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Items 1 to 44 of about 44
1. Cescon M, Grazi GL, Assietti R, Scanni A, Frigerio F, Sparacio F, Ercolani G, Cavallari A: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit in a liver transplant recipient. Transpl Int; 2003 Jun;16(6):437-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit in a liver transplant recipient.
  • Although an increased incidence of de novo malignancies is reported in transplant recipients, rhabdomyosarcoma, an aggressive mesenchymal tumor typical of childhood, is not considered a neoplasm commonly related to immunosuppression.
  • A tumoral mass originating from the medial rectus muscle was partially removed and diagnosed as being an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Since the patient refused complete orbital excision, one course of radiotherapy and six courses of chemotherapy were administered, while immunosuppression was re-modulated, without interruption of the administration of cyclosporine.
  • Complete control of tumor growth was achieved, while no alterations of graft function were observed throughout the treatment period.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Orbital Neoplasms / etiology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Liver / physiopathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Reoperation. Treatment Outcome


2. Nayak DR, Balakrishnan R, Shahab AS, Rao L: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of paranasal sinus with cervical metastasis-a case report. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2000 Apr;52(2):162-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of paranasal sinus with cervical metastasis-a case report.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare tumour in adults and involvement of paranasal sinuses is extremely rare comprising only 1.5% of reported head and neck rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • Alveolar type, a rarer form of RMS, mainly seen in adults, has the worst prognosis.
  • Incidence of lymph node metastases is more common in this type, compared to the other forms.
  • An aggressive combined modality of treatment has dramatically improved the poor survival statistics noted previously.
  • Our experience with one such case occurring in paranasal sinus and orbit which was managed by surgery multidrug chemotherapy & radical radiotherapy is discussed and relevant literature has been reviewed.

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  • (PMID = 23119659.001).
  • [ISSN] 2231-3796
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of otolaryngology and head and neck surgery : official publication of the Association of Otolaryngologists of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3451287
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Craniofacial resection / Paranasal sinus / Rhabdomyosarcoma / alveolar type
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3. Lin HF, Lui CC, Hsu HC, Lin SA: Orbital exenteration for secondary orbital tumors: a series of seven cases. Chang Gung Med J; 2002 Sep;25(9):599-605

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Exenteration is indicated in patients with malignant neoplasms of orbital contents.
  • It entails the removal of the eyeball together with its extraocular muscles and other soft tissues.
  • Primary lesions, histopathological examination results, treatments, and recurrences are discussed.
  • RESULTS: Classification of the 7 patients showed that 2 had basal cell carcinoma of the skin, 2 had squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, 1 had squamous cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinus, 1 had rhabdomyosarcoma of the paranasal sinus, and 1 had intracranial meningioma.
  • Radiotherapy was performed in 6 of the patients and chemotherapy in 2.
  • CONCLUSION: Secondary orbital tumors involved the orbit from adjacent tissues: paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, lacrimal sac, conjunctiva, eyelid, intraocular tissue, and intracranial tissues.
  • And the imaging studies should include the field of the orbit, sinus, and brain to search for the primary lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Orbit Evisceration / methods. Orbital Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Surgical Flaps

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  • (PMID = 12479621.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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4. Karcioglu ZA, Hadjistilianou D, Rozans M, DeFrancesco S: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Control; 2004 Sep-Oct;11(5):328-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Although rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare tumor among the entire group of mesenchymal malignancies, it is a relatively common lesion and significant challenge for the ocular oncologist in terms of its diagnosis and management.
  • RESULTS: Orbital RMS usually presents as a space-occupying lesion in the orbit during the first decade and may mimic other neoplastic or inflammatory masses.
  • The tumor has predilection for the superior nasal quadrant of the orbit.
  • The clinical manifestations depend on the location of the tumor within the orbit and its rate of growth.
  • The common histopathologic types are embryonal and alveolar varieties.
  • Treatment usually consists of a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy following excisional biopsy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Survival of orbital RMS has improved due to advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / diagnosis. Eye Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15377992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-2359
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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5. Durisin M, Mengel M, Beilken A, Donnerstag F, Lenarz T, Stöver T: [Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbita]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2006 Feb;85(2):124-7
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  • [Title] [Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbita].
  • CT and MRT scanning revealed a tumor which by open biopsy disclosed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • By means of this case we present the current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for childhood soft tissue sarcomas.
  • At present our patient receives a poly-chemotherapy which has already shown a good response.
  • This case demonstrates that in a child with a unilateral, progressive orbital tumor, the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue sarcoma has to be ruled out.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Exophthalmos / etiology. Female. Humans. Orbit / pathology. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16498541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0935-8943
  • [Journal-full-title] Laryngo- rhino- otologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngorhinootologie
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Shields CL, Shields JA, Honavar SG, Demirci H: Primary ophthalmic rhabdomyosarcoma in 33 patients. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc; 2001;99:133-42; discussion 142-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary ophthalmic rhabdomyosarcoma in 33 patients.
  • PURPOSE: To review the findings, management, and outcome in 33 cases of primary ophthalmic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • RESULTS: Rhabdomyosarcoma was primarily located in the orbit m 25 cases (76%), conjunctiva in 4 (12%), eyelid in 1 (3%), and uveal tract in 3 (9%).
  • The initial diagnoses before referral to us included primarily rhabdomyosarcoma in 8 cases (24%), conjunctivitis in 5 (15%), cellulitis in 5 (15%), and pseudotumor in 4 (12%).
  • Tumors were classified according to the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group staging and treatment protocols as group I in 4 cases (12%), group II in 12 (36%), group III in 16 (48%), and group IV in 1 case (3%).
  • Treatment included surgical debulking, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rhabdomyosarcoma can present in the orbit, eyelid, conjunctiva, and uveal tract.
  • Following treatment, local tumor recurrence occurs in 18% of cases, metastasis in 6%, and death in 3%.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11797301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-9533
  • [Journal-full-title] Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1359004
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7. Bonnin N, Nezzar H, Viennet A, Barthelemy I, Demeocq F, Gabrillargues J, Dauplat MM, Bacin F: [Case report of a 2-year-old child with palpebral rhabdomyosarcoma]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2010 Mar;33(3):178-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Case report of a 2-year-old child with palpebral rhabdomyosarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Rhabdomyosarcome palpébral chez un enfant âgé de deux ans.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma is an extremely virulent rare tumor whose early diagnosis considerably improves survival and visual prognosis.
