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1. Park SS, Kim BK, Kim CJ, Kim WS, Kim IO, Park KW, Shin HY, Ahn HS: Colorectal adenocarcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm following rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2000 Aug;15(4):475-7
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  • [Title] Colorectal adenocarcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm following rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder: a case report.
  • Following improvements in therapy for childhood malignancies, the striking increase in survival rate over the past 30 years has led to the increase risk of developing second malignant neoplasms (SMNs).
  • We report a case of colorectal carcinoma as a SMN, following treatment for rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The patient was diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder at his age of three years, and developed adenocarcinoma in the colon 13 years later.
  • This case emphasizes the need for dose observation in survivors of early childhood malignancies treated with radiation and multiagent chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Rhabdomyosarcoma. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Colitis / etiology. Colitis / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Genes, p53. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / etiology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / genetics. Sigmoid Neoplasms / pathology. Time Factors. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 10983702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] KOREA (SOUTH)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3054655
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2. Raney RB, Maurer HM, Anderson JR, Andrassy RJ, Donaldson SS, Qualman SJ, Wharam MD, Wiener ES, Crist WM: The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG): Major Lessons From the IRS-I Through IRS-IV Studies as Background for the Current IRS-V Treatment Protocols. Sarcoma; 2001;5(1):9-15
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  • [Title] The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG): Major Lessons From the IRS-I Through IRS-IV Studies as Background for the Current IRS-V Treatment Protocols.
  • Purpose. To enumerate lessons from studying 4292 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG, 1972-1997).Patients.
  • Untreated patients < 21 years of age at diagnosis received systemic chemotherapy, with or without irradiation (XRT) and/or surgical removal of the tumor.Methods.
  • Pathologic materials and treatment were reviewed to ascertain compliance and to confirm response and relapse status.Results.
  • Important lessons include the fact that extent of disease at diagnosis affects prognosis.
  • The eye, vagina, and bladder can usually be saved.
  • Patients with non-metastatic cranial parameningeal sarcoma can usually be cured with localized XRT and systemic chemotherapy, without whole-brain XRT and intrathecal drugs.
  • Mature rhabdomyoblasts after treatment of patients with bladder rhabdomyosarcoma are not necessarily malignant, provided that the tumor has shrunk and malignant cells have disappeared.Discussion.

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  • (PMID = 18521303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-714X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sarcoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sarcoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2395450
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3. Raney B, Stoner J, Anderson J, Andrassy R, Arndt C, Brown K, Crist W, Maurer H, Qualman S, Wharam M, Wiener E, Meyer W, Hayes-Jordan A, Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group: Impact of tumor viability at second-look procedures performed before completing treatment on the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group protocol IRS-IV, 1991-1997: a report from the children's oncology group. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Nov;45(11):2160-8
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  • [Title] Impact of tumor viability at second-look procedures performed before completing treatment on the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group protocol IRS-IV, 1991-1997: a report from the children's oncology group.
  • PURPOSES: The aims of the study were to compare results of clinical/radiographic studies before second-look procedures (SLP) with SLP specimens from patients with gross residual sarcoma at diagnosis and to relate tumor viability to outcome.
  • PATIENTS: Seventy-three patients underwent SLP before completing chemotherapy, with (n = 59) or without (n = 14) radiotherapy.
  • Tumor sites were bladder/prostate (n = 27), head/orbit/parameningeal (n = 22), extremity/trunk (n = 14), and retroperitoneum/pelvis (n = 10).
  • Five-year survival was 78% to 79% among 73 patients with and 333 patients without SLP during treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Second-look procedures can show whether viable tumor is present and may be beneficial in selected patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 21034938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA072989; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA029511; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-24507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-72989; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29511; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA024507
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase IV; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS265975; NLM/ PMC3128803
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4. Tembely A, Diakité ML, Berthé HJ, Cissé MC, Maiga M, Diakité A, Diallo M, Ouattara K: [Bladder rhabdomyosarcoma apropos of a case in the Urology Service, University Hospital Center du Point G]. Mali Med; 2010;25(3):49-52
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  • [Title] [Bladder rhabdomyosarcoma apropos of a case in the Urology Service, University Hospital Center du Point G].
  • The bladder rhabdomyosarcoma in children is a rare tumor.
  • We report a case of bladder rhabdomyosarcoma in a child 3 years, who consulted for more dysuria hematuria.
  • The aim of this work is to remind the symptomatology and clinical aspects of para-clinical examinations of this disease in children after a review of the literature of this disease and discuss treatment options.
  • The rhabdomyosarcoma should be discussed before any symptoms of dysuria associated with hematuria in children.
  • His diagnosis is suspected by medical imaging and confirmed by pathology.
  • Our attitude has been resection of the tumor, then chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cystostomy. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Dysuria / etiology. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Male. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21441092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1993-0836
  • [Journal-full-title] Le Mali médical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mali Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mali
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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5. Blackburn S, Smeulders N, Michalski A, Cherian A: Retroperitoneoscopic para-aortic lymph node sampling in bladder rhabdomyosarcoma. J Pediatr Urol; 2010 Apr;6(2):185-7
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneoscopic para-aortic lymph node sampling in bladder rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Determining lymph node involvement is an important step in the pre-treatment evaluation of non-metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • We describe retroperitoneoscopy for para-aortic lymph node biopsy in a 4-year-old boy with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder with pelvic and para-aortic lymph node enlargement on magnetic resonance imaging.
