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2. Ishida M, Naka S, Shiomi H, Tsujikawa T, Andoh A, Nakahara T, Saito Y, Kurumi Y, Takikita-Suzuki M, Kojima F, Hotta M, Tani T, Fujiyama Y, Okabe H: Hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in a Crohn's disease patient. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Jul 7;16(25):3215-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. AZATHIOPRINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in a Crohn's disease patient.
  • We report a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring in a patient with Crohn's disease (CD) without chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis, and review the clinicopathological features of HCC in CD patients.
  • A 37-year-old Japanese man with an 8-year history of CD and a medication history of azathioprine underwent resection of a liver tumor.
  • The histopathology of the liver tumor was pseudoglandular type HCC.
  • In the non-neoplastic liver, focal hepatocyte glycogenosis (FHG) was observed, however, there was no evidence of liver cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis.
  • Eight of 10 cases (including the present case) had received azathioprine treatment, and four of these cases also showed FHG, which is considered a preneoplastic liver lesion, within the non-neoplastic liver.
  • Although the precise mechanism of the development of HCC in CD patients is controversial, these results suggest that azathioprine therapy and FHG in the non-neoplastic liver contribute to the development of HCC.
  • These findings also indicate that it is important to survey CD patients treated with prolonged azathioprine therapy for potential liver tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Azathioprine / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / chemically induced. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Liver Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20593510.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2896762
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3. Burgos San Juan L: [Cholangiocarcinoma]. Rev Med Chil; 2008 Feb;136(2):240-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Colangiocarcinoma: Actualización, diagnóstico y terapia.
  • It is most frequently found in the confluence of the hepatic ducts, where it is called hilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor.
  • Its etiology is unknown but there are predisposing conditions and environmental risk factors such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, Caroli's disease, bile duct malformations, industrial toxins and parasitic infections.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma of the distal common bile duct must be differentiated from other periampullary tumors and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma can be confused with a hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The best treatment is the complete surgical excision with negative histological margins, although the resectability index is low.
  • The type and size of surgery depends on the location and extent of the tumor.
  • Chemotherapy is not effective.

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  • (PMID = 18483680.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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4. Latasa MU, Gil-Puig C, Fernández-Barrena MG, Rodríguez-Ortigosa CM, Banales JM, Urtasun R, Goñi S, Méndez M, Arcelus S, Juanarena N, Recio JA, Lotersztajn S, Prieto J, Berasain C, Corrales FJ, Lecanda J, Avila MA: Oral methylthioadenosine administration attenuates fibrosis and chronic liver disease progression in Mdr2-/- mice. PLoS One; 2010;5(12):e15690
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  • BACKGROUND: Inflammation and fibrogenesis are directly related to chronic liver disease progression, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development.
  • Currently there are few therapeutic options available to inhibit liver fibrosis.
  • We have evaluated the hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic potential of orally-administered 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA) in Mdr2(-/-) mice, a clinically relevant model of sclerosing cholangitis and spontaneous biliary fibrosis, followed at later stages by HCC development.
  • METHODOLOGY: MTA was administered daily by gavage to wild type and Mdr2(-/-) mice for three weeks.
  • PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MTA treatment reduced hepatomegaly and liver injury.
  • This compound could be a good candidate to be tested for the treatment of (biliary) liver fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosine / analogs & derivatives. Fibrosis / drug therapy. Liver Diseases / genetics. Liver Diseases / pathology. P-Glycoproteins / genetics. Thionucleosides / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21209952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / P-Glycoproteins; 0 / P-glycoprotein 2; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 0 / Thionucleosides; 0 / junD protein, mouse; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 4105-39-9 / 2-methylthioadenosine; K72T3FS567 / Adenosine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3012093
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5. Garioud A, Seksik P, Chrétien Y, Corphechot C, Poupon R, Poupon RE, Chazouillères O: Characteristics and clinical course of primary sclerosing cholangitis in France: a prospective cohort study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Jul;22(7):842-7
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  • [Title] Characteristics and clinical course of primary sclerosing cholangitis in France: a prospective cohort study.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare disease, and large-scale report of PSC in France is lacking.
