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1. Karcioglu ZA, Hadjistilianou D, Rozans M, DeFrancesco S: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Control; 2004 Sep-Oct;11(5):328-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Although rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare tumor among the entire group of mesenchymal malignancies, it is a relatively common lesion and significant challenge for the ocular oncologist in terms of its diagnosis and management.
  • The common histopathologic types are embryonal and alveolar varieties.
  • Treatment usually consists of a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy following excisional biopsy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Survival of orbital RMS has improved due to advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / diagnosis. Eye Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15377992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-2359
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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2. Shields CL, Shields JA, Honavar SG, Demirci H: Primary ophthalmic rhabdomyosarcoma in 33 patients. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc; 2001;99:133-42; discussion 142-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary ophthalmic rhabdomyosarcoma in 33 patients.
  • PURPOSE: To review the findings, management, and outcome in 33 cases of primary ophthalmic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • RESULTS: Rhabdomyosarcoma was primarily located in the orbit m 25 cases (76%), conjunctiva in 4 (12%), eyelid in 1 (3%), and uveal tract in 3 (9%).
  • The initial diagnoses before referral to us included primarily rhabdomyosarcoma in 8 cases (24%), conjunctivitis in 5 (15%), cellulitis in 5 (15%), and pseudotumor in 4 (12%).
  • Tumors were classified according to the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group staging and treatment protocols as group I in 4 cases (12%), group II in 12 (36%), group III in 16 (48%), and group IV in 1 case (3%).
  • Treatment included surgical debulking, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rhabdomyosarcoma can present in the orbit, eyelid, conjunctiva, and uveal tract.
  • Following treatment, local tumor recurrence occurs in 18% of cases, metastasis in 6%, and death in 3%.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11797301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-9533
  • [Journal-full-title] Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1359004
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3. Kaliaperumal S, Tiroumal S, Rao V: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma: a case series. Indian J Cancer; 2007 Jul-Sep;44(3):104-7
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  • [Title] Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma: a case series.
  • Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common orbital malignancy of childhood with the common presentation of rapidly evolving unilateral proptosis.
  • We studied six patients who were diagnosed and treated for rhabdomyosarcoma between January 1999 and June 2004.
  • Another patient presented with a soft, blind eye that was pushed superotemporally by a large inflammed, vascularised mass.
  • Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was the commonest histopathological type in our series found in five patients.
  • One patient was completely cured with chemotherapy alone whereas two patients were treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Child. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dactinomycin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18250531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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4. Brichard B, De Potter P, Godfraind C, Vermylen C: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as conjunctival tumor. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Aug;25(8):651-2
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  • [Title] Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as conjunctival tumor.
  • The authors report the case of a 10-year-old girl who presented with a focal conjunctival lesion of the right eye.
  • Conjunctival biopsy was performed and revealed an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • She received chemotherapy alone according to the Malignant Mesenchymal Tumor 95 Study (stage II nonalveolar orbital tumors) and is still in complete remission 6 months after the completion of treatment.
  • The authors discuss the prognosis and differential diagnosis of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12902922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Raney RB, Maurer HM, Anderson JR, Andrassy RJ, Donaldson SS, Qualman SJ, Wharam MD, Wiener ES, Crist WM: The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG): Major Lessons From the IRS-I Through IRS-IV Studies as Background for the Current IRS-V Treatment Protocols. Sarcoma; 2001;5(1):9-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG): Major Lessons From the IRS-I Through IRS-IV Studies as Background for the Current IRS-V Treatment Protocols.
  • Purpose. To enumerate lessons from studying 4292 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG, 1972-1997).Patients.
  • Untreated patients < 21 years of age at diagnosis received systemic chemotherapy, with or without irradiation (XRT) and/or surgical removal of the tumor.Methods.
  • Pathologic materials and treatment were reviewed to ascertain compliance and to confirm response and relapse status.Results.
  • Important lessons include the fact that extent of disease at diagnosis affects prognosis.
  • The eye, vagina, and bladder can usually be saved.