  • We report the case of a 2-year-old child with levator palpebrae superioris muscle rhabdomyosarcoma revealed by a sudden and isolated blepharoptosis.
  • Initially, clinical and imaging investigations did not show any abnormality but a painful tumor with some hematoma quickly developed, so the investigations were repeated.
  • The CT-scan showed an extra-conal tumor that had developed at the superior part of the orbit.
  • Histology confirmed the diagnosis of embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Because of its results, treatment consisting of chemotherapy associating ifosfamide, vincristine, actinomycin and orbital radiotherapy of 40 Gy with a local addition of 10 Gy were administrated with successful results after a 3-year-follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blepharoptosis / etiology. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Hematoma / etiology. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Remission Induction. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20185205.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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8. Ducrey N, Nenadov-Beck M, Spahn B: [Update of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma therapy in children]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2002 Mar;25(3):298-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Update of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma therapy in children].
  • [Transliterated title] La thérapie actuelle du rhabdomyosarcome orbitaire de l'enfant.
  • INTRODUCTION: Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most frequent primitive orbital malignant tumor in children.
  • If the treatment is started as soon as possible after discovery of the disease, the vital prognosis is considerably better than otherwise.
  • The goal of this paper is to present the new therapeutic protocol and to report our experience in this field.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: During the past 35 years, 102 cases of orbital tumors were collected in children under 15 years of age: 5 cases of rhabdomyosarcoma were cared for in our department.
  • At the time of tumor diagnosis, the age of our patients ranged from 3 weeks to 13 years.
  • After a biopsy or excision biopsy, all our cases were treated by chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy.
  • Medication was mostly vincristine, ifosfamide and actinomycine D.
  • When the result of the treatment was not satisfactory, carboplatine and epirubicine, vincristine as well as ifosfamide were given.
  • CONCLUSION: Rhabdomyosarcoma is a highly malignant tumor.
  • Although rare, it is the most frequent of malignant tumors in children.
  • It is important to keep it in mind in order to perform a biopsy enabling quick diagnosis and treatment following the modern protocol giving the highest chances of survival to these patients: about 98% in 3 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Orbit / pathology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11941256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0181-5512
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
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9. Luu QC, Lasky JL, Moore TB, Nelson S, Wang MB: Treatment of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the sinus and orbit with chemotherapy, radiation, and endoscopic surgery. J Pediatr Surg; 2006 Jun;41(6):e15-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the sinus and orbit with chemotherapy, radiation, and endoscopic surgery.
  • Parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma in children has a lower survival than rhabdomyosarcoma at other more favorable sites.
  • This report describes the case of a 14-year-old girl who was successfully treated with multimodal therapy including chemotherapy, radiation, and endoscopic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Ethmoid Sinus. Orbital Neoplasms / therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / therapy. Sphenoid Sinus
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Endoscopy. Female. Humans. Surgery, Computer-Assisted. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16769322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Hatton MP, Green L, Boulos PR, Rubin PA: Rhabdomyosarcoma metastases to all extraocular muscles. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2008 Jul-Aug;24(4):336-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcoma metastases to all extraocular muscles.
  • A 24-year-old woman developed acute bilateral proptosis.
  • She had a history of rhabdomyosarcoma of the left orbit treated 2 years previously with chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Computed tomography demonstrated enlargement of each of the extraocular muscles in both orbits.
  • Extraocular muscle biopsy confirmed rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Oculomotor Muscles / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Exophthalmos / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hypertrophy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18645454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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11. Amato MM, Esmaeli B, Shore JW: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma metastatic to the contralateral orbit: a case report. Ophthalmology; 2002 Apr;109(4):753-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma metastatic to the contralateral orbit: a case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a rare presentation of metastatic orbital rhabdomyosarcoma and the corresponding findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • RESULTS: A 29-year-old white man was diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma of the left sinus and orbit for which he was treated with chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Eighteen months after diagnosis, he returned with subacute right eye pain and dysmotility of his extraocular muscles.
  • Over the next 2 months, symptoms progressed, and proptosis developed.
  • A biopsy of right orbital tissues and the right medial rectus muscle was performed.
  • Special tissue typing confirmed metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The patient underwent palliative radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but he ultimately died of disseminated disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rhabdomyosarcoma can rarely metastasize to the extraocular muscles.
  • Earlier recognition of orbital metastasis through radiographic and biopsy findings, along with prompt and aggressive treatment, may prevent fulminant spread of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Rhabdomyosarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11927435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6420
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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12. Tsuchisaka A, Usui Y, Goto H, Nagai T, Matsubayashi J, Izumi M, Suzuki S: [Two cases of orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with chromosome aberration]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Apr;114(4):374-80
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  • [Title] [Two cases of orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with chromosome aberration].
  • PURPOSE: Two cases of pediatric orbital rhabdomyosarcoma leading to visual dysfunction with rapid growth.
  • MRI revealed a tumor in the orbit.
  • The tumor grew rapidly resulting in eye ball displacement and corneal epithelium disorder, and was subsequently removed.
  • Based on histopathology and clinical examination, diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was made.
  • MRI revealed a tumor under the skin of the upper palpebra extending to the orbit.
  • Based on histopathology and clinical examination, diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was made.
  • Both patients subsequently underwent chemotherapy and local radiotherapy and no recurrence has been detected over 1 year.
  • CONCLUSION: Although rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit often progresses rapidly and may cause visual disturbances, favorable outcome can be expected by proper management especially in cases with certain histopathological types.
  • A comprehensive approach will be required to elucidate the pathogenesis of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma and genetic abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Orbital Neoplasms / genetics. Polyploidy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20432963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-0203
  • [Journal-full-title] Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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13. Jung A, Bechthold S, Pfluger T, Renner C, Ehrt O: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma in Noonan syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Apr;25(4):330-2
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  • [Title] Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma in Noonan syndrome.
  • The incidence of various benign and malignant tumors is increased in patients with Noonan syndrome compared with the general population.
  • An ultrasound scan, a computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging raised suspicion of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis.
  • The tumor was consequently treated with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare but important differential diagnosis of tumor formation in children with Noonan syndrome and may arise in the orbit.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Noonan Syndrome / genetics. Orbital Neoplasms / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Exophthalmos / etiology. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Radioisotope Teletherapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12679651.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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14. Osuch-Wójcikiewicz E, Korolkowa O, Nyckowska J, Bruzgielewicz A: [Rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasopharynx--a case report]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2004;58(3):631-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasopharynx--a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Przypadek rhabdomyosarcoma nosogardła.
