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1. De Potter P: Current treatment of retinoblastoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol; 2002 Oct;13(5):331-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current treatment of retinoblastoma.
  • Chemotherapy has recently achieved a major role in the primary management of intraocular retinoblastoma.
  • Tumor reduction by first-line chemotherapy (chemoreduction) followed by local treatments is now accepted as treatment strategy for intraocular retinoblastoma with the goal of avoiding external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or enucleation.
  • Although efficient in reducing tumor volume, chemotherapy cannot cure retinoblastoma.
  • Systemic chemotherapy used with local ophthalmic therapies during or after the chemotherapy can eliminate the need for enucleation or external beam radiotherapy in Reese-Ellsworth group 1, 2, or 3 retinoblastoma.
  • The resultant visual acuity after globe-conserving therapies in those eyes with Reese-Ellsworth group 4 and 5 tumors is often poor.
  • Intensified chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue appears effective for patients with metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cryotherapy. Drug Therapy. Eye Enucleation. Humans. Laser Coagulation

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  • (PMID = 12218465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8738
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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2. Goto H, Kousaka A, Takano S, Usui M: Recurrence of retinoblastoma 12 years after brachytherapy. Am J Ophthalmol; 2002 Nov;134(5):773-5
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  • [Title] Recurrence of retinoblastoma 12 years after brachytherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To report a case of retinoblastoma that recurred 12 years after brachytherapy.
  • METHODS: A 2-month-old boy presented in December 1983 with bilateral retinoblastoma and was treated with bilateral 198Au plaque radiotherapy, photocoagulation, and cryotherapy.
  • RESULTS: In January 1996, cytopathologic examination of large keratic precipitates in the right eye demonstrated cells consistant with retinoblastoma.
  • The right eye was enucleated and diffuse retinoblastoma was noted histopathologically.
  • Systemic chemotherapy was given, and there has been no local recurrence or extraocular metastasis for 5 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case emphasizes that long-term follow-up is essential for managing retinoblastoma after eye-preserving conservative therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Gold Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Retinoblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cryosurgery. Eye Enucleation. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laser Coagulation. Male. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 12429261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gold Radioisotopes
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3. Dimaras H, Rushlow D, Halliday W, Doyle JJ, Babyn P, Abella EM, Williams J, Héon E, Gallie BL, Chan HS: Using RB1 mutations to assess minimal residual disease in metastatic retinoblastoma. Transl Res; 2010 Aug;156(2):91-7
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  • [Title] Using RB1 mutations to assess minimal residual disease in metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • To assess complete remission before subjecting nongermline metastatic retinoblastoma patients to an autologous peripheral stem cell transplant, we tested for patient-specific retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB1) mutant alleles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and bone marrow.
  • In Child A, the R251X mutation was detected in mutant controls diluted to 1:12,800 but not in CSF samples, corroborating clinical remission after chemotherapy.
  • In Child B's bone marrow, AS-PCR for R358X was strongly positive at the detection of relapse, and subsequent bone marrow samples corroborated clinical remission after chemotherapy.
  • Both children were deemed suitable candidates for supralethal-dosage consolidation chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral stem cell rescue of the bone marrow aimed at curing their metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • When Child A recurred, the mutant tumor RB1 allele was detected 3.5 months before conventional pathology detected retinoblastoma tumor cells in the CSF.
  • Assaying tumor-specific RB1 mutations complements cytological and immunohistochemical assessment of retinoblastoma involvement of CSF and bone marrow.
  • An early diagnosis of relapse may allow an early institution of new therapy.
  • A prospective international multicenter trial of the rare patients with metastatic retinoblastoma would assess the role of molecular monitoring in surveillance for minimal residual disease and recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Mutation. Retinal Neoplasms / genetics. Retinoblastoma / genetics. Retinoblastoma Protein / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20627193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1810
  • [Journal-full-title] Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transl Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein
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4. Shields CL, Honavar S, Shields JA, Demirci H, Meadows AT: Vitrectomy in eyes with unsuspected retinoblastoma. Ophthalmology; 2000 Dec;107(12):2250-5
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  • [Title] Vitrectomy in eyes with unsuspected retinoblastoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze patient management and prognosis after vitrectomy in eyes with unsuspected retinoblastoma.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Eleven consecutive patients who had undergone vitrectomy on an eye with unsuspected retinoblastoma.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The two main outcome measures were ultimate patient management and the development of retinoblastoma metastasis.
  • RESULTS: Of more than 900 consecutive patients with retinoblastoma managed on the Ocular Oncology Service at Wills Eye Hospital in Philadelphia, 11 (1%) had prior vitrectomy in an eye with viable tumor before referral to us for suspected retinoblastoma.
  • In no case was retinoblastoma suspected before vitrectomy.
  • Retinoblastoma was later suspected during vitrectomy in two patients (18%), on cytologic examination of the vitrectomy specimen in eight patients (73%), and after referral in one patient (9%).
  • Retinoblastoma cells were visualized in the vitreous in seven eyes (64%) and not visualized in four eyes (36%) that had vitreous blood.
  • Adjuvant treatment was delivered in 10 patients (91%), using orbital radiotherapy in nine patients (82%) and chemotherapy in nine patients (82%).
  • Histopathologic evidence of retinoblastoma invasion was documented in the episclera (two eyes; 18%), anterior chamber (seven eyes; 64%), iris (five eyes; 45%), ciliary body (five eyes; 45%), choroid (three eyes; 27%), and optic nerve (four eyes; 36%; prelaminar, two eyes; postlaminar, two eyes).
  • Of the 10 patients who received prophylactic chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both in addition to enucleation for prevention of retinoblastoma metastasis, none (0%) experienced metastasis or orbital recurrence during the mean follow-up of 7 years (range, 0.2-24 years) from the time of retinoblastoma diagnosis.
  • However, one patient was referred to us after the development of metastatic retinoblastoma, and despite aggressive chemotherapy and radiotherapy after enucleation, died 24 months later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Retinoblastoma may present with atypical features such as vitreous hemorrhage or signs of vitreous inflammation, particularly in older children.
  • Vitrectomy should be avoided in these cases until the possibility of underlying retinoblastoma is excluded.
  • If vitrectomy is performed in an eye with unsuspected retinoblastoma, enucleation combined with adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both without delay is advised to prevent systemic tumor dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retinoblastoma / diagnosis. Vitrectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Endophthalmitis / surgery. Eye Enucleation. Eye Infections, Parasitic / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Vitreous Hemorrhage / surgery


5. Chantada G, Fandiño A, Casak S, Manzitti J, Raslawski E, Schvartzman E: Treatment of overt extraocular retinoblastoma. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2003 Mar;40(3):158-61
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  • [Title] Treatment of overt extraocular retinoblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Overt extraocular retinoblastoma is common in developing countries and little information about its treatment is available.