  • Patients with non-metastatic cranial parameningeal sarcoma can usually be cured with localized XRT and systemic chemotherapy, without whole-brain XRT and intrathecal drugs.
  • Mature rhabdomyoblasts after treatment of patients with bladder rhabdomyosarcoma are not necessarily malignant, provided that the tumor has shrunk and malignant cells have disappeared.Discussion.

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  • (PMID = 18521303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-714X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sarcoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sarcoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2395450
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6. Jung A, Bechthold S, Pfluger T, Renner C, Ehrt O: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma in Noonan syndrome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Apr;25(4):330-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma in Noonan syndrome.
  • The incidence of various benign and malignant tumors is increased in patients with Noonan syndrome compared with the general population.
  • We present a 9-year-old boy with the typical features of Noonan syndrome and an acute nonaxial proptosis of the right eye.
  • An ultrasound scan, a computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging raised suspicion of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis.
  • The tumor was consequently treated with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare but important differential diagnosis of tumor formation in children with Noonan syndrome and may arise in the orbit.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. Noonan Syndrome / genetics. Orbital Neoplasms / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Exophthalmos / etiology. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Radioisotope Teletherapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12679651.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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7. Rohaizam J, Doris EJ, Tang PI, Lee SC, Uchang J: Adult embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the ethmoid: a rare entity. Med J Malaysia; 2010 Jun;65(2):160-1
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  • [Title] Adult embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the ethmoid: a rare entity.
  • Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is an exceedingly rare tumor in adult.
  • We report an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the ethmoid in a 59-year-old Iban lady who presented with proptosis and complete ptosis of her left eye for two months.
  • Imaging investigations showed left ethmoidal and left orbital soft tissue mass with extradura and dura involvement.
  • The patient was planned for chemotherapy.
  • Unfortunately, in such an advanced disease, she succumbed before treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Exophthalmos. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal

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  • (PMID = 23756807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-5283
  • [Journal-full-title] The Medical journal of Malaysia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. J. Malaysia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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8. Yip CC, Kersten RC, McCulley TJ, Ballard ET, Kulwin DR: Osteogenic sarcoma after orbital radiation rhabdomyosarcoma. Ophthalmology; 2003 Oct;110(10):1996-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Osteogenic sarcoma after orbital radiation rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: We describe the occurrence of maxillary and orbital osteogenic sarcoma in a child after treatment of contralateral orbital rhabdomyosarcoma with external beam radiation and chemotherapy.
  • INTERVENTION: Treatment of a maxillary and orbital rhabdomyosarcoma with surgical resection, systemic chemotherapy, and local radiation.
  • RESULTS: An eleven year-old male presented for evaluation of left facial swelling, occurring ten years after successful treatment of a right orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with chemotherapy and 5040 cGY of external beam radiation.
  • Computerized tomography demonstrated a mass involving the left maxillary sinus and orbital floor.
  • Postoperatively he was treated with systemic chemotherapy and local radiation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Osteogenic sarcoma can occur as a secondary malignancy years after the successful treatment of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma with external beam radiation and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Orbital Neoplasms / etiology. Orbital Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Osteosarcoma / etiology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14522778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6420
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Tsuchisaka A, Usui Y, Goto H, Nagai T, Matsubayashi J, Izumi M, Suzuki S: [Two cases of orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with chromosome aberration]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Apr;114(4):374-80
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  • [Title] [Two cases of orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with chromosome aberration].
  • PURPOSE: Two cases of pediatric orbital rhabdomyosarcoma leading to visual dysfunction with rapid growth.
  • The tumor grew rapidly resulting in eye ball displacement and corneal epithelium disorder, and was subsequently removed.
  • Based on histopathology and clinical examination, diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was made.
  • Based on histopathology and clinical examination, diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma was made.
  • Both patients subsequently underwent chemotherapy and local radiotherapy and no recurrence has been detected over 1 year.
  • CONCLUSION: Although rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit often progresses rapidly and may cause visual disturbances, favorable outcome can be expected by proper management especially in cases with certain histopathological types.