  • The case of nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma was presented.
  • Histopathological diagnosis was: rhabdomyosarcoma embryonic.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed surgery.
  • At the present moment, four years after treatment, the patient is without local recurrence and metastases.
  • 1) the tumors originate from embryonal tissues are the most frequent of childhood, they are rare in patient over 30 year, 2) the most common sites in head and neck are the orbit, nasopharynx, middle ear, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
  • The pathology of the tumor, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment has been discussed after literature review.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15311617.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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15. Lavaju P, Das H, Malla P, Tiwari A, Sinha A, Upadhyaya P: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma in an adult. Nepal J Ophthalmol; 2010 Jan-Jun;2(1):64-7

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  • [Title] Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma in an adult.
  • INTRODUCTION: Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common primary orbital malignant tumor in children.
  • Orbital lesions represent about 10 % of all the cases of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare cause of proptosis in adults.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of primary orbital rhabdomyosarcoma in a 45-year-old female.
  • The main outcome measures are a rare cause ofproptosis in an adult, discussion on treatment options and prognosis ofrhabdomyosarcoma.
  • RESULT: The patient underwent total orbital exenteration and was referred for radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare cause of proptosis in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbit Evisceration / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 21141330.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-6805
  • [Journal-full-title] Nepalese journal of ophthalmology : a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal of the Nepal Ophthalmic Society : NEPJOPH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nepal J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit
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16. Shields CL, Shields JA, Honavar SG, Demirci H: Clinical spectrum of primary ophthalmic rhabdomyosarcoma. Ophthalmology; 2001 Dec;108(12):2284-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical spectrum of primary ophthalmic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: To review the clinical presentation, histopathologic analysis, management, and ocular and systemic outcome of rhabdomyosarcoma affecting the ocular region.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three consecutive patients with primary ophthalmic involvement of rhabdomyosarcoma from a single tertiary care center specializing in ocular oncology.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Final visual acuity, treatment complications, local recurrence, and distant metastasis.
  • The rhabdomyosarcoma was primarily located in the orbit in 25 cases (76%), conjunctiva in 4 cases (12%), eyelid in 1 case (3%), and uveal tract in 3 cases (9%).
  • The initial diagnosis before referral to us included rhabdomyosarcoma in 8 cases (24%), conjunctivitis in 5 cases (15%), orbital or preseptal cellulitis in 5 cases (15%), idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor in 4 cases (12%), and others.
  • Using the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group staging and treatment protocols, the tumor was classified as group I in 4 cases (12%), group II in 12 cases (36%), group III in 16 cases (48%), and group IV in 1 case (3%).
  • Treatment included surgical debulking and various regimens of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for the periocular tumors and enucleation for the three intraocular tumors.
  • Regional lymph node metastasis was detected in 2 patients (6%), one at initial visit and one after therapy.
  • Distant metastasis occurred in 2 patients (6%), one detected at initial visit and one after therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rhabdomyosarcoma can present in the orbit, eyelid, conjunctiva, and uveal tract.
  • After treatment, local tumor recurrence occurs in 18%, metastasis in 6%, and death in 3%.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Ophthalmology. 2003 May;110(5):877; author reply 877-8 [12750079.001]
  • (PMID = 11733272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6420
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Gupta P, Singh U, Singh SK, Kapoor R, Gupta V, Das A: Bilateral symmetrical metastasis to all extraocular muscles from distant rhabdomyosarcoma. Orbit; 2010 Jun;29(3):146-8
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  • [Title] Bilateral symmetrical metastasis to all extraocular muscles from distant rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the inguinal region has high potential of metastasis.
  • Orbit is an uncommon site for such metastasis.
  • This case report describes a patient with inguinal rhabdomyosarcoma, which metastasized to both orbits to all the extraocular muscles.
  • The patient underwent high inguinal orchiectomy with hemiscrotectomy for the mass and histopathology revealed rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • After 2 weeks of initial surgery the patient developed bilateral axial proptosis and radiological imaging revealed bilateral extraocular muscle thickening involving all the extraocular muscles.
  • A biopsy of right superior rectus muscle confirmed rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • COMMENT: Although rhabdomyosarcoma is the commonest primary orbital malignant mass developing in young patients, it is an uncommon metastasis.
  • Metastasis from inguinal rhabdomyosarcoma to extraocular muscles bilaterally involving all the muscles has not been reported in the literature.
  • The present report describes one such patient with favorable initial response to chemotherapy and muscle thickness reverting to normal.
  • Metastasis from a distant site should be considered in differential diagnosis when evaluating a patient with bilateral enlargement of all extraocular muscles.
  • [MeSH-major] Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Rhabdomyosarcoma / secondary. Scrotum / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Oculomotor Muscles. Orbital Neoplasms / drug therapy. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Orchiectomy / methods. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 20497080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. McCarty ML, Wilson MW, Ibrahim F, Fuller CE, Kun LE, Haik BG: Primary perineal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma metastatic to an extraocular muscle. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2003 Jul;19(4):333-5
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  • [Title] Primary perineal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma metastatic to an extraocular muscle.
  • A 17-year-old boy diagnosed with an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma involving the perineum and with extensive lymphadenopathy was treated with chemotherapy yet developed metastases to the head and neck 6 months into therapy.
  • Ten months after initial diagnosis, while receiving salvage chemotherapy and radiotherapy, he returned with pain on movement of his left eye, proptosis, and ptosis of the left upper eyelid.
  • Computed tomography (CT) revealed a mass within the left lateral rectus muscle that biopsy confirmed to be metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Despite continued chemotherapy and radiotherapy, he ultimately died of the disease.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma from distant sites rarely metastasizes to the extraocular muscles.
  • However, our case shows that alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma may metastasize to the orbit and involve a single muscle.
  • [MeSH-major] Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Oculomotor Muscles. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Perineum / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12878888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Khairy-Shamel ST, Shatriah I, Adil H, Zunaina E, Bakiah S, Rohaizan Y, Hasnan J: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma in an HIV positive child. Orbit; 2008;27(5):388-90
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  • [Title] Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma in an HIV positive child.
  • We reported a case of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma with an intracranial extension in an HIV-infected child.
  • It was an uncommon sarcoma in a retroviral-positive patient that resulted in a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma.
