ray films and normal findings in organs other than the lung and thyroid.
  • Chemotherapy for lung cancer induced a decrease in the size of tumor and the normalization of thyroid function.
  • However, 2 months after the normalization, cervical swelling enlarged and a lung mass in right upper lobe and skin tumor appeared.
  • Despite treatment with chemotherapy, she died.
  • Postmortem revealed that the right upper lung carcinoma was the primary lesion and immunohistochemical staining for surfactant protein was positive in the thyroid, skin tumor and lymph node, which revealed these carcinomas had metastasized from lung cancer.
  • To the best of our knowledge, thyrotoxicosis induced by thyroid metastasis of lung cancer is an uncommon case.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Middle Aged. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18516995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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27. Klopper JP, Hays WR, Sharma V, Baumbusch MA, Hershman JM, Haugen BR: Retinoid X receptor-gamma and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression predicts thyroid carcinoma cell response to retinoid and thiazolidinedione treatment. Mol Cancer Ther; 2004 Aug;3(8):1011-20
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  • [Title] Retinoid X receptor-gamma and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression predicts thyroid carcinoma cell response to retinoid and thiazolidinedione treatment.
  • Poorly differentiated, metastatic thyroid cancer is difficult to treat.
  • These tumors often do not concentrate radioactive iodine and may require chemotherapy, which is suboptimal and toxic.
  • Nuclear hormone receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) are variably expressed in thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • Expression of these receptors may predict thyroid cancer cell response to treatment with rexinoids and thiazolidinediones.
  • We studied three thyroid carcinoma cell lines: BHP 5-16 (PPARgamma-/RXRgamma+), BHP 2-7 (PPARgamma+/-/RXRgamma-), and DRO-90 (RXRgamma+/PPARgamma+).
  • DRO-90 cells, however, had 3.6 +/- 1.3% apoptotic cells with vehicle, 13 +/- 3.5% with rexinoid (1 micromol/L), 18 +/- 4% with thiazolidinedione (1 micromol/L), and 28 +/- 6% with combination treatment (1 micromol/L), suggesting that apoptosis plays a major role in this anaplastic cell line and that the effects of the two ligands are additive.
  • We conclude that receptor expression is necessary for inhibition of thyroid carcinoma growth with ligand treatment but may not be sufficient for response.
  • [MeSH-major] PPAR gamma / biosynthesis. Retinoid X Receptor gamma / biosynthesis. Retinoids / metabolism. Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. Ligands. Luciferases / metabolism. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15299084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK54383; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25CA49981
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Retinoid X Receptor gamma; 0 / Retinoids; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 2295-31-0 / 2,4-thiazolidinedione; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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28. O'Neill CJ, Oucharek J, Learoyd D, Sidhu SB: Standard and emerging therapies for metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer. Oncologist; 2010;15(2):146-56
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  • [Title] Standard and emerging therapies for metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Differentiated thyroid cancer accounts for >90% of cases of thyroid cancer, with most patients having an excellent prognosis.
  • Distant metastases occur in 10%-15% of patients, decreasing the overall 10-year survival rate in this group to 40%.
  • Radioactive iodine has been the mainstay of treatment for distant metastases, with good results when lesions retain the ability to take up iodine.
  • For patients with metastatic disease resistant to radioactive iodine, treatment options are few and survival is poor.
  • Chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy have been used in these patients, but with disappointing results.
  • In recent years, our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in thyroid cancer has increased and a number of molecular targets have been identified.
  • These targets include the proto-oncogenes BRAF and RET, known to be common mutations in thyroid cancer; vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor, associated with angiogenesis; and the sodium-iodide symporter, with the aim of restoring its expression and hence radioactive iodine uptake.
  • There are now multiple trials of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, angiogenesis inhibitors, and other novel agents available to patients with metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • This review discusses both traditional and novel treatments for metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer with a particular focus on emerging treatments for patients with radioactive iodine-refractory disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 20142332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-490X
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 126
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3227939
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29. Pötzi C, Moameni A, Karanikas G, Preitfellner J, Becherer A, Pirich C, Dudczak R: Comparison of iodine uptake in tumour and nontumour tissue under thyroid hormone deprivation and with recombinant human thyrotropin in thyroid cancer patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Oct;65(4):519-23
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. THYROGLOBULIN .

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  • [Title] Comparison of iodine uptake in tumour and nontumour tissue under thyroid hormone deprivation and with recombinant human thyrotropin in thyroid cancer patients.