  • A comprehensive approach will be required to elucidate the pathogenesis of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma and genetic abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Orbital Neoplasms / genetics. Polyploidy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20432963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-0203
  • [Journal-full-title] Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Shields CL, Shields JA, Honavar SG, Demirci H: Clinical spectrum of primary ophthalmic rhabdomyosarcoma. Ophthalmology; 2001 Dec;108(12):2284-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical spectrum of primary ophthalmic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: To review the clinical presentation, histopathologic analysis, management, and ocular and systemic outcome of rhabdomyosarcoma affecting the ocular region.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three consecutive patients with primary ophthalmic involvement of rhabdomyosarcoma from a single tertiary care center specializing in ocular oncology.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Final visual acuity, treatment complications, local recurrence, and distant metastasis.
  • The rhabdomyosarcoma was primarily located in the orbit in 25 cases (76%), conjunctiva in 4 cases (12%), eyelid in 1 case (3%), and uveal tract in 3 cases (9%).
  • The initial diagnosis before referral to us included rhabdomyosarcoma in 8 cases (24%), conjunctivitis in 5 cases (15%), orbital or preseptal cellulitis in 5 cases (15%), idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor in 4 cases (12%), and others.
  • Using the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group staging and treatment protocols, the tumor was classified as group I in 4 cases (12%), group II in 12 cases (36%), group III in 16 cases (48%), and group IV in 1 case (3%).
  • Treatment included surgical debulking and various regimens of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for the periocular tumors and enucleation for the three intraocular tumors.
  • Regional lymph node metastasis was detected in 2 patients (6%), one at initial visit and one after therapy.
  • Distant metastasis occurred in 2 patients (6%), one detected at initial visit and one after therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rhabdomyosarcoma can present in the orbit, eyelid, conjunctiva, and uveal tract.
  • After treatment, local tumor recurrence occurs in 18%, metastasis in 6%, and death in 3%.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Eyelid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Uveal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Ophthalmology. 2003 May;110(5):877; author reply 877-8 [12750079.001]
  • (PMID = 11733272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6420
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Machleder DJ, Banik R, Rosenberg RB, Parikh SR: An unusual case of rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as orbital apex syndrome. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2005 Feb;69(2):249-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An unusual case of rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as orbital apex syndrome.
  • PRECIS: A 12-year-old female presented with symptoms and signs of orbital apex syndrome (OAS), secondary to stage IV alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) originating in the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a case of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, unusual in its presentation as orbital apex syndrome and also its origin from the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses.
  • RESULTS: A 12-year-old female presented with progressive visual loss in her left eye, difficulty with eye movements, and mild headache.
  • Emergent biopsy was interpreted as alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma; subsequent metastatic work-up revealed bone marrow metastases.
  • The patient was diagnosed with stage IV alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and immediately started on combination orbital radiation therapy (RT) and systemic chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of paranasal origin, specifically from the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses, should be included in the differential diagnosis for orbital apex syndrome in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15656960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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12. Polito E, Pichierri P, Loffredo A, Lasorella G: A case of primary botryoid conjunctival rhabdomyosarcoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol; 2006 Apr;244(4):517-9
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  • [Title] A case of primary botryoid conjunctival rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common childhood primary orbital malignancy, but the occurrence of this tumour in the conjunctiva is rare.
  • METHODS: A 14-year-old girl presented with a visible case of conjunctival mass in the left eye.
  • RESULTS: The histopathology revealed a botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The patient underwent chemotherapy and fractionated radiotherapy.
  • Subsequent radiotherapy and chemotherapy helped to destroy any residual tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Conjunctival Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Dactinomycin / therapeutic use. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • [Cites] Ophthalmology. 2001 Dec;108(12):2284-92 [11733272.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Ophthalmol. 1968 Mar;65(3):452-4 [5640552.001]
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  • (PMID = 16151784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0721-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv fur klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; IVA protocol
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13. McCarty ML, Wilson MW, Ibrahim F, Fuller CE, Kun LE, Haik BG: Primary perineal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma metastatic to an extraocular muscle. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2003 Jul;19(4):333-5
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  • [Title] Primary perineal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma metastatic to an extraocular muscle.