  • The child is currently asymptomatic following surgery, chemotherapy, and reinstitution of highly active retroviral therapy (HAART).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. HIV Infections / transmission. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4-CD8 Ratio. Child. Craniotomy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18836940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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20. Chipczyńska B, Grałek M, Hautz W, Kanigowska K, Kocyła-Karczmarewicz B, Trzebicka A, Kepa B: [Evaluation of the results of treatment orbital rhabdomyosarcoma in children]. Klin Oczna; 2007;109(1-3):18-21

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Evaluation of the results of treatment orbital rhabdomyosarcoma in children].
  • PURPOSE: To estimate the state of the vision organ in the children treated for orbital rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common primary malignant orbital tumor in children.
  • The diagnosis is based on biopsy, CT and MR images.
  • The treatment includes radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective review of data of 14 children between 0 and 11 years old with rhabdomyosarcmoa of orbit.
  • After a biopsy, with precedent CT or MRI, all patients were treated with chemotherapy including or not including radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fast diagnosis using CT, MRI and the result of biopsy, have a positive influence on the effect of neoplastic treatment and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17687906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinika oczna
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Oczna
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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21. Crist WM, Anderson JR, Meza JL, Fryer C, Raney RB, Ruymann FB, Breneman J, Qualman SJ, Wiener E, Wharam M, Lobe T, Webber B, Maurer HM, Donaldson SS: Intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study-IV: results for patients with nonmetastatic disease. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Jun 15;19(12):3091-102
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  • [Title] Intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study-IV: results for patients with nonmetastatic disease.
  • PURPOSE: The study goal was to improve outcome in children with rhabdomyosarcoma by comparing risk-based regimens of surgery, radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight hundred eighty-three previously untreated eligible patients with nonmetastatic rhabdomyosarcoma entered the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study-IV (IRS-IV) (1991 to 1997) after surgery and were randomized treatment by primary tumor site, group (1 to 3), and stage (I to III).
  • Overall, patients with embryonal tumors benefited from intensive three-drug chemotherapy in IRS-IV (3-year FFS, 83%).
  • The improvement was seen for patients with stage I or stage II/III, group 1/2 disease, many of whom received VA chemotherapy on IRS-III.
  • Three-year FFS for the nonrandomized patient subsets was 75% with renal abnormalities; 81% for paratesticular, group 1 cases; and 91% for group 1/2 orbit or eyelid tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: VAC and VAI or VIE with surgery (with or without RT), are equally effective for patients with local or regional rhabdomyosarcoma and are more effective for embryonal tumors than therapies used previously.
  • Younger patients with group 1 paratesticular embryonal tumors and all patients with group 1/2 orbit or eyelid tumors can usually be cured with VA chemotherapy along with postoperative RT for group 2 disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Eyelid Neoplasms / mortality. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Orbital Neoplasms / mortality. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Testicular Neoplasms / mortality. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11408506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-13539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-24507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-30138; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-30969
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Baker KS, Anderson JR, Link MP, Grier HE, Qualman SJ, Maurer HM, Breneman JC, Wiener ES, Crist WM: Benefit of intensified therapy for patients with local or regional embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: results from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Jun;18(12):2427-34
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  • [Title] Benefit of intensified therapy for patients with local or regional embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: results from the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV.
  • PURPOSE: To compare failure-free survival (FFS) and survival for patients with local or regional embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma treated on the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS)-IV with that of comparable patients treated on IRS-III.
  • Low-risk patients were defined as those with primary tumors at favorable sites, completely resected or microscopic residual, or orbit/eyelid primaries with gross residual disease and tumors less than 5 cm at unfavorable sites but completely resected.
  • RESULTS: Three-year FFS improved from 72% on IRS-III to 78% on IRS-IV for patients with intermediate-risk embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (P =.02).
  • Subset analysis revealed two groups that benefited most from IRS-IV therapy.
  • FFS at 3 years for patients with resectable node-positive or unresectable (group III) embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma arising at certain favorable sites (head and neck [not orbit/eyelid or parameningeal] and genitourinary [not bladder or prostate]) improved from 72% on IRS-III to 92% on IRS-IV (P =.01).
  • Only patients with unresectable embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (group III) at unfavorable sites had no improvement in outcome on IRS-IV (3-year FFS for IRS-III and IRS-IV, 72% and 75%, respectively; P =.31).
  • CONCLUSION: IRS-IV therapy benefited certain subgroups of patients with intermediate-risk embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10856103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-24507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-30138; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-30969; etc
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; VAC protocol
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23. Zwerger S, Günther L, Pekrun A, Krause HR, Rustemeyer J: A strategy to avoid facial mutilation in orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2010 Dec;14(4):233-7
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  • [Title] A strategy to avoid facial mutilation in orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: An orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare malignancy in children, but clinical findings are typical.
  • We detail the case of an 8-year-old female with orbital RMS and discuss the therapeutic options.
  • Open biopsy led to the histological diagnosis.
  • Chemotherapy was carried out in accordance with the Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studie (CWS) 2002 protocol.
  • Tumor regression was detected after the first course of chemotherapy; we decided to excise the residual tumor with preservation of the globe.
  • One year after treatment, RMS recurrence was not observed.
  • CONCLUSION: After interdisciplinary treatment, mutilation was avoided after exenteration of the orbit or radiation treatment to the growing facial skeleton.
  • [MeSH-major] Face / surgery. Orbital Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Muscle Neoplasms / surgery. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Oculomotor Muscles / pathology. Oculomotor Muscles / surgery. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 20143115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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24. Meza JL, Anderson J, Pappo AS, Meyer WH, Children's Oncology Group: Analysis of prognostic factors in patients with nonmetastatic rhabdomyosarcoma treated on intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma studies III and IV: the Children's Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Aug 20;24(24):3844-51
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  • [Title] Analysis of prognostic factors in patients with nonmetastatic rhabdomyosarcoma treated on intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma studies III and IV: the Children's Oncology Group.
  • PURPOSE: The outcome for localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) or undifferentiated sarcoma (UDS) is affected by age, histology, primary anatomic site, extent of disease, and therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated patient and disease characteristics for their ability to predict outcome for patients with nonmetastatic RMS or UDS treated on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) -III (1984 to 1991) or IRS-IV (1991 to 1997).
  • RESULTS: The estimated 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate was 90% for patients with embryonal RMS (ERMS) stage 1, group I or IIa; stage 2, group I; or group III orbit.
