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1. Rohan S, Tu JJ, Kao J, Mukherjee P, Campagne F, Zhou XK, Hyjek E, Alonso MA, Chen YT: Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as differentially expressed genes. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Dec 1;12(23):6937-45
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as differentially expressed genes.
  • PURPOSE: To compare gene expression profiles of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign oncocytoma, aiming at identifying differentially expressed genes.
  • Five of these genes, AP1M2, MAL2, PROM2, PRSS8, and FLJ20171, were shown to effectively separate these two tumor groups by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR using fresh tissue samples, with similar trends seen on formalin-fixed tissues.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed selective expression of MAL2 and claudin 8 in distal renal tubules, with MAL2 antibody showing differential expression between chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma.
  • Functional analyses suggest that genes encoding tight junction proteins and vesicular membrane trafficking proteins, normally expressed in distal nephrons, are retained in chromophobe RCC and lost or consistently down-regulated in oncocytoma, indicating that these two tumor types, believed to be both derived from distal tubules, are likely distinctive in their histogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Vesicular Transport Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17145811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AP1M2 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex 1; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits; 0 / FLJ20171 protein, human; 0 / MAL2 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Myelin and Lymphocyte-Associated Proteolipid Proteins; 0 / PROM2 protein, human; 0 / Proteolipids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / prostasin
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2. Kramer CK, Ferreira N, Silveiro SP, Gross JL, Dora JM, Azevedo MJ: Pituitary gland metastasis from renal cell carcinoma presented as a non-functioning macroadenoma. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010;54(5):498-501
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  • [Title] Pituitary gland metastasis from renal cell carcinoma presented as a non-functioning macroadenoma.
  • Five years ago, he underwent a right radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma, followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy for lung and parotid metastases.
  • The patient underwent a transsphenoidal tumor resection that revealed renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 20694412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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3. Egea Camacho J, Fernández del Busto E, González de Zárate J, Trueba Arguiñarena FJ, Sanz Lucas FJ, Pascual Samaniego M: [Hypertension emergency during surgery of renal carcinoma associated with non-diagnosed pheochromocytoma]. Arch Esp Urol; 2001 Sep;54(7):707-11
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  • [Title] [Hypertension emergency during surgery of renal carcinoma associated with non-diagnosed pheochromocytoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Emergencia hipertensiva durante la cirugía de un carcinoma renal asociado a feocromocitoma no diagnosticado.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present an uncommon association of renal carcinoma with an undiagnosed ipsilateral pheochromocytoma that caused severe cardiovascular disorders during surgical treatment of the renal carcinoma, and emphasize the need for careful assessment of these adrenal nodules before resection although they may appear to be clinically irrelevant.
  • METHODS: A 61-year-old male with mild arterial hypertension controlled with drug therapy for 40 years was diagnosed as having a right renal hypernephroma and a probable adrenal adenoma by IVP, abdominal ultrasound, CT, bone scintiscan and renal arteriography.
  • The patient developed severe hypertension intraoperatively, which was controlled by administration of lidocaine, nitroglycerine, sodium nitroprusside and labetalol.
  • RESULTS: The pathological analysis showed clear cell renal adenocarcinoma and pheochromocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Hypertension / etiology. Intraoperative Complications / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Pheochromocytoma / complications


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4. Hofer C, Kübler H, Hartung R, Breul J, Avril N: Diagnosis and monitoring of urological tumors using positron emission tomography. Eur Urol; 2001 Nov;40(5):481-7
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and monitoring of urological tumors using positron emission tomography.
  • The purpose of this article was to critically review the diagnostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) in urological oncology.
  • Urinary tract tumor assessment is hampered by the renal elimination of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), the most commonly used PET radiopharmaceutical.
  • PET imaging offers no significant benefits over conventional imaging modalities for renal cell and bladder carcinomas.
  • As a result of the low metabolic activity of prostate cancer, PET does not differentiate adequately between adenoma and carcinoma, nor detect local recurrence after radical prostatectomy with sufficient sensitivity.
  • Further studies are required to determine the clinical value of retroperitoneal lymph node staging and recurrent disease detection in germ cell tumors.
  • Finally, encouraging early results exist for the use of serial PET measurements to predict and assess therapy response to chemotherapy which may also be valuable in urological oncology.