  • A 17-year-old boy diagnosed with an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma involving the perineum and with extensive lymphadenopathy was treated with chemotherapy yet developed metastases to the head and neck 6 months into therapy.
  • Ten months after initial diagnosis, while receiving salvage chemotherapy and radiotherapy, he returned with pain on movement of his left eye, proptosis, and ptosis of the left upper eyelid.
  • Computed tomography (CT) revealed a mass within the left lateral rectus muscle that biopsy confirmed to be metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Despite continued chemotherapy and radiotherapy, he ultimately died of the disease.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma from distant sites rarely metastasizes to the extraocular muscles.
  • However, our case shows that alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma may metastasize to the orbit and involve a single muscle.
  • [MeSH-major] Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Oculomotor Muscles. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Perineum / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12878888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Shindler KS, Liu GT, Womer RB: Long-term follow-up and prognosis of orbital apex syndrome resulting from nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma. Am J Ophthalmol; 2005 Aug;140(2):236-41
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  • [Title] Long-term follow-up and prognosis of orbital apex syndrome resulting from nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: Nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma may present with a variety of ophthalmic symptoms.
  • The prognosis for recovery of vision and ocular motility in patients with an orbital apex syndrome due to nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma is examined.
  • METHODS: Six eyes from four patients with nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma who presented to the Children';s Hospital of Philadelphia with a clinical orbital apex syndrome were identified.
  • Complete ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity and extraocular motility at the time of presentation, was reviewed.
  • All patients were treated with chemotherapy and radiation, with reduction of tumor mass.
  • Ocular motility recovered in all patients, occurring by an average of 2.2 +/- 1.8 months after initiation of therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ocular motor deficits in orbital apex syndromes caused by extension of nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma have an excellent prognosis for recovery after treatment of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Ophthalmoplegia / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Vision Disorders / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Eye Movements. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Syndrome. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 16023064.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Mullaney PB, Nabi NU, Thorner P, Buncic R: Ophthalmic involvement as a presenting feature of nonorbital childhood parameningeal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Ophthalmology; 2001 Jan;108(1):179-82
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  • [Title] Ophthalmic involvement as a presenting feature of nonorbital childhood parameningeal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe presenting ophthalmic signs and symptoms in children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma treated from 1978 through 1998.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Each patient's presenting symptoms and history, the ophthalmic signs at presentation, the location of the tumor on computed tomographic scanning, the pathologic diagnosis after tumor biopsy, and the child's outcome after chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Eight of 23 patients with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma had ophthalmologic signs at presentation.
  • Seven of eight patients were treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • The mean survival time for five patients who died from parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma associated with ophthalmic signs was 27.2 months.
  • Three patients are currently alive, with a mean survival time of 33.7 months after diagnosis.
  • The survival time of 12 patients with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma and without ophthalmologic signs at presentation was better, in that nine are alive, with a mean survival time of 54 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Advanced parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma with skull base invasion may present with ophthalmic signs.
  • These patients sought treatment late and had advanced tumors because their initial signs and symptoms were often attributed to more common ailments.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Eye Diseases / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11150285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6420
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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16. McDonald MW, Esiashvili N, George BA, Katzenstein HM, Olson TA, Rapkin LB, Marcus RB Jr: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with use of cone-down boost for pediatric head-and-neck rhabdomyosarcoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Nov 1;72(3):884-91
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  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with use of cone-down boost for pediatric head-and-neck rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report our initial experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a cone-down boost for pediatric head-and-neck rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A review of institutional treatment records identified children treated with IMRT for head-and-neck RMS between January 2000 and February 2007.
  • All patients had undergone chemotherapy according to cooperative group RMS protocols.
  • Of the 20 patients, 14 were treated with a cone-down boost after a median dose of 36 Gy (range, 30-45.6).
  • Patients received a median total dose of 50.4 Gy.
  • The median follow-up time was 29 months.