  • This technique affords access to the para-aortic region with minimal dissection, permitting quick recovery and early commencement of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19682952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Akele-Akpo MT, Hounasso PP, Akpo C, Deminière C: [Embryonal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder]. Ann Pathol; 2002 Jun;22(3):210-4
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  • [Title] [Embryonal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder].
  • [Transliterated title] Rhabdomyosarcome embryonnaire vésical de type botryoïde.
  • A 10-year-old black child presented with bloody urine and urine retention due to a bladder tumor.
  • Cystoprostetatectomy led to the diagnosis of embryonal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The child died before chemotherapy could be completed.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Desmin / analysis. Fatal Outcome. Hematuria. Humans. Male. MyoD Protein / analysis. Myoglobin / analysis. Urinary Retention

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  • (PMID = 12410104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Desmin; 0 / MyoD Protein; 0 / MyoD1 myogenic differentiation protein; 0 / Myoglobin
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7. Esfahani SA, Montaser-Kouhsari L, Saeedi P, Sadeghi Z, Kajbafzadeh AM: An antenatally diagnosed rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder treated without extensive surgery. Nat Rev Urol; 2009 Aug;6(8):449-53
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  • [Title] An antenatally diagnosed rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder treated without extensive surgery.
  • At birth, the patient had high respiratory rate, a palpable bladder up to the umbilicus and a large pelvic mass, which compressed the anorectal wall.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Botryoid subtype of rhabdomyosarcoma occupying most of the bladder and protruding through the urethra, with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis.
  • On the fourth day, gross hematuria and decreased urinary output were observed, which rapidly progressed to anuria, and she underwent transurethral resection of the protruding part of the tumor and bilateral cutaneous ureterostomy.
  • Subsequently, she received chemotherapy with vincristine, actinomycin D and ifosfamide, and was followed up with serial imaging.
  • At 18 months, MRI showed no evidence of residual tumor, and cystoscopic biopsy confirmed the absence of viable tumor; chemotherapy was stopped.
  • She had no sign of recurrence 24 months after ending chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Infant, Newborn, Diseases / therapy. Prenatal Diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Pregnancy. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


8. Paner GP, McKenney JK, Epstein JI, Amin MB: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in adults: predilection for alveolar morphology with anaplasia and significant morphologic overlap with small cell carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jul;32(7):1022-8
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  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder in adults: predilection for alveolar morphology with anaplasia and significant morphologic overlap with small cell carcinoma.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents the most common malignant soft tissue tumor in children and adolescents with the urinary bladder representing a frequent site.
  • Most of these urinary bladder tumors are embryonal RMS, predominantly the botryoid subtype.
  • RMSs of the urinary bladder in adults are distinctively rare and the subject of only case reports.
  • We report the clinicopathologic features of 5 bladder neoplasms with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation in adults and emphasize the differential diagnosis in the adult setting.
  • Four cases were pure primary RMSs of the bladder and 1 case was a sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma with RMS representing the extensive heterologous component.
  • The degree of morphologic overlap with small cell carcinoma of the bladder, a relatively more common round cell tumor in adults, was striking.
  • No other case had previous history of bladder cancer or concurrent carcinoma in situ or invasive urothelial carcinoma.
  • Two patients received chemotherapy, 2 underwent cystectomy, and 1 had transurethral resection alone.
  • In conclusion, (1) RMS of the urinary bladder in adults more commonly presents as a primitive round blue cell neoplasm that has significant morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap with small cell carcinoma of the bladder. (2) Although RMS in children generally have a botryoid embryonal histology with favorable outcome, bladder RMS in adults frequently demonstrates alveolar or unclassified histology, commonly with anaplasia, and have a uniformly aggressive clinical course.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anaplasia. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Desmin / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. MyoD Protein / analysis. Myogenin / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18469707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Desmin; 0 / MyoD Protein; 0 / MyoD1 myogenic differentiation protein; 0 / Myogenin; 0 / Synaptophysin
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9. Aida K, Monia K, Ahlem S, Dominique HT, Becima F, Sylvie F, Ridha KM: Agminated Spitz nevi arising on a nevus spilus after chemotherapy. Pediatr Dermatol; 2010 Jul-Aug;27(4):411-3
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  • [Title] Agminated Spitz nevi arising on a nevus spilus after chemotherapy.
  • We report here a further case in a child that is original because it is induced by chemotherapy.
  • A 3-year-old boy presented 3 months after the onset of a chemotherapy for a vesico-prostatic rhabdomyosarcoma, multiple pigmented papulo-nodules located on the face, neck, chest wall, and the higher back.
  • Histological examination of three excised nodules led to the diagnosis of Spitz nevus.
  • Some of these criteria are related to NS but we should also take into account the chemotherapy induction and the high number of Spitz nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Nevus, Epithelioid and Spindle Cell / chemically induced. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy


10. Walterhouse D, Watson A: Optimal management strategies for rhabdomyosarcoma in children. Paediatr Drugs; 2007;9(6):391-400
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  • [Title] Optimal management strategies for rhabdomyosarcoma in children.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common sarcoma of childhood.
  • The fact that the tumor arises in a wide variety of primary sites, some of which are associated with specific patterns of local invasion, regional lymph node spread, and therapeutic response, requires physicians to be familiar with site-specific staging and treatment details.