  • [MeSH-major] Tomography, Emission-Computed. Urogenital Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Male. Prostatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Seminoma / radionuclide imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Testicular Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 11752853.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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5. Zhang J, Kang SK, Wang L, Touijer A, Hricak H: Distribution of renal tumor growth rates determined by using serial volumetric CT measurements. Radiology; 2009 Jan;250(1):137-44
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  • [Title] Distribution of renal tumor growth rates determined by using serial volumetric CT measurements.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine the distribution of growth rates across different sizes and subtypes of renal cortical tumors by assessing tumor volume and maximum tumor diameter at serial volumetric computed tomographic (CT) examinations.
  • Fifty-three of 2304 patients (34 men, 19 women; mean age, 67 years +/- 10 [standard deviation; range, 39-88 years) who underwent nephrectomy from 1989 to 2006 did not receive preoperative chemotherapy or radiation therapy and underwent at least two preoperative contrast material-enhanced CT examinations (at least 3 months apart) with identical section thickness that was no more than one-fifth of longitudinal tumor diameter.
  • Reciprocal of doubling time (DT) (RDT) was calculated.
  • DT ranged from -78476.54 to 18057.43 days (mean, -1230.73 days; median, 590.51 days).
  • Small renal tumors (<or=3.5 cm) were similar to larger tumors in subtype and growth rate.
  • Age at diagnosis correlated negatively with renal tumor growth rate (P = .03).
  • CONCLUSION: Growth rates in renal tumors of different sizes, subtypes, and grades represent a wide range and overlap substantially.
  • Small renal tumors appear to be similar to larger ones in nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Cone-Beam Computed Tomography / methods. Kidney Cortex / radiography. Kidney Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radiography. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiomyolipoma / pathology. Angiomyolipoma / radiography. Angiomyolipoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Mathematical Computing. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2009.
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2013 Dec;269(3):949-50 [24261507.001]
  • [CommentIn] Radiology. 2009 Jul;252(1):314; author reply 314-5 [19561267.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Radiology. 2013 Dec;269(3):950
  • [ErratumIn] Radiology. 2009 Jul;252(1):318
  • (PMID = 19092093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Pan CC, Chen PC, Ho DM: The diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, RCC marker and CD10 in the classification of renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of 328 cases. Histopathology; 2004 Nov;45(5):452-9
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  • [Title] The diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, RCC marker and CD10 in the classification of renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of 328 cases.
  • AIMS: To demonstrate the diagnostic utility of MOC31, BerEP4, renal cell carcinoma marker (RCC Ma) and CD10 in the classification of RCC and renal oncocytoma, based upon a comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry was performed on 328 samples consisting of 256 clear cell/conventional, 27 papillary, 28 chromophobe, five collecting duct, five unclassified RCCs and seven renal oncocytomas using antibodies MOC31, BerEP4 and antibodies against cytokeratins (KL-1, CAM5.2, 34betaE12, cytokeratin 7), RCC Ma, epithelial membrane antigen, E-cadherin, CD10, CD15 and vimentin.
  • MOC31 and BerEP4 chiefly labelled distal tubules of normal kidney while RCC Ma and CD10 labelled the proximal tubules.
  • All renal oncocytomas were negative for MOC31 and CD10.
  • The non-reactivity for both MOC31 and CD10 is helpful in distinguishing renal oncocytoma from RCC.
  • When properly selected, antibodies have immunohistochemical diagnostic utility for the classification of renal cortical epithelial tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases. Neprilysin

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  • (PMID = 15500648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125; EC 2.7.11.22 / MOK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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7. Gupta D, Bronstein IB, Holden JA: Expression of DNA topoisomerase I in neoplasms of the kidney: correlation with histological grade, proliferation, and patient survival. Hum Pathol; 2000 Feb;31(2):214-9
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  • Renal cell carcinoma is an inherently chemotherapeutically resistant neoplasm.
  • Because of this, new drugs targeting this tumor are needed.
  • One class of new anticancer drug targets the enzyme DNA topoisomerase I.
  • Laboratory data indicate that cells sensitive to topo I targeting drugs contain high topo I levels.
  • To determine whether some renal cell carcinomas contain elevated topo I and might therefore be targets of topo I active antitumor agents, we used a new immunohistochemical stain for topo I to determine the expression of the enzyme in 51 tumors of the kidney.
  • Increased topo I expression was found in 4 of 11 (36%) grade 3 renal cell carcinomas and in 8 of 8 (100%) grade 4 renal cell carcinomas.
  • Normal topo I expression was observed in all adenomas, oncocytomas, and grade 1 and grade 2 renal cell carcinomas.
  • Because topo I targeted anticancer drugs are S-phase specific, topo II-alpha and MIB-1 proliferation indices also were performed.