  • CONCLUSION: Patient and disease characteristics identify distinct subsets with different outcomes, allowing the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group to refine risk-adapted therapy assignment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Infant. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16921036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-24507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-72989
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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25. Seedat RY, Hamilton PD, de Jager LP, Strydom W, Beukes CA: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as an apparent orbital subperiosteal abscess. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2000 Apr 15;52(2):177-81
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  • [Title] Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as an apparent orbital subperiosteal abscess.
  • We present a patient with acute sinusitis whose CT scan showed a ring-enhancing lesion within the orbit typical of an orbital subperiosteal abscess.
  • On exploration of the orbit, there was no pus present but a tumour was found, which on histological examination was found to be a rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • A ring-enhancing lesion within the orbit on CT scan should not be regarded as being pathognomonic for a subperiosteal abscess and the possibility of other diagnoses should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Abscess / diagnosis. Orbital Diseases / diagnosis. Pneumococcal Infections / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents. Biopsy, Needle. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 10767467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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26. Mullaney PB, Nabi NU, Thorner P, Buncic R: Ophthalmic involvement as a presenting feature of nonorbital childhood parameningeal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Ophthalmology; 2001 Jan;108(1):179-82
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  • [Title] Ophthalmic involvement as a presenting feature of nonorbital childhood parameningeal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe presenting ophthalmic signs and symptoms in children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma treated from 1978 through 1998.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Each patient's presenting symptoms and history, the ophthalmic signs at presentation, the location of the tumor on computed tomographic scanning, the pathologic diagnosis after tumor biopsy, and the child's outcome after chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Eight of 23 patients with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma had ophthalmologic signs at presentation.
  • In two patients, invasion of the optic canals and posterior orbit resulted in unilateral blindness in one and marked unilateral visual loss in the other.
  • Seven of eight patients were treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • The mean survival time for five patients who died from parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma associated with ophthalmic signs was 27.2 months.
  • Three patients are currently alive, with a mean survival time of 33.7 months after diagnosis.
  • The survival time of 12 patients with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma and without ophthalmologic signs at presentation was better, in that nine are alive, with a mean survival time of 54 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Advanced parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma with skull base invasion may present with ophthalmic signs.
  • These patients sought treatment late and had advanced tumors because their initial signs and symptoms were often attributed to more common ailments.
  • The optic nerve was involved when the optic canals and orbit were encroached on by the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Eye Diseases / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11150285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6420
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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27. Hug EB, Adams J, Fitzek M, De Vries A, Munzenrider JE: Fractionated, three-dimensional, planning-assisted proton-radiation therapy for orbital rhabdomyosarcoma: a novel technique. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Jul 1;47(4):979-84
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  • [Title] Fractionated, three-dimensional, planning-assisted proton-radiation therapy for orbital rhabdomyosarcoma: a novel technique.
  • PURPOSE: Most children with orbital rhabdomyosarcoma will survive their disease.
  • However, conventional photon-radiation treatment, as part of multimodality therapy, results in varying degrees of long-term functional and cosmetic side effects.
  • This report introduces external beam proton radiation therapy (PRT) as a conformal, three-dimensional planned radiation technique for this disease, analyzes normal tissue dosimetry, and describes the technique's application in the first 2 patients.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 1995 and February 1996, 2 patients underwent PRT following biopsy and chemotherapy for orbital rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Dose-volume histograms were obtained for target and nontarget regions, including lens, bony orbit, pituitary gland, optic chiasm, optic nerves, lacrimal gland, and ipsilateral frontal and temporal lobes.
  • Proton conformity to orbital contents resulted in between 9% and 36% of the prescribed dose reaching the ipsilateral temporal and frontal lobes immediately adjacent to bony orbit (5% volume).
  • The steep dose gradient beyond the orbit minimizes irradiation of normal brain parenchyma, with almost complete sparing of the pituitary gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Protons / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Orbit / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10863068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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28. Shome D, Honavar SG, Reddy VA, Vemuganti GK: Orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in association with neurofibromatosis type 1. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Mar-Apr;23(2):147-8
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  • [Title] Orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in association with neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • A 20-month-old child with systemic features of neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with sudden-onset proptosis.
  • Biopsy and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The tumor regressed completely with chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy.
  • This case highlights the association of rhabdomyosarcoma with neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Infant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


29. Paulino AC, Simon JH, Zhen W, Wen BC: Long-term effects in children treated with radiotherapy for head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Dec 1;48(5):1489-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term effects in children treated with radiotherapy for head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: To examine the long-term effects of treatment in children receiving radiotherapy for head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • METHODS: From 1967 to 1994, a total of 30 children with head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma received megavoltage radiotherapy at one institution.
  • There were 11 males and 6 females, with a median age of 5.7 years (range 2.2-11.6) at the time of radiotherapy.
  • Tumor location was orbit in 6 patients, infratemporal fossa in 4, paranasal sinuses in 2, and supraglottic larynx in 2; the nasopharynx, pterygopalatine fossa, and parotid gland were sites for the remaining children.
  • The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) Group was I in 2, II in 3, and III in 11 children; 1 patient had a recurrent tumor after surgery alone.
  • Chemotherapy was vincristine (V), actinomycin-D (A), and cyclophosphamide (C) in 10 patients, VAC + adriamycin in 2, VA in 1, VA + ifosfamide in 1, VC + adriamycin in 1, and none in 2.
  • One patient had salvage chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and etoposide.
  • Median follow-up time was 20 years (range 7.5-33).
  • RESULTS: Late effects of treatment were seen in all patients and included facial growth retardation in 11, neuroendocrine dysfunction in 9, visual/orbital problems in 9, dental abnormalities in 7, hearing loss in 6, and hypothyroidism in 3.
  • While neuroendocrine, thyroid, dental, and cognitive sequelae were primarily attributed to radiotherapy, hearing loss was thought to be a direct result of tumor destruction and, in 1 case, cisplatin chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Late effects of treatment in children receiving radiotherapy for head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma are frequent.
  • Late toxicity of treatment beyond 10 years is not as frequent as those occurring within 10 years of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, High-Energy / adverse effects. Rhabdomyosarcoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cochlea / drug effects. Cochlea / radiation effects. Cognition / radiation effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Dentition. Educational Status. Facial Asymmetry / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Growth / radiation effects. Growth Hormone / deficiency. Growth Hormone / radiation effects. Humans. Hypothalamus / radiation effects. Male. Orbital Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pituitary Gland / radiation effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Time Factors. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11121653.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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30. Tari AS, Amoli FA, Rajabi MT, Esfahani MR, Rahimi A: Cutaneous embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as a nodule on cheek; a case report and review of literature. Orbit; 2006 Sep;25(3):235-8
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  • [Title] Cutaneous embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as a nodule on cheek; a case report and review of literature.
