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1. Rossi G, Marchioni A, Romagnani E, Bertolini F, Longo L, Cavazza A, Barbieri F: Primary lung cancer presenting with gastrointestinal tract involvement: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features in a series of 18 consecutive cases. J Thorac Oncol; 2007 Feb;2(2):115-20
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  • [Title] Primary lung cancer presenting with gastrointestinal tract involvement: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features in a series of 18 consecutive cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Lung cancer initially manifesting as gastrointestinal (GI)-tract metastasis is exceedingly rare, representing a diagnostic challenge and a late-stage disease sign.
  • The clinicopathologic characteristics of the largest series of lung carcinomas initially presenting with GI involvement were described, focusing on differential diagnosis and therapeutic options.
  • METHODS: Eighteen consecutive cases of lung cancer (11 surgical specimens and 7 biopsies) initially diagnosed on GI histologic samples were identified during routine pathologist practice.
  • The small bowel was the most common GI involved site (12 cases), followed by the stomach (four) and large intestine (two).
  • Only half of cases were correctly diagnosed on GI biopsies.
  • Fourteen patients died shortly from disease (mean follow-up, 3 months); two are still alive with multiple metastases, and two patients with the GI tract as the unique site of metastasis underwent pulmonary lobectomy and chemotherapy and are alive without evidence of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Lung cancer presenting as GI-tract metastasis is probably more frequent than expected, and pathologists should always keep in mind this possibility when dealing with undifferentiated GI carcinoma.
  • Although GI metastasis from lung cancer is associated with dismal outcomes, pulmonary resection coupled with chemotherapy might represent a therapeutic option in selected patients with a solitary GI-tract metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17410025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Pectasides D, Psyrri A, Pliarchopoulou K, Floros T, Papaxoinis G, Skondra M, Papatsibas G, Macheras A, Athanasas G, Arapantoni-Datioti P, Economopoulos T: Gastric metastases originating from breast cancer: report of 8 cases and review of the literature. Anticancer Res; 2009 Nov;29(11):4759-63
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  • [Title] Gastric metastases originating from breast cancer: report of 8 cases and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer metastasis to the stomach is rare.
  • It is very important to distinguish a breast cancer metastasis to the stomach from a primary gastric cancer on the basis of clinical, endoscopic, radiological and histopathological features, in order to administer the appropriate treatment.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight patients with breast cancer metastasis to the stomach were identified in our database between 1995 and 2008.
  • RESULTS: The median age at initial breast cancer diagnosis was 59.5 years (range 44-75 years), while the median interval between the primary breast cancer and the gastric involvement was 41 months (range 2-82 months).
  • All the patients received chemotherapy and two of them were also treated with hormonal treatment.
  • Two patients underwent surgical intervention, while one patient who had gastric involvement as the only metastatic site will proceed to surgical resection of the stomach.
  • The response rate to chemotherapy was 50% (1 complete response [CR], 3 partial responses [PR]), and the median survival was 11 months (range, 1-44+ months).
  • CONCLUSION: Breast cancer metastasis to the stomach can be differentiated from primary gastric cancer by comparing the biopsies from the gastric metastasis with the original histological slides from the primary breast tumor.
  • Appropriate systemic treatment for metastatic breast carcinoma is the preferred treatment, whereas surgical intervention should be reserved for palliation or may be indicated in cases of solitary resectable gastrointestinal tract metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


3. Hoshi A, Tokunaga M, Usui Y, Yamashita H, Sasaki H, Kobayashi Y, Shima M, Miyakita H, Terachi T: [Metastatic small intestinal tumor associated with transitional cell carcinoma: a report of 2 cases and review of cases in Japan]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Jan;51(1):41-4
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  • [Title] [Metastatic small intestinal tumor associated with transitional cell carcinoma: a report of 2 cases and review of cases in Japan].
  • However, metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract is rare.
  • Case 1: A 87-year-old man had a history of bladder tumor (TCC, grade 3, pT2bN0M0) and has transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT) three times.
  • As computed tomography (CT) showed abdominal free air, our diagnosis was perforation of gastrointestinal tract.
  • We found the elastic hard tumor in the ileum on the perforated lesion, which showed metastatic TCC in the ileum pathologicaly.
  • CT showed a bladder tumor invaded into the prostate (pT4aN1M0), we performed total cyctectomy and ileal conduit after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cystectomy. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15732341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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4. BaniHani MN, Al Manasra AR: Spontaneous regression in alveolar soft part sarcoma: case report and literature review. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:53
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  • BACKGROUND: Sarcomas are a type of malignant tumors that arise from connective tissue.