  • The aim of this study is to report our experience in the treatment of these cases using a uniform approach.
  • PROCEDURE: Patients with overt extraocular retinoblastoma including orbital extension, preauricular lymph node invasion and/or metastatic disease on diagnosis or after extraocular relapse admitted to the Hospital JP Garrahan from August 1987 to December 2000 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Treatment included: neoadjuvant combination chemotherapy followed by limited surgery in case of orbital extension (enucleation or resection of residual orbital mass) and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy included cyclophosphamide, vincristine, etoposide, doxorubicin (in protocol 87), idarubicin (in protocol 94), cisplatin (in protocol 87), and carboplatin (in protocol 94).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This treatment strategy was highly efficacious for patients with orbital and/or lymph node extension.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Developing Countries. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12518344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Moshfeghi DM, Wilson MW, Haik BG, Hill DA, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Pratt CB: Retinoblastoma metastatic to the ovary in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol; 2002 May;133(5):716-8
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  • [Title] Retinoblastoma metastatic to the ovary in a patient with Waardenburg syndrome.
  • PURPOSE: To report a child with retinoblastoma and Waardenburg syndrome who developed ovarian metastases.
  • METHODS: Unilateral retinoblastoma was diagnosed in a 3-year-old girl with Waardenburg syndrome and leukocoria in the right eye.
  • Two years later, she developed metastatic disease involving the bone marrow, right humerus, both supraorbital bones, and both tibias.
  • She was treated with chemotherapy, orbital irradiation, and bone marrow transplant but returned 7 months later with back pain and urinary retention.
  • RESULTS: Exploratory laparotomy revealed a right ovarian mass, and the excised ovary showed metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • The child underwent chemotherapy and remained asymptomatic for 9 months, when brain metastases were diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSION: We believe that this is the first description of a patient with retinoblastoma and Waardenburg syndrome and of an ovarian metastasis from retinoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Retinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retinoblastoma / secondary. Waardenburg Syndrome / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11992879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9394
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30-CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30-CA23099
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Chang CY, Hung GY, Hsu WM, Kao SC, Hwang B, Hsieh YL: Retinoblastoma with spinal recurrence presenting as spinal cord compression. J Formos Med Assoc; 2006 Jun;105(6):497-502
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  • [Title] Retinoblastoma with spinal recurrence presenting as spinal cord compression.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is not rare in extraocular retinoblastoma, and it is not surprising to find it in view of its route of spread.
  • This report describes two patients with unilateral retinoblastoma with spinal recurrence presenting as SCC.
  • The first patient developed erythematous swelling of the right foot and weakness of the bilateral lower limbs at 7 months after left enucleation.
  • The second patient developed weakness of the bilateral lower limbs, and defecative and urinary difficulty for 2 days at 8 months after left enucleation.
  • The first patient refused chemotherapy and survived only 4 months due to disease progression.
  • The second patient received systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy, and survived 19.5 months without disease progression.
  • Spinal recurrence with SCC should be suspected when leg weakness or bowel or bladder disturbance occurs in patients with retinoblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 16801038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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8. Bakhshi S, Meel R, Mohanti BK, Hasan Naqvi SG: Treatment and outcome of nonmetastatic extraocular retinoblastoma with a uniform chemotherapy protocol. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Mar;32(2):e42-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment and outcome of nonmetastatic extraocular retinoblastoma with a uniform chemotherapy protocol.
  • Nonmetastatic extraocular retinoblastoma is a common entity in South-East Asia.
  • We did a retrospective study of patients treated for isolated extraocular retinoblastoma, that is, International retinoblastoma staging system stages II and III, using a uniform chemotherapy protocol at our oncology center, between June 2003 and June 2008.
  • Out of the 25 patients having nonmetastatic extraocular retinoblastoma, 6 were in stage II, and 19 in stage III.
  • This is the largest case series of nonmetastatic extraocular retinoblastoma from South-East Asia.
  • [MeSH-major] Orbital Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20168241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Makimoto A: Results of treatment of retinoblastoma that has infiltrated the optic nerve, is recurrent, or has metastasized outside the eyeball. Int J Clin Oncol; 2004 Feb;9(1):7-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of treatment of retinoblastoma that has infiltrated the optic nerve, is recurrent, or has metastasized outside the eyeball.
  • Since the development of chemotherapy regimens for patients with retinoblastoma started in the 1950s, various agents and regimens have been employed for various kinds of patients.
  • Chemotherapy has been employed for:.
  • With the addition of appropriate chemotherapies to the conventional treatment modalities such as enucleation and radiotherapy, patients with advanced retinoblastoma are expected to obtain a survival benefit.
  • Moreover, a new modality combined with autologous stem cell support allowed us to use high-dose alkylating agents such as thiotepa, melphalan, and cyclophosphamide, which resulted in better prognosis for patients with metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • Because of the small number of patients with retinoblastoma and the diversity of the disease characteristics in individual patients, there have been no clinical trials to determine whether to recommend a particular regimen, or to identify specific criteria in patients who would benefit from chemotherapy.
  • Well-designed prospective controlled trials are warranted to establish a standard treatment strategy for patients with extraocular retinoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Optic Nerve / pathology. Retinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / pathology. Retinoblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy / trends. Eye / pathology. Humans. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation / trends. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 15162820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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10. Taçyildiz N, Yavuz G, Unal E, Gündüz K, Günalp I, Ekinci C: Encouraging result of tamoxifen in a retinoblastoma patient with central nervous system metastasis. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Sep;20(6):473-6
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  • [Title] Encouraging result of tamoxifen in a retinoblastoma patient with central nervous system metastasis.
  • Extraocular retinoblastoma occurs more frequently in developing countries as a delayed diagnosis and prognosis of patients with conventional therapy is very poor.
  • Metastatic retinoblastoma, especially in the central nervous system (CNS), is a highly lethal disease.
  • Tamoxifen has been used in some previous studies with variety of responses to therapy in patients with unresectable recurrent brain tumors.
  • A 7-year-old girl with recurrent metastatic retinoblastoma received 60 mg/m2 tamoxifen in addition to chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy.