  • AIM: Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) is a new option for diagnostic follow-up in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • The aim of our study was to compare the time course of radioiodine in tumour and normal tissue during periods of TSH elevation in patients in a hypothyroid state (HS) following hormone withdrawal, with those under euthyroidism (ES) after the administration of rhTSH.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated four patients who had undergone near-total thyroidectomy and were suffering from metastatic disease.
  • The median half-life in tumour tissue was 39.8 h (mean 65.9, range 11.5-194.0) with HS and 21.9 h (mean 38.7, range.
  • The median uptake dose in per cent in tumour tissue was 0.08 (mean 0.15, range 0.04-0.6) with HS and 0.05 (mean 0.08, range 0.03-0.2) with ES.
  • Furthermore, the cumulative activity in metastatic tissue was lower after rhTSH than during hypothyroidism, with considerable variations between individual lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: In our small group of DTC patients with metastatic disease, the effectiveness of radioiodine therapy following rhTSH was anticipated to be less than that in individuals who were hypothyroid after levothyroxine (L-T(4)) withdrawal.
  • Endogenous TSH stimulation of metastatic thyroid cancer with radioiodine should not be performed without prior target tumour lesion dosimetry with (123)I.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Autoantibodies / blood. Female. Humans. Hypothyroidism / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Radiometry / methods. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Statistics, Nonparametric. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroidectomy. Thyroxine / therapeutic use


30. Cheung WY, Brierley J, Mackay HJ: Treatment of rectal cancer metastases to the thyroid gland: report of two cases. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2008 Jul;7(4):280-2
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  • [Title] Treatment of rectal cancer metastases to the thyroid gland: report of two cases.
  • Rectal cancer rarely metastasizes to the thyroid gland.
  • When it does, however, it poses particular problems with regard to diagnosis and management.
  • Case reports to date support a first-line surgical approach alone or in combination with radiation therapy.
  • Despite the use of these treatment modalities, the presence of thyroid metastasis is associated with a very poor prognosis and significant morbidity.
  • Herein, we review the literature and report on 2 cases of rectal carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland that were treated with oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens.
  • In both cases, the patients responded well to combination chemotherapy up front or after previous surgery and chemoradiation.
  • The favorable survival and symptom benefits observed in these patients suggest that combination chemotherapy should be considered in the management of these very rare cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18650197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin
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31. Stoll L, Mudali S, Ali SZ: Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: Aspiration findings and differential diagnosis. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Oct;38(10):754-7
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  • [Title] Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: Aspiration findings and differential diagnosis.
  • Clinically diagnosed metastasis to the thyroid gland is exceptionally rare and may present diagnostic issues on fine needle aspiration.
  • The most common primary sites of metastases to the thyroid are cancers of the lung, breast, skin (especially melanoma), colon, and kidney.
  • Herein, we report a case of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma to the thyroid presenting as a 2.1-cm solid nodule in a 50-year-old male with a previous history of Merkel cell carcinoma of the upper extremity.
  • The differential diagnosis centered on the "small round blue cell" tumor group such as medullary thyroid carcinoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • However, in light of our patient's previous history, the FNA findings were most consistent with a metastasis of Merkel cell carcinoma.
  • In patients with a known history of a primary neoplasm, the differential diagnosis of a thyroid nodule should always include potential metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Crohn Disease / complications. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fibrosis / complications. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20082438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine
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32. Pennell NA, Daniels GH, Haddad RI, Ross DS, Evans T, Wirth LJ, Fidias PH, Temel JS, Gurubhagavatula S, Heist RS, Clark JR, Lynch TJ: A phase II study of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2008 Mar;18(3):317-23
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  • [Title] A phase II study of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer.
  • DESIGN: In this open-label phase II trial, 27 patients with radioiodine-refractory, locally advanced, or metastatic thyroid cancer were treated with 250 mg of daily gefitinib.
  • Secondary endpoints were toxicity, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).
  • After 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment, 48%, 24%, and 12% of patients had stable disease (SD), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although gefitinib therapy did not result in any tumor responses, 32% of patients had reductions in tumor volume that did not meet criteria for partial response rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / drug therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Severity of Illness Index. Thyroglobulin / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2008 Mar;18(3):279-80 [18341374.001]
  • (PMID = 17985985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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33. Kushchayev S, Kushchayeva Y, Theodore N, Preul MC, Clark OH: Percutaneous vertebroplasty for thyroid cancer metastases to the spine. Thyroid; 2010 May;20(5):555-60
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  • [Title] Percutaneous vertebroplasty for thyroid cancer metastases to the spine.