  • They are most of the time found in extremities CASE PRESENTATION: We are presenting a case of adult male patient, who was found to have huge abdominal mass and multiple gastric and duodenal polyps.
  • Pathological diagnosis for all lesions was Alveolar soft part sarcoma.
  • Although he complained from metastasis to both lungs and right atrium, all these deposits regressed spontaneously.
  • No chemotherapy or radiotherapy was given.
  • Later on, he died secondary to brain metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: ASPS is a rare type of sarcomas that affect primarily the lower limbs.
  • This tumor does rarely metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Ann Diagn Pathol. 2003 Oct;7(5):306-9 [14571434.001]
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  • (PMID = 19515237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2703639
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5. Vithayasai N, Ningsanond V, Niramis R: Wilms' tumor with metastasis to duodenum - the first reported case in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai; 2000 Sep;83(9):1116-9
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  • [Title] Wilms' tumor with metastasis to duodenum - the first reported case in Thailand.
  • A case of Wilms' tumor with gastrointestinal tract metastasis of the duodenum was documented in a 22 month - old - child.
  • She had been diagnosed with Wilms' tumor stage III, treated surgically and by radiation and chemotherapy about 1 year previously.
  • While she was still on chemotherapy, she developed hematemesis and clinical signs of partial gut obstruction.
  • Gastroscopy and upper gastrointestinal series showed an intraluminal vascular mass in the duodenal bulb and histologically proved to be Wilms' tumor.
  • We believe this is the first report in the world of Wilms' tumor with gastrointestinal tract metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Wilms Tumor / secondary

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  • (PMID = 11075982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] THAILAND
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6. Yang GC, Wang J, Yee HT: Interwoven dendritic processes of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma demonstrated on ultrafast papanicolaou-stained smears: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2006 Sep-Oct;50(5):534-8
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  • CASE: We observed novel cytologic features of FDC sarcoma in a liver fine needle aspirate of a 46-year-old man status post surgery and chemotherapy for FDC sarcoma, originating in the gastrointestinal tract with metastases to the liver, pancreas and spleen.
  • CONCLUSION: The ultrastructural features of a web of interwoven, dendritic, cytoplasmic processes of FDC tumor was demonstrated for the first time on cytology.
  • Observation of this feature may allow the diagnosis to be made on cytology prior to histology, immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dendritic Cells, Follicular / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Surface / analysis. Antigens, Surface / immunology. Antigens, Surface / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Needle. Cell Shape. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Liver / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Papanicolaou Test / methods. Papanicolaou Test / standards. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17017440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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7. Ji YI, Jung MH: Gastrointestinal bleeding caused by ileal metastasis of a tubal complete mole: a case report. J Womens Health (Larchmt); 2010 Jun;19(6):1217-20
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  • [Title] Gastrointestinal bleeding caused by ileal metastasis of a tubal complete mole: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Tubal hydatidiform mole is known to be an extremely rare disease, moreover, gastrointestinal metastasis from an ectopic complete mole has never been reported.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33-year-old woman presented with gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • The patient received nine cycles of adjuvant methotrexate chemotherapy after small bowel resection and anastomosis.
  • She was been without recurrence 20 months after therapy.
  • DISCUSSION: Gestational trophoblastic diseases in ectopic pregnancy are rare and gastrointestinal tract metastasis is very infrequent.
  • There have been a few case reports of choriocarcinoma presenting gastrointestinal tract metastasis.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of molar pregnancy in a Fallopian tube with ileal metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Ectopic molar pregnancy with gastrointestinal metastasis carries a high risk of intestinal perforation and uncontrollable gastrointestinal bleeding.
  • Despite its rarity, gastrointestinal metastasis should nevertheless be considered a possible cause for gastrointestinal bleeding in ectopic molar pregnancy patients after elimination of the more common etiologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Hydatidiform Mole / secondary. Ileal Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy, Tubal

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  • (PMID = 20392142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-843X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of women's health (2002)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Womens Health (Larchmt)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Schmidbauer S, Ladurner R, Jückstock H, Trupka AW, Mussack T, Hallfeldt KK: [Surgical and adjuvant therapy of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and their metastases. A retrospective analysis of personal patient group]. Chirurg; 2001 Aug;72(8):945-52
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  • [Title] [Surgical and adjuvant therapy of neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and their metastases. A retrospective analysis of personal patient group].