  • The authors think that tamoxifen can be added to treatment protocols of metastatic retinoblastoma to provide longer and at least higher quality of life for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Eye Neoplasms / surgery. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Retinoblastoma / secondary. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Eye Enucleation. Female. Glucocorticoids / administration & dosage. Humans. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14631622.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CEV regimen
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11. Heath JA, Broxson EH Jr, Dole MG, Filippa DA, George D, Lyden D, Dunkel IJ: Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoma in a child undergoing an autologous stem cell rescue. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Feb;24(2):160-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this article, a patient with EBV-lymphoma after autologous stem cell rescue for treatment of a nonhematologic solid tumor is described.
  • The child, a 4-year-old boy, had unilateral retinoblastoma with metastatic spread to the central nervous system.
  • He had previously received both local tumor bed and craniospinal radiation therapy together with intensive myeloablative alkylator chemotherapy before autologous stem cell rescue.
  • Histologically confirmed lymphoma with evidence of active EBV proliferation developed within cervical lymph nodes 3 weeks after his first autologous stem cell rescue.
  • The patient died approximately 6 months later of persistent and progressive retinoblastoma without any clinical evidence of lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Retinoblastoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Eye Enucleation. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Immunotherapy. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / therapy. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / secondary. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rituximab. Thiotepa / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11998794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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12. Kim JW, Yau JW, Moshfeghi D, Fishman M: Orbital fibrosis and intraocular recurrence of retinoblastoma following periocular carboplatin. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus; 2010;47 Online:e1-4
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  • [Title] Orbital fibrosis and intraocular recurrence of retinoblastoma following periocular carboplatin.
  • A 5-month-old infant with bilateral advanced retinoblastoma underwent six cycles of systemic chemotherapy.
  • Following the third injection, the patient developed periocular ecchymosis and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated abnormal signal characteristics at the site of injection.
  • An orbital biopsy did not demonstrate extraocular tumor extension, but histopathologic examination revealed severe orbital fibrosis and fat necrosis.
  • Following the biopsy, the patient developed an intraocular tumor recurrence at the same location where the carboplatin injections had been given and enucleation was performed to prevent tumor spread.
  • In this case, a child developed orbital scarring and intraocular tumor recurrence at the site of injection following treatment with periocular carboplatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / chemically induced. Orbit / pathology. Retinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retinoblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Eye Enucleation. Female. Fibrosis. Humans. Infant. Injections, Intraocular. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Seeding. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
  • (PMID = 21214147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; CEV regimen
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13. Armenian SH, Panigrahy A, Murphree AL, Jubran RF: Management of retinoblastoma with proximal optic nerve enhancement on MRI at diagnosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Oct;51(4):479-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of retinoblastoma with proximal optic nerve enhancement on MRI at diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: In North America, retinoblastoma rarely presents with gross clinical evidence of tumor involving the optic nerve.
  • Due to poor outcomes in patients with metastatic disease, historical treatment for patients with clinical evidence of extraocular optic nerve involvement has included upfront enucleation followed by aggressive adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Little is known about the role of neoadjuvant therapy in the setting of orbital optic nerve enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at diagnosis.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive retinoblastoma cases at Childrens Hospital Los Angeles over a 3-year period (2004-2006) found to have gadolinium contrast enhancement in the proximal portion of optic nerve on MRI at diagnosis.
  • All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to enucleation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is well tolerated prior to enucleation of retinoblastoma-containing eyes associated with contrast enhancement of the proximal optic nerve on MRI at diagnosis.
  • Such an approach may be used to decrease intensity or duration of chemotherapy and need for external beam radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Optic Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / diagnosis. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18478574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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14. Cuenca A, Giron F, Castro D, Fandiño A, Guitter M, de Dávila MT, Chantada G: Microscopic scleral invasion in retinoblastoma: clinicopathological features and outcome. Arch Ophthalmol; 2009 Aug;127(8):1006-10
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  • [Title] Microscopic scleral invasion in retinoblastoma: clinicopathological features and outcome.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and pathological features of patients with retinoblastoma and microscopic scleral invasion.
  • METHODS: We reviewed all pathology slides of patients with microscopic scleral invasion who were included in 3 prospective treatment protocols (1988-2007).
  • All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (moderately intensive chemotherapy in the first 2 protocols or a more intensive combination in the third one).
  • Sixteen were treated with moderately intensive chemotherapy and 16 received a higher-intensity regimen.
  • Seven patients had an extraocular relapse (central nervous system metastasis, n = 4; systemic metastasis, n = 2; and involving the orbit, n = 3, isolated in 1 and combined with central nervous system disease in 2).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Microscopic scleral invasion might be a risk factor for extraocular relapse, and more intensive chemotherapy results in improved survival for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Retinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retinoblastoma / pathology. Scleral Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Eye Enucleation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19667337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Laurie NA, Shih CS, Dyer MA: Targeting MDM2 and MDMX in retinoblastoma. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2007 Nov;7(7):689-95
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  • [Title] Targeting MDM2 and MDMX in retinoblastoma.
  • Retinoblastoma is the third most common form of cancer in infants, and metastatic retinoblastoma is lethal in approximately 90% of cases.
  • Early detection and aggressive therapy has resulted in a 95% probability of survival for retinoblastoma patients in the United States.
  • However, the United States only represents 3-4% of the retinoblastoma cases worldwide.
  • The majority of children diagnosed with retinoblastoma each year live in developing countries where the probability of survival is closer to 50%.
  • This difference in survival rates reflects poor early detection rates and limited resources for the aggressive therapy necessary to treat retinoblastoma and manage the side effects associated with broad-spectrum systemic chemotherapy in young children.
  • In order to have the most significant impact on retinoblastoma treatment in the United States and worldwide, current efforts have focused on local delivery of targeted chemotherapy.
  • In this review, we summarize recent data showing that the p53 pathway is inactivated in 75% of retinoblastoma patients due to extra copies of the MDM2 and MDMX genes.
  • A small molecule inhibitor of MDM2 called nutlin-3 can induce p53-mediated cell death in retinoblastoma cells.
  • Subconjunctival delivery of nutlin-3 in preclinical models of retinoblastoma confirmed the efficacy of this approach in vivo.
  • The advantage of local application of targeted chemotherapeutic agents such as nutlin-3 is that greater intraocular drug concentrations can be achieved without the side effects associated with systemic broad-spectrum chemotherapy.
  • We propose that subconjunctival administration of targeted chemotherapy may be the best treatment option for children with retinoblastoma in the United States and throughout the developing world because it provides greater tumor response without the costs and complications associated with current treatment protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Nuclear Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2008 Jun;8(4):341. Schin-Shih, Chie [corrected to Shih, Chie-Schin]
  • (PMID = 18045074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current cancer drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Cancer Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MDM4 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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16. Stannard C, Sealy R, Hering E, Hough J, Knowles R, Lecuona K, Reddi VB: Postenucleation orbits in retinoblastoma: treatment with 125I brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Dec 1;54(5):1446-54
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  • [Title] Postenucleation orbits in retinoblastoma: treatment with 125I brachytherapy.