  • BACKGROUND: Spinal metastases secondary to thyroid cancer of follicular and parafollicular cell origin are uncommon but may require stabilization of the compromised vertebrae to prevent fracture with spinal cord injury.
  • Such treatment may also relieve pain and improve survival and quality of life.
  • SUMMARY: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive, radiologically guided procedure whereby bone cement is injected into a structurally weakened vertebra to provide immediate stability.
  • The authors present two cases of thyroid cancer with spinal metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: PV is a minimally invasive spinal procedure and should be considered for patients with metastatic thyroid cancer with spinal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Vertebroplasty
  • [MeSH-minor] Activities of Daily Living. Analgesics / administration & dosage. Analgesics / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Joint Instability. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Palliative Care. Quality of Life. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20450433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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34. Chen MK, Doddamane I, Cheng DW: Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone as an alternative for thyroid hormone withdrawal in thyroid cancer management. Curr Opin Oncol; 2010 Jan;22(1):6-10
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  • [Title] Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone as an alternative for thyroid hormone withdrawal in thyroid cancer management.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to summarize the current findings of using recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH, also known as Thyrogen) as adjuvant stimulation for diagnostic monitoring, thyroid remnant ablation, and treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • There are no significant differences found in the rate of recurrence or persistent disease between Thyrogen-assisted and thyroid hormone withdrawal-ablated patient groups.
  • SUMMARY: Thyrogen-assisted diagnosis and radioiodine ablation of thyroid remnant provide a reliable tool in the management of thyroid cancer without sacrificing patient quality of life.
  • We believe that the use of Thyrogen for radioiodine treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer may also provide a better option due to its rapid preparation time and safety.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin Alfa / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19844179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-703X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Thyrotropin Alfa
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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35. Biondi B, Pulcrano M, Pagano L, Lombardi G: Adjuvant treatment with thyrotropin alpha for remnant ablation in thyroid cancer. Biologics; 2009;3:9-13

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant treatment with thyrotropin alpha for remnant ablation in thyroid cancer.
  • Various studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) for radioiodine remnant ablation.
  • On this basis, rhTSH was approved in Europe for the radioiodine ablation of low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) during thyroid hormone therapy with L-thyroxine (L-T4).
  • Moreover, in December 2007, the US Federal Drug Administration approved the use of rhTSH for adjuvant treatment with radioiodine in patients with DTC without evidence of metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • Quality of life was found to be better with rhTSH preparation than with L-thyroxine withdrawal, thereby resulting in benefits for society as a whole.
  • Furthermore, rhTSH for radioiodine remnant ablation results in a longer effective radioiodine half-life within remnant thyroid tissue and a lower specific absorbed dose in the blood and exposure of bone marrow to X-rays.

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  • (PMID = 19707391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-5475
  • [Journal-full-title] Biologics : targets & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biologics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2726080
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; quality of life / radioiodine (131I) remnant ablation (RRA) / ray exposure / thyroid cancer / thyrotropin
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36. Zarnegar R, Brunaud L, Kanauchi H, Wong M, Fung M, Ginzinger D, Duh QY, Clark OH: Increasing the effectiveness of radioactive iodine therapy in the treatment of thyroid cancer using Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Surgery; 2002 Dec;132(6):984-90; discussion 990
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increasing the effectiveness of radioactive iodine therapy in the treatment of thyroid cancer using Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor.
  • BACKGROUND: Radioactive iodine is used to identify and treat recurrent and metastatic thyroid cancer of follicular cell origin.
  • Between 30% and 40% of thyroid cancers are either resistant or become resistant to radioactive iodine.
  • In this investigation the effects of Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylating inhibitor, on human thyroid NIS and PDS gene expression was investigated.
  • NIS messenger RNA expression in cell carcinomas was increased 107- (1.8-307) and 217- (5.7-408) fold in papillary, 39- (20-63) and 58- (37-80) fold in Hürthle, and 459- (178-810) and 781- (412-1229) fold in follicular after treatment with 50 and 100 ng/mL of TSA, respectively.
  • PDS messenger RNA expression in cell carcinomas was decreased 0.22- (0.05-0.45) and 0.27- (0.09-0.47) fold in papillary, 0.53- (0.46-0.60) and 0.54- (0.44-0.64) fold in Hürthle, and 0.32- (0.26-0.39) and 0.56- (0.47-0.64) fold in follicular, after the same treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In thyroid cancer cell lines, TSA dramatically increased NIS gene expression and reduced PDS expression.