  • [Transliterated title] Die operative und adjuvante Therapie neuroendokriner Tumoren des Gastrointestinaltrakts und ihrer Metastasen. Eine retrospektive Analyse des eigenen Patientenguts.
  • INTRODUCTION: Carcinoid tumors are the most common neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Surgical treatment and prognosis depend on the location of the tumor.
  • METHOD: Between 01.01.1985 and 31.12.1999 25 patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract or their metastases were treated in our institution.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The most frequent primary sites were the ileum and jejunum (36%), appendix (36%), stomach (12%), pancreas (8%), colon (4%) and bronchus with hepatic metastasis (4%).
  • A malignant carcinoid syndrome was present in 8 patients.
  • Some patients with advanced disease needed some surgery for tumor debulking and resection of metastases.
  • In non-resectable liver metastases hepatic arterial chemotherapy and chemoembolization after implantation of port catheters seem to be very beneficial therapeutic options.
  • A fixed part of the therapeutic regime in progressive disease is adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and streptozotocin and symptomatic therapy with octreotide.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / drug therapy. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Middle Aged. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Octreotide / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Streptozocin / administration & dosage. Streptozocin / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11554141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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9. Seo JB, Im JG, Goo JM, Chung MJ, Kim MY: Atypical pulmonary metastases: spectrum of radiologic findings. Radiographics; 2001 Mar-Apr;21(2):403-17
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  • [Title] Atypical pulmonary metastases: spectrum of radiologic findings.
  • Typical radiologic findings of a pulmonary metastasis include multiple round variable-sized nodules and diffuse thickening of interstitium.
  • In daily practice, however, atypical radiologic features of metastases are often encountered that make distinction of metastases from other nonmalignant pulmonary diseases difficult.
  • A detailed knowledge of the atypical radiologic features of a pulmonary metastasis with a good understanding of the histopathologic background is essential for correct diagnosis.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is regarded as the most common cell type of a cavitating metastasis, but metastatic nodules from adenocarcinomas and sarcomas also cavitate occasionally.
  • Calcification can occur in a metastatic sarcoma or adenocarcinoma, which makes differentiation from a benign granuloma or hamartoma difficult.
  • Pneumothorax commonly occurs in metastases from an osteosarcoma.
  • Air-space consolidation is often seen in cases of metastases from gastrointestinal tract malignancies.
  • Even though tumor emboli in pulmonary arteries can be seen at computed tomography, diagnosis is difficult because they are located in small or medium arteries.
  • A common radiologic appearance of an endobronchial metastasis is an atelectasis.
  • In cases of an endobronchial or a solitary pulmonary metastasis, differentiation between bronchogenic carcinoma and metastasis is difficult.
  • Dilated vascular structures within the mass can be seen in metastatic sarcomas.
  • A sterilized metastasis after chemotherapy is radiologically indistinguishable from a residual viable tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lung / radiography. Pneumothorax / pathology. Pneumothorax / radiography

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  • (PMID = 11259704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-5333
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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10. Tsilimparis N, Menenakos C, Rogalla P, Braumann C, Hartmann J: Malignant melanoma metastasis as a cause of small-bowel perforation. Onkologie; 2009 Jun;32(6):356-8
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma metastasis as a cause of small-bowel perforation.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is a disease with an increasing rate of incidence, currently at 10 cases per 100,000.
  • In most cases, malignant melanoma metastasizes over the lymph vessels to parenchymal organs.
  • Symptomatic metastases are found in the gastrointestinal tract in only about 2% of the patients.
  • CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old patient with a known metastasized malignant melanoma (brain, liver, bones) was admitted to the department of dermatology due to fatigue, headache and unspecified abdominal symptoms.
  • Because of persistent abdominal symptoms, a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen was performed, showing a perforation of the ileum with an abscess on the basis of multiple small-bowel metastases.
  • The postoperative course of the patient was complicated by a subcutaneous wound infection and a prolonged period of convalescence (due to multiple brain metastases).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Novel therapy concepts and medication in the treatment of patients with malignant melanoma have improved life expectancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / complications. Intestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Intestinal Perforation / diagnosis. Intestinal Perforation / etiology. Intestine, Small / injuries. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19521125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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11. Reiman T, Butts CA: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding as a metastatic manifestation of breast cancer: a case report and review of the literature. Can J Gastroenterol; 2001 Jan;15(1):67-71
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  • [Title] Upper gastrointestinal bleeding as a metastatic manifestation of breast cancer: a case report and review of the literature.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman with known metastatic lobular breast cancer presented with fever, epigastric pain, hematemesis, and melena.