  • PURPOSE: Children with retinoblastoma that extends into or through the choroid, sclera, or optic nerve are at risk of developing orbital disease, as well as metastases.
  • Previously, these enucleated orbits were treated with external beam radiotherapy in addition to chemotherapy.
  • In 1983, he developed a technique to irradiate the contents of the orbit while limiting the dose to the bony orbit and eyelids.
  • Between 1983 and 2000, 57 orbits were treated in 56 children with retinoblastoma.
  • They received a median dose of 34 Gy in 70 h; 30 also received chemotherapy.
  • Children with tumor at the resection line of the nerve also received treatment to the craniospinal axis.
  • Eight of the 13 patients with microscopic extraocular tumor survived a median of 29 months (range 5-156).
  • No orbital recurrences developed in any of the patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Orbital brachytherapy is an effective method of irradiating the orbit to prevent recurrent tumor, the treatment time is short, and the cosmesis is much more acceptable than with other forms of irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / instrumentation. Brachytherapy / methods. Eye Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Retinoblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Follow-Up Studies. Hot Temperature. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Metastasis. Radiometry. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12459368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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17. Chantada G, Fandiño A, Dávila MT, Manzitti J, Raslawski E, Casak S, Schvartzman E: Results of a prospective study for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Cancer; 2004 Feb 15;100(4):834-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of a prospective study for the treatment of retinoblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives of this prospective study were to avoid adjuvant treatment for patients with intraocular disease and patients with postlaminar optic nerve invasion (PL-ONI) without full choroidal or scleral invasion.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy (Regimen 1) was given to patients with scleral invasion, PL-ONI without cut section, and full choroidal and/or scleral invasion.
  • A more intensive regimen of higher dose intravenous chemotherapy (Regimen 2) and local radiotherapy was given to patients with PL-ONI and compromise at the cut end and to patients with overt extraocular disease.
  • METHODS: Six-month intravenous chemotherapy included carboplatin plus etoposide alternating with cyclophosphamide plus vincristine (Regimen 1) and the same drugs at higher dosage plus idarubicin (Regimen 2).
  • None of 22 patients with isolated PL-ONI developed recurrent disease, whereas 2 of 8 patients with concomitant risk factors had tumor recurrences and died.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant therapy can be avoided in patients with intraocular and isolated PL-ONI.
  • Patients with PL-ONI who also had other risk factors required intensive adjuvant therapy, such as patients with cut-end and overt extraocular disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Eye Enucleation. Eye Neoplasms / drug therapy. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / drug therapy. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Scleral Diseases / drug therapy. Scleral Diseases / pathology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 14770442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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18. Murthy R, Honavar SG, Vemuganti GK, Naik MN, Reddy VP: Systemic metastasis following hyphema drainage in an unsuspected retinoblastoma. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus; 2007 Mar-Apr;44(2):120-3
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  • [Title] Systemic metastasis following hyphema drainage in an unsuspected retinoblastoma.
  • Biopsy revealed extraocular retinoblastoma and lymph node metastasis.
  • Computed tomography showed an intraocular mass with intracranial extension.
  • She died of metastatic disease despite intensive chemotherapy.
  • Retinoblastoma should be suspected in a child with hyphema following trivial trauma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Conjunctival Neoplasms / secondary. Drainage. Hyphema / surgery. Retinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retinoblastoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Calcinosis / etiology. Calcinosis / radiography. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Child. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Intraocular Pressure. Lymphatic Metastasis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17410964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Kulkarni AD, van Ginkel PR, Darjatmoko SR, Lindstrom MJ, Albert DM: Use of combination therapy with cisplatin and calcitriol in the treatment of Y-79 human retinoblastoma xenograft model. Br J Ophthalmol; 2009 Aug;93(8):1105-8
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  • [Title] Use of combination therapy with cisplatin and calcitriol in the treatment of Y-79 human retinoblastoma xenograft model.
  • BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular neoplasm of childhood.
  • The poor outcomes of patients with metastatic retinoblastoma have encouraged the search for new therapies.
  • In the current study, the efficacy of combination therapy with calcitriol and cisplatin in athymic mice with subcutaneous Y-79 human retinoblastoma tumours was assessed.
  • METHODS: 60 athymic mice were subcutaneously injected with human Y79 retinoblastoma cells.
  • The cisplatin was administered once a week, and the calcitriol was given five times a week.
  • RESULTS: There was a significant inhibition of tumour growth in animals treated with the combination therapy of calcitriol and cisplatin as compared with controls and cisplatin alone (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0041 respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: The present study shows that cisplatin given in combination with calcitriol may be a viable multidrug therapy option in the treatment of high-risk retinoblastoma.

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  • (PMID = 19336429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-2079
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917-28S1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917-30; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917-25A2; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01-EY001917; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY016665; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY001917-25A2; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY016665-04; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY016665-01; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY001917-28S1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917-26; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY016665; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY001917-26; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY001917-29A1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917-24S2; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY016665-03; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY001917-24S3; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917-24S1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY001917-28; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY001917-30; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917-27; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917-29A1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917-27S1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY001917-27S1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917-24S3; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY016665-02; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY016665-05; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY001917-24S1; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY016665-02; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917-24; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY001917-27; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY001917-24S2; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY001917-28; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY001917-24
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS249399; NLM/ PMC2991058
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20. Parulekar MV: Retinoblastoma - current treatment and future direction. Early Hum Dev; 2010 Oct;86(10):619-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retinoblastoma - current treatment and future direction.
  • Retinoblastoma is the commonest primary ocular malignancy of childhood.
  • Heritable retinoblastoma is a cancer susceptibility syndrome.
  • Early detection and prompt treatment can give cure rates up to 95% for intraocular tumours, but extraocular disease carries a very high mortality.
  • The diagnosis is essentially clinical and biopsy is contraindicated due to the risk of extraocular spread.
  • Treatment requires significant multidisciplinary input, with local ophthalmic treatment, systemic chemotherapy and external beam or plaque radiotherapy, or surgery to remove the affected eye.
  • Screening of family members is essential for early detection.
  • Newer treatment modalities including intra-arterial chemotherapy have been added to the therapeutic armamentarium in recent years.