  • The increased NIS expression and reduced PDS expression may make radioiodine therapy more effective in patients with thyroid cancer, especially when the tumors have no or low uptake of radioiodine.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Membrane Transport Proteins. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Carrier Proteins / genetics. Cell Survival / drug effects. Colonic Neoplasms. Gene Expression / drug effects. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Symporters / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured / cytology. Tumor Cells, Cultured / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 12490845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / SLC26A4 protein, human; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 3X2S926L3Z / trichostatin A
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37. Gkountouvas A, Kostoglou-Athanassiou I, Veniou E, Repousis P, Ziras N, Kaldrimidis P: Hematologic toxicity in patients treated with sunitinib for advanced thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2010 Jun;20(6):597-600
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  • [Title] Hematologic toxicity in patients treated with sunitinib for advanced thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Although thyroid carcinoma is more indolent than other solid tumors, distant metastatic disease due to differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is often refractory to treatment and thus a challenge for clinicians.
  • New agents such as tyrosine kinases inhibitors have been introduced recently for therapy of metastatic thyroid cancer but they have toxic side effects as well as therapeutic benefits.
  • RESULTS: Before the start of sunitinib treatment, 5 of 10 patients (50%) received external beam radiation therapy and 6 of 10 (60%) had hematologic abnormalities.
  • During sunitinib treatment, some grade of neutropenia was noted in 6 of 10 patients (60%), anemia in 1 of 10 (10%), thrombocytopenia in 7 of 10 (70%), and lymphocytopenia in 4 of 10 (40%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that most patients with DTC had received large doses of radioiodine and some had received external beam radiation therapy, both of which have myelosuppressive potential, treatment with sunitinib was well tolerated in most patients with DTC as well as in the patients with MTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / adverse effects. Hematopoietic System / drug effects. Indoles / adverse effects. Pyrroles / adverse effects. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Differentiation. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neutropenia / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 20553195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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38. de Keizer B, Brans B, Hoekstra A, Zelissen PM, Koppeschaar HP, Lips CJ, van Rijk PP, Dierckx RA, de Klerk JM: Tumour dosimetry and response in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer using recombinant human thyrotropin before radioiodine therapy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2003 Mar;30(3):367-73
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  • [Title] Tumour dosimetry and response in patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer using recombinant human thyrotropin before radioiodine therapy.
  • The development of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) has given clinicians new options for diagnostic follow-up and treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • This paper evaluates the tumour dosimetry and response following -iodine-131 treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer patients after rhTSH stimulation instead of classical hormone withdrawal-induced hypothyroidism.
  • Nineteen consecutive (131)I treatments in 16 patients were performed after rhTSH stimulation.
  • They all suffered from metastatic or recurrent disease showing tumoral (131)I uptake on previous post-treatment scintigraphy.
  • Dosimetric calculations were performed using (131)I tumour uptake measurements from post-treatment (131)I scintigrams and tumour volume estimations from radiological images.
  • Response was assessed by comparing pre-treatment serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level with the Tg level 3 months post treatment.
  • In 18 out of 19 treatments, uptake of (131)I in metastatic or recurrent lesions was seen.
  • The median tumour radiation dose was 26.3 Gy (range 1.3-368 Gy), and the median effective half-life was 2.7 days (range 0.5-6.5 days).
  • Eleven of 19 treatments (10/16 patients) were evaluable for response after 3 months. (131)I therapy with rhTSH resulted in a biochemical partial response in 3/11 or 27% of treatments (two patients), biochemical stable disease in 2/11 or 18% of treatments and biochemical progressive disease in 6/11 or 55% of treatments.
  • Our study showed that although tumour doses in DTC patients treated with (131)I after rhTSH were highly variable, 45% of treatments led to disease stabilisation or partial remission when using rhTSH in conjunction with (131)I therapy, without serious side-effects and with minimal impact on quality of life.
  • RhTSH is therefore adequately satisfactory as an adjuvant tool in therapeutic settings and is especially suitable in advanced recurrent or metastatic DTC patients who may be intolerant to TSH stimulation by levothyroxine withdrawal.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Radiometry. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Skull Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skull Neoplasms / metabolism. Skull Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12634964.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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39. Sevinc A, Buyukberber S, Sari R, Baysal T, Mizrak B: Follicular thyroid cancer presenting initially with soft tissue metastasis. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2000 Jan;30(1):27-9
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid cancer presenting initially with soft tissue metastasis.
  • Follicular thyroid cancer rarely manifests itself as a distant metastatic lesion.
  • We report a case of an otherwise asymptomatic 58-year-old woman with follicular thyroid cancer who initially presented with a soft tissue mass on the right scapular region.