  • We report a case of primary cutaneous rhabdomyosarcoma, solid embryonal type, presenting as a rapidly enlarging nodule on the right cheek of a 7-year-old boy.
  • It recurred 2 months later; at that time, incisional biopsy was consistent with malignant round cell tumor.
  • Subsequent immunohistochemical staining with desmin and myoglobin confirmed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The patient underwent radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy and continues to be disease free at 14 months after his wide local excision.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as a dermal nodule is rare.
  • It usually presents as an asymptomatic papule without distinctive clinical features and therefore may result in delayed diagnosis unless a biopsy is performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cheek. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16987772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6830
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Desmin; 0 / Myoglobin
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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31. McDonald MW, Esiashvili N, George BA, Katzenstein HM, Olson TA, Rapkin LB, Marcus RB Jr: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with use of cone-down boost for pediatric head-and-neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Nov 1;72(3):884-91
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with use of cone-down boost for pediatric head-and-neck rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report our initial experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a cone-down boost for pediatric head-and-neck rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A review of institutional treatment records identified children treated with IMRT for head-and-neck RMS between January 2000 and February 2007.
  • All patients had undergone chemotherapy according to cooperative group RMS protocols.
  • The site was parameningeal in 12, nonparameningeal in 6, and orbit primary in 2.
  • Of the 20 patients, 14 were treated with a cone-down boost after a median dose of 36 Gy (range, 30-45.6).
  • Patients received a median total dose of 50.4 Gy.
  • The median follow-up time was 29 months.
  • The 3-year Kaplan-Meier local control rate was 100%, although 1 patient developed an in-field recurrence 50 months after IMRT.
  • The initial targeting of the prechemotherapy tumor volume with 1-2-cm margin to 30.6 or 36 Gy followed by a cone-down boost to the postchemotherapy tumor volume with a 0.5-1-cm margin allowed for significant sparing of normal tissues and provided good local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Ear Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ear Neoplasms / radiography. Ear Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Eye Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiography. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Mouth Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mouth Neoplasms / radiography. Mouth Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18455321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Blank LE, Koedooder K, van der Grient HN, Wolffs NA, van de Kar M, Merks JH, Pieters BR, Saeed P, Baldeschi L, Freling NJ, Koning CC: Brachytherapy as part of the multidisciplinary treatment of childhood rhabdomyosarcomas of the orbit. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Aug 1;77(5):1463-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brachytherapy as part of the multidisciplinary treatment of childhood rhabdomyosarcomas of the orbit.
  • INTRODUCTION: Rhabdomyosarcomas in the orbit form a major challenge in terms of cure without severe side effects in childhood cancer.
  • Our specifically developed approach consists of applying brachytherapy to the tumor area using a mold.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirteen patients were referred for brachytherapy if complete remission was not reached after chemotherapy (Group I) and 7 in case of relapse (Group II).
  • After macroscopically radical tumor resection, molds with holes drilled to hold flexible catheters were placed into the orbit.
  • The dose to the clinical target volume was 40-50 Gy.
  • RESULTS: Three patients of Group I and 1 patient of Group II developed local recurrence and underwent exenteration.
  • During treatment, no serious side effects were observed.
  • The late complications encountered in this series were cataract in 2 patients, 1 of whom also developed mild retinopathy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This entire procedure of brachytherapy with a mold offers a tailor-made treatment for orbital rhabdomyosarcomas with only few signs of late toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Orbital Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / radiotherapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cataract / etiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19864080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Puri DR, Wexler LH, Meyers PA, La Quaglia MP, Healey JH, Wolden SL: The challenging role of radiation therapy for very young children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Jul 15;65(4):1177-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The challenging role of radiation therapy for very young children with rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate local control and toxicity for very young children treated with multimodality therapy for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1990 to 2004, 20 patients<or=36 months at diagnosis were treated at our institution.
  • Nineteen underwent chemotherapy (CMT), surgery and/or intraoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (IOHDR), and external-beam radiation (EBRT).
  • Sites included extremity (7), trunk (5), parameningeal (4), orbit (1), head/neck (1), bladder/prostate (1).
  • Ten had delayed gross total resection (GTR) at median time of 17 weeks after the start of CMT, and 8 of these underwent IOHDR.
  • Median EBRT dose was 36 Gy.
  • Functional outcome was assessed for patients alive>or=1 year after diagnosis (15) in terms of mild, moderate, or severe deficits.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A reduced dose of 36-Gy EBRT after delayed GTR may maximize local control while minimizing long-term sequelae for very young children with RMS, but unresectable tumors (e.g., parameningeal) require higher doses.
  • Normal-tissue-sparing techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy and IOHDR are encouraged.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / radiotherapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Radiation Injuries / complications. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16682130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Uba FA, Chirdan LB: Clinical characteristics and outcome of surgical treatment of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: a 7-year experience. Afr J Paediatr Surg; 2008 Jan-Jun;5(1):19-23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical characteristics and outcome of surgical treatment of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: a 7-year experience.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the outcome and determine the prognostic factors of outcome of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma in a tertiary hospital in a developing country.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective review of the clinical presentation, investigation, intervention, and treatment outcomes of children with rhabdomyosarcoma in our hospital over a 7-year period.
  • Other sites included perianal/perineal (n = 3) and the orbit (n = 1).
  • Two patients were Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) group I, four group II, five group III, and seven group IV.
  • There were 12 patients with alveolar disease while six had embryonal type of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Treatment was by combination chemotherapy, and surgical excision which was done primarily in 11, after chemotherapy in four, and after radiotherapy in one.
  • CONCLUSION: Mortality from rhabdomyosarcoma in our setting is still unacceptably high.
  • A more aggressive multimodality treatment approach may improve the outcome.

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  • (PMID = 19858658.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] African journal of paediatric surgery : AJPS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Afr J Paediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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35. Chastagner P: [Malignant extraconal tumors of the orbit in childhood]. Neurochirurgie; 2010 Apr-Jun;56(2-3):281-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant extraconal tumors of the orbit in childhood].
  • [Transliterated title] Les tumeurs malignes extraconiques de l'orbite chez l'enfant.
  • Malignant extraconal orbital tumors are very rare during childhood and must be referred as soon as possible to a highly specialized center to be managed by a multidisciplinary team.