  • The 3-year Kaplan-Meier local control rate was 100%, although 1 patient developed an in-field recurrence 50 months after IMRT.
  • The initial targeting of the prechemotherapy tumor volume with 1-2-cm margin to 30.6 or 36 Gy followed by a cone-down boost to the postchemotherapy tumor volume with a 0.5-1-cm margin allowed for significant sparing of normal tissues and provided good local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Ear Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ear Neoplasms / radiography. Ear Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Eye Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiography. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Mouth Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mouth Neoplasms / radiography. Mouth Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18455321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Amato MM, Esmaeli B, Shore JW: Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma metastatic to the contralateral orbit: a case report. Ophthalmology; 2002 Apr;109(4):753-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Orbital rhabdomyosarcoma metastatic to the contralateral orbit: a case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a rare presentation of metastatic orbital rhabdomyosarcoma and the corresponding findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • RESULTS: A 29-year-old white man was diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma of the left sinus and orbit for which he was treated with chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Eighteen months after diagnosis, he returned with subacute right eye pain and dysmotility of his extraocular muscles.
  • Over the next 2 months, symptoms progressed, and proptosis developed.
  • A biopsy of right orbital tissues and the right medial rectus muscle was performed.
  • Special tissue typing confirmed metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The patient underwent palliative radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but he ultimately died of disseminated disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Rhabdomyosarcoma can rarely metastasize to the extraocular muscles.
  • Earlier recognition of orbital metastasis through radiographic and biopsy findings, along with prompt and aggressive treatment, may prevent fulminant spread of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Rhabdomyosarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11927435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6420
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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18. Shome D, Honavar SG, Reddy VA, Vemuganti GK: Orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in association with neurofibromatosis type 1. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2007 Mar-Apr;23(2):147-8
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  • [Title] Orbital embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in association with neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • A 20-month-old child with systemic features of neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with sudden-onset proptosis.
  • Biopsy and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The tumor regressed completely with chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy.
  • This case highlights the association of rhabdomyosarcoma with neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Exophthalmos / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Infant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


19. Tari AS, Amoli FA, Rajabi MT, Esfahani MR, Rahimi A: Cutaneous embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as a nodule on cheek; a case report and review of literature. Orbit; 2006 Sep;25(3):235-8
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  • [Title] Cutaneous embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as a nodule on cheek; a case report and review of literature.
  • We report a case of primary cutaneous rhabdomyosarcoma, solid embryonal type, presenting as a rapidly enlarging nodule on the right cheek of a 7-year-old boy.
  • It recurred 2 months later; at that time, incisional biopsy was consistent with malignant round cell tumor.
  • Subsequent immunohistochemical staining with desmin and myoglobin confirmed embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The patient underwent radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy and continues to be disease free at 14 months after his wide local excision.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as a dermal nodule is rare.
  • It usually presents as an asymptomatic papule without distinctive clinical features and therefore may result in delayed diagnosis unless a biopsy is performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cheek. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16987772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6830
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Desmin; 0 / Myoglobin
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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20. Coates RA: Lone atrial fibrillation: more than meets the eye. J Insur Med; 2004;36(1):88-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lone atrial fibrillation: more than meets the eye.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Cardiomyopathies / chemically induced. Electrocardiography. Humans. Insurance, Life. Male. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15104034.001).
  • [ISSN] 0743-6661
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of insurance medicine (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Insur Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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21. Jaggi GP, Killer HE: 'Spontaneous' periocular hemorrhage and macrohematuria. Ophthalmologica; 2008;222(6):422-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To report on a 19-year-old man with 'spontaneous' periocular hemorrhage and macrohematuria as the first signs of a bone-marrow-infiltrating rhabdomyosarcoma of the left superior rectus muscle.
  • PROCEDURES: Clinical eye examination, magnetic resonance imaging, laboratory workup and bone marrow biopsy were performed.
  • Thromboplastin time was decreased.
  • A bone marrow biopsy revealed small cell infiltration; using immunohistochemistry, a rhabdomyosarcoma was diagnosed.
