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1. Mousavi A, Akhavan S: Sarcoma botryoides (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma) of the uterine cervix in sisters. J Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Dec 30;21(4):273-5

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  • [Title] Sarcoma botryoides (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma) of the uterine cervix in sisters.
  • Sarcoma botryoides (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma) rarely arises in the uterine cervix.
  • The patient underwent radical surgery of the tumor and hysterectomy without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The sister of the patient had died previously due to the same diagnosis at the age of 17.
  • Presence of sarcoma botryoides of the cervix in two sisters in the family highlights the possible role of genetic factors in the development of sarcoma botryoides.

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  • [Cites] Br J Cancer. 1999 May;80(3-4):403-6 [10408845.001]
  • [Cites] Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2000;21(5):504-6 [11198044.001]
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  • (PMID = 21278891.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3026308
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cervical cancer / Rhabdomyosarcoma / Sarcoma botryoides
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2. Kayton ML, Wexler LH, Lewin SN, Park KJ, La Quaglia MP, Abu-Rustum NR: Pediatric radical abdominal trachelectomy for anaplastic embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix: an alternative to radical hysterectomy. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Apr;44(4):862-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Pediatric radical abdominal trachelectomy for anaplastic embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix: an alternative to radical hysterectomy.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the female genital tract carries 5-year survival in excess of 80%, but lifelong infertility may be a consequence of local control strategies.
  • We present the technique and outcome for a fertility-sparing, radical abdominal trachelectomy in a 12-year-old girl with anaplastic, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma involving the uterine cervix.
  • The patient had presented to our center after the piecemeal resection of a uterine cervical mass; because of concern about microscopic residual disease, we classified her as group II-A according to the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study system.
  • The patient received 4 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy and then underwent radical abdominal trachelectomy, with removal of the uterine cervix, parametria, vaginal cuff, and regional lymph nodes.
  • Microscopically, the specimen showed treatment effect and no residual tumor.
  • Radical abdominal trachelectomy, which has not been previously reported for rhabdomyosarcoma, has appeared to secure local disease control in this case while preserving the patient's future fertility potential.
  • In properly selected cases of rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix, where involvement of the uterus proper is not present, radical abdominal trachelectomy may be an attractive fertility-sparing alternative to radical hysterectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Hysteroscopy. Immunohistochemistry. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Laparotomy / methods. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Doppler


3. Dimitroulakos J, Ye LY, Benzaquen M, Moore MJ, Kamel-Reid S, Freedman MH, Yeger H, Penn LZ: Differential sensitivity of various pediatric cancers and squamous cell carcinomas to lovastatin-induced apoptosis: therapeutic implications. Clin Cancer Res; 2001 Jan;7(1):158-67
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  • [Title] Differential sensitivity of various pediatric cancers and squamous cell carcinomas to lovastatin-induced apoptosis: therapeutic implications.
  • We showed previously that this enzyme holds a critical role in regulating tumor cell fate, including cell death, as its expression is down-regulated in response to retinoic acid, a potent anticancer therapeutic.
  • Lovastatin induced a pronounced apoptotic response in cells derived from juvenile monomyelocytic leukemia, pediatric solid malignancies (rhabdomyosarcoma and medulloblastoma), and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and of the head and neck.
  • The nature of the biologically active form of lovastatin has been challenged recently as the growth-inhibitory effects of this drug were attributed to its prodrug lactone form that does not inhibit HMG-CoA reductase function.
  • Thus, we have identified a subset of tumors that are sensitive to lovastatin-induced apoptosis and show HMG-CoA reductase as a potential therapeutic target of these cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Lovastatin / pharmacology. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Female. Flow Cytometry. Formazans. Humans. Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases / metabolism. Mass Spectrometry. Mevalonic Acid / pharmacology. Microscopy, Electron. Tetrazolium Salts. Tumor Cells, Cultured / cytology. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 11205904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Formazans; 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 23305-68-2 / MTT formazan; 9LHU78OQFD / Lovastatin; EC 1.1.1.- / Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases; S5UOB36OCZ / Mevalonic Acid
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4. Koukourakis GV, Kouloulias V, Zacharias G, Maravelis G, Papadimitriou C, Platoni K, Gouliamos A: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix. Clin Transl Oncol; 2009 Jun;11(6):399-402
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  • [Title] Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix.
  • INTRODUCTION: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the uterine cervix is a rare and extremely malignant entity.
  • Generally, embryonal RMS originating in the uterine cervix is usually diagnosed in adolescence.
  • Before the introduction of effective adjuvant chemotherapy, the prognosis of these lesions was poor.
  • We have treated a young woman suffering from this disease using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) with excellent results.
  • The medical community should keep in mind that embryonal RMS of the uterine cervix, despite its malignancy and rarity, can be cured if adequate treatment is given.
  • The histological examination revealed embryonal RMS of uterine cervix.
  • The patient was treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and RT.
  • A review in the literature, which is also presented, shows that the combined treatment of embryonal RMS using surgery and multidrug chemotherapy has significantly improved survival.
  • Patients with unfavourable prognostic parameters seem to benefit from a multimodality approach including surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy and RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hysterectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Errors. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Lymph Node Excision. Ovariectomy. Particle Accelerators. Photons / therapeutic use. Polyps / diagnosis. Polyps / pathology. Polyps / surgery. Radiotherapy, Conformal. Remission Induction. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology. Young Adult


