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1. Sawada N, Fukasawa M, Araki I, Kira S, Manabu K, Takeda M: Multifocal metastases of recurrent renal cell carcinoma successfully treated with a combination of low dose interleukin-2, alpha-interferon and radiotherapy. Int J Urol; 2005 Nov;12(11):994-5
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  • [Title] Multifocal metastases of recurrent renal cell carcinoma successfully treated with a combination of low dose interleukin-2, alpha-interferon and radiotherapy.
  • Left renal cell carcinoma stage II was diagnosed and radical left nephrectomy was performed.
  • The combination cytokine therapy was performed with 1.4 x 10(6) U of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and 3 x 10(6) U of IFN-alpha for 16 weeks, and the left sacroiliac joint metastasis was treated with radiation therapy of 4 Gy per day for 7 days.
  • Six months after the 16 weeks of immunotherapy, computed tomography and bone scintigraphy revealed that the metastases of the lung, liver and bone substantially disappeared and this complete response is still kept after 16 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 16351657.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2
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2. Greco FA, Bonomi P, Crawford J, Kelly K, Oh Y, Halpern W, Lo L, Gallant G, Klein J: Phase 2 study of mapatumumab, a fully human agonistic monoclonal antibody which targets and activates the TRAIL receptor-1, in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2008 Jul;61(1):82-90
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  • [Title] Phase 2 study of mapatumumab, a fully human agonistic monoclonal antibody which targets and activates the TRAIL receptor-1, in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Preclinical pharmacological properties of mapatumumab (agonistic human monoclonal antibody to TRAIL-R1) suggest that this antibody reduces cell viability, induces cell death in many types of cancer cell lines in vitro, inhibits or reduces tumor growth in xenograft models of solid tumors, and can induce significant tumor regression in some models.
  • The receptor for mapatumumab, TRAIL-R1, is expressed on NSCLC cell lines.
  • This pharmacologic profile suggests that mapatumumab may have therapeutic benefit in the treatment of NSCLC.
  • METHODS: This Phase 2 multi-center study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of mapatumumab in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with at least 1 platinum-based regimen.
  • RESULTS: A total of 32 patients with relapsed or refractory Stage IIIB or IV or recurrent NSCLC were enrolled.
  • Patients had received a median of 3 previous therapeutic regimens (range 1-7).
  • Laboratory analyses revealed no appreciable evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity among the study patients.
  • No patients developed anti-mapatumumab antibodies.
  • CONCLUSION: In a group of heavily pretreated NSCLC patients, no objective single agent activity of mapatumumab was demonstrated, but the drug was safe and well tolerated.
  • Based on this favorable safety profile, and preclinical evidence of potential synergy in combination with agents commonly used to treat NSCLC, future evaluation of mapatumumab in combination with chemotherapy is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18255187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / TNFRSF10A protein, human; 0 / mapatumumab
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3. Huisman C, Biesma B, Postmus PE, Giaccone G, Schramel FM, Smit EF: Accelerated cisplatin and high-dose epirubicin with G-CSF support in patients with relapsed non-small-cell lung cancer: feasibility and efficacy. Br J Cancer; 2001 Nov 16;85(10):1456-61
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  • [Title] Accelerated cisplatin and high-dose epirubicin with G-CSF support in patients with relapsed non-small-cell lung cancer: feasibility and efficacy.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether it is feasible to administer high-dose epirubicin (135 mg m(-2)) combined with a fixed dose of cisplatin every 2 weeks with G-CSF support in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Subsequently, the efficacy of the recommended dose of this regimen was tested in a phase II study in patients with relapsed NSCLC.
  • 6 cases of febrile neutropenia were observed, with 2 treatment-related deaths.
  • Renal toxicity grade I and II occurred in 37% and 4% of patients, respectively.
  • 55% of these patients had received prior cisplatin-containing chemotherapy.
  • Accelerated cisplatin and high-dose epirubicin with G-CSF support is a feasible and promising regimen in relapsed NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Hematologic Diseases / etiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11720428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2363962
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4. Wertel I, Barczynski B, Kotarski J: The role of dendritic cells in cytotoxic immune response regulation in ovarian cancer micro-environment. Front Biosci; 2008;13:2177-90
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  • [Title] The role of dendritic cells in cytotoxic immune response regulation in ovarian cancer micro-environment.
  • Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy.