  • An incisional biopsy specimen of soft tissue metastasis showed thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • Upon this diagnosis, the thyroid gland was re-evaluated by ultrasound, which demonstrated a solitary, hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe.
  • Ultrasonography guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule confirmed follicular neoplasm and the diagnosis of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer was established.
  • The patient refused any type of treatment and left hospital against medical advice.
  • 2.5 years later the patient was admitted to the hospital with giant, sarcoma-like multiple soft tissue masses.
  • On this admission, the serum thyroglobulin level was extremely elevated (3500 ng/ml) and she only accepted to receive chemotherapy.
  • She received three courses of chemotherapy and is alive with a stable disease after 3 months of follow-up.
  • This case of follicular thyroid cancer is reported because of its uncommon initial presentation with soft tissue metastasis which spread to multiple areas as giant soft tissue masses during follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 10770565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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40. Azevedo CR, Cezana L, Moraes ES, Begnami MD, Paiva Júnior TF, Dettino AL, Fanelli MF: Synchronous thyroid and colon metastases from epidermoid carcinoma of the lung: case report. Sao Paulo Med J; 2010 Dec;128(6):371-4
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  • [Title] Synchronous thyroid and colon metastases from epidermoid carcinoma of the lung: case report.
  • CONTEXT: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progresses to distant metastases in most cases.
  • The most frequent sites for distant metastases are the bones, central nervous system, adrenal glands and liver.
  • Dissemination to the skin, myocardium, thyroid gland and intestine may occur, but is rare.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe a case of squamous cell carcinoma in the lungs, with metastases in the colon and thyroid, in a 66-year-old female patient.
  • The lesion was unresectable and chemotherapy was started.
  • At a follow-up consultation, the patient presented a thyroid nodule.
  • After third-line chemotherapy, the patient progressed with acute obstructive abdomen due to a retroperitoneal mass.
  • Metastases to the thyroid and colon are rarely reported in cases of epidermoid carcinoma of the lungs.
  • Gastrointestinal involvement in pulmonary metastases may affect the stomach, small intestine and colon, and cases of bleeding and perforation have already been reported.
  • Although richly vascularized, the thyroid is an infrequent site for metastases.
  • We did not find any previous reports in the literature, on lung cancer with metastases concomitantly in the colon and thyroid, in a single patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21308162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-9460
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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41. Osawa M, Takigawa N, Kiura K, Ichimura K, Matsuoka J, Hotta K, Tabata M, Tanimoto M: Isolated metastasis of lung cancer to the thyroid gland. Lung Cancer; 2007 Oct;58(1):156-8
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  • [Title] Isolated metastasis of lung cancer to the thyroid gland.
  • A 67-year-old man with lung cancer developed an isolated metastasis to the thyroid gland.
  • The patient had undergone a right upper lobectomy, followed by chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and etoposide based on post-surgical diagnosis of small cell lung cancer.
  • Four years later, he had an isolated metastasis to the thyroid gland.
  • The patient underwent a metastasectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy including cisplatin and irinotecan.
  • The cancer cells in resected thyroid tumor had large nuclei and cytoplasm, and expressed the neuroendocrine markers, CD56 and chromogranin A.
  • Retrospectively, the primary lung cancer consisted of both small cell and large cell cancer, and the latter was consistent with the pathological finding of the thyroid tumor.
  • This is the first report to document an isolated recurrence of the lung cancer to the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD56. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chromogranin A. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17553590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Chromogranin A; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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42. Fugazzola L: Expanding use of recombinant hTSH. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Sep;68(4):220-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The clinical benefits of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH; Thyrogen, Genzyme Corp., Cambridge, MA, USA) are well established as an alternative stimulation procedure to thyroid hormone withdrawal in the follow-up of thyroid cancer patients. rhTSH has the advantage to avoid both hypothyroidism, with a major impact on the quality of life, and the side effects on tumor growth related to the long-lasting TSH increase.
  • More recently, alternative uses have been proposed, including treatment of nodular goiter, TSH stimulation to enhance PET scanning and chemotherapy treatment, and differential diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism.
  • In benign thyroid diseases, rhTSH administration increases thyroid uptake resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of the tracer, and allows to reduce the dose of 131I maintaining the same effects on thyroid shrinkage.
  • Moreover, rTSH stimulation improves the detectability of occult thyroid metastases with FDG-PET, and promising results have been obtained in the response rate of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer submitted to chemotherapy after rhTSH stimulation.