5. Sanders MA, Gordinier M, Talwalkar SS, Moore GD: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix in a 41-year-old woman treated with radical hysterectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Dec;111(3):561-3
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  • [Title] Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix in a 41-year-old woman treated with radical hysterectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Cervical embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) mostly affects young girls.
  • The current treatment protocols are based on trials done on patients under 21 years old.
  • ERMS in women over 40 is rare, and studies on treatment and outcome are limited.
  • CASE: We report a case of a 41 year-old woman with cervical ERMS who was treated with radical hysterectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Vincristine / administration & dosage


6. Bernal KL, Fahmy L, Remmenga S, Bridge J, Baker J: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) of the cervix presenting as a cervical polyp treated with fertility-sparing surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Oct;95(1):243-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) of the cervix presenting as a cervical polyp treated with fertility-sparing surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) of the female genital tract is rare in the cervix.
  • CASE: We report a case of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (sarcoma botryoides) presenting as a cervical polyp in a 19-year-old female.
  • The patient was successfully treated with fertility-sparing surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Therapy has recently inclined towards conservative treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Polyps / diagnosis. Polyps / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fertility. Humans


7. Ng TY, Loo KT, Leung TW, Lo SH, Yuen KK: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Dec;91(3):623-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix.
  • BACKGROUND: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has a high risk for local and distal failure.
  • Multimodal management of a patient with alveolar RMS of the cervix uteri is outlined.
  • CASE: A 39-year-old woman suffered from alveolar RMS of the cervix without involvement of uterus and parametrium.
  • Systemic chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation were also offered.
  • CONCLUSION: Postoperative chemotherapy and irradiation could be effective treatments for alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix in adult patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 14675688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Caruso RA, Napoli P, Villari D, Starrantino M: Anaplastic (pleomorphic) subtype embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2004 Dec;270(4):278-80
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  • [Title] Anaplastic (pleomorphic) subtype embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix.
  • INTRODUCTION: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the female genital tract usually occurs in the vagina during childhood.
  • In rare cases, RMS can originate in the uterine cervix, with an incidence peak in the second decade.
  • CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 13-year-old girl diagnosed with an anaplastic (pleomorphic) subtype embryonal RMS of the endocervix, who was treated successfully with polypectomy followed by ifosfamide-vincristine-actinomycin combination chemotherapy and brachytherapy.
  • The patient exhibits no evidence of recurrence and has normal menstrual function 36 months following initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage


9. Abellar RG, Pepperell JR, Greco D, Gundogan F, Kostadinov S, Schwartz J, Tantravahi U, De Paepe ME: Effects of chemotherapy during pregnancy on the placenta. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2009 Jan-Feb;12(1):35-41
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  • [Title] Effects of chemotherapy during pregnancy on the placenta.
  • Whereas the effects of chemotherapy during pregnancy for mother and fetus are well described, its effects on the placenta remain largely undetermined.
  • We performed a retrospective clinicopathologic analysis of the placenta following chemotherapy.
  • Charts were reviewed for type of malignancy, type and timing of chemotherapy, and fetal and pregnancy outcome.
  • Patients (n = 13) underwent chemotherapy during pregnancy for carcinoma of breast (3), ovary (2), cervix (2), salivary gland (1), lymphoma/leukemia (4), or rhabdomyosarcoma (1).
  • Eleven patients were treated with DNA-active cytotoxic agents during the 2nd and/or 3rd trimesters; their placentas showed nonspecific findings, including villous hypermaturity, distal villous hypoplasia, villous edema, and excessive extravillous trophoblast, and 4/11 (36%) were small-for-age.
  • In one case (rhabdomyosarcoma), the mother was exposed to cytotoxic agents throughout the entire pregnancy.
  • Our findings suggest that chemotherapy during the 1st trimester induces excessive polyploidization of the chorion laeve trophoblast, likely representing an adaptive response to intraamniotic toxins.
  • However, without appropriate controls (untreated patients with equivalent malignancies), the specific effects of chemotherapy in this group are difficult to assess.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Placenta / drug effects. Placenta / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18462010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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10. Behtash N, Mousavi A, Tehranian A, Khanafshar N, Hanjani P: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix: case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Nov;91(2):452-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cervical Cancer.