  • Unfortunately, the patient died few months later, in spite of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: 'Spontaneous' periocular hemorrhage and macrohematuria were the first signs of a bone-marrow-infiltrating rhabdomyosarcoma in this young and otherwise healthy patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Hemorrhage / etiology. Hematuria / etiology. Orbital Neoplasms / complications. Rhabdomyosarcoma / complications. Thrombocytopenia / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Bone Marrow / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18849626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0267
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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22. Pinarli FG, Oğuz A, Karadeniz C, Uluoğlu O, Akyürek N: Second primary myogenic sarcoma in a patient with bilateral retinoblastoma. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Sep;21(6):545-50
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  • The development of second malignant tumors in survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma is a well-known clinical entity and a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
  • The authors report a patient with bilateral retinoblastoma who developed a myogenic sarcoma of the orbit after 5.5 years of diagnosis.
  • The short latency period may be explained by tumor histology with the contribution of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The prognosis of second tumors is poor despite aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Retinoblastoma / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15552818.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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23. Chami R, Aleynikova O, Abela A, Blais M, Oligny L, Bouron-Dal Soglio D, Patey N: [Juvenile xanthogranuloma of the nasal cavity]. Ann Pathol; 2010 Oct;30(5):374-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • It is the most frequent type of non-langerhans histiocytosis with a median age of 2 years.
  • The skin lesions tend to regress slowly with time.
  • Extra-cutaneous and visceral involvements have been observed, the most common site being the eye.
  • When the lesions are numerous, they may persist, hence the need for treatment with corticosteroids or chemotherapy.
  • We report an 8-year old girl with JXG of early type without multinucleated and foamy cells.
  • This case presented as a tumour in the inferior meatus of nasal cavity, clinically simulating a rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • This atypical clinical and histological presentation with benign evolution should be recognized since it requires only local treatment.


24. Blank LE, Koedooder K, van der Grient HN, Wolffs NA, van de Kar M, Merks JH, Pieters BR, Saeed P, Baldeschi L, Freling NJ, Koning CC: Brachytherapy as part of the multidisciplinary treatment of childhood rhabdomyosarcomas of the orbit. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Aug 1;77(5):1463-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Brachytherapy as part of the multidisciplinary treatment of childhood rhabdomyosarcomas of the orbit.
  • Our specifically developed approach consists of applying brachytherapy to the tumor area using a mold.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirteen patients were referred for brachytherapy if complete remission was not reached after chemotherapy (Group I) and 7 in case of relapse (Group II).
  • The dose to the clinical target volume was 40-50 Gy.
  • RESULTS: Three patients of Group I and 1 patient of Group II developed local recurrence and underwent exenteration.
  • During treatment, no serious side effects were observed.
  • The late complications encountered in this series were cataract in 2 patients, 1 of whom also developed mild retinopathy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This entire procedure of brachytherapy with a mold offers a tailor-made treatment for orbital rhabdomyosarcomas with only few signs of late toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Orbital Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / radiotherapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cataract / etiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19864080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Chastagner P: [Malignant extraconal tumors of the orbit in childhood]. Neurochirurgie; 2010 Apr-Jun;56(2-3):281-6

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  • [Title] [Malignant extraconal tumors of the orbit in childhood].
  • Malignant extraconal orbital tumors are very rare during childhood and must be referred as soon as possible to a highly specialized center to be managed by a multidisciplinary team.
  • Both diagnosis and treatment must be undertaken as soon as possible.
  • The course of these malignant tumors can be acute and can jeopardize the function of the eye or be life-threatening, especially in the event of metastatic locations.
  • Sometimes diagnosis should be clear with the association of an orbital tumor and deterioration of the general health status favoring metastatic disease.
  • Today both CT and MRI are highly valuable in assessing the diagnosis and starting the management of these tumors.
  • Biopsy is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis.
  • Among the primitive tumors, soft tissue sarcomas, especially rhabdomyosarcomas, are the most frequent.
  • The diagnosis is suggested when the onset of the disease is acute and the course is rapid.