  • Finally, rhTSH testing has been proved to be safe and to lead, in association with ultrasound, to the differential diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism during L-thyroxine, allowing the appropriate clinical/genetic management of the disease and thus representing a valuable alternative to L-thyroxine withdrawal.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Congenital Hypothyroidism / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Goiter, Nodular / radiotherapy. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Positron-Emission Tomography. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17689475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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43. Alifano M, Parri SN, Arab WA, Bonfanti B, Lacava N, Porrello C, Boaron M: Limited upper sternotomy in general thoracic surgery. Surg Today; 2008;38(4):300-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Thyroid surgery constituted the second main indication for upper sternal split (n = 32) for benign retrosternal goiter in 18 patients, for mediastinal nodal metastasis of thyroid cancer in 11, and for malignant retrosternal goiter in 3.
  • The remaining indications were as follows: to assess residual disease following chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease in 7 patients and for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 1; for tracheal surgery in 7; and for excision of nodal mediastinal metastasis of non-thyroid cancer in 2.
  • There was no surgical mortality but complications developed in eight patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The upper sternal split provides a satisfactory access to perform a surgical procedure in the superior mediastinum in most diseases.
  • The procedure is safe and involves minimal surgical trauma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Myasthenia Gravis / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Ann Thorac Surg. 2002 Jul;74(1):204-8 [12118759.001]
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  • [Cites] J Card Surg. 2000 Jan-Feb;15(1):15-20 [11204383.001]
  • (PMID = 18368317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Cherk MH, Moore M, Serpell J, Swain S, Topliss DJ: Metastatic colorectal cancer to a primary thyroid cancer. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:122
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic colorectal cancer to a primary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic malignancy to the thyroid gland is generally uncommon due to an unfavourable local thyroid micro-environment which impairs the ability of metastatic cells to settle and thrive.
  • Metastases to the thyroid gland have however been reported to occur occasionally particularly if there has been disruption to normal thyroid tissue architecture.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a patient with a history of surgically resected rectal adenocarcinoma who presents with a rising serum CEA level and an 18F-FDG PET scan positive thyroid nodule which was subsequently confirmed at surgery to be a focus of metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma within a primary poorly differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma.Subsequent treatment involved right hemi-thyroidectomy, pulmonary wedge resection of oligometastatic metastatic colorectal cancer and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Metastatic rectal carcinoma to the thyroid gland and in particular to a primary thyroid malignancy is rare and unusual.
  • Prognosis is likely to be more dependent on underlying metastatic disease rather than the primary thyroid malignancy hence primary treatments should be tailored towards treating and controlling metastatic disease and less emphasis placed on the primary thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography


45. Papi G, Fadda G, Corsello SM, Corrado S, Rossi ED, Radighieri E, Miraglia A, Carani C, Pontecorvi A: Metastases to the thyroid gland: prevalence, clinicopathological aspects and prognosis: a 10-year experience. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Apr;66(4):565-71
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastases to the thyroid gland: prevalence, clinicopathological aspects and prognosis: a 10-year experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastases to thyroid (TM) are rarely observed in the clinical practice.
  • METHODS: The pathology files (databases) of two Italian Pathology Units were searched for thyroid cytology (FNAC) and histology reports covering the time period January 1993 through December 2003.
  • The mean patient age, the mean time from diagnosis of primary tumour to TM detection, and the mean survival time did not significantly differ in Group 1 and Group 2 (63.2 +/- 1.6 vs. 66.6 +/- 2.9 years, 24.7 +/- 8.6 vs. 19.7 +/- 4.4 months and 24.3 +/- 4.9 vs. 39 +/- 9.9 months, respectively).
  • In contrast, the mean time from detection of TM to death was longer in Group 1 than in Group 2 (14.3 +/- 2.5 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.5 months, respectively; P = 0.002).
  • CONCLUSIONS: TM is a rare event, is more frequent in patients older than 60 years, and has the same impact on prognosis as nonthyroidal metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Biopsy, Needle. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Calcinosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Prevalence. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17371476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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46. Buła G, Waler J, Niemiec A, Trompeta J, Steplewska K, Gawrychowski J: Unusual malignant thyroid tumours--a clinical study of 20 cases. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Nov-Dec;108(6):702-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual malignant thyroid tumours--a clinical study of 20 cases.
  • The aim of this study is to assess late results of surgical treatment for primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PNHL), thyroid sarcomas (TS) and tumour metastases (TM) of the thyroid gland.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2005, 12725 patients were surgically treated for various types of goitre.
  • Malignant tumour was diagnosed in 617 (4.9%) cases, consisting of 597 (96.8%) patients with thyroid carcinoma and 20 (3.2%) with other tumours, which included 9 (1.5%) cases of PNHL, 9 (1.5%) cases of TM and 2 (0.2%) patients who showed TS.