  • [MeSH-major] Retinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retinoblastoma / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20889272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6232
  • [Journal-full-title] Early human development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Early Hum. Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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21. Dimaras H, Héon E, Budning A, Doyle JJ, Halliday W, Gallie BL, Chan HS: Retinoblastoma CSF metastasis cured by multimodality chemotherapy without radiation. Ophthalmic Genet; 2009 Sep;30(3):121-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retinoblastoma CSF metastasis cured by multimodality chemotherapy without radiation.
  • OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metastasis is the most difficult type of retinoblastoma metastasis to cure, even with bone marrow transplant.
  • Most metastatic retinoblastoma cells express P-glycoprotein causing multidrug resistance (MDR).
  • P-glycoprotein-rich blood vessels form blood-brain and blood-eye barriers, inhibit drug entry into central nervous system (CNS) and eyes.
  • High-dose craniospinal radiation is too morbid for treatment of young children.
  • To cure CSF metastasis without radiation, we designed an intensive multimodality chemotherapy regimen.
  • METHOD: After left eye enucleation, a 4-month-old boy with bilateral International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification Group E eyes and CSF metastasis was treated with 7-cycle high-dose carboplatin and etoposide, standard-dose vincristine, and high-dose/short-infusion cyclosporine to inhibit P-glycoprotein.
  • Intraventricular drugs, non-substrate of P-glycoprotein (cytarabine), or less susceptible to MDR (topotecan), contributed to treatment of the metastasis.
  • RESULTS: Following 1-cycle systemic chemotherapy and 2-dose intraventricular chemotherapy, the CSF metastasis cleared.
  • CONCLUSION: Intensive multimodality chemotherapy can cure CSF metastasis in retinoblastoma without incurring extreme morbidity from craniospinal radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Cerebrospinal Fluid. Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Eye Enucleation. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19941416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5094
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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22. Kim JH, Kim JH, Yu YS, Kim DH, Min BH, Kim KW: Anti-tumor activity of arginine deiminase via arginine deprivation in retinoblastoma. Oncol Rep; 2007 Dec;18(6):1373-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anti-tumor activity of arginine deiminase via arginine deprivation in retinoblastoma.
  • In spite of recent advances in the treatment of retinoblastoma, chemotherapy is still challenging in high-stage intraocular retinoblastoma or metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • Here, we investigated whether arginine deprivation via arginine deiminase (ADI) could be a new anti-tumor therapy in retinoblastoma cells.
  • Expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) was detected in human retinoblastoma tissues.
  • Even with a high expression of ASS, ADI effectively inhibited the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells and induced retinoblastoma cell death in a dose-dependent manner.
  • These results indicate that arginine deprivation via ADI could be another treatment option for retinoblastoma due to low ASS activity in retinoblastoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arginine / metabolism. Hydrolases / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma. Argininosuccinate Synthase / genetics. Argininosuccinate Synthase / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival. Eye Enucleation. Eye Neoplasms / enzymology. Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Eye Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Retinoblastoma / enzymology. Retinoblastoma / pathology. Retinoblastoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17982619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; EC 3.- / Hydrolases; EC 3.5.3.6 / arginine deiminase; EC 6.3.4.5 / Argininosuccinate Synthase
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23. Matsubara H, Makimoto A, Higa T, Kawamoto H, Sakiyama S, Hosono A, Takayama J, Takaue Y, Murayama S, Sumi M, Kaneko A, Ohira M: A multidisciplinary treatment strategy that includes high-dose chemotherapy for metastatic retinoblastoma without CNS involvement. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2005 Apr;35(8):763-6
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  • [Title] A multidisciplinary treatment strategy that includes high-dose chemotherapy for metastatic retinoblastoma without CNS involvement.
  • The prognosis of patients with metastatic retinoblastoma is poor with conventional chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Since retinoblastoma is highly chemosensitive, dose-escalation of chemotherapeutic agents with stem cell support should be promising.
  • We report our experience with high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • Five patients with metastatic retinoblastoma underwent HDC with autologous SCT following conventional chemotherapy and local radiation therapy.
  • Melphalan was a key drug in all patients, and was administered in combination with other agents such as cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, carboplatin or thiotepa.
  • Three patients are currently alive disease-free at 113, 107 and 38 months, respectively, from the time of SCT.
  • Our treatment strategy using HDC appears to be effective for treating metastatic retinoblastoma without CNS involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Eye Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Central Nervous System / pathology. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Stem Cells / cytology. Thiotepa / administration & dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15750608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
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24. Taguchi A, Suei Y, Ogawa I, Naito K, Nagasaki T, Lee K, Fujita M, Tanimoto K: Metastatic retinoblastoma of the maxilla and mandible. Dentomaxillofac Radiol; 2005 Mar;34(2):126-31
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  • [Title] Metastatic retinoblastoma of the maxilla and mandible.
  • Metastatic retinoblastoma of the jaws is very rare.
  • We present a 4-year-old boy with metastatic retinoblastoma that involved both the maxilla and mandible simultaneously.
  • Four weeks after chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation, the size of lesions remarkably decreased.
  • The patient died 19 months later with extensive tumour metastases despite additional chemotherapy.
  • In this case, the dental crypt of a permanent tooth was considered the potential target through which retinoblastoma metastasized to the jaws.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Neoplasms / pathology. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary. Maxillary Neoplasms / secondary. Retinoblastoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Radiography, Panoramic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15829698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-832X
  • [Journal-full-title] Dento maxillo facial radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dentomaxillofac Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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25. Stannard C, Sealy R, Hering E, Korrubel J, Hill J, Barron A, Knowles R: Localized whole eye radiotherapy for retinoblastoma using a (125)I applicator, "claws". Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2001 Oct 1;51(2):399-409
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  • [Title] Localized whole eye radiotherapy for retinoblastoma using a (125)I applicator, "claws".
  • PURPOSE: To treat children with retinoblastoma, who require whole eye radiotherapy, with a specially designed (125)I applicator that irradiates the eye while sparing the surrounding tissues.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Under general anesthesia, a pericorneal ring is attached to the 4 extraocular muscles, and 4 appendages, each loaded with (125)I seeds, are inserted beneath the conjunctiva in-between each pair of muscles and attached anteriorly to the ring.
  • Eighteen received a median dose of 28 Gy during 91 hours and 11 received 40 Gy during 122 hours, when the relative biologic effectiveness was taken as 1 instead of 1.5.
  • Six had received prior chemotherapy.
  • Although 22 eyes responded, local control was achieved in 13 patients, 3 of whom required additional treatment for new tumors; a further 3 required additional treatment for tumor recurrence as well as new tumors.