  • In addition, rhabdomyosarcoma requires multimodality therapy that can be associated with significant acute toxicities and long-term effects, particularly when administered to young children.
  • Since the tumor is relatively rare, requires highly specialized care, and important management questions remain to be answered, optimal management of rhabdomyosarcoma includes enrollment in clinical trials whenever possible.
  • Appropriate management begins with establishing the correct pathologic diagnosis, histologic subtype, primary site, extent of disease (International Society of Pediatric Oncology [SIOP]-TNM-Union Internationale Contre le Cancer stage or Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group [IRSG] stage), and extent of resection (IRSG group).
  • Cooperative groups throughout North America and Europe have defined risk-adapted treatment based on these factors; this treatment requires a coordinated management plan that includes surgery, chemotherapy, and usually radiotherapy.
  • The surgical approach for rhabdomyosarcoma is to excise the primary tumor whenever possible without causing major functional or cosmetic deficits.
  • The cooperative groups reduce the dose of radiation based on the response of the tumor to chemotherapy and delayed primary resection to differing degrees.
  • Response-adjusted radiation administration may reduce the long-term effects of radiotherapy, such as bone growth arrest, muscle atrophy, bladder dysfunction, and induction of second malignant neoplasms; however, it may also be associated with an increased risk of tumor recurrence.
  • All patients with rhabdomyosarcoma require chemotherapy.
  • Risk-adapted treatment involves reducing or eliminating the alklyating agent for patients with the most favorable disease characteristics.
  • Acute and long-term toxicities associated with these chemotherapy regimens include myelosuppression, febrile neutropenia, hepatopathy, infertility, and second malignant neoplasms.
  • A 5-year survival rate >70% has been achieved in recent trials for patients with localized rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • In the future, risk-adapted classification of rhabdomyosarcoma will likely be based on biologic features, such as the presence of chromosomal translocations or specific gene expression profiles.
  • It is hoped that newer therapies directed at specific molecular genetic defects will benefit all patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rhabdomyosarcoma. Soft Tissue Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18052409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1174-5878
  • [Journal-full-title] Paediatric drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Paediatr Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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11. England RJ, Al-Adnani M, Cohen MC, Godbole PP, Marven SS: Cystoscopy assisted transvesical biopsy of prostatic rhabdomyosarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Sep;55(3):583-5
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  • [Title] Cystoscopy assisted transvesical biopsy of prostatic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The treatment of prostatic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) depends on tumour stratification based on site and histology.
  • He underwent cystoscopy to confirm the diagnosis and at the same time tissue was obtained for histology using laparoscopic graspers via a STEP Port inserted percutaneously into the apex of his bladder.
  • Histology and cytogenetics confirmed an embryonal botryoid RMS for which he received chemotherapy followed by a radical prostatectomy for residual disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy. Cystoscopy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20658638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Hester AL, Sweeney TA, Hudson MM, Billups CA, Krasin MJ, Spunt SL: Late effects following treatment for female pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):8547

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late effects following treatment for female pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS).
  • : 8547 Background Most girls treated for RMS of the pelvic region are cured, but the effects of this treatment on long term health status are poorly documented.
  • Late effects occurring beyond 5 years from diagnosis were recorded and graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0.
  • Results Among the 26 patients studied, the median age at diagnosis of RMS was 3.4 years (range, 0.2-17.2 years).
  • The most common tumor sites were vagina (n=7), pelvis/retroperitoneum (n=6), and bladder (n=4).
  • All patients received chemotherapy, which in some cases included an alkylating agent (n=23), doxorubicin (n=16), or etoposide (n=2).
  • Radiotherapy was administered to 22 patients (dose range 16-60.5 Gy, median 46 Gy).
  • Surgical intervention for treatment of late complications was required in fourteen patients (54%).

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  • (PMID = 28013809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Nikitina O, Tilma KA: [Rhabdomyosarcoma in the urogenital region of a child]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2007 Feb 12;169(7):608-9
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  • [Title] [Rhabdomyosarcoma in the urogenital region of a child].
  • We describe a relatively rare case of botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in a 15-month-old female presenting with fever, abdominal pain, urinary retention, haematuria and a tumour protruding through the urethra.
  • The diagnosis was verified by cystoscopy with biopsy and MRI.
  • She was treated with combined chemotherapy and surgery.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to the prognosis.
  • RMS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases whose symptoms include urinary retention, haematuria, urinary incontinence and atypical abdominal pain, and a primary ultrasound scan should be done.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17311757.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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14. Filipas D, Fisch M, Stein R, Gutjahr P, Hohenfellner R, Thüroff JW: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder, prostate or vagina: the role of surgery. BJU Int; 2004 Jan;93(1):125-9
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  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder, prostate or vagina: the role of surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyse the outcome of children with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the bladder, prostate or vagina who were treated with chemotherapy, with or without radical surgery or additional radiotherapy, at our institution since 1968.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From a total of 107 children with RMS seen between 1968 and December 2001, 22 (mean age 5.9, range 0.5-18) had RMS of bladder/prostate or vagina.
  • Fourteen patients had radical cystoprostatectomy, with continent cutaneous urinary diversion with an ileocaecal pouch in seven, in one each a transverse colonic pouch, orthotopic ileocaecal bladder substitution, a rectal reservoir and rectosigmoid pouch and a colonic conduit diversion in two patients.