  • We hypothesize that these tumors might be susceptible to topo I anticancer drug therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / analysis. Kidney Neoplasms / enzymology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / mortality. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / enzymology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / mortality. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / enzymology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Cell Division. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma / enzymology. Sarcoma / mortality. Sarcoma / pathology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10685636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I
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8. Hunger-Battefeld W, Gajda M, Hansch A, Mandecka A, Müller UA, Wolf G: [Diagnostic pitfalls with Cushing's syndrome]. Internist (Berl); 2010 Mar;51 Suppl 1:293-302
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  • Adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare diagnosis and may present with hormone secretion.
  • A histological differentiation between an adrenal cortical adenoma and carcinoma can be very difficult.
  • However, a fast diagnosis including staging and complete surgical resection is pivotal for the prognosis of an adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • Metastasing adrenal cortical carcinoma should be treated with a mitotane based chemotherapy, and inclusion in the "firm-act study" is highly recommended.
  • The present case report demonstrates the diagnostic pitfalls in a female patients with Cushing's syndrome who suffered from metastasing adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenalectomy. Circadian Rhythm / physiology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hypertension / etiology. Kidney / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Obesity, Morbid / etiology. Weight Gain

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  • (PMID = 20012255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1289
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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9. Cao Y, Karsten U, Zerban H, Bannasch P: Expression of MUC1, Thomsen-Friedenreich-related antigens, and cytokeratin 19 in human renal cell carcinomas and tubular clear cell lesions. Virchows Arch; 2000 Feb;436(2):119-26
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  • [Title] Expression of MUC1, Thomsen-Friedenreich-related antigens, and cytokeratin 19 in human renal cell carcinomas and tubular clear cell lesions.
  • The expression of MUC1, MUC2, mucin-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich-related antigens (TF, sialosyl-TF, Tn, and sialosyl-Tn), and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) was systematically investigated in situ in 58 resected human kidney tumours, surrounding tissue of normal appearance, and two normal kidneys obtained at autopsy, using monoclonal antibodies.
  • In kidney tissues of normal appearance, TF, s-TF, MUC1 and CK19 were positive in distal tubules and collecting ducts but negative in proximal tubules.
  • In contrast, MUC2, Tn, and s-Tn were negative throughout the normal renal tubular system.
  • Almost all renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) showed strong immunoreactivity for MUC1, but all were negative for MUC2.
  • In addition, the immunomorphological characteristics of the majority of clear-cell RCCs and clear/granular RCCs with anti-MUC1 and anti-CK 19 closely resembled those of the collecting duct and the distal tubule rather than the proximal tubule.
  • In the renal tissue of otherwise normal appearance adjacent to clear-cell RCCs and clear/granular RCCs, clear cells with excessive storage of glycogen were often found in the collecting duct system, but only rarely in the proximal tubules.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Kidney Tubules, Collecting / metabolism. Kidney Tubules, Distal / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Peptide Fragments / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 10755601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC1 tandem repeat peptide; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 3554-90-3 / Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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10. Kozakowski N, Soleiman A, Pammer J: BMI-1 expression is inversely correlated with the grading of renal clear cell carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Mar;14(1):9-13
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  • [Title] BMI-1 expression is inversely correlated with the grading of renal clear cell carcinoma.
  • We investigated BMI-1 expression in healthy normal kidney and in 77 renal tumours by immunohistochemistry, and correlated it with tumour differentiation.
  • BMI-1 could regularly be demonstrated in distal tubules and in Bowman's capsule, whereas it was mostly lacking in proximal tubules, indicating that it may rather be a differentiation marker of different renal cell populations than a stem cell marker.
  • In contrast to previous studies demonstrating a correlation between BMI-1 expression and malignancy, we showed that its expression was inversely correlated with the differentiation grade of clear cell carcinoma.
  • Thus, in renal clear cell carcinomas BMI-1 is rather a differentiation marker lost in carcinomas with high malignancy than an oncogene involved in tumour progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney / metabolism. Kidney / pathology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 18347933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMI1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 2.3.2.27 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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11. Kuroda N, Guo L, Toi M, Naruse K, Miyazaki E, Hayashi Y, Yoshikawa C, Ashida S, Shuin T, Enzan H: Paxillin: application of immunohistochemistry to the diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2001 Dec;9(4):315-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paxillin: application of immunohistochemistry to the diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma.