  • Three developed cataracts 7, 8, and 12 years later, 1 of which has been removed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is a new way of irradiating the whole eye with a minimal dose to the surrounding tissues.
  • The treatment time is only 5 days.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / instrumentation. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Retinoblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Equipment Design. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 11567814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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26. Menon BS, Alagaratnam J, Juraida E, Mohamed M, Ibrahim H, Naing NN: Late presentation of retinoblastoma in Malaysia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Feb;52(2):215-7
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  • [Title] Late presentation of retinoblastoma in Malaysia.
  • AIMS: The aims of this study were to review the presenting features, treatment and outcome for Malaysian children with retinoblastoma currently.
  • RESULTS: One hundred five children were diagnosed to have retinoblastoma.
  • Thirty-three children (31%) deferred treatment for 6 months or more.
  • Overall, 56 children had extraocular disease (55%), 52 at presentation, 4 later.
  • Seventy-one children (68%) underwent primary enucleation, 76 received chemotherapy (72%), and 23 radiotherapy (22%).
  • CONCLUSION: Retinoblastoma in Malaysia is still characterized by predominantly extraocular disease due to late presentation and high rates of abandonment.
  • [MeSH-major] Retinoblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Ethnic Groups. Exophthalmos / etiology. Eye Enucleation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Malaysia / epidemiology. Male. Orbital Cellulitis / etiology. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy. Strabismus / etiology. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18855905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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27. Yamashita N, Nishiuchi R, Oda M, Tomiyama Y, Eguchi N, Endo C, Manki A, Seino Y: Molecular detection of metastatic retinoblastoma cells by reverse transcription polymerase reaction for interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein mRNA. Cancer; 2001 Apr 15;91(8):1568-73
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  • [Title] Molecular detection of metastatic retinoblastoma cells by reverse transcription polymerase reaction for interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein mRNA.
  • BACKGROUND: In the current study, the authors report a 4 year old girl with disseminated retinoblastoma.
  • To find sensitive and specific molecular markers for detection of retinoblastoma cells in blood and marrow, the authors evaluated three photoreceptor-associated gene transcripts by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • Expression of IRBP was detected in the patient samples obtained from iliac bone marrow before intensive chemotherapy but not thereafter.
  • CONCLUSION: RT-PCR for IRBP was a useful method for detecting metastatic retinoblastoma cells as well as for evaluating the therapeutic effects of treatment in this particular case.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Eye Proteins. Retinoblastoma / pathology. Retinol-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11301407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Retinol-Binding Proteins; 0 / interstitial retinol-binding protein
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28. Dunkel IJ, Khakoo Y, Kernan NA, Gershon T, Gilheeney S, Lyden DC, Wolden SL, Orjuela M, Gardner SL, Abramson DH: Intensive multimodality therapy for patients with stage 4a metastatic retinoblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Jul 15;55(1):55-9
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  • [Title] Intensive multimodality therapy for patients with stage 4a metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We previously reported promising pilot results treating patients with stage 4a metastatic retinoblastoma with combined intensive conventional chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue, and radiation therapy and now present an expanded and updated series.
  • PROCEDURE: Fifteen patients with bone marrow (n = 14), bone (n = 10), orbit (n = 9), and/or liver (n = 4) disease were treated.
  • Induction chemotherapy usually consisted of vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and etoposide.
  • The high-dose chemotherapy regimen included carboplatin and thiotepa alone (n = 1) or with etoposide (n = 5) or topotecan (n = 7).
  • RESULTS: Bone marrow cleared at first post-initiation of chemotherapy examination in all patients and stem cells were harvested after a median of 3.5 cycles of chemotherapy (range 3-6 cycles).
  • Two patients progressed prior to high-dose chemotherapy and died.
  • Thirteen received high-dose chemotherapy at a median of 6 months post-diagnosis of metastases (range 4-8 months).
  • Ten are retinoblastoma-free in first remission at a median follow-up of 103 months (range 34-202 months) while three recurred (two in the CNS, one in the mandible) 14-20 months post-diagnosis of metastases.
  • Retinoblastoma-free and event-free survival at 5 years are 67% (95% confidence interval 38-85%) and 59% (95% confidence interval 31-79%).
  • Six of the 10 survivors received radiation therapy.
  • Three patients developed secondary osteosarcoma 14, 4, and 9 years after diagnosis of metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intensive multimodality therapy including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue was curative for the majority of patients with stage 4a metastatic retinoblastoma treated.
  • The contribution of external beam radiation therapy is unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Retinal Neoplasms / secondary. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / secondary. Retinoblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Etoposide / adverse effects. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Transplantation, Autologous. Vincristine / adverse effects. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20486171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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29. Al-Salam S, Algawi K, Alashari M: Malignant non-teratoid medulloepithelioma of ciliary body with retinoblastic differentiation: a case report and review of literature. Neuropathology; 2008 Oct;28(5):551-6
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  • We present a 6-year-old child with intraocular and extraocular mass and high intraocular pressure.
  • A preliminary diagnosis of retinoblastoma with extraocular extension was made.
  • An exenteration of the left globe and orbital tissue was performed.
  • Tumor satellites were seen in the adjacent periocular soft tissue.
  • The treatment involved exenteration of the left globe and orbital tissue with secondary skin graft following chemotherapy.
  • The patient is well and has no recurrence after 1 year of treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Differentiation. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Glaucoma / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Retinoblastoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18410270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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30. Kremens B, Wieland R, Reinhard H, Neubert D, Beck JD, Klingebiel T, Bornfeld N, Havers W: High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue in children with retinoblastoma. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2003 Feb;31(4):281-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue in children with retinoblastoma.
  • Children with metastatic retinoblastoma are considered to have a poor prognosis after conventional chemotherapy.
  • We used high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with peripheral hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in such patients in an attempt to improve their survival.
  • Four patients with bone marrow metastases and one child with extraorbital disease were treated with HDC after achieving complete remission by enucleation and conventional chemotherapy.
  • The child treated with the BCNU regimen developed a meningeal relapse 10 months after HDC, which was partially resected and treated with conventional chemotherapy, but not with radiotherapy.
  • He is in complete remission (CR) 105 months off treatment.