  • A bleeding, ulcerated gastric metastasis was found and was treated with endoscopic therapy, omeprazole, and hormonal therapy.
  • The bleeding was probably precipitated by necrosis of the lesion during chemotherapy.
  • DISCUSSION: Gastrointestinal tract metastases from primary breast carcinoma are present in 14% to 35% of cases in autopsy series, with gastric involvement in 6% to 18% of cases.
  • Recognized much less commonly during life than in autopsy studies, they can occur anywhere in the gut and can mimic virtually any gastrointestinal disorder.
  • Endoscopy and barium studies facilitate diagnosis.
  • Reported cases of bleeding gastric metastases have been treated successfully with various local and systemic modalities.
  • The median survival time of reviewed cases was four months from presentation (with a range of zero to 24 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal metastasis is an underdiagnosed complication of breast cancer.
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic breast cancer is an uncommon presentation that is readily diagnosed and that can be treated successfully by endoscopic hemostatic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary


12. Miyake M, Takeda Y, Hasuike Y, Kashiwazaki M, Mishima H, Ikenaga M, Mano M, Takada Y, Hirota S, Tsujinaka T: [A case of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor developing a resistance to STI571 (imatinib mesylate)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Oct;31(11):1791-4
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  • [Title] [A case of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor developing a resistance to STI571 (imatinib mesylate)].
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by the expression of a receptor that activates tyrosine kinase called c-kit.
  • Since malignant GISTs are resistant to conventional radiation therapy and chemotherapy, recurrent or malignant GIST has an extremely poor prognosis even after surgical resection.
  • The development of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, STI571 (imatinib mesylate, Glivec, Gleevec), which inhibits the BCR-ABL, PDGF-R alpha and c-kit receptors, has changed the management of unresectable malignant GIST and has improved the survival of patients with metastatic disease.
  • We report a patient with GIST and diffused peritoneal metastases, whose tumor initially responded to STI571 and eventually became resistant.
  • A 45-year-old woman underwent partial jejunostomy on September 3, 1998, under a diagnosis of submucosal tumor of the jejunum.
  • A treatment with STI571 (400 mg/day) was initiated on October 15, 2001, and she was free from peritoneal masses for 8 months after the fourth operation.
  • However, the patient herself suspended the STI571 therapy for one month and multiple peritoneal metastases developed.
  • Although the treatment with STI571 was restarted at 400 mg/day, the peritoneal masses did not respond this time.
  • She died of liver, lung, and peritoneal metastases after the seventh cytoreductive operation on February 11, 2004.
  • Her tumors showed mutations in exons 9 or 11 of KIT, which had longer event-free and overall survival times than those tumors that had mutations of exons 13 or 17.
  • After the interruption of the treatment, an additional point mutation arose in exon 13 that caused a resistance to STI571.
  • Currently STI571 is the first-line therapy for non-resectable GISTs, but a single-agent therapy often leads to tumor resistance.
  • It is our hope that we will be able to design an alternative treatment to overcome such resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Exons / genetics. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / analysis. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 15553717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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13. Hacker U, Lenz G, Brehm G, Müller-Höcker J, Schalhorn A, Hiddemann W: Metastasis of a rectal adenocarcinoma to the thyroid gland: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Anticancer Res; 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6D):4973-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis of a rectal adenocarcinoma to the thyroid gland: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
  • BACKGROUND: Overt metastasis from solid tumors to the thyroid gland is a rare finding.
  • Only single cases of metastasis from the gastrointestinal tract have been reported.
  • We describe a rare case of metastasis to the thyroid gland from a rectal adenocarcinoma which had been treated by rectum extirpation and a combined radiochemotherapy seven years earlier.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the appropriate diagnostic procedure to define the histological diagnosis.
  • Potentially curative resection should be performed if metastasis to the thyroid gland is the only tumor manifestation.
  • Palliative chemotherapy should be considered if additional tumor manifestations are detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 14981954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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14. Spurgeon JM, Cotlar AM: Cytoreductive surgery in the management of malignant ascites from adenocarcinoma of unknown primary (ACUP). Curr Surg; 2005 Sep-Oct;62(5):500-3
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  • [Title] Cytoreductive surgery in the management of malignant ascites from adenocarcinoma of unknown primary (ACUP).