  • Both diagnosis and treatment must be undertaken as soon as possible.
  • The course of these malignant tumors can be acute and can jeopardize the function of the eye or be life-threatening, especially in the event of metastatic locations.
  • Sometimes diagnosis should be clear with the association of an orbital tumor and deterioration of the general health status favoring metastatic disease.
  • Today both CT and MRI are highly valuable in assessing the diagnosis and starting the management of these tumors.
  • Biopsy is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis.
  • Among the primitive tumors, soft tissue sarcomas, especially rhabdomyosarcomas, are the most frequent.
  • The diagnosis is suggested when the onset of the disease is acute and the course is rapid.
  • Most respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In the event of a residual tumor, local treatment is indicated so that surgery and/or radiotherapy are used as second-line treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Exophthalmos / etiology. France. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / epidemiology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20303550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0619
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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36. Donaldson SS, Meza J, Breneman JC, Crist WM, Laurie F, Qualman SJ, Wharam M, Children's Oncology Group Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee (formely Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Group) representing the Children's Oncology Group and the Quality Assurance Review Center: Results from the IRS-IV randomized trial of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with rhabdomyosarcoma--a report from the IRSG. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2001 Nov 1;51(3):718-28
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  • [Title] Results from the IRS-IV randomized trial of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with rhabdomyosarcoma--a report from the IRSG.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome and toxicity of hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) vs. conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) in children with Group III rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Five hundred fifty-nine children were enrolled into the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV with Group III RMS.
  • Of the 490 remaining, 239 were randomized to HFRT (59.4 Gy in 54 1.1-Gy twice daily fractions) and 251 to CFRT (50.4 Gy in 28 1.8-Gy daily fractions).
  • All patients received chemotherapy.
  • RT began at Week 9 after induction chemotherapy for all but those with high-risk parameningeal tumors who received RT during induction chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Analysis by randomized treatment assignment (intent to treat) revealed an estimated 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate of 70% and overall survival (OS) of 75%.
  • In the univariate analysis, the factors associated with the best outcome were age 1-9 years at diagnosis; noninvasive tumors; tumor size <5 cm; uninvolved lymph nodes; Stage 1 or 2 disease; primary site in the orbit or head and neck; and embryonal histologic features (p = 0.001 for all factors).
  • No differences in the FFS or OS between the two RT treatment methods and no differences in the FFS or OS between HFRT and CFRT were found when analyzed by age, gender, tumor size, tumor invasiveness, nodal status, histologic features, stage, or primary site.
  • Treatment compliance differed by age.
  • Of the children >or=5 years, 88% assigned to both HFRT and CFRT received their assigned treatment.
  • The reasons for not receiving the appropriate randomized treatment were progressive disease, early death, parent or physician refusal, young age, or surgery.
  • The analysis by treatment actually received revealed a 5-year FFS rate of 73% and OS rate of 77%, with no difference between CFRT and HFRT.
  • The 5-year local failure rate by site was orbit, 5%; head and neck, 12%; parameningeal, 16%; bladder/prostate, 19%; extremity, 7%; and all others, 14%.
  • The 5-year distant failure rate was orbit, 2%; head and neck, 6%; parameningeal, 11%; bladder/prostate, 15%; extremity, 28%; and all others, 17%.
  • The standard of care for Group III RMS continues to be CFRT with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dose Fractionation. Rhabdomyosarcoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Analysis of Variance. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Patient Compliance. Radiation Injuries / classification. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002 Dec 1;54(5):1579-80; author reply 1580 [12459396.001]
  • (PMID = 11597814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-24507
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Raney B, Stoner J, Anderson J, Andrassy R, Arndt C, Brown K, Crist W, Maurer H, Qualman S, Wharam M, Wiener E, Meyer W, Hayes-Jordan A, Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group: Impact of tumor viability at second-look procedures performed before completing treatment on the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group protocol IRS-IV, 1991-1997: a report from the children's oncology group. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Nov;45(11):2160-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of tumor viability at second-look procedures performed before completing treatment on the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group protocol IRS-IV, 1991-1997: a report from the children's oncology group.
  • PURPOSES: The aims of the study were to compare results of clinical/radiographic studies before second-look procedures (SLP) with SLP specimens from patients with gross residual sarcoma at diagnosis and to relate tumor viability to outcome.
  • PATIENTS: Seventy-three patients underwent SLP before completing chemotherapy, with (n = 59) or without (n = 14) radiotherapy.
  • Tumor sites were bladder/prostate (n = 27), head/orbit/parameningeal (n = 22), extremity/trunk (n = 14), and retroperitoneum/pelvis (n = 10).
  • Five-year survival was 78% to 79% among 73 patients with and 333 patients without SLP during treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Second-look procedures can show whether viable tumor is present and may be beneficial in selected patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 21034938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA072989; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA029511; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-24507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-72989; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29511; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA024507
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase IV; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS265975; NLM/ PMC3128803
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38. Cecchetto G, Carretto E, Bisogno G, Dall'Igna P, Ferrari A, Scarzello G, Donfrancesco A, Alaggio R, Indolfi P, Carli M: Complete second look operation and radiotherapy in locally advanced non-alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in children: A report from the AIEOP soft tissue sarcoma committee. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Nov;51(5):593-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Complete second look operation and radiotherapy in locally advanced non-alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma in children: A report from the AIEOP soft tissue sarcoma committee.
  • PROCEDURE: We analyzed data from 39 patients (age: 0.5-194 months, median 52) who were enrolled between 1988 and 2005 in 2 consecutive Italian Studies, RMS 88 and RMS 96.
  • All achieved a complete resection of the residual tumor after neoadjuvant chemotherapy; 27 did not receive any other local treatment: pelvic 8, extremities 6, head-neck-non-parameningeal 5, orbit 1, genito-urinary-bladder-prostate 3, trunk 2, abdomen 1, vagina 1; 12 were given RT (32-45 Gy), 5 before and 7 after the operation: genito-urinary-bladder-prostate 3, pelvic 3, abdominal 1, extremities 1, head-neck-parameningeal 1, head-neck-non-parameningeal 1, vagina 1, orbit 1.
  • All received postoperative chemotherapy.