  • HDC with thiotepa, etoposide and carboplatin may represent a curative option for children with extrabulbar or disseminated retinoblastoma responsive to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Eye Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. Transplantation, Autologous
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow / pathology. Carmustine / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Bone Marrow Transplant. 2003 Jun;31(12):1185
  • (PMID = 12621463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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31. Chévez-Barrios P, Chintagumpala M, Mieler W, Paysse E, Boniuk M, Kozinetz C, Hurwitz MY, Hurwitz RL: Response of retinoblastoma with vitreous tumor seeding to adenovirus-mediated delivery of thymidine kinase followed by ganciclovir. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Nov 1;23(31):7927-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Response of retinoblastoma with vitreous tumor seeding to adenovirus-mediated delivery of thymidine kinase followed by ganciclovir.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of adenovirus-mediated gene therapy as a treatment for tumor seeds in the vitreous of children with retinoblastoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: An Institutional Biosafety Committee-, Institutional Review Board-, Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee-, and US Food and Drug Administration-approved phase I study used intrapatient dose escalation of adenoviral vector containing a herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene (AdV-TK) followed by systemic administration of ganciclovir to treat bilateral retinoblastoma with vitreous tumor seeding refractory to standard therapies.
  • One patient was free of active vitreous tumor seeds 38 months after therapy.
  • There has been no evidence of extraocular spread of tumor along the needle tract in any patient.
  • CONCLUSION: AdV-TK followed by ganciclovir can be administered safely to children with retinoblastoma.
  • Suicide gene therapy may contribute to the treatment of children with retinoblastoma tumor seeds in the vitreous, a resistant complication of retinoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviruses, Human / genetics. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Ganciclovir / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Seeding. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / therapy. Thymidine Kinase / therapeutic use. Vitreous Body / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Feasibility Studies. Gene Transfer Techniques. Genetic Therapy. Genetic Vectors. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / enzymology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16258092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97762
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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32. Chantada GL, Fandiño AC, Casak SJ, Mato G, Manzitti J, Schvartzman E: Activity of topotecan in retinoblastoma. Ophthalmic Genet; 2004 Mar;25(1):37-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activity of topotecan in retinoblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: To report our experience with topotecan in children with relapsed/refractory metastatic and intraocular retinoblastoma.
  • If obvious progression was detected by physical examination in patients with overt extraocular disease or if progressive disease was noted after fundoscopic examination in patients with intraocular disease, a second cycle was not administered.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients (6 extraocular, 3 intraocular) were treated from November 1998 to March 2002.
  • In patients with extraocular disease, there were three partial responses, two cases of stable disease, and one case of progressive disease.
  • Two patients with relapsed/resistant intraocular disease had partial response. allowing local therapy to be performed, and the third patient had progressive disease.
  • The drug was well-tolerated.
  • No patient developed fever or documented infections.
  • CONCLUSION: Topotecan is active in extraocular and relapsed/resistant intraocular retinoblastoma.
  • The role of this drug in the treatment of retinoblastoma should be explored in further studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy. Topotecan / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Topoisomerase I Inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 15255113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1381-6810
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan
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33. Dunkel IJ, Lee TC, Shi W, Beaverson KL, Novetsky D, Lyden D, Finlay JL, McCormick B, Abramson DH: A phase II trial of carboplatin for intraocular retinoblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Oct 15;49(5):643-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase II trial of carboplatin for intraocular retinoblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma patients with RB1 germline mutations are at risk of developing second malignancies and external beam radiation therapy increases the risk.
  • Carboplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens in conjunction with local therapies have been investigated for intraocular retinoblastoma, but the lack of data regarding the efficacy of single agent intravenous carboplatin prompted this phase II study.
  • PROCEDURE: Twenty-five patients (43 eyes) were treated with intravenous carboplatin (18.7 mg/kg for patients < 12 kg, 560 mg/m(2) for patients >/= 12 kg).
  • RESULTS: All patients were extraocular disease free during the follow-up period (median 76.3 months).
  • The 5-year overall ocular and ocular event-free survivals were 93.3% (95% CI, 84.4-100%) and 43.5% (95% CI, 25.8-61.3%) for eyes treated for Reese-Ellsworth (RE) group 1-3 disease and 25.0% (95% CI, 1.0-50.0%) and 8.3% (95% CI, 0-24.0%) for RE group 4-5 disease, respectively.
  • No non-hematopoietic serious or permanent toxicities related to the chemotherapy were observed.
  • CONCLUSION: When used as a neoadjuvant agent, carboplatin usually leads to objective responses of intraocular retinoblastoma.
  • The 5-year ocular event-free survival appears inferior to other protocols using more extensive chemotherapy, but with greater radiation therapy usage, overall ocular survival rate for RE group 1-3 eyes was excellent.
  • [MeSH-major] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Retinoblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17301956.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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34. Roth DB, Scott IU, Murray TG, Kaiser PK, Feuer WJ, Hughes JR, Rosa RH Jr: Echography of retinoblastoma: histopathologic correlation and serial evaluation after globe-conserving radiotherapy or chemotherapy. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus; 2001 May-Jun;38(3):136-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Echography of retinoblastoma: histopathologic correlation and serial evaluation after globe-conserving radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of echography in detecting retinoblastoma, compare tumor features observed by echography with histopathology data, and assess the usefulness of echography in serially following retinoblastoma tumors after globe-conserving treatments.
  • METHODS: The medical and echography records of all patients treated for retinoblastoma at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between 1991 and 1997 were reviewed.
  • All eyes underwent pretreatment echographic evaluation, and eyes treated with external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, or chemotherapy underwent serial follow-up echography.
  • Echography demonstrated evidence of retinoblastoma in 69 of 69 (100%) eyes and calcification in 63 (91.3%) eyes.
  • Histopathology was superior to echography in detecting optic nerve invasion, extraocular extension, and presence of calcification.
  • CONCLUSION: Echography is a useful adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in establishing the diagnosis of retinoblastoma.
  • While not as specific as histopathology, echographic evaluation before and after treatment of retinoblastoma permits monitoring of treatment response and may aid in detecting recurrent tumor growth or failure to respond to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Retinal Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Retinoblastoma / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy. Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy. Eye Enucleation. Female. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 11386645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Chantada GL, Casco F, Fandiño AC, Galli S, Manzitti J, Scopinaro M, Schvartzman E, de Dávila MT: Outcome of patients with retinoblastoma and postlaminar optic nerve invasion. Ophthalmology; 2007 Nov;114(11):2083-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome of patients with retinoblastoma and postlaminar optic nerve invasion.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome of patients with retinoblastoma and postlaminar optic nerve invasion (PLONI).
  • Patients were stratified into 2 risk groups: the high-risk group included those with concomitant full choroidal and/or scleral invasion and were given adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Those without these features were considered low risk and chemotherapy was withheld after 1994.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Extraocular relapse and survival according to stratification.