  • At the time of diagnosis most patients present with an advanced stage of the disease and require multidisciplinary systemic treatment, including surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Despite good initial response to cytostatics, the vast majority of patients develops a recurrence and will need novel therapeutic strategies, as relapsed ovarian cancer is still incurable.
  • One promising treatment option is the use of dendritic cells (DCs) which might induce effective anti-tumor immunity.
  • The ability of DCs to generate an anti-cancer response has been documented in various kinds of human tumors, including malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and breast cancer tumors.
  • Although DCs were identified in the micro-environment of ovarian cancer, lack of clearly defined ovarian-specific tumor antigens capable of being recognized by T cells is considered the major prohibiting factor in ovarian cancer vaccine development.
  • In this review we will focus on current knowledge of the influence of DC mechanisms of cytotoxic T-cell responses and recent advances in DC identification in ovarian cancer patients, in addition to summarizing the data on DC vaccinations in these patients.

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  • (PMID = 17981701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-9946
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front. Biosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Ligands
  • [Number-of-references] 142
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5. Garst J: Safety of topotecan in the treatment of recurrent small-cell lung cancer and ovarian cancer. Expert Opin Drug Saf; 2007 Jan;6(1):53-62
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  • [Title] Safety of topotecan in the treatment of recurrent small-cell lung cancer and ovarian cancer.
  • The topoisomerase I inhibitor, topotecan, is approved for the treatment of recurrent small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and ovarian cancer (OC).
  • Patients with recurrent SCLC and OC typically experience multiple relapses and receive multiple rounds of chemotherapy.
  • In these settings, disease stabilisation is considered a treatment benefit, and quality-of-life effects and cumulative toxicities of treatments should be considered.
  • Many patients with recurrent cancer may be predisposed to treatment-related adverse events because of advanced age, renal impairment or extensive prior therapy.
  • Topotecan may provide physicians with a versatile therapeutic option for the treatment of patients with relapsed SCLC or OC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Topotecan / adverse effects


6. Giantonio BJ, Hochster H, Blum R, Wiernik PH, Hudes GR, Kirkwood J, Trump D, Oken MM: Toxicity and response evaluation of the interferon inducer poly ICLC administered at low dose in advanced renal carcinoma and relapsed or refractory lymphoma: a report of two clinical trials of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Invest New Drugs; 2001;19(1):89-92
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  • [Title] Toxicity and response evaluation of the interferon inducer poly ICLC administered at low dose in advanced renal carcinoma and relapsed or refractory lymphoma: a report of two clinical trials of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.
  • PURPOSE: Phase II studies were conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the interferon inducer Poly ICLC at low doses in advanced renal cancer and relapsed or refractory lymphoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with advanced renal carcinoma and eleven patients with lymphoma were treated with poly ICLC.
  • Six patients with renal carcinoma had stable disease as best response with one patient receiving 62 weeks of therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Poly ICLC at this dose and schedule is well tolerated in both patient populations and is inactive in renal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Interferon Inducers / administration & dosage. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Poly I-C / administration & dosage. Polylysine / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11291838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 14958; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27525; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 59307; etc
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon Inducers; 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; 25104-18-1 / Polylysine; 59789-29-6 / poly ICLC; K679OBS311 / Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium
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7. Mismatched double-stranded RNA: polyI:polyC12U. Drugs R D; 2004;5(5):297-304
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  • Ampligen, currently under development by Hemispherx Biopharma in the US, acts on the immunological system through T-lymphocyte stimulation and is indicated for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome and acquired immunodeficiency deficiency syndrome (AIDS), as part of the combined therapy.
  • In February 2004, Fujisawa Deutschland GmbH, a subsidiary of Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co., entered into an option agreement with Hemispherx Biopharma with the intent of becoming a distributor for Ampligen for the potential treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome in Germany, Switzerland and Austria.
  • The agreement stipulates that the Guangdong Medicine Group Corporation (GMC) will conduct clinical trials with Ampligen for the treatment of HIV.
  • In May 2003, Hemispherx Biopharma and the Center for Cell and Gene Therapy entered into a research project agreement that will see Ampligen implemented in a protocol used in patients with relapsed EBV-positive Hodgkin's Lymphoma.
  • In March 2002, Esteve and Hemispherx Biopharma entered into a collaborative agreement under which Esteve will be the sole distributor of Ampligen in Spain, Portugal and Andorra for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome.