  • Two patients with a continent urinary diversion required ureteric reimplantation for stenosis.
  • In two patients severe bladder contraction after radiotherapy required bladder augmentation.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary chemotherapy followed by radical surgery of RMS of the prostate and/or bladder allows complete tumour resection in most cases, and yields excellent cure rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Vaginal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Prostatectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Urinary Diversion / methods

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2005 Mar;173(3):982 [15711356.001]
  • (PMID = 14678383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Godbole P, Outram A, Wilcox DT, Duffy PG, Sebire NJ: Myogenin and desmin immunohistochemistry in the assessment of post-chemotherapy genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: prognostic and management implications. J Urol; 2006 Oct;176(4 Pt 2):1751-4
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  • [Title] Myogenin and desmin immunohistochemistry in the assessment of post-chemotherapy genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: prognostic and management implications.
  • PURPOSE: Posttreatment genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma often shows well differentiated rhabdomyoblasts, which are detectable on routine histological staining.
  • Definite areas of residual undifferentiated rhabdomyosarcoma indicate residual/recurrent disease.
  • However, the recent use of immunohistochemical staining with desmin and myogenin in resected specimens and surveillance biopsies following adjuvant therapy may demonstrate scant positive staining cells that appear undifferentiated on light microscopy.
  • Therefore, we reviewed our retrospective experience with genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma to examine the relationship between immunostain positive undifferentiated cells and subsequent clinical outcome.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 14 children with a median age of 2.75 years (range 8 months to 7 years) with genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma were identified in the histopathology database.
  • All had biopsy confirmation of the diagnosis, followed by multi-agent chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: There were 14 cases of genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • In 2 cases (14%) residual embryonal tumor was pathologically confirmed following initial treatment.
  • In 12 cases no obvious residual tumor was present following initial therapy.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma affected the bladder in 10 cases and the vagina in 2.
  • Ten patients underwent local resection following chemotherapy and 2 underwent followup biopsies only without resection.
  • A total of 11 cases showed well differentiated, posttreatment rhabdomyoblasts that was identifiable on routine hematoxylin and eosin staining with margins apparently free of tumor and 1 showed no morphological evidence of residual rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Four patients had no further treatment and none had clinical recurrence.
  • All were well 10 years (range 8 to 13) after treatment.
  • Eight patients received further treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy) based on clinical and pathological findings, followed by further resection in 3.
  • One patient died of disease but 7 were well a median of 7.2 years (range 8 months to 13 years) after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The significance of undifferentiated myogenin/desmin positive cells in genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in the absence of morphological residual/recurrent embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma remains unclear since such cells can be detected in all cases of posttreatment embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • In some cases findings are associated with clinical disease recurrence, while others with identical histopathological findings following initial treatment have no clinical sequelae even in the absence of further treatment.
  • In genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma close and regular clinical surveillance is essential.
  • [MeSH-major] Desmin / analysis. Myogenin / analysis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / chemistry. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Urogenital Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Male. Prostatic Neoplasms / chemistry. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / chemistry. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / chemistry. Vaginal Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16945640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Desmin; 0 / Myogenin
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16. Xiao ZJ, Li CL: [Diagnosis and treatment of malignant bladder non-epithelial tumors]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Nov 4;88(40):2845-7
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of malignant bladder non-epithelial tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of malignant bladder non-epithelial tumors.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 17 cases with malignant bladder non-epithelial tumor, 15 males and 3 females, aged 28 (3-73), were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Ten of the 17 cases were diagnosed as with rhabdomyosarcoma, 2 with malignant lymphoma, and 2 with malignant pheochromocytoma, 2 with leiomyosarcoma, and 1 with carcinosarcoma.
  • All patients underwent operation, or were treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Among the 10 cases with rhabdomyosarcoma, 7 were aged under 5, 5 of them survived for more than 8 years, and 2 were lost to follow-up; other 3 adult patients died in one year with metastasis all over the body.
  • Two patients with malignant lymphoma underwent partial cystectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and survived for more than 3 years.
  • Of the 2 cases with malignant pheochromocytoma, one underwent lymphadenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy and survived for more than 5 years; and another case died 2 years after operation and chemotherapy.
  • One case with carcinosarcoma receiving operation followed by chemotherapy died in one year.
  • CONCLUSION: Malignant bladder non-epithelial tumors are rare clinically and most of them occur in children.
  • Most of them are rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The prognosis of malignant bladder non-epithelial tumors, different in pathological types, is relatively worse in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19080495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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17. Spunt SL, Sweeney TA, Hudson MM, Billups CA, Krasin MJ, Hester AL: Late effects of pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma and its treatment in female survivors. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct 1;23(28):7143-51
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  • [Title] Late effects of pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma and its treatment in female survivors.
  • PURPOSE: To document the spectrum and severity of late effects in female survivors of pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the demographic, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome data of the 26 females treated for pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma at our institution between March 1962 and December 1996 who survived free of disease for 5 or more years.
  • Adverse effects that occurred 5 or more years after diagnosis were graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0.
  • RESULTS: The most common tumor sites were vagina (n = 7), pelvis/retroperitoneum (n = 6), and bladder (n = 4).
  • All patients received chemotherapy (alkylating agent, n = 23; doxorubicin, n = 16); 22 received radiotherapy (median dose, 46 Gy).