  • A case report is presented of a 62-year-old man with adenocarcinoma of unknown primary (ACUP) who was admitted with massive ascites from intraperitoneal carcinomatosis secondary to a gastrointestinal tract malignancy.
  • A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis confirmed extensive neoplasm.
  • A near-total omentectomy was performed, and he was given postoperative systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Palliative Care. Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Ascites / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Laparotomy / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Omentum / pathology. Omentum / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16125606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-7944
  • [Journal-full-title] Current surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Takeyama H, Takahashi H, Tabei I, Fukuchi O, Nogi H, Kinoshita S, Uchida K, Morikawa T: Malignant neoplasm in the axilla of a male: suspected primary carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland. Breast Cancer; 2010 Apr;17(2):151-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Male Breast Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant neoplasm in the axilla of a male: suspected primary carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland.
  • Incisional biopsy for suspected malignancy was performed, and histopathologic examination by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining yielded a diagnosis of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma metastatic from an unknown primary.
  • As the tumor was immunohistochemically positive for both ER and PgR, metastatic breast cancer was strongly suspected.
  • Detailed examination of the head and neck region, lung, and upper and lower gastrointestinal tract also revealed no evidence of a primary tumor.
  • After chemotherapy, the patient underwent tumor resection with axillary lymph node dissection.
  • The tumor could have been an axillary lymph node metastasis from an occult breast carcinoma, or primary cancer arising in an accessory mammary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19387775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Znajda TL, Hayashi S, Horton PJ, Martinie JB, Chaudhury P, Marcus VA, Jass JR, Metrakos P: Postchemotherapy characteristics of hepatic colorectal metastases: remnants of uncertain malignant potential. J Gastrointest Surg; 2006 Apr;10(4):483-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postchemotherapy characteristics of hepatic colorectal metastases: remnants of uncertain malignant potential.
  • Accepted management for colorectal cancer (CRC) involves resection of the primary neoplasm and chemotherapy; the debate continues over the most beneficial order of these components.
  • Preoperative chemotherapy aimed at liver metastases may result in complete pathologic response and replacement of the malignancy with scar.
  • Forty-one patients receiving treatment between December 2003 and August 2004 were identified, their medical records examined, and liver histology reviewed.
  • Twenty-seven of the 41 patients (66%) received preoperative chemotherapy (oxaliplatin or irinotecan).
  • Features of the primary neoplasm that predicted resolution of the metastases were absence of tumor budding (P = 0.04), absence of a diffusely infiltrative tumor margin (P = 0.02), and loss of expression of the DNA repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (P = 0.08).
  • Oxaliplatin and irinotecan demonstrate beneficial effects in treating hepatic colorectal metastases and should be considered in such patients before resection.
  • We propose the acronym RUMP to denote the remnants of uncertain malignant potential remaining.
  • Further investigation is required to determine any correlation between the drug received and the resulting lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. DNA Repair / drug effects. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Silencing. Hepatectomy. Humans. Liver / drug effects. Liver / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase / genetics. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Preoperative Care. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Topoisomerase I Inhibitors

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  • [Cites] Histopathology. 2002 Feb;40(2):127-32 [11952856.001]
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  • (PMID = 16627212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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17. Ayantunde AA, Agrawal A, Parsons SL, Welch NT: Esophagogastric cancers secondary to a breast primary tumor do not require resection. World J Surg; 2007 Aug;31(8):1597-601
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Esophagogastric cancers secondary to a breast primary tumor do not require resection.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is rare.
  • When it does occur, the upper GIT is more frequently involved, and lobular infiltrating carcinoma apparently has a greater apparent predilection for the GIT than the ductal type does.
  • This study reviewed the clinicopathological features of esophagogastric secondary tumors from breast cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with breast cancer metastases to the upper GIT referred to us for treatment of either esophageal or gastric cancers between November 1997 and November 2004 were identified from our database.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients with mean age of 71 (range: 57-90) years had median time of 6.5 (2.8-32.8) years between primary breast cancer diagnosis and upper GI metastasis.
  • The sites of metastatic lesions included the lower esophagus (2 patients), gastroesophageal junction (1 patient), gastric body (3 patients), and pylorus (3 patients).