  • Most respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In the event of a residual tumor, local treatment is indicated so that surgery and/or radiotherapy are used as second-line treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Exophthalmos / etiology. France. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / epidemiology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20303550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0619
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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26. Benzina Z, Khlif H, Sellami D, Sayadi I, Abdelmoula S, Trigui A, Kammoun B, Daoud J, Féki J: [Child orbital lymphoma: about one case]. Tunis Med; 2004 Sep;82(9):884-8
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  • BACKGROUND: The non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are a group of neoplasms characterized by proliferation of malignant lymphocytes.
  • CASE REPORT: A 9-year old girl consulted for exophthalmia of the left eye without neither inflammation nor visual function alteration.
  • The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a voluminous orbital tumour, probably a rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The biopsy done on a frontal metastasis affirmed the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Chemotherapy led to tumour regression and involution of the exophthalmia.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical features and treatment of child orbital lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Child. Exophthalmos / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Orbit / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15693484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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27. Atique-Tacla M, Paves L, Pereira MD, Manso PG: [Exenteration: a retrospective study]. Arq Bras Oftalmol; 2006 Sep-Oct;69(5):679-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Data regarding sex, age, race, primary lesion site, visual acuity at the moment of diagnosis, previous surgeries related to the exenteration, type of performed surgery, histopathologic diagnosis, postoperative complications and use of adjuvant treatment were collected.
  • All lesions that led to exenteration were malignant neoplasias; however, none were metastatic.
  • Cases were also classified as squamous cell carcinoma (eleven cases), basal cell carcinoma (four cases), sebaceous gland carcinoma (two cases), rhabdomyosarcoma (two cases), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (one case) and adnexal microcistic carcinoma (one case).
  • Visual acuity at the moment of diagnosis ranged from 20/40 to no light perception.
  • Six patients needed postoperative radiotherapy and two had been previously submitted to chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Most patients analyzed in our study presented lesions that are usually small in the beginning; however, they can disseminate to the orbit in the absence of adequate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Eye Neoplasms / surgery. Orbit Evisceration. Surgical Flaps
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child, Preschool. Conjunctival Neoplasms / diagnosis. Continental Population Groups. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 17187134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2749
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Oftalmol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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28. Opot EN, Magoha GA: Testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J; 2000 Feb;77(2):80-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Thirty one patients (79.49%) presented with painless testicular swellings, eleven (28.08%) with pain, nine (23.08%) with scrotal heaviness, six (15.38%) with abdominal swellings and one (2.56%) each with gynaecomastia and eye swelling.
  • On examination 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, ten (25.64%) had abdominal masses, seven (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, and one each (2.56%) had gynaecomastia and eye mass respectively.
  • More than eighty nine per cent had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma 12.24%, embroyonal carcinoma 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma 6.12% and malignant germ cell tumour, orchioblastoma and dysgerminoma each accounted for 2.04%.
  • Three patients (7.7%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy, sixteen (41.03%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy, six (15.38%) had orchidectomy and chemotherapy, ten (25.64%) had radiotherapy and chemotherapy, three (7.7%) and two (5.13%) had only chemotherapy and radiotherapy respectively.
  • No cisplastin based chemotherapy regime was used.
  • Cisplastin based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included as a component of testicular cancer management at Kenyatta National Hospital.
  • The clinical symptoms presented were painless testicular swelling (n = 31, 79.49%), testicular pain (n = 11, 28.08%), scrotal heaviness (n = 9, 23.08%), abdominal swelling (n = 6, 15.38%), gynecomastia (n = 1, 2.56%), and eye swelling (n = 1, 2.56%).
  • More than 89% of patients had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma for 12.24%, embryonal carcinoma for 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma for 6.12%, and malignant germ cell tumor, orchioblastoma, and dysgerminoma each accounting for 2.04%.
  • The various methods of treatment include orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 3 patients (7.7%), orchidectomy and radiotherapy in 16 patients (41.03%), orchidectomy and chemotherapy in 6 patients (15.38%), and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 10 patients (25.64%).