  • At entry, 11 patients had a diagnosis of hepatobiliary or colon malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma: n = 5, hepatocellular carcinoma: n = 2, gallbladder carcinoma: n = 1 and colorectal cancer: n = 4).
  • RESULTS: During follow-up [3.9 (0.1-7.2) years], colorectal cancer was diagnosed in four patients and biliary carcinoma in two (incidences: 0.76 and 0.38 for 100 patient-years, respectively).
  • However, the low incidence of cholangiocarcinoma is compatible with a potential chemoprotective effect of UDCA against biliary neoplasia development.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / mortality. Liver Failure / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / drug effects. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cohort Studies. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. France / epidemiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Incidence. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Transplantation. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Ursodeoxycholic Acid / therapeutic use. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19779305.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5687
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid
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6. Kato Y, Matsubara K, Akiyama Y, Hattori H, Hirata A, Suzuki F, Ohtaka H, Kato A, Sugiura Y, Kitajima M: Chemotherapy-induced sclerosing cholangitis as a rare indication for resection: report of a case. Surg Today; 2009;39(10):905-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemotherapy-induced sclerosing cholangitis as a rare indication for resection: report of a case.
  • Bile duct stricture due to chemotherapy-induced sclerosing cholangitis (CISC) is a potentially fatal complication of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC).
  • It is managed primarily with medical treatment and biliary stenting.
  • The patient had been receiving adjuvant HAIC for 11 months after a curative liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma, when clinically overt cholangitis developed.
  • Radiologic and biopsy findings suggested a CISC-related biliary stricture limited to the common hepatic duct.
  • We discontinued HAIC and started corticosteroid treatment, which finally became ineffective.
  • Endoscopic biliary stenting was impossible because of her severe biliary sclerosis, necessitating resection of the stricture, which was confirmed histologically to be secondary sclerosing cholangitis.
  • Thus, resection could be a treatment option for a CISC-related biliary stricture in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / chemically induced. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19784733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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7. Der G, Love T, Schreck J, Horn M: Primary sclerosing cholangitis: a case presentation. Gastroenterol Nurs; 2005 Jan-Feb;28(1):13-6; quiz 17-8
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  • [Title] Primary sclerosing cholangitis: a case presentation.
  • Liver function tests are elevated in a variety of settings and with a mild elevation, it is difficult to decipher the cause.
  • Typical causes of elevated liver enzymes may range from hepatocellular injury such as hepatitis C, to obstructive causes, such as primary sclerosing cholangitis.
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis is known to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease and may be more common than once thought.This article presents case study of a patient who presented with mildly elevated liver function tests and intermittent diarrhea.
  • The patient was diagnosed with Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis.
  • The patient's presentation and the relation of inflammatory bowel disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis will be discussed.
  • The importance of early detection of primary sclerosing cholangitis in an effort to decrease the morbidity and mortality from cholangiocarcinoma will also be emphasized.
  • An overview of various diagnostic testing needed to make the diagnosis, as well as treatment modalities of both Crohn's disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis will also be presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / prevention & control. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / diagnosis. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / drug therapy. Crohn Disease / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Blood Chemical Analysis. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Colonoscopy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Liver Function Tests. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15738725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-895X
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology nursing : the official journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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8. Rosenthal P: Digestive disease week 2000. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. IDrugs; 2000 Aug;3(8):868-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In order to cover the varying subspecialties, the sessions were divided into various sections including 'Acute Liver Failure and Artificial Liver Support', 'Biliary Tract and Immunologic Liver Diseases', 'Cellular and Molecular Biology', 'Clinical and Experimental Hepatobiliary Surgery', 'Hepatotoxicity and Cell Death', 'Transport and Biliary Physiology', 'Viral Hepatitis', 'Evaluation and Treatment of Biliary Disease', 'Necrosis/Apoptosis', 'Portal Hypertension', 'Blood Flow and Vascular Disorders of Cirrhosis', 'Liver Transplantation', 'Fibrogenesis', 'Hepatocellular Carcinoma', 'Metabolism and Genetic Disease', and 'Public Policy, Epidemiology and Decision Analysis'.