  • Treatment included hormonal therapy and stent in 3 patients, hormonal therapy alone in 1 patient, chemotherapy alone in 1 patient, chemotherapy and gastrojejunostomy in 1 patient, dilatation and stent in 1 patient, and palliative care only in 2 patients.
  • The median survival following treatment of these metastases was 20 (range: 2.1-96.6) months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The onset of nonspecific GIT symptoms in patients with a history of breast carcinoma should prompt the clinician to rule out the possibility of upper GIT metastasis even many years after the original breast cancer.
  • The use of systemic therapy for breast cancer may result in longer survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17578645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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18. Panagiotou I, Brountzos EN, Bafaloukos D, Stoupis C, Brestas P, Kelekis DA: Malignant melanoma metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract. Melanoma Res; 2002 Apr;12(2):169-73
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant melanoma metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract.
  • A retrospective study of 385 melanoma patients was performed, with the goal of evaluating the clinical characteristics, the role of imaging and the impact of treatment on patients with gastrointestinal (GI) metastases.
  • Eighteen patients (4.7%) had GI tract metastases.
  • Eight patients underwent curative surgery, two received no treatment, while the remaining eight patients had chemotherapy or immunochemotherapy.
  • GI tract metastases were more common in patients with nodular melanoma of the lower extremities.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study correlating the primary lesion's characteristics with the development of GI tract metastases.
  • Imaging is effective in the diagnosis of GI tract involvement.
  • Melanoma patients with GI tract metastases can benefit from palliation by surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11930114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Croom KF, Perry CM: Imatinib mesylate: in the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Drugs; 2003;63(5):513-22; discussion 523-4
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imatinib mesylate: in the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumours.
  • The KIT tyrosine kinase is abnormally expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), a rare neoplasm for which there has been no effective systemic therapy.
  • Similar response rates were reported in a smaller, dose-escalation study, in which objective tumour response was a secondary endpoint.
  • Severe or serious adverse events occurred in 21% of patients in the larger study, and included gastrointestinal or tumour haemorrhage.
  • A major focus of cancer research in recent years has been to identify oncogenic molecules and the signal transduction pathways in which they are involved, in order to develop specifically targeted drugs.
  • One such drug is imatinib mesylate (imatinib, Glivic/Gleevec), an orally administered 2-phenylaminopyrimidine derivative that is a competitive inhibitor of the tyrosine kinases associated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, the Abelson (ABL) protein and the KIT protein (also known as stem cell factor [SCF] receptor).
  • Imatinib was initially evaluated for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) [reviewed previously in Drugs].
  • More recently, imatinib has been approved for the treatment of patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), in which KIT, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is abnormally expressed.
  • GISTs are soft tissue gastrointestinal sarcomas probably arising from mesenchymal cells.
  • GISTs occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract but the stomach and small intestine are the most common sites.
  • Symptoms depend on the site and size of the tumour, and may include abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding or signs of obstruction; small tumours may be asymptomatic.
  • The diagnosis of GIST is made by immunohistochemical staining for CD117, a cell surface antigen on the extracellular domain of KIT, in conjunction with pathological examination of tissue with light microscopy.
  • All GISTs may have some degree of malignant potential.
  • They are unresponsive to standard chemotherapy and to radiotherapy, and the mainstay of treatment in the past has been surgery.
  • However, recurrence rates are high, and there has been no effective systemic treatment for unresectable GIST or metastatic disease.
  • For patients in whom complete resection is not possible, or in patients with metastatic or recurrent disease, the median duration of survival is 9-12 months, and 10-19 months, respectively.
  • Subsequent to initial evidence of the clinical efficacy of imatinib in a single patient with progressive, metastatic, CD117-positive GIST, formal studies of imatinib in this new indication were initiated.
  • This article summarises the pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability profile of imatinib in the treatment of patients with advanced GIST.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Piperazines. Pyrimidines. Stromal Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. IMATINIB MESYLATE .
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  • (PMID = 12600228.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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20. Mischke A, Besier S, Walcher F, Waibel H, Brade V, Brandt C: [Spontaneous gas gangrene in a diabetic patient with Clostridium septicum]. Chirurg; 2005 Oct;76(10):983-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CLINDAMYCIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] "Spontaner" Gasbrand mit Kompartmentsyndrom bei einem diabetischen Patienten.
  • It strongly suggests excluding malignant neoplasms, especially of the gastrointestinal tract, when severe Clostridium septicum infections occur.