  • Without RT: 16/27 maintained the first complete remission, however 1/16 died due to a second tumor; 8 suffered from local relapse (4 pelvic, 1 orbit, 1 vagina, 1 head-neck-non-parameningeal, 1 abdomen) and 3 of them died, 3 showed a metastatic recurrence (2 extremities, 1 pelvic) and 1 died.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / radiotherapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Second-Look Surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Sarcoma

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18668515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Sterker I, Hirsch W, Kortmann RD, Wittekind C, Bierbach U: [Treatment strategies and results of orbital malignancies in childhood]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2008 Oct;225(10):843-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment strategies and results of orbital malignancies in childhood].
  • The orbit is a very rare manifestation site for malignancies in childhood.
  • The most common primary malignant orbital tumour is the rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The five-year survival rate of children with rhabdomyosarcomas has increased to 90 % in the past 30 years due to innovations in radiation and chemotherapy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A paediatric oncological interdisciplinary approach is taken in the diagnostics and therapy for these rare tumours and is based on therapy optimisation studies that include polychemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical treatment.
  • RESULTS: We discuss the current multimodal therapy strategies and results, as well as the role of the ophthalmologist, in the medical care of young patients with malignant orbital tumours, with examples of individual courses of rhabdomyosarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma is one of the few life-threatening diseases often first seen by an ophthalmologist.
  • The ophthalmologist's prompt diagnosis and initiation of therapy therefore strongly influences the patient's chance of survival.
  • The role of the ophthalmologist in the medical care of children with orbital malignancies includes a timely clinical diagnosis with histological confirmation, close monitoring of visual functions, the management of ocular complications, as well as long-term follow-up care to detect later therapeutic side effects and/or complications.
  • The treatment of children with suspected tumours is best performed in paediatric oncological centres with access to all necessary specialties in order to ensure rapid diagnosis and therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18951304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3999
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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40. Atique-Tacla M, Paves L, Pereira MD, Manso PG: [Exenteration: a retrospective study]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2006 Sep-Oct;69(5):679-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To review all cases of orbit exenteration performed at the Orbit Sector, Ophthalmology Department - Federal University of São Paulo, from 1998 to 2003.
  • METHODS: We reviewed conditions leading to orbital exenteration in 21 patients at the Orbit Sector of Unifesp-EPM from August 1998 to May 2003.
  • Data regarding sex, age, race, primary lesion site, visual acuity at the moment of diagnosis, previous surgeries related to the exenteration, type of performed surgery, histopathologic diagnosis, postoperative complications and use of adjuvant treatment were collected.
  • All lesions that led to exenteration were malignant neoplasias; however, none were metastatic.
  • Lesions originated from eyelids in twelve patients, from bulbar conjunctiva in six and from the orbit in three.
  • Cases were also classified as squamous cell carcinoma (eleven cases), basal cell carcinoma (four cases), sebaceous gland carcinoma (two cases), rhabdomyosarcoma (two cases), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (one case) and adnexal microcistic carcinoma (one case).
  • Visual acuity at the moment of diagnosis ranged from 20/40 to no light perception.
  • After surgery, three patients suffered graft necrosis, one presented ethmoidal sinus fistula to the orbit and one presented orbital socket shrinkage.
  • Six patients needed postoperative radiotherapy and two had been previously submitted to chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients analyzed in our study presented lesions that are usually small in the beginning; however, they can disseminate to the orbit in the absence of adequate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Eye Neoplasms / surgery. Orbit Evisceration. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child, Preschool. Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Continental Population Groups. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 17187134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2749
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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41. Viswanathan S, George S, Ramadwar M, Shet T, Arora B, Laskar S, Qureshi S, Medhi S, Muckaden MA, Kurkure PA, Kane SV, Banavali S: Extraconal orbital tumors in children--a spectrum. Virchows Arch; 2009 Jun;454(6):703-13

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The chief presenting symptom was proptosis in 55.3% patients and radiologically 53.8% malignant tumors showed extraorbital extension.
  • Malignant round cell tumors (76.6%), chiefly embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (51%), benign spindle cell neoplasms, and infectious lesions (tuberculosis, fungal infections), were seen.
  • Of the malignant tumors, those confined to the orbit achieved good treatment response and had an event-free follow-up while those with extraorbital spread had poor outcome.
  • Pediatric orbital masses range from completely treatable infectious lesions, surgically resectable benign neoplasms to aggressive malignancies requiring chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Pathologists play a key role in distinguishing these on small biopsy material and expediating accurate treatment thus saving the vision or life of a patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Algorithms. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Mycoses / diagnosis. Mycoses / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / chemistry. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / secondary. Tuberculosis / diagnosis. Tuberculosis / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19421774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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42. Pinarli FG, Oğuz A, Karadeniz C, Uluoğlu O, Akyürek N: Second primary myogenic sarcoma in a patient with bilateral retinoblastoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Sep;21(6):545-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The development of second malignant tumors in survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma is a well-known clinical entity and a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
  • The authors report a patient with bilateral retinoblastoma who developed a myogenic sarcoma of the orbit after 5.5 years of diagnosis.
  • The short latency period may be explained by tumor histology with the contribution of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The prognosis of second tumors is poor despite aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Retinoblastoma / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15552818.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Benzina Z, Khlif H, Sellami D, Sayadi I, Abdelmoula S, Trigui A, Kammoun B, Daoud J, Féki J: [Child orbital lymphoma: about one case]. Tunis Med; 2004 Sep;82(9):884-8
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  • BACKGROUND: The non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are a group of neoplasms characterized by proliferation of malignant lymphocytes.
  • The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a voluminous orbital tumour, probably a rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The biopsy done on a frontal metastasis affirmed the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Chemotherapy led to tumour regression and involution of the exophthalmia.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical features and treatment of child orbital lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Child. Exophthalmos / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Orbit / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15693484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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44. Bau V, Röpke E, Marquardt L: [Idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome in childhood--case report and literature review]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2010 Oct;227(10):760-4
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  • CASE REPORT: A 6-year-old girl developed within one week beginning with a discrete, non-traumatic haemorrhage of the lower palpebra a painful proptosis, periorbital swelling, conjunctival chemosis and injection and motility restriction to lateral gaze of the right eye.
  • A rapidly performed biopsy excluded malignancies and confirmed the diagnosis of non-specific inflammation.
  • DISCUSSION: In comparison to the clinical features of adults the rarely reported childhood cases show no relevant differences in orbital signs, frequency of bilaterality and pain, recurrence rate and success of therapy.
  • Histopathological examination is much more necessary than in adults because of the need for exclusion of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Pseudotumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Biopsy. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Orbit / pathology. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Recurrence

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 20963677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3999
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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