  • Three had extraocular relapse (involving the central nervous system; all died of disease).
  • Microscopic scleral invasion was associated to extraocular relapse (P = 0.05).
  • Eighteen received postenucleation chemotherapy and none relapsed.
  • Twenty-one received no adjuvant therapy and 2 had a systemic relapse but were successfully retrieved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PLONI have an excellent outcome with current therapy.
  • Risk stratification according to the presence of concomitant choroidal and/or scleral invasion may help in the decision of giving adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Optic Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Retinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retinoblastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17459482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Gündüz K, Müftüoglu O, Günalp I, Unal E, Taçyildiz N: Metastatic retinoblastoma clinical features, treatment, and prognosis. Ophthalmology; 2006 Sep;113(9):1558-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic retinoblastoma clinical features, treatment, and prognosis.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis in patients with metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen consecutive patients with metastatic retinoblastoma who were diagnosed and managed at the Oncology Service of Ankara University, Turkey, between January 1999 and January 2005.
  • Histopathologic confirmation of retinoblastoma via enucleation, exenteration, or orbital biopsy was obtained in each patient.
  • The status of extraocular spread (optic nerve, extrascleral extension, or both) was assessed based on histopathologic or MRI results.
  • Systemic treatment for metastatic retinoblastoma consisted of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (craniospinal, orbital, or both), if necessary.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Status of extraocular spread, site of metastasis, and survival from metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • Ten patients had unilateral retinoblastoma, 7 had bilateral retinoblastoma, and 1 had trilateral retinoblastoma.
  • All patients with metastatic retinoblastoma had histopathologic or MRI evidence of unilateral extraocular disease characterized by optic nerve involvement, extrascleral extension, or both.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis for metastatic retinoblastoma is dismal and the presence of CNS involvement may portend an even worse outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Retinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / secondary. Retinoblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / mortality. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Eye Enucleation. Eye Evisceration. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / mortality. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / secondary. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / therapy. Orbital Neoplasms / mortality. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Orbital Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16828510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Dunkel IJ, Aledo A, Kernan NA, Kushner B, Bayer L, Gollamudi SV, Finlay JL, Abramson DH: Successful treatment of metastatic retinoblastoma. Cancer; 2000 Nov 15;89(10):2117-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In the past, patients with metastatic retinoblastoma have had a poor prognosis when treated with conventional modalities.
  • In the current study, the authors evaluated the use of combined intensive conventional chemotherapy, high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue (ASCR), and radiation therapy.
  • METHODS: Four patients with metastatic retinoblastoma were treated.
  • Patients received intensive conventional chemotherapy that included vincristine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and either cisplatin or carboplatin.
  • High dose chemotherapy with carboplatin (500 mg/m(2)/day x 3 days or area under the curve = 7 via the Calvert formula) and thiotepa (300 mg/m(2)/day x 3 days) with (n = 3 patients) or without (n = 1 patient) etoposide (250 mg/m(2)/day x 3 days) was administered with ASCR.
  • Sites that originally harbored bulky disease were irradiated after recovery from the high dose chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The therapy was associated with substantial acute hematopoietic and mucosal toxicities.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The treatment strategy described in the current study is effective for patients with metastatic retinoblastoma that does not involve the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Retinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


38. Rodriguez-Galindo C, Wilson MW, Haik BG, Lipson MJ, Cain A, Merchant TE, Kaste S, Pratt CB: Treatment of metastatic retinoblastoma. Ophthalmology; 2003 Jun;110(6):1237-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: The risk for death in patients with retinoblastoma is increased in those who present with metastatic disease, and the role of intensive chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue in these patients remains unclear.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Four consecutive patients with metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • METHODS: We treated four patients with retinoblastoma metastatic to the bone and bone marrow with intensive chemotherapy, consolidation with megatherapy, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue.
  • Chemotherapy included courses of carboplatin and etoposide alternating with cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and either carboplatin or cisplatin.
  • Radiation therapy was delivered to areas of bone metastases.
  • RESULTS: All patients completed and responded to the scheduled therapy; complete response of the bone marrow disease was documented after two courses of chemotherapy in all cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The treatment described has been successful in obtaining disease-free survival in patients with metastatic retinoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Neoplasms / therapy. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Eye Neoplasms / therapy. Retinoblastoma / secondary. Retinoblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Eye Enucleation. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Infant. Male. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 12799253.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6420
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23099
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Cozza R, De Ioris MA, Ilari I, Devito R, Fidani P, De Sio L, Demelas F, Romanzo A, Donfrancesco A: Metastatic retinoblastoma: single institution experience over two decades. Br J Ophthalmol; 2009 Sep;93(9):1163-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic retinoblastoma: single institution experience over two decades.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic spread in retinoblastoma is a rare occurrence in developed countries but still associated with a poor prognosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of all metastatic retinoblastoma diagnosed during a 20-year period were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Three had a metastatic disease at diagnosis, one patient a trilateral retinoblastoma and two a metastatic spread after enucleation.
  • All but one were sporadic retinoblastoma.
  • Different treatment strategies were administered based on local treatment plus chemotherapy and radiotherapy with or without high-dose chemotherapy.
  • Both children with a long follow-up were treated with high-dose chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: This retrospective review confirms a curable strategy based on local treatment and conventional plus high-dose chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Retinal Neoplasms / pathology. Retinoblastoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Early Detection of Cancer. Eye Enucleation / mortality. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors


40. Chantada GL, Dunkel IJ, Antoneli CB, de Dávila MT, Arias V, Beaverson K, Fandiño AC, Chojniak M, Abramson DH: Risk factors for extraocular relapse following enucleation after failure of chemoreduction in retinoblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Sep;49(3):256-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk factors for extraocular relapse following enucleation after failure of chemoreduction in retinoblastoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the outcome and determine risk factors for extraocular relapse in patients with retinoblastoma who had been enucleated after failure of chemoreduction.
  • Extraocular relapse was defined as an event.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to eight patients (6.5%) because of scleral invasion.
  • Four patients had an extraocular relapse after enucleation, two of whom survive after intensive treatment including stem cell rescue.
  • Only scleral invasion and bilateral enucleation were significantly associated with extraocular relapse.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The risk of extraocular relapse is low after enucleation following failure of chemoreduction.
  • Patients who underwent bilateral enucleation and those with scleral invasion are at higher risk of extraocular relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Eye Enucleation. Retinal Neoplasms / surgery. Retinoblastoma / secondary. Retinoblastoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17029248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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