  • Moreover, if patients with known colorectal or other malignancy develop septicaemia or spontaneous gas gangrene, clinicians should be aware of Clostridium septicum as one of the main causative agents, as early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are important to improve prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Clostridium / isolation & purification. Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Gas Gangrene / etiology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clindamycin / administration & dosage. Clindamycin / therapeutic use. Colectomy. Colonoscopy. Debridement. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Penicillins / administration & dosage. Penicillins / therapeutic use. Radiography. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16021394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Penicillins; 3U02EL437C / Clindamycin
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21. Salamanca J, Nevado M, Martínez-González MA, Pérez-Espejo G, Pinedo F: Undifferentiated carcinoma of the jejunum with extensive rhabdoid features. Case report and review of the literature. APMIS; 2008 Oct;116(10):941-6
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  • Malignant rhabdoid tumor, first described in the kidney of young infants, is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm of controversial histogenesis that has been reported at many other sites, including the gastrointestinal tract.
  • However, malignant rhabdoid tumor of the small intestine is very rare, with only seven cases published to date.
  • We report a 70-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and weight loss, and showed a perforated jejunal mass with disseminated metastases by imaging.
  • The patient underwent partial jejunectomy and biopsy of a liver metastasis.
  • Immunohistochemically, the neoplasm coexpressed vimentin and epithelial antigens (AE1/AE3, Cam 5.2, CK34betaE12, CK19 and EMA), most of them showing a peculiar immunostaining pattern in relation to the globular inclusions.
  • The patient received postoperative chemotherapy but died 9 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Jejunal Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte / analysis. Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte / metabolism. Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers / metabolism. Biopsy. Cell Nucleolus / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Hyalin / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Inclusion Bodies / metabolism. Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Jejunum / metabolism. Jejunum / pathology. Keratins / analysis. Keratins / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Vimentin / analysis. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19132990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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22. Song Y, He J, Wu LY, Wang LH, Wang JW: [Treatment and prognosis of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of 243 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Feb;32(2):132-8
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  • [Title] [Treatment and prognosis of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma of 243 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: The extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC), a uncommon malignant tumor, has seldom been reported.
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of EPSCC.
  • 170 patients received chemotherapy-based multimodal therapy, 73 received surgery, and/or radiotherapy.
  • The clinical stage, vessel involvement and regional lymph node metastases were independent prognostic factors of EPSCC.
  • The median survival of the patients with regional lymph node metastases was 13.9 months, while 39.5 months without regional lymph node metastases (P = 0.000).
  • Among different primary sites, patients with gynecologic small cell cancer had a median survival of 28.0 months, head and neck 20.1 months and gastrointestinal tract 14.3 months.
  • Brain metastasis was observed in a lower number of patients with EPSCC compared with that in patients with SCLC.
  • CONCLUSION: EPSCC is an uncommon malignant tumor with early metastasis and poor prognosis.
  • The clinical characteristics of EPSCC and SCLC were similar in some aspects, however, there are some differences in etiology, clinic course, survival and frequency of brain metastases.
  • These differences may influence the choice of therapeutic strategy.
  • Multimodal therapy, combination of chemo- and radio-therapy after surgical resection may improve the outcome of EPSCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Survival Rate. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology. Urogenital Neoplasms / surgery. Urogenital Neoplasms / therapy. Young Adult

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Esophageal Cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Head and Neck Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 20403245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; VP-P protocol
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23. Gurbuxani S, Anastasi J: What to do when you suspect gastrointestinal lymphoma: a pathologist's perspective. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Apr;5(4):417-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What to do when you suspect gastrointestinal lymphoma: a pathologist's perspective.
  • Although primary gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas are an infrequent occurrence and represent 1%-4% of the malignant tumors of the GI tract, secondary involvement of the GI tract by lymphoma is not uncommon.
  • Several controversies remain about the prognostic stratification and the optimal treatment modalities for these lymphomas.
  • The currently used World Health Organization classification of hematologic malignancies requires integration of morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genotypic features to define a disease type.
  • Through the use of a representative case we highlight how this information is used for the appropriate diagnosis of a GI lymphoma.
  • We also discuss the clinical features, including radiologic and endoscopic findings in patients presenting with a GI lymphoma.
  • The review is a pathologist's perspective on what to do when suspecting a lymphoma of the GI tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Biopsy, Needle. Cyclophosphamide. Doxorubicin. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisolone. Prognosis. Rare Diseases. Risk Assessment. Rituximab. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine

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  • (PMID = 17336592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-7714
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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