  • CONCLUSION: The burden of late effects in girls treated for pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma is significant and does not seem to be diminishing with advances in treatment.
  • Prospective studies are needed to better assess the impact of these late effects on quality of life and functional outcome, and to refine the treatment approach to pelvic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cost of Illness. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16192598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23099; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Puri DR, Wexler LH, Meyers PA, La Quaglia MP, Healey JH, Wolden SL: The challenging role of radiation therapy for very young children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Jul 15;65(4):1177-84
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  • [Title] The challenging role of radiation therapy for very young children with rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate local control and toxicity for very young children treated with multimodality therapy for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1990 to 2004, 20 patients<or=36 months at diagnosis were treated at our institution.
  • Nineteen underwent chemotherapy (CMT), surgery and/or intraoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (IOHDR), and external-beam radiation (EBRT).
  • Sites included extremity (7), trunk (5), parameningeal (4), orbit (1), head/neck (1), bladder/prostate (1).
  • Ten had delayed gross total resection (GTR) at median time of 17 weeks after the start of CMT, and 8 of these underwent IOHDR.
  • Median EBRT dose was 36 Gy.
  • Functional outcome was assessed for patients alive>or=1 year after diagnosis (15) in terms of mild, moderate, or severe deficits.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A reduced dose of 36-Gy EBRT after delayed GTR may maximize local control while minimizing long-term sequelae for very young children with RMS, but unresectable tumors (e.g., parameningeal) require higher doses.
  • Normal-tissue-sparing techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy and IOHDR are encouraged.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / radiotherapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Radiation Injuries / complications. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16682130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Parekh DJ, Jung C, O'Conner J, Dutta S, Smith ER Jr: Leiomyosarcoma in urinary bladder after cyclophosphamide therapy for retinoblastoma and review of bladder sarcomas. Urology; 2002 Jul;60(1):164
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leiomyosarcoma in urinary bladder after cyclophosphamide therapy for retinoblastoma and review of bladder sarcomas.
  • We report an unusual case of a leiomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder after chemotherapy for retinoblastoma and the results of a review of the published reports of bladder sarcomas.
  • A 22-year-old man presented with hematuria and was found to have a mass in his urinary bladder on computed tomography.
  • Prospective randomized combination trials similar to the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study in the pediatric population are necessary to better understand and manage these potentially curable sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cystectomy / methods. Hematuria / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Urinary Diversion / methods

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  • (PMID = 12100953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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20. Leuschner I, Harms D, Mattke A, Koscielniak E, Treuner J: Rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder and vagina: a clinicopathologic study with emphasis on recurrent disease: a report from the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry and the German CWS Study. Am J Surg Pathol; 2001 Jul;25(7):856-64
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  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcoma of the urinary bladder and vagina: a clinicopathologic study with emphasis on recurrent disease: a report from the Kiel Pediatric Tumor Registry and the German CWS Study.
  • Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) of the urinary bladder and vagina vary in their biologic and clinical behavior and require different types of treatment.
  • We investigated tumor specimens of 51 urinary bladder RMS and 14 vaginal RMS with regard to histologic subtype, growth pattern, differentiation, and proliferation morphologically and immunohistochemically.
  • Recurrences and/or "second look" specimens from 15 patients after chemotherapy were compared with the primary tumors.
  • BRMS is more common in the vagina (11 BRMS of 14 cases) than in the urinary bladder RMS (15 BRMS of 54 cases).
  • Classical embryonal RMS with a polypoid (exophytic) growth pattern is associated with a more favorable prognosis (92% 10-year survival) than the same type with a diffuse intramural (endophytic) growth pattern (68% 10-year survival, p = 0.02).
  • A marked maturation after chemotherapy was seen in the majority of recurrences and SL specimens, associated with lowered proliferation activity.
  • Two of 12 patients with recurrences showing chemotherapy-induced maturation died of the disease.
  • In conclusion, we determined that polypoid embryonal RMS of both the urinary bladder and the vagina have a comparably good prognosis.
  • The poorer prognosis of the group of urinary bladder RMS as a whole was caused by a high incidence of diffusely growing RMS, which have a less favorable prognosis than polypoid RMS.
  • Maturation after chemotherapy occurs frequently in RMS.
  • In contrast to the excellent prognosis reported in other studies, we had two patients with fatal outcome despite chemotherapy-induced maturation in the recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11420456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Donaldson SS, Meza J, Breneman JC, Crist WM, Laurie F, Qualman SJ, Wharam M, Children's Oncology Group Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee (formely Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Group) representing the Children's Oncology Group and the Quality Assurance Review Center: Results from the IRS-IV randomized trial of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with rhabdomyosarcoma--a report from the IRSG. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2001 Nov 1;51(3):718-28
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  • [Title] Results from the IRS-IV randomized trial of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in children with rhabdomyosarcoma--a report from the IRSG.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome and toxicity of hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) vs. conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) in children with Group III rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Five hundred fifty-nine children were enrolled into the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV with Group III RMS.
  • Of the 490 remaining, 239 were randomized to HFRT (59.4 Gy in 54 1.1-Gy twice daily fractions) and 251 to CFRT (50.4 Gy in 28 1.8-Gy daily fractions).
  • All patients received chemotherapy.