  • All patients were surgically treated with possible complementary chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • Patients with primary thyroid lymphomas should be approached individually using all available methods of treatment, including surgery and radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • 2. Diagnosis of cold nodules in patients with oncological history should always arouse suspicion of metastases to the thyroid gland.
  • 3. Diagnosis of non-thyroid cancer prior to surgery is difficult to obtain.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Sarcoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Female. Goiter / etiology. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphoma, B-Cell / surgery. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19241922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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47. Leboeuf R, Bénard F, Langlois MF: Thyroid cancer presenting as a PET incidentaloma in a patient with concomitant breast cancer metastases to the thyroid. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Jul;31(7):382-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TAMOXIFEN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid cancer presenting as a PET incidentaloma in a patient with concomitant breast cancer metastases to the thyroid.
  • INTRODUCTION: Metastases to the thyroid gland are considered a rare cause of thyroid tumor.
  • Furthermore, a relationship between breast and thyroid carcinoma has been previously proposed.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe the case of a 59-year-old woman who presented with simultaneous papillary and breast carcinoma within the thyroid gland.
  • F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) done for the evaluation of her metastatic breast cancer revealed a thyroid incidentaloma with a high metabolic rate (standardized uptake value [SUV] of 13).
  • She underwent thyroidectomy and the pathology revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma corresponding to the lesion visualized on FDG PET.
  • However, small metastatic implants of breast carcinoma were seen within the opposite thyroid lobe.
  • CONCLUSION: This is a rare description of a concomitant papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an FDG PET incidentaloma alongside breast cancer metastases to the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid and breast cancer sometimes occur in the same patient.
  • Although uncommon, FDG PET thyroid incidentalomas seem to harbor a higher rate of malignancy than incidentalomas found on conventional imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Estrogens. Incidental Findings. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / secondary. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mastectomy, Segmental. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / radiography. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16785803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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48. Taïeb D, Jacob T, Zotian E, Mundler O: Lack of efficacy of recombinant human thyrotropin versus thyroid hormone withdrawal for radioiodine therapy imaging in a patient with differentiated thyroid carcinoma lung metastases. Thyroid; 2004 Jun;14(6):465-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of efficacy of recombinant human thyrotropin versus thyroid hormone withdrawal for radioiodine therapy imaging in a patient with differentiated thyroid carcinoma lung metastases.
  • The treatment of lung metastases of thyroid cancer is nearly exclusively limited to the administration of iodine-131.
  • For patients presented with micronodular lesions, the therapeutic response is often excellent, increasing life expectancy.
  • Because of the necessity of multiple iodine-131 treatments in the course of this therapy, and subsequently, the lack of tolerance of hormonal withdrawal, the use of recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) as a method of stimulation could represent an interesting alternative.
  • However, as in the present case, the stimulation by rhTSH can be less effective than hormonal withdrawal, as shown in the posttherapy scan to detect metastatic lesions and thus could be detrimental to the treatment efficiency.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroid Hormones / administration & dosage. Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15242576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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49. Hattori S, Miyakawa H, Okuda K, Kudo K, Noguchi T: [Bisphosphonate as an adjuvant therapy for the pain of bone metastases, 3 cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Feb;31(2):271-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Bisphosphonate as an adjuvant therapy for the pain of bone metastases, 3 cases].
  • Pain from bone metastases limits mobility and may cause pathological fractures that can seriously impair the patient's quality of life.
  • Conservative treatments such as orthopedic fixation, radiotherapy, and opioids sometimes fail to give satisfactory pain relief.
  • Bisphosphonates have been reported to reduce the severity of pain from bone metastasis due to breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma.
  • Recent clinical reports demonstrated the effectiveness of bisphosphonates in reducing pain from bone metastases in various malignancies.
  • This study presents 3 cases of refractory pain from bone metastases due to thyroid, colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Primary treatment included orthopedic fixation, radiotherapy, and/or parenteral opioids that failed to reduce bone pain.
  • Bisphosphonate therapy was considered at the start of pain control treatment using opioids.
  • The role of bisphosphonates in painful bone metastases remains unclear.
  • However, recent encouraging reports have indicated that bisphosphonate may become one of the adjuvant treatments available to control refractory bone pain from various malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Pain, Intractable / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14997767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate
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50. Misaki T, Iwata M, Iida Y, Kasagi K, Konishi J: Chemo-radionuclide therapy for thyroid cancer: initial experimental study with cultured cells. Ann Nucl Med; 2002 Sep;16(6):403-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemo-radionuclide therapy for thyroid cancer: initial experimental study with cultured cells.