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  • [Title] Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix: case report and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Sarcoma botryoides rarely arises in the uterine cervix.
  • A combined modality approach to treating rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has markedly improved survival.
  • They were treated with two-stage surgical procedure and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A combined modality approach to treating RMS using multidrug chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery has markedly improved survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 14599884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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11. Lee SH, Kim J, Kim JH, Lee KH, Park JS, Hur SY: Malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the cervix including components of a rhabdomyosarcoma: case report and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(4):462-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the cervix including components of a rhabdomyosarcoma: case report and literature review.
  • MMMTs of gynecologic origin typically arise from either the ovary or the uterus, and MMMTs of the cervix are extremely rare.
  • Due to the rarity of MMMTs arising from the cervix, there is no consensus regarding treatment, prognosis, and outcome; however, aggressive surgical cytoreduction, combined with adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, is recommended as the treatment of choice for MMMTs of the cervix.
  • Cervical MMMTs are more often confined to the uterus at the time of diagnosis and frequently have non-glandular epithelial components.
  • For these reasons, MMMTs of the cervix may have a better prognosis compared to the uterine counterparts.
  • A case of an immunohistochemically confirmed primary MMMT of the cervix, including components of a rhabdomyosarcoma, is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20882897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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12. Ogilvie CM, Crawford EA, Slotcavage RL, King JJ, Lackman RD, Hartner L, Staddon AP: Treatment of adult rhabdomyosarcoma. Am J Clin Oncol; 2010 Apr;33(2):128-31
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  • [Title] Treatment of adult rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: Rhabdomyosarcoma is an exceedingly rare tumor in adults, and standard chemotherapy used for children is much less effective in adults.
  • This study examines short-term outcomes using doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and vincristine for adult rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • METHODS: Pathology records were searched for adults (age, >18) with rhabdomyosarcoma treated at our musculoskeletal tumor center.
  • Treatment involved surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy with doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and vincristine.
  • Tumors sites included upper extremity (4 patients), lower extremity (6), and cervix (1).
  • Three patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy had 100% tumor necrosis.
  • One patient with positive margins scheduled for adjuvant chemotherapy had local recurrence and metastasis within 2 weeks and died 5 months later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: When combined with surgery and radiation therapy, chemotherapy using doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and vincristine yielded 55% overall and 64% disease-free survival at 2 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19770626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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13. Rivasi F, Botticelli L, Bettelli SR, Masellis G: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix. A case report confirmed by FKHR break-apart rearrangement using a fluorescence in situ hybridization probe on paraffin-embedded tissues. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):442-6
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  • [Title] Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix. A case report confirmed by FKHR break-apart rearrangement using a fluorescence in situ hybridization probe on paraffin-embedded tissues.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is a very rare malignant soft tissue tumor found in the uterine cervix.
  • Pathologic examination showed multiple leiomyomas in the uterus and ARMS in the cervix.
  • An FKHR break-apart rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe on paraffin-embedded tissues identified specific chromosomal abnormalities.
  • Systemic chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation were also performed.
  • The literature has been reviewed; the histologic differential diagnosis of this rare lesion has been discussed and FISH has been suggested to be useful in differentiating ARMS from other poorly differentiated round cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