  • Under this agreement, in addition to other terms, Esteve will also collaborate in the drug product development by conducting clinical studies in Spain in patients coinfected with HIV/HCV.
  • In July 2001 Hemispherx Biopharma announced that it had formed a strategic alliance with Empire Health Resources for clinical trials of Ampligen in the treatment of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections.
  • Hemispherx and AOP Orphan Pharmaceuticals have signed a marketing agreement for Ampligen for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome for Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary.
  • In the US, Ampligen has been granted orphan drug status for the treatment of AIDS, renal cell carcinoma (phase II, completed), chronic fatigue syndrome (phase III) and invasive/metastatic malignant melanoma (phase II).
  • Previously, Hemispherx submitted an application to the EMEA for the approval of Ampligen for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome; the first stage of th;) for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome; the first stage of the regulatory review has been cleared.
  • In 2000, Hemispherx Europe (Hemispherx) obtained orphan drug status for Ampligen for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome in the EU, providing Hemispherx with 10 years of marketing exclusivity following the launch of the drug, as well as potential financial research benefits for the agent.
  • In February 2000, Crystaal Corporation (now Biovail Pharmaceuticals Canada) acquired exclusive marketing rights to Ampligen in Canada, where it submitted an NDA for the agent for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome.
  • In the meantime, Ampligen has been available since May 1996 under the Canadian Emergency Drug Release Programme for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome and immune dysfunction syndrome by Rivex Pharma (Helix BioPharma).
  • Bioclones has initiated clinical studies with Ampligen for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome in Australia.
  • Clinical treatment programmes for chronic fatigue syndrome in other Pacific Rim countries are planned.
  • Hemispherx has developed a 'ready-to-use' liquid formulation of the drug and has begun treating patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in ongoing clinical trials.
  • Hemispherx has also developed an oral version of the drug (Oragen), which is undergoing preclinical evaluation.
  • In February 2001, Hemispherx Biopharma announced that it was initiating phase II/III trials of Ampligen in the treatment of late-stage, multidrug-resistant strains of HIV in the European Union.
  • Patients treated in these studies will have exhausted all other treatment options.
  • The trial, comprising two studies, REARMI and REARMII (Research/Evaluation of Ampligen for Retroviral Mutations I and II), will evaluate the ability of Ampligen to prevent the emergence of mutated, drug-resistant strains of the virus.
  • 'Several hundred' patients currently on antiretroviral therapy and at risk of viral relapse will be enrolled at centres in Connecticut, New York, Florida and California.
  • A second phase IIb study evaluating the effect of Ampligen on structured treatment interruptions (STI) is also underway.
  • NIH sponsored studies of potential therapies for SARS have identified Ampligen as having unusually high and consistent antiviral activity against human coronavirus, the pathogen implicated as the causative agent of the disease.
  • In May 2004 Hemispherx announced that it had filed an expanded US patent application covering the use of Ampligen for the potential treatment and prevention of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and dreaded emerging viruses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Poly I-C / therapeutic use. Poly U / therapeutic use. RNA, Double-Stranded / therapeutic use. Virus Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Base Pair Mismatch. Drug Interactions. Hepatitis B / drug therapy. Humans. Mice. Nervous System Diseases / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Adis Data Information BV
  • (PMID = 15357629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1174-5886
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs in R&D
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs R D
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / RNA, Double-Stranded; 0 / poly(I).poly(c12,U); 24939-03-5 / Poly I-C; 27416-86-0 / Poly U
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8. Izumi K, Kanno H, Umemoto S, Hasumi H, Osada Y, Otai J, Mikata K, Tsuchiya F, Nagashima Y: [A case of recurrent renal cell carcinoma which recurred after fourth surgical resection and survived for about 2 years by medroxyporgesterone acetate administration]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Sep;53(9):623-6
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent renal cell carcinoma which recurred after fourth surgical resection and survived for about 2 years by medroxyporgesterone acetate administration].
  • Right radical Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an 8 cm mass in the right kidney. nephrectomy was done in March 1995, and the pathological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma (RCC), clear cell type, G2>G1.
  • About 3 years later, in March 1998, CT showed 1 cm mass in the left kidney.
  • Nine months later, in June 2001, the recurrence of the left kidney and the left adrenal gland was found and partial nephrectomy and adrenalectomy was performed.
  • Only 3 months later, recurrence of the left kidney and the left adrenal gland and the lymph node of renal hilus was found.