  • RT began at Week 9 after induction chemotherapy for all but those with high-risk parameningeal tumors who received RT during induction chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Analysis by randomized treatment assignment (intent to treat) revealed an estimated 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) rate of 70% and overall survival (OS) of 75%.
  • In the univariate analysis, the factors associated with the best outcome were age 1-9 years at diagnosis; noninvasive tumors; tumor size <5 cm; uninvolved lymph nodes; Stage 1 or 2 disease; primary site in the orbit or head and neck; and embryonal histologic features (p = 0.001 for all factors).
  • No differences in the FFS or OS between the two RT treatment methods and no differences in the FFS or OS between HFRT and CFRT were found when analyzed by age, gender, tumor size, tumor invasiveness, nodal status, histologic features, stage, or primary site.
  • Treatment compliance differed by age.
  • Of the children >or=5 years, 88% assigned to both HFRT and CFRT received their assigned treatment.
  • The reasons for not receiving the appropriate randomized treatment were progressive disease, early death, parent or physician refusal, young age, or surgery.
  • The analysis by treatment actually received revealed a 5-year FFS rate of 73% and OS rate of 77%, with no difference between CFRT and HFRT.
  • The 5-year local failure rate by site was orbit, 5%; head and neck, 12%; parameningeal, 16%; bladder/prostate, 19%; extremity, 7%; and all others, 14%.
  • The 5-year distant failure rate was orbit, 2%; head and neck, 6%; parameningeal, 11%; bladder/prostate, 15%; extremity, 28%; and all others, 17%.
  • The standard of care for Group III RMS continues to be CFRT with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dose Fractionation. Rhabdomyosarcoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Analysis of Variance. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Patient Compliance. Radiation Injuries / classification. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002 Dec 1;54(5):1579-80; author reply 1580 [12459396.001]
  • (PMID = 11597814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-24507
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Xu AX, Wang XX, Hong BF, Ye LY, Zhang L: [Non-epithelial tissue tumors of the urinary bladder]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2003 Jul;41(7):530-3
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  • [Title] [Non-epithelial tissue tumors of the urinary bladder].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience in the diagnosis and treatment of non-epithelial tissue tumor of urinary bladder.
  • METHODS: >From 1953 to April 2002, a total of 28 patients with non-epithelial tissue tumor in 3 925 bladder tumor cases were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Painless gross hematuria, pelvic mass, urinary frequency and dysuria are symptoms of non-epithelial bladder tumor.
  • Ultrasonic examination, computed tomography (CT) scan, cystoscopy and biopsy is used for diagnosis of the tumor.
  • Seventeen of 28 patients (61.7%) were malignant neoplasms in 7 kinds of pathologic types, which was small cell carcinoma (5 cases), rhabdomyosarcoma (4 cases), leiomyosarcoma (4 cases), lymphoma (1 case), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (1 case), liposarcoma(1 case), melanoma (1 case) respectively.
  • Eleven of 28 patients (39.3%) were benign tumors with 4 kinds of histologic types including 2 cases of cavernous hemangioma, 1 case of fibroma, 1 case of leiomyoma, 7 cases of pheochromocytoma.
  • All benign tumor patients were treated with partial cystectomy, transurethral bladder tumor resect (TURBT) and fulguration.
  • Those malignant bladder tumor patient are followed up, but 3 years survival rates is only 8/17.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Non-epithelial tissue tumor of the urinary bladder is rare with complicated pathologic types.
  • Diagnosis rate which was confirmed before operation is low.
  • Dip biopsy under cystoscopy may enhance the diagnosis rate.
  • Surgical treatment is the main therapy for non-epithelial tissue tumor of the urinary bladder.
  • According to the histologic appearance radiotherapy and chemotherapy is mandatory in some cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cystectomy / methods. Cystoscopy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Urinary Bladder / pathology. Urinary Bladder / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 12921662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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23. Méndez R, Arnáiz S, Montero M, Tellado M, País E, Ríos J, Vela D: [Clinical patterns of soft-tissue sarcoma in children]. Cir Pediatr; 2001 Jan;14(1):14-20
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  • [Title] [Clinical patterns of soft-tissue sarcoma in children].
  • [Transliterated title] Patrones clínicos de comportamiento en sarcomas pediátricos de partes blandas.
  • INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Soft tissue sarcomas are rare mesenchymal neoplasms that constitute less than 10% of all pediatric malignancies.
  • The purpose of this work is to evaluate our clinical experience with soft tissue sarcomas in uncommon sites over the past 10 years in order to delimitate the prognostic factors in survival and modalities of treatment.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1989 and 1998, 10 patients were diagnosed with soft tissue sarcomas in uncommon sites and treated by us over a total number of 139 pediatric neoplasms (7.19%).
  • Variables investigated included histologic findings, tumor size, age at presentation, primary site, clinical group, radiologic test performed, surgical treatment, radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, complications and survival rates.
  • RESULTS: The following histologic types of these 10 tumors were identified: 1 hemangiopericytoma in oral cavity, 2 extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma, 1 botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder, 1 mediastinal fibrosarcoma, 1 retroperitoneal rhabdomyosarcoma, 1 paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma, 1 cervical condrosarcoma, 1 alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma and 1 deltoid rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 7 years (4.6 years accounted for rhabdomyosarcoma alone).
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy with IVA was followed by radiotherapy only in four patients.
  • All the children classified in clinical groups II, III or IV needed 2nd. line regimens of chemotherapy.