14. Stankovic ZB, Djuricić S, Stanković DS, Zdravković S, Gazikalović S, Sedlecki K: Minimal invasive treatment of cervical rhabdomyosarcoma in an adolescent girl. J BUON; 2007 Jan-Mar;12(1):121-3
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  • [Title] Minimal invasive treatment of cervical rhabdomyosarcoma in an adolescent girl.
  • Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most common soft tissue sarcomas in childhood and adolescence.
  • In cases of minimal cervical invasion, less invasive local excision in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy has resulted in excellent survival rates with complete preservation of the bladder, rectum, uterus and vagina.
  • Herein we present the case of an adolescent girl with a large rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix treated with minimal invasive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Metrorrhagia / etiology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17436413.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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15. Odoi AT, Dassah ET, Darkey DE, Owusu-Afriyie O, Valkov AY: Advanced alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus: a case report. Afr J Reprod Health; 2009 Mar;13(1):167-73
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  • [Title] Advanced alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus: a case report.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an uncommon malignant soft tissue tumour rarely found in the female genital tract and carries a very poor prognosis especially in adults.
  • Examination showed a huge abdomino-pelvic mass, and an irregular cauliflower mass protruding from the cervix, from which a biopsy was taken.
  • The cervical, uterine and omental biopsies were all diagnosed alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy could be started before the client died of fulminant neoplastic dissemination 17 days postoperatively.
  • While the optimal management of this rare tumour is unknown, early recognition and diagnosis, and a prompt multimodality treatment approach of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy offers the best chance of cure.
  • [MeSH-major] Omentum / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20687274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1118-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] African journal of reproductive health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Afr J Reprod Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX3-FKHR fusion protein, human
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16. Ghaemmaghami F, Karimi Zarchi M, Ghasemi M: Lower genital tract rhabdomyosarcoma: case series and literature review. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Jul;278(1):65-9
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lower genital tract rhabdomyosarcoma: case series and literature review.
  • OBJECTIVE: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the lower genital tract is a rare tumor.
  • It tends to occur in childhood in the vagina and in rare cases, RMS can originate in the uterine cervix, with a peak incidence in the 2nd decade.
  • The lesions in vagina were clinically staged as stage I (2), stage II (1) and in cervix were stage I (2) and stage III(1).
  • All of the patients were treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Two patients with cervical RMS died from the large size and extent of the disease 9 and 11 months after diagnosis, but all patients with vaginal RMS remain alive after a mean follow-up of 38 months.
  • While the optimal management of these tumors is uncertain, primary therapy with wide local excision and chemotherapy can result in prolonged survival and cure in patients with early stage RMS.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Registries. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18427824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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17. Case AS, Kirby TO, Conner MG, Huh WK: A case report of rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus associated with uterine inversion. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):850-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case report of rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus associated with uterine inversion.
  • BACKGROUND: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an uncommon malignant soft tissue tumor rarely found in the genital tract.
  • On exam, a large pedunculated mass protruding from the cervix was seen and biopsy of this mass revealed an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of VAC (Vincristine, Actinomycin, and Cyclophosphamide) for a presumed cervical rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • After five cycles of chemotherapy the patient underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, at which time a complete uterine inversion was noted with the tumor located at the fundus of the uterus.
  • Final pathology showed alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus.
  • The patient then received additional postoperative VAC regimen for a total of 10 treatments and remains in good health with no evidence of disease 20 months from diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: This case report describes the only reported case of uterine inversion secondary to alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus and discusses current therapeutic options for adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / complications. Uterine Inversion / etiology. Uterine Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15721436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VAC protocol
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18. Saâdi I, Errihani H, Haddadi K, Amaoui B, Benjaafar B, El Gueddari BK: [Sarcoma botryoïde of the uterine cervix: report of a case]. Cancer Radiother; 2002 Dec;6(6):363-5
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] [Sarcoma botryoïde of the uterine cervix: report of a case].
  • Botryoïde sarcoma of the uterine cervix is a very rare tumor of the young woman or during genial activity.
  • The treatment ranged from radical surgery to conservative surgery followed by chemotherapy.
  • We report a case of cervical botryoide rhabdomyosarcoma occurred in a 33 year-old woman treated primary by chemotherapy followed by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Metastasis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 12504774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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19. Atlante M, Dionisi B, Cioni M, Di Ruzza D, Sedati P, Mariani L: Sarcoma botryoides of the uterine cervix in a young woman: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2000;21(5):504-6
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  • [Title] Sarcoma botryoides of the uterine cervix in a young woman: a case report.
  • The onset of SB from the uterine cervix is very rare with a peak incidence in the second decade; only a few cases have been published in the international literature so far.
  • The authors report a case of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix which occurred in a young woman treated by radical surgery, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 11198044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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20. Zrara I, Mounzil CD, Rimani M, Bouzidi A, Labraimi A, Ben Omar C: [Botryoide sarcoma of the uterine cervix. Apropos of 1 case]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2002 Oct;30(10):784-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Botryoide sarcoma of the uterine cervix. Apropos of 1 case].
  • Sarcoma botryoide (SB), a variant of rhabdomyosarcoma, is a rare tumor who are rarely localized in the uterine cervix.
  • The authors reported this case with review of the literature in order to insist on diagnosis progress and a new combined modality approach using: radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy which have improved prognosis in the localized disease especially.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Desmin / analysis. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Ovariectomy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 12478984.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Desmin; 0 / Vimentin
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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21. Scaravilli G, Simeone S, Dell'Aversana Orabona G, Capuano S, Serao M, Rossi R, Orabona P, Balbi C: Case report of a sarcoma botryoides of the uterine cervix in fertile age and literature review. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Nov;280(5):863-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case report of a sarcoma botryoides of the uterine cervix in fertile age and literature review.
  • INTRODUCTION: The sarcoma botryoides of the cervix uteri occurs very rarely in fertile women.
  • CASE: Here is a case of a 35-year-old fertile woman, who developed a sarcoma botryoides of the cervix uteri.
  • The diagnosis required clinical examination, ecography, NMR, CT scan and a pathological examination of the surgical sample.
  • Radical surgery and chemotherapy was performed.
  • The patients is still living after more than 1 year after treatment.
  • DISCUSSION: Although the combined modality approach has given, if not constant, acceptable outcomes, a larger investigation on all the cases of sarcoma botryoides of the cervix uteri is expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Hysterectomy. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular

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  • (PMID = 19294398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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22. Miyamoto T, Shiozawa T, Nakamura T, Konishi I: Sarcoma botryoides of the uterine cervix in a 46-year-old woman: case report and literature review. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2004 Jan;23(1):78-82
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sarcoma botryoides of the uterine cervix in a 46-year-old woman: case report and literature review.
  • We present a case of sarcoma botryoides of the uterine cervix that was an incidental finding in a 46-year-old woman.
  • Postoperative chemotherapy (vincristine and actinomycin D) was given according to the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study protocol, and the patient was alive without recurrence 45 months postoperatively.
  • This is the only the fourth case reported in detail of a sarcoma botryoides of the uterine cervix in a patient over the age of 40.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age of Onset. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. MyoD Protein / metabolism. Myogenin / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Polyps / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14668557.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MYOG protein, human; 0 / MyoD Protein; 0 / MyoD1 myogenic differentiation protein; 0 / Myogenin
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23. Gruessner SE, Omwandho CO, Dreyer T, Blütters-Sawatzki R, Reiter A, Tinneberg HR, Bohle RM: Management of stage I cervical sarcoma botryoides in childhood and adolescence. Eur J Pediatr; 2004 Aug;163(8):452-6
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  • Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most common soft tissue sarcomas in childhood.
  • The botryoid variant arises in infancy from the vagina or urinary bladder and extremely rarely from the uterine cervix.
  • Treatment regimes range from local excision of the tumour to radical hysterectomy with adjuvant multidrug therapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • In cases of minimal cervical invasion, the less invasive local excision in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy has resulted in excellent survival rates with complete functional preservation of the bladder, rectum, vagina, and ovaries.
  • CONCLUSION: based on the literature review and our own observation, we recommend minor surgical approaches in combination with chemotherapy as the treatment of choice for early stage I cervical rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Dactinomycin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag
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  • (PMID = 15173941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6199
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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24. Growcott JW: Preclinical anticancer activity of the specific endothelin A receptor antagonist ZD4054. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Feb;20(2):83-8
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • Endothelins are a family of small peptides (ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3) that mediate various physiological processes of mitogenesis, repair, and tissue differentiation by binding to endothelin A (ETA) and endothelin B (ETB) cell surface receptors.
  • Activation of the ETA receptor by ET-1 has emerged as an important factor promoting tumor cell proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, migration, invasion, and metastasis in several tumor types including prostate, ovary, colon, cervix, breast, and lung.
  • As activation of the ETB receptor has an opposing effect, inducing cell death by apoptosis, a rationale exists for specific antagonism of the ETA receptor as a treatment strategy for cancer.
  • In A673 rhabdomyosarcoma cells, ET-1-induced phosphorylation of FAK, FAK, and paxillin was reversed with ZD4054, inhibiting the invasive phenotype mediated by these adhesion factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Endothelin A Receptor Antagonists. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pyrrolidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Humans. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19065106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Endothelin A Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / ZD4054
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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