  • No cisplatin-based chemotherapy was used.
  • Hence, cisplatin-based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included in the testicular cancer management in this hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Hospitals, Teaching. Humans. Incidence. Kenya / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Referral and Consultation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10774080.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] East African medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East Afr Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] KENYA
  • [Other-IDs] PIP/ 149564; POP/ 00296083
  • [Keywords] PIP ; Cancer (major topic) / Clinical Research (major topic) / Prevalence (major topic) / Research Report (major topic) / Retrospective Studies (major topic) / Signs And Symptoms (major topic) / Testis (major topic) / Treatment (major topic) / Africa / Africa South Of The Sahara / Biology / Developing Countries / Diseases / Eastern Africa / English Speaking Africa / Genitalia / Genitalia, Male / Kenya / Measurement / Neoplasms / Physiology / Research Methodology / Studies / Urogenital System
  • [General-notes] PIP/ TJ: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL.
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29. DeLaney TF: Clinical proton radiation therapy research at the Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center. Technol Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Aug;6(4 Suppl):61-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical proton radiation therapy research at the Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center.
  • The Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center has a 230 MeV cyclotron from which proton beams are directed to two isocentric gantries, a stereotactic intracranial beam line, and an eye line.
  • The improved dose localization also reduces normal-tissue doses with an anticipated reduction in acute and late toxicity.
  • Clinical treatment protocols, developed to exploit the dosimetric advantages of protons over photons, have been grouped into two broad categories.
  • In the second, normal-tissue sparing with protons is designed to minimize acute and late toxicity.
  • Treatment of patients on clinical research protocols has been encouraged.
  • Patient treatments began on the first gantry in November 2001; on the eye line in April 2002; on the second gantry in May 2002; and on the stereotactic intracranial line in August 2006.
  • Studies evaluating the use of protons for morbidity reduction include protocols for craniospinal irradiation in conjunction with systemic chemotherapy for medulloblastoma, retinoblastoma, pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma, other pediatric sarcomas, and accelerated, hypofractionated partial breast irradiation for T1N0 breast carcinomas.
  • Treatment of patients on these studies has often required the development of new treatment techniques (i.e., matching abutting fields for craniospinal irradiation), respiratory gating, and development of appropriate clinical infrastructure support (i.e., increase in availability of pediatric anesthesia) to allow appropriate treatment.
  • Results to date indicate that proton radiation therapy offers several potential treatment advantages to patients that can be studied in the setting of clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclotrons. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Protons / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17668954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0346
  • [Journal-full-title] Technology in cancer research & treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
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30. Bau V, Röpke E, Marquardt L: [Idiopathic orbital inflammation syndrome in childhood--case report and literature review]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd; 2010 Oct;227(10):760-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CASE REPORT: A 6-year-old girl developed within one week beginning with a discrete, non-traumatic haemorrhage of the lower palpebra a painful proptosis, periorbital swelling, conjunctival chemosis and injection and motility restriction to lateral gaze of the right eye.
  • A rapidly performed biopsy excluded malignancies and confirmed the diagnosis of non-specific inflammation.
  • DISCUSSION: In comparison to the clinical features of adults the rarely reported childhood cases show no relevant differences in orbital signs, frequency of bilaterality and pain, recurrence rate and success of therapy.
  • Histopathological examination is much more necessary than in adults because of the need for exclusion of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Pseudotumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Biopsy. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Orbit / pathology. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Recurrence

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  • [Copyright] © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • (PMID = 20963677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3999
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Monbl Augenheilkd
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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31. Cebulla CM, Kleinerman RA, Alegret A, Kulak A, Dubovy SR, Hess DJ, Murray TG: Rapid appearance of rhabdomyosarcoma after radiation and chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: a clinicopathologic correlation. Retin Cases Brief Rep; 2009;3(4):343-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rapid appearance of rhabdomyosarcoma after radiation and chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: a clinicopathologic correlation.

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  • (PMID = 20634992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1935-1089
  • [Journal-full-title] Retinal cases & brief reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Retin Cases Brief Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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