  • In this study, 91 renal tumors--65 conventional renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 14 papillary RCCs, 6 chromophobe RCCs, 4 collecting duct carcinomas, 2 oncocytomas--were investigated for the immunohistochemical expression of paxillin.
  • In a normal kidney, paxillin was predominantly expressed in the cytoplasm of distal tubules, loops of Henle, collecting ducts, and vascular smooth muscle cells.
  • These data suggest that paxillin possibly plays a role in signal transductions as a focal adhesion intervening between tumor cells and the extracellular matrix in renal tumors with collecting duct phenotypes such as chromophobe RCCs and oncocytomas, but not in conventional RCCs.

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  • (PMID = 11759057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PXN protein, human; 0 / Paxillin; 0 / Phosphoproteins
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12. Chang HJ, Oh SN, Park MY, Rha SE, Choi BG: Fraudulent retouching of digital radiographic images--a potential risk. Clin Radiol; 2010 Dec;65(12):967-73

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten representative key images were selected of aortic dissection, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, colon cancer, liver metastasis, hepatic cyst, gallbladder stones, splenic artery aneurysm, adrenal adenoma, and stomach cancer from abdominal computed tomography (CT) imaging performed in 2008.
  • The time to complete retouching was recorded for each image.
  • The time taken to reach a decision in each case was recorded.
  • RESULTS: The time to complete retouching was 15.2±3.15 min.
  • After reviewers were informed of possible image retouching, the detection rate of retouched images was 50% (40-58.3%).
  • There was no significant difference between residents and attending radiologists in the detection rate of retouched images (p=0.786).
  • The time to diagnosis and the time to detection of the retouched images were 15 (14-17) and 6 (5-7) min, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Deception. Fraud. Humans. Insurance Claim Reporting / legislation & jurisprudence. Internship and Residency. Radiology. Republic of Korea. Software. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21070899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Hanna AM, Pham TH, Askegard-Giesmann JR, Grams JM, Iqbal CW, Stavlo P, Moir CR: Outcome of adrenocortical tumors in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 May;43(5):843-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: An institutional review board-approved retrospective review from 1976 to 2005 identified 23 patients younger than 19 years old with histologic confirmation of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and adenomas.
  • RESULTS: The mean age of the 23 children was 9.0 +/- 1.6 years; girls predominated (female-to-male ratio = 1.9:1) as did cancers (ACC 16, adenoma 7); tumor hormone production (74%); and advanced stage for disease (66%).
  • Three patients received chemotherapy or chemoradiation as primary treatment without surgery.
  • There was no perioperative mortality; morbidity was 10% (pneumothorax, acute renal failure, chylous ascites, and thrombocytosis).
  • Surgical cure without adjuvant therapy was achieved for all adenomas and ACC stages I and II.
  • All advanced-staged ACC received adjuvant therapy.
  • The high percentage of children with functioning tumors suggests earlier detection is possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / mortality. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / mortality. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / surgery. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / mortality. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenalectomy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18485950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Kauffman EC, Barocas DA, Chen YT, Yang XJ, Scherr DS, Tu JJ: Differential expression of KAI1 metastasis suppressor protein in renal cell tumor histological subtypes. J Urol; 2009 May;181(5):2305-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of KAI1 metastasis suppressor protein in renal cell tumor histological subtypes.
  • PURPOSE: The similar appearance of renal tumor histological subtypes can complicate differential diagnoses.
  • This problem is most notable for the chromophobe subtype of renal cell carcinoma, which can be histologically indistinguishable from oncocytoma with investigational molecular markers failing to provide reliable differentiation.
  • KAI1 is a metastasis suppressor gene whose expression correlates inversely with the metastatic potential of most solid tumor cancer types.
  • We tested the hypothesis that KAI1 is differentially expressed among renal tumor histological subtypes.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for KAI1 protein was performed in 152 nephrectomy specimens, including 48 clear cell, 35 papillary and 31 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma samples, 28 oncocytomas and 10 tumor-free kidneys.
  • KAI1 mRNA levels were compared by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in an additional 22 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma samples.
  • RESULTS: In all 10 tumor-free kidneys KAI1 protein was detected exclusively in distal tubule cell membranes.
  • Of the tumor specimens KAI1 protein was absent in all papillary renal cell carcinoma specimens.
  • It was present in only 1 of 48 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (2%) and 2 of 28 oncocytomas (7%) but only at low levels.
  • In contrast, 27 of 31 chromophobe renal cell carcinoma specimens (87%) expressed KAI1 protein, most at moderate or high levels.