  • Radioiodine therapy has long been used for distant metastases of thyroid cancer.
  • Here we describe an initial in vitro evaluation with 4 thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • METHODS: Cells were sparsely seeded in microtiter plates and allowed to grow for 2 days; then they were exposed to sublethal concentrations of cisplatin (CDDP), doxorubicin (Dox), or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), followed by treatment with I-131 for 48 hr.
  • RESULTS: Chemotherapeutic drugs exerted similar concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects in all 4 cell lines.
  • CONCLUSION: In vitro, clinical concentrations of Dox can accelerate the killing of thyroid cancer cells by radioiodine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / radiation effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12416579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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51. Karapanagiotou E, Saif MW, Rondoyianni D, Markaki S, Alamara C, Kiagia M, Pantazopoulos K, Tzannou I, Syrigos K: Metastatic cervical carcinoma to the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature. Yale J Biol Med; 2006 Dec;79(3-4):165-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic cervical carcinoma to the thyroid gland: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Although metastases within the thyroid gland are rare, they are not as infrequent as generally believed.
  • Asymptomatic breast, lung, and renal cell carcinomas may metastasize to the thyroid.
  • When they become symptomatic, diagnosis relies upon fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • We report the case of a squamous cell cervical cancer that presented metastatic lesions to the thyroid gland four years after the initial diagnosis.
  • The procedures used to confirm the diagnosis, stage, and subsequently manage the patient are described.
  • We present both a review of the necessary clinical investigation and the therapeutic options open to these patients.
  • We conclude that patients who present swelling or palpable nodules in the thyroid side and have a history of a previous malignancy must be considered for metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Treatment Outcome


52. Wexler JA, Sharretts J: Thyroid and bone. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am; 2007 Sep;36(3):673-705, vi
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LEVOTHYROXINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid and bone.
  • This article provides a summary of the numerous interactions between the thyroid gland and the skeleton, in the normal state, in disorders of thyroid function and as a result of thyroid malignancy.
  • The actions of thyroid hormones on these processes are described, and the clinical impact of thyroid disorders and their treatments on the bone are summarized.
  • Finally, our current understanding of the physiology of bone metastases from thyroid cancer is covered.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone and Bones / physiology. Thyroid Gland / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Density / drug effects. Bone Development / physiology. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Remodeling / physiology. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Fractures, Bone / etiology. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperthyroidism / metabolism. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / physiology. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroxine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17673124.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8529
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Receptors, Thyroid Hormone; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
  • [Number-of-references] 188
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53. Vitale G, Fonderico F, Martignetti A, Caraglia M, Ciccarelli A, Nuzzo V, Abbruzzese A, Lupoli G: Pamidronate improves the quality of life and induces clinical remission of bone metastases in patients with thyroid cancer. Br J Cancer; 2001 Jun 15;84(12):1586-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pamidronate improves the quality of life and induces clinical remission of bone metastases in patients with thyroid cancer.
  • Skeletal metastases from thyroid cancer are poorly responsive to medical or radioiodine treatment.
  • Bone destruction in skeletal metastases results from osteoclast-induced bone resorption.
  • Therefore, a new approach in the therapy of bone metastases consists in using aminobisphosphonates, such as pamidronate, which are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic activity.
  • In the present study, 10 thyroid cancer patients with painful osteolytic bone metastases were administered pamidronate (90 mg, as a 2 hour intravenous infusion) monthly for 12 consecutive cycles.
  • In conclusion, monthly infusion of pamidronate is a well-tolerated treatment that induces significant relief from bone pain and improves the quality of life of thyroid cancer patients with symptomatic and osteolytic bone metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diphosphonates / pharmacology. Quality of Life. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adult. Aged. Analgesics / therapeutic use. Bone Resorption / drug therapy. Bone Resorption / etiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11401309.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2363684
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54. Zanotti-Fregonara P, Hindié E, Toubert ME, Rubello D: What role for recombinant human TSH in the treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer? Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2009 Jun;36(6):883-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What role for recombinant human TSH in the treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer?
  • [MeSH-major] Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 19153732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7089
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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55. Dasanu CA: Refractory metastatic thyroid cancer: is Doxorubicin still a valid treatment option? South Med J; 2010 Nov;103(11):1191-2
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXORUBICIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Refractory metastatic thyroid cancer: is Doxorubicin still a valid treatment option?
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy






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