  • Three patients died in the follow-up instead of the multimodal treatment.
  • 2) radiotherapy will only be necessary if margins of resection cannot control the local disease, and 3) chemotherapy have not clearly demonstrated his benefits as adjuvant therapy in clinical group I lesions but his employ is recommended in all cases because of the poor prognosis due to local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / therapy. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11339112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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24. Kazanowska B, Mikołajewska A, Balcerska A, Balwierz W, Bodalski J, Dłuzniewska A, Drozyńska E, Kurylak A, Reich A, Stencel D, Szewczyk B, Wachowiak J, Wysocki M, Chybicka A: [Soft tissue sarcoma of the bladder and prostate. A report of the Polish Paediatric Solid Tumour Group (PPSTG)]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2004 Oct-Dec;8(4 Pt 2):1091-8
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  • [Title] [Soft tissue sarcoma of the bladder and prostate. A report of the Polish Paediatric Solid Tumour Group (PPSTG)].
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children younger then 15 years of age.
  • The treatment of RMS localized in bladder or prostate still remains controversial.
  • The aim of this study was analysis of treatment results in children with soft tissue sarcoma of bladder and prostate.
  • From 1993 to 2001 the PPSTG has used three protocols to treat soft tissue sarcomas in children.
  • After biopsy confirmation of the diagnosis patients were treated with chemotherapy and subsequent surgery.
  • The median follow-up time was 42 months.
  • RMS-embryonal was diagnosed in 11 patients, RMS-alveolare in 4 and others types in 4.
  • Sixteen patients presented clinical stage III and 3 stage IV The tumours were primarily localised in bladder in 16 patients and prostate in 3.
  • After induction chemotherapy two patients received partial cystectomy, 5 complete cystectomy and 3 complete cystectomy with genitourinary reconstructive.
  • The most common treatment failure was isolated, local relapse in 8 children particularly in patients with any second surgery.
  • Significant prognostic factors are the initial tumours volume, the lymph nodes infiltration and the response to the first chemotherapy cycle.
  • Surgery is the most important procedure in local control of soft tissue sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cystectomy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Poland. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15951604.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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25. Polish Paediatric Solid Tumours Study Group, Stachowicz-Stencel T, Bień E, Kazanowska B, Balcerska A, Balwierz W, Chybicka A, Dłuzniewska A, Drozyńska E, Katski K, Kowalczyk JR, Kurylak A, Peregud-Pogorzelski J, Stencel D, Zalewska-Szewczyks B, Wachowiak J, Wysockis M: [Soft tissue sarcomas of bladder and prostate in children treated according to the CWS-96 protocol--report of the Polish Paediatric Solid Tumours Study Group]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2005 Jul-Sep;9(3 Pt 2):495-506
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  • [Title] [Soft tissue sarcomas of bladder and prostate in children treated according to the CWS-96 protocol--report of the Polish Paediatric Solid Tumours Study Group].
  • AIM: analysis of the course, outcome and therapy complications in bladder/prostate soft tissue sarcomas (STS) in children treated from I'1997 to II'2003 according to CWS-96 protocol in Poland.
  • All received chemotherapy for high risk group.
  • Response to chemotherapy after three cycles was favourable in eight and unfavourable in eight children.
  • Five patients developed local relapse, four--continual disease progression.
  • Nine patients died: seven due to neoplasm progression, two of therapy complications (septic shock, ARDS).
  • Eight children had bladder removed with continent ileal pouch formed in four. CONCLUSIONS:.
  • 1) Advanced stages of bladder/prostate sarcomas in children suggest the necessity of earlier diagnosis.
  • 2) Due to adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy approximately 60% of patients with this diagnosis may be nowadays cured of bladder/prostate sarcomas without mutilating surgical procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cystectomy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16719162.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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26. Polish Paediatric Solid Tumours Study Group, Bień E, Stachowicz-Stencel T, Kazanowska B, Balcerska A, Balwierz W, Chybicka A, Dłuzniewska A, Drozyńska E, Kurylak A, Matysiaks M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Rychłowska M, Solarz E, Sopyło B, Stencels D, Wachowiaks J, Wieczorek M, Woźniak W, Wysocki M: [Genitourinary soft tissue sarcomas located outside bladder and prostate in children treated according to the CWS-96 protocol--report from the Polish Paediatric Solid Tumours Study Group]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2005 Jul-Sep;9(3 Pt 2):507-15
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  • [Title] [Genitourinary soft tissue sarcomas located outside bladder and prostate in children treated according to the CWS-96 protocol--report from the Polish Paediatric Solid Tumours Study Group].
  • AIM: Analysis of therapy efficacy in non-bladder/prostate genitourinary sarcomas in children treated from I'1997 to VI'2003 with CWS-96 protocol in Poland.
  • Primary tumour exceeded 5cm and/or invaded surrounding tissues in 7 patients (37%).
  • Six of 7 patients with macroscopic tumour residues responded to chemotherapy (CR-4, GR-2).
  • Radiotherapy (23,5-54 Gy) was given to 8 patients.
  • 3 children developed local relapse, 3 patients died (16%): 2 due to neoplasm progression, 1 of neutropenia-related sepsis.
  • 1) prognosis in children with non-bladder/prostate genitourinary sarcomas is favourable despite incomplete primary excision of the neoplasm.