  • The diagnostic accuracy of KAI1 immunostaining for discerning chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma was 90% with similar results observed at the RNA level.
  • CONCLUSIONS: KAI1 is an accurate biomarker for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma that may aid in the diagnostic differentiation of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma.
  • It remains to be determined whether KAI1 expression contributes to the low metastatic potential of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19303095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / KAL1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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15. Liu W, Tretiakova M, Kong J, Turkyilmaz M, Li YC, Krausz T: Expression of vitamin D3 receptor in kidney tumors. Hum Pathol; 2006 Oct;37(10):1268-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Our preliminary immunohistochemical study showed that vitamin D receptor (VDR) was highly expressed in renal distal tubules and collecting ducts, whereas the renal proximal tubules and glomeruli did not express VDR.
  • Paraffin tissue microarray (TMA) blocks were constructed containing core cylinders from clear cell (52), papillary (35), chromophobe (20), sarcomatoid (20), and metastatic (59) renal cell carcinomas (RCCs).
  • Furthermore, VDR messenger RNA and protein expression was also quantified using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis.
  • Vitamin D receptor was weakly positive in sarcomatoid variant RCCs (88% [14/16]) regardless of the type of associated original RCC.
  • Overall, VDR is a discriminative marker for renal cell tumors.
  • The preferential expression of VDR in chromophobe RCCs, oncocytomas, and collecting duct carcinomas is in agreement with the concept that these tumors differentiate toward epithelium lining the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts.
  • In addition, the focal and much weaker VDR expression in clear cell RCCs makes VDR valuable in distinguishing clear cell RCC from other types of RCCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Calcitriol / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16949927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol
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16. Murphy JJ, Tawfeeq M, Chang B, Nadel H: Early experience with PET/CT scan in the evaluation of pediatric abdominal neoplasms. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Dec;43(12):2186-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) scan provides both functional and anatomical information in a single diagnostic test.
  • These included Burkitt's lymphoma (8), neuroblastoma (7), rhabdomyosarcoma (6), ovarian tumor (3), Wilms' tumor (2), hepatocellular carcinoma (2), paraganglioma (1), germ cell tumor (1), undifferentiated sarcoma (1), renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (1), adrenocortical carcinoma (1), inflammatory pseudotumor (1), and adrenal adenoma (1).
  • These include (1) preoperative staging, (2) selection of appropriate site for biopsy, (3) identification of occult metastatic disease, (4) follow-up for residual or recurrent disease, and (5) assessment of response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / radiography. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Drug Monitoring. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasm, Residual. Postoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19040932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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17. Misić M, Vidas Z, Skegro D, Kocman B, Jelić-Puskarić B, Kardum-Skelin I: Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):665-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of adrenocortical carcinoma--case report.
  • After histopathological analysis tumor was signed out as adrenocortical carcinoma, a low risk carcinoma according to Weiss' classification.
  • The finding was verified by computerized tomography and the patient was reoperated on.
  • 8 months after the second operation and after 6 chemotherapy cycles according to EAP protocol, control CT showed enlarged para-aortic lymph nodes and a node along the upper pole of the right kidney.
  • Morphologically (histopathology and cytology), differential diagnosis includes adenoma on the one hand, and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on the other hand.
  • The purpose of this case report is to present clinical and cytomorphologic features of our case of adrenocortical carcinoma which is very rare in cytology practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20698150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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18. Colagrande S, Carbone SF, Carusi LM, Cova M, Villari N: Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging: extraneurological applications. Radiol Med; 2006 Apr;111(3):392-419
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • With regard to the latter, although there are differences between benign forms [focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), adenoma] and malignant forms [metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)] in their apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the average values for histological type, there is a significant overlap in values when lesions are assessed individually, with the consequent problem of their correct identification.
  • In addition, given that renal parenchyma has significantly variable ADC values on the basis of the anatomic section and physiological conditions, the possibility of assessing functional alterations is currently being studied.
  • Attempts have therefore been made to use Dw imaging in the characterization of soft-tissue tumours although the findings so far have been disputed.
  • Greater agreement has been found regarding sensitivity of the technique in assessing response of these tumours to chemotherapy: tumour necrosis is thought to increase ADC whereas the persistence of vital neoplastic tissue tends to lower it.
  • One of the most promising applications of Dw imaging is without doubt the assessment of vertebral collapse where a high ADC has been shown to be associated with an osteoporotic cause and a low ADC with a neoplastic cause.
  • Nonetheless, even here, a moderate overlap between ADC values of the two types has been encountered.