  • Drug therapy focused on treatments for viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, and recurrent viral disease following liver transplant.
  • High dose interferon therapy or various combinations of interferon/ribavirin (ICN Pharmaceuticals Inc) therapy seem to offer the best current therapy for chronic HCV.
  • PEGylated interferon (F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd) offers hope for treatment and histologic improvement in patients with chronic HCV.
  • Following liver transplantation, combination interferon/ribavirin therapy may also find success, but caution with new potent immunosuppressant monoclonal antibodies is advised.
  • Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation may hold promise over conventional ethanol injection therapy for small hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Autoimmune hepatitis may respond to tacrolimus therapy whereas budesonide therapy did not provide any advantage to prednisone therapy.
  • In primary sclerosing cholangitis, high dose ursodeoxycholic acid may provide benefit.

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  • (PMID = 16059798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1369-7056
  • [Journal-full-title] IDrugs : the investigational drugs journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] IDrugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Lin ZY, Wang JH, Hsieh MY, Yu ML, Chen SC, Chuang WL, Wang LY, Tsai JF, Chang WY: Percutaneous ethanol injection of the supplying artery to hepatocellular carcinoma that is not amenable to conventional treatment. Br J Radiol; 2000 Aug;73(872):833-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ETHANOL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Percutaneous ethanol injection of the supplying artery to hepatocellular carcinoma that is not amenable to conventional treatment.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection of the supplying artery (PEISA) to the tumour in the palliative management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that is not amenable to conventional treatments.
  • Tumours with arterial Doppler signals persisting after PEISA underwent repeated treatment.
  • Following treatment, one tumour disappeared, 13 tumours shrank and nine tumours were unchanged in size.
  • All patients with abdominal discomfort had relief after treatment.
  • In conclusion, PEISA is effective at treating painful HCC unsuitable for conventional treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Ethanol / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sclerosing Solutions / therapeutic use. Ultrasonography, Interventional / methods

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  • (PMID = 11026857.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1285
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sclerosing Solutions; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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11. Wall WJ: Liver transplantation for hepatic and biliary malignancy. Semin Liver Dis; 2000;20(4):425-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Liver transplantation for hepatic and biliary malignancy.
  • The treatment of liver cancer by transplantation has evolved into a process of selecting early stage tumors that have a high likelihood of cure.
  • Carefully selected cirrhotic patients with early hepatocellular cancer (< or = 5 cm. diameter and single; < or = 3 cm. diameter if multiple and 3 or fewer lesions; no vascular invasion) have 5-year actuarial survival rates of approximately 75% after transplantation.
  • Adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy became part of treatment protocols in many centers at the same time that more stringent criteria for transplant candidacy were applied to patients with cancer, making it difficult to attribute improved results to the chemotherapy.
  • Nevertheless, neoadjuvant chemoembolization for hepatocellular cancer is logical for patients who may wait long periods before receiving transplants.
  • Hepatoblastoma in children can respond very favorably to chemotherapy combined with transplantation.
  • The rare cases of insitu cholangiocarcioma in patients who receive transplants for sclerosing cholangitis can be cured, but known cholangiocarcinoma has an exceedingly high rate of recurrence after transplantation alone.
  • Recent work combining chemotherapy and radiation with transplantation has not had dramatic success at improving cure rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Transplantation. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Palliative Care. Patient Selection. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11200413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0272-8087
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in liver disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Liver Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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12. Denk GU, Maitz S, Wimmer R, Rust C, Invernizzi P, Ferdinandusse S, Kulik W, Fuchsbichler A, Fickert P, Trauner M, Hofmann AF, Beuers U: Conjugation is essential for the anticholestatic effect of NorUrsodeoxycholic acid in taurolithocholic acid-induced cholestasis in rat liver. Hepatology; 2010 Nov;52(5):1758-68
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Taurine .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • NorUDCA (24-norursodeoxycholic acid), the C₂₃-homolog of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), showed remarkable therapeutic effects in cholestatic Mdr2 (Abcb4) (multidrug resistance protein 2/ATP-binding cassette b4) knockout mice with sclerosing/fibrosing cholangitis.
  • Taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) was used to induce a predominantly hepatocellular cholestasis in IPRL.
  • CONCLUSION: Conjugation is essential for the anticholestatic effect of norUDCA in a model of hepatocellular cholestasis.
  • Combined therapy with UDCA and norUDCA may be superior to UDCA or norUDCA monotherapy in biliary disorders in which hepatocyte as well as cholangiocyte dysfunction contribute to disease progression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Bile / secretion. Bile Acids and Salts / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Cholangitis / drug therapy. Chromatography, Gas. Hepatoblastoma / pathology. Humans. Liver / drug effects. Liver / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Mice. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Taurine / metabolism. Ursodeoxycholic Acid / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21038414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3350
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 1EQV5MLY3D / Taurine; 516-90-5 / Taurolithocholic Acid; 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid
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13. Krok KL, Munoz SJ: Management of autoimmune and cholestatic liver disorders. Clin Liver Dis; 2009 May;13(2):295-316
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PREDNISONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this article, management strategies are discussed, including the indications and expectations of pharmacologic therapy, endoscopic approaches, and the role of liver transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangitis, Sclerosing / therapy. Hepatitis, Autoimmune / therapy. Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Cholagogues and Choleretics / therapeutic use. Chronic Disease. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Liver Transplantation. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Ursodeoxycholic Acid / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19442920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8224
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in liver disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Cholagogues and Choleretics; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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14. Menias CO, Surabhi VR, Prasad SR, Wang HL, Narra VR, Chintapalli KN: Mimics of cholangiocarcinoma: spectrum of disease. Radiographics; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4):1115-29
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mimics of cholangiocarcinoma constitute a heterogeneous group of entities that includes primary sclerosing cholangitis, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cholangiopathy, autoimmune pancreatitis, inflammatory pseudotumor, Mirizzi syndrome, xanthogranulomatous cholangitis, sarcoidosis, chemotherapy-induced sclerosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases, melanoma, lymphoma, leukemia, and carcinoid tumors.
  • In most cases, a definitive diagnosis can be established only with histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / radiography. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18635632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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15. Métairie S, Lucidi V, Castaing D: [Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma]. J Chir (Paris); 2004 Sep;141(5):315-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma].
  • Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) is a rare tumor which arises from the epithelial cells of the intra-hepatic bile ducts; it may develop in a healthy liver and bile ducts or in bile ducts with malignant predisposition (Caroli's syndrome, primary sclerosing cholangitis).
  • Unlike hepatocellular carcinoma, no predisposing factors or high-risk populations have been demonstrated for cholangiocarcinoma other than intraphepatic choledocholithiasis such as is seen in east Asian populations.
  • Aggressive surgical resection is the only treatment modality which has afforded even slight prolongation of survival; hepatic resection must be large with uninvolved resection margins.
  • When an IHCC is deemed resectable (localized tumor without hepatic metastases or intrahepatic or extrahepatic lymph node spread), pre-operative tumor embolization may be useful; when jaundice is present, percutaneous drainage of the dilated biliary system of the liver to be spared may also be necessary.
  • Neither adjuvant nor neo-adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy have shown proof of efficacity.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma complicates sclerosing cholangitis in 10-15% of cases and is very difficult to diagnose.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Decision Trees. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15494665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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16. Wai CT, Lin M, Tan KC: Hepatobiliary and pancreatic: pulmonary embolism after injection therapy for gastric varices. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 Aug;23(8 Pt 1):1306
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatobiliary and pancreatic: pulmonary embolism after injection therapy for gastric varices.
  • [MeSH-major] Contrast Media / adverse effects. Esophageal and Gastric Varices / drug therapy. Iodized Oil / adverse effects. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology. Sclerosing Solutions / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / complications. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Enbucrilate / administration & dosage. Enbucrilate / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Injections. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Tissue Adhesives / administration & dosage. Tissue Adhesives / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18699982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Sclerosing Solutions; 0 / Tissue Adhesives; 8001-40-9 / Iodized Oil; F8CEP82QNP / Enbucrilate
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