  • 2) chemotherapy and radiotherapy were accompanied by severe but transient myelosupression in the HR group.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Urogenital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urogenital Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16719163.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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27. Raspagliesi F, Ditto A, Martinelli F, Hanozet F, Solima E, Grijuela B, Haeusler E, Fontanelli R: Nerve-sparing radical vaginectomy: two case reports and description of the surgical technique. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 May;19(4):794-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Radical vaginectomy (RV) is related to significant bladder dysfunctions.
  • CASE REPORTS: A 58-year-old woman with a diagnosis of locally advanced cervical cancer underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with local and nodal progression of disease.
  • The patient underwent NS radical hysterectomy plus NSRV, with prompt recovery of bladder function.
  • A 14-year-old adolescent girl with a diagnosis of recurrent embryonal-botryoidal rhabdomyosarcoma was referred to us.
  • She underwent 6 courses of chemotherapy with persistent disease.
  • Two months after the surgical procedure, she was able to void the bladder.
  • This new surgical technique is feasible, with prompt recovery of bladder function.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvis / innervation. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery. Vagina / surgery. Vaginal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Urinary Bladder / innervation

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  • (PMID = 19509590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Groff DB: Pelvic neoplasms in children. J Surg Oncol; 2001 May;77(1):65-71
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  • The pelvis of the infant and child has different anatomic relationships than the adolescent or adult pelvis, and the knowledge of congenital anomalies of the rectum and bladder can assist in treating the primary neoplasms of the pelvis.
  • The most common neoplasms are rhabdomyosarcomas of the bladder, prostate, and vagina; sacrococcygeal teratoma; and the germ cell tumors, including teratomas, endodermal sinus tumors, and the choriocarcinomas.
  • Rapidly improving chemotherapy for all of these lesions has resulted in a changed role for the surgeon.
  • Survival for all types of childhood pelvic neoplasms has improved dramatically under the influence of the combined children's cancer study groups, which have been functioning for the last 20 years.
  • Because of the complexities of diagnosis and treatment of these pelvic neoplasms in childhood and because the survival rates have dramatically improved with the most current therapy, these children should be cared for in a children's center that is part of the major children's cancer study groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvic Neoplasms. Pelvis / anatomy & histology. Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 11344486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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29. Castellino SM, McLean TW: Pediatric genitourinary tumors. Curr Opin Oncol; 2007 May;19(3):248-53
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  • RECENT FINDINGS: Survival continues to improve for primary renal, bladder/prostate and testicular tumors in childhood.
  • The addition of more intensive chemotherapy for anaplastic histology disease, recognition of loss of heterozygosity for chromosomes 1p and 16q as an adverse prognostic factor in favorable histology Wilms' tumor, and the utilization of molecular markers to better characterize all renal tumors will better enable individualized therapy.
  • Recognition and treatment of anaplastic histology and bilateral Wilms' tumor remains a challenge.
  • In rhabdomyosarcoma, genitourinary site and embryonal histology confer a relatively favorable prognosis.
  • SUMMARY: Advances in molecular oncology, diagnostic imaging, surgical approaches and long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors drive risk-stratified therapy in pediatric genitourinary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Urogenital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urogenital Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma / metabolism. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / genetics. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17414644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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30. Lamalmi N, Rouas L, Cherradi N, Malihy A, Khattab M, Alhamany Z: [Botryoid Wilms tumor extending into the duodenum]. Arch Pediatr; 2010 Dec;17(12):1664-6
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  • The main differential diagnosis of this unusual tumor is botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was mixed type nephroblastoma, SIOP 2001 stage III.
  • The patient was given a course of postoperative chemotherapy.
  • Only few such cases have been previously reported, some of them extending into the bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Ureteral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20943355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-664X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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31. Wermeński K, Kopyś-Wiszniewska I: [Value of diagnostic imaging for assessment of unsuccessful treatment of children with neoplastic diseases. Introductory comments based on personal examinations]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2000 Apr-Jun;4(2 Suppl 2):103-13
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  • [Title] [Value of diagnostic imaging for assessment of unsuccessful treatment of children with neoplastic diseases. Introductory comments based on personal examinations].
  • This is a precise and fine instrument for monitoring effects of treatment in childhood malignant tumours.
  • Authors demonstrate examples of cases in which diagnostic imaging was the only method which revealed a relapse in situ, progression during chemotherapy or clinically unsuspected dissemination of tumours after many years.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Fibromatosis, Aggressive / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Osteosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Child, Preschool. Cicatrix / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 11178334.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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32. Singhal M, Bakhshi S: Primary myositis coinciding with vincristine-induced neuropathic pain and urinary retention in rhabdomyosarcoma: an unusual occurrence. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Nov;30(11):869
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  • [Title] Primary myositis coinciding with vincristine-induced neuropathic pain and urinary retention in rhabdomyosarcoma: an unusual occurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Myositis / chemically induced. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic / chemically induced. Urinary Retention / chemically induced. Vincristine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Prognosis

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  • [CommentOn] J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008 Jan;30(1):61-2 [18176183.001]
  • (PMID = 18989167.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine
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33. Soloni P, Compostella A, Carli M, Bisogno G: A case of oxaliplatin overdose. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Jul;52(7):902-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / drug therapy. Organoplatinum Compounds / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Overdose. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Infant. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / etiology. Neurilemmoma / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / complications. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19229969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin
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