  • Lastly, a significant difference in ADC values between degenerative and inflammatory effusion has been found, a fact that may be explained as the result of the activity of hyaluronidase present in inflammatory forms, which causes a reduction in the concentration of hyaluronic acid with a consequent decrease in viscosity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Diseases / diagnosis. Echo-Planar Imaging. Humans. Kidney Diseases / diagnosis. Liver Diseases / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Diseases / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16683086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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19. Ozkan E, Arslan N, Arslanoglu A, Karacalioglu AO: Decreased Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in a sternal brown tumor indicating response to anti metabolic therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Aug;32(8):661-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Decreased Tc-99m sestamibi uptake in a sternal brown tumor indicating response to anti metabolic therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Brown tumors are rare but serious complications of renal osteodystrophy, and can be treated by parathyroidectomy or by pharmacological treatment of hyperparathyroidism.
  • In addition to parathyroid lesions such as adenoma, hyperplasia, and carcinoma, brown tumors have been detected effectively by using dual phase Tc-99m sestamibi and Tl-201 chloride.
  • We describe an unusual case of brown tumor at the manibrium sterni which shows marked increased Tc-99m sestamibi uptake on the initial scan, with decreasing tracer activity on follow-up scan indicating a response to antimetabolic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Giant Cell / radionuclide imaging. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Vitamin D / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Metabolic Clearance Rate / drug effects. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Sternum / metabolism. Sternum / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17667448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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20. Díaz Guardiola P, Vega Piñero B, Alameda Hernando C, Pavón de Paz I, Iglesias Bolaños P, Guijarro de Armas G: [Primary hyperparathyroidism. An alternative to the surgery]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Mar;56(3):132-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by an adenoma/hyperplasia in the parathyroid glands in which hypercalcemia is mainly due to an increased secretion of parathormone (PTH).
  • The only definitive treatment is surgery.
  • There are some patients at high surgical risk or who refuse surgery, and whose hypercalcemia cannot be controlled with conventional medical therapy such as hydration, diuretics and/or oral biphosphonates.
  • We suggest the use of two drugs indicated for the treatment of hypercalcemia of other etiologies: zoledronic acid, a parenteral bisphosphonate, and cinacalcet, a calcimimetic agent that reduces PTH secretion.
  • We present the case of a woman with hypercalcemia due to primary hyperparathyroidism caused by an adenoma, who was treated with both drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / physiopathology. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Comorbidity. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Fluid Therapy. Furosemide / therapeutic use. Humans. Kidney Function Tests. Kidney Neoplasms / physiopathology. Parathyroidectomy / contraindications. Treatment Refusal

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  • (PMID = 19627726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; 7LXU5N7ZO5 / Furosemide
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21. Graefe T, Wollina U, Schulz H, Burgdorf W: Muir-Torre syndrome - treatment with isotretinoin and interferon alpha-2a can prevent tumour development. Dermatology; 2000;200(4):331-3
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  • [Title] Muir-Torre syndrome - treatment with isotretinoin and interferon alpha-2a can prevent tumour development.
  • A 57-year-old man presented with multiple sebaceous tumours, kerato-acanthomas, verrucous carcinoma of the nose, renal cell and transitional cell carcinomas of the left kidney, adenoma of the colon and a positive family history of colon carcinoma.
  • 3 x 10(6) U three times a week along with 50 mg isotretinoin daily as well as topical isotretinoin gel.
  • During a follow-up of 29 months, only 1 sebaceous skin tumour developed and was removed, whereas more than 30 such skin tumours had been surgically removed during the last 3 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Isotretinoin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins. Skin / drug effects. Skin / pathology. Syndrome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10894967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 47RRR83SK7 / interferon alfa-2a; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
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22. Correa P, Segersten U, Hellman P, Akerstrom G, Westin G: Increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase and reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase expression in parathyroid tumors--new prospects for treatment of hyperparathyroidism with vitamin d. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2002 Dec;87(12):5826-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase and reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase expression in parathyroid tumors--new prospects for treatment of hyperparathyroidism with vitamin d.
  • Vitamin D analogues are in clinical use for prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in chronic renal failure.
  • These findings should be considered in future development of vitamin D analogues for treatment of HPT.
  • [MeSH-major] 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism. Hyperparathyroidism / drug therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives. Vitamin D / metabolism. Vitamin D / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Humans. Hyperplasia. Parathyroid Diseases / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12466393.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 64719-49-9 / 25-hydroxyvitamin D; EC 1.14.- / 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase
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