  • We gave up for surgical resection and chemotherapy of MVP (Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Pepleomycin) was performed.
  • Despite the therapy, disease progressed.
  • 10 months after the last recurrence, in July 2002, patient became disoriented and hypercalcemia and the MVP therapy was stopped.
  • MPA might be considered as a drug for advanced renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Interferon-gamma / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Nephrectomy. Thiotepa / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17933137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate; MVT protocol
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9. Wachters FM, van Putten JW, Boezen HM, Groen HJ: Phase II study of docetaxel and carboplatin as second-line treatment in NSCLC. Lung Cancer; 2004 Aug;45(2):255-62
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  • [Title] Phase II study of docetaxel and carboplatin as second-line treatment in NSCLC.
  • Aim of this study was to evaluate activity and toxicity of docetaxel and carboplatin as second-line treatment in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who failed or relapsed after previous chemotherapy.
  • Patients had to have unresectable stage IIIb or IV NSCLC, previous chemotherapy, a performance status < or = 2, a normal bone marrow reserve, and an adequate renal and liver function.
  • Treatment consisted of docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC 6 mg/ml min administered every 3 weeks for a maximum of 5 cycles.
  • Prior treatment consisted of gemcitabine alone (n = 2) or gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin (n = 26) or epirubicin (n = 29).
  • In conclusion, the combination of docetaxel and carboplatin is active as second-line treatment in platinum and non-platinum pre-treated patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / mortality. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / mortality. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Logistic Models. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Taxoids / adverse effects. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15246198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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10. Richardson P, Hideshima T, Anderson K: Thalidomide: emerging role in cancer medicine. Annu Rev Med; 2002;53:629-57
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  • [Title] Thalidomide: emerging role in cancer medicine.
  • Food and Drug Administration in 1998, and more recently certain malignancies, including multiple myeloma.
  • Moreover, clinical trials have confirmed benefit in relapsed disease, and the role of thalidomide in treating newly diagnosed patients is currently under study.
  • Its use in other tumors is under evaluation, with promise in renal cell carcinoma, prostate cancer, glioma, and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Palliative Care. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 11818493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4219
  • [Journal-full-title] Annual review of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Annu. Rev. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 111
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11. Lin CM, Chen CH, Chang JW, Tsao TC: Phase II study of epirubicin in combination with weekly docetaxel for patients with advanced NSCLC who have failed or relapsed after the frontline platinum-based chemotherapy. Am J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr;32(2):169-73
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  • [Title] Phase II study of epirubicin in combination with weekly docetaxel for patients with advanced NSCLC who have failed or relapsed after the frontline platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: We conducted a phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of weekly docetaxel combined with epirubicin on D15 as second-line chemotherapy in Taiwanese patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who failed or relapsed after the frontline platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Treatment was repeated every 4 weeks for a maximal total of 6 cycles.
  • The median time to disease progression for all patients was 2.8 months (95% CI 1.3-4.3%).
  • The median survival time for all patients was 7.7 months (95% CI 5.5-9.9%).
  • Hepatic and renal impairment was also only mild.
  • CONCLUSION: Combining weekly doses of docetaxel 30 mg/m with epirubicin 60 mg/m on D15 was not shown to improve both efficacy and tolerability for advanced NSCLC patients who have relapsed disease after frontline platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 19307958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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12. Hussain SA, Stocken DD, Riley P, Palmer DH, Peake DR, Geh JI, Spooner D, James ND: A phase I/II study of gemcitabine and fractionated cisplatin in an outpatient setting using a 21-day schedule in patients with advanced and metastatic bladder cancer. Br J Cancer; 2004 Aug 31;91(5):844-9
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  • [Title] A phase I/II study of gemcitabine and fractionated cisplatin in an outpatient setting using a 21-day schedule in patients with advanced and metastatic bladder cancer.
  • In all, 32 patients with locally advanced, relapsed, or metastatic disease received: dose level 1, G/C 1000/35; level 2, 1100/35; level 3, 1200/35; level 4, 1200/45 mg m(-2) (G and C given on days 1 and 8 every 3 wks).
  • Only seven cycles were deferred due to haematological toxicity; four for renal toxicity (chemotherapy instituted posthydration).
  • G plus C every 3 weeks is active and well tolerated in an outpatient setting, even in patients receiving prior platinum-based regimens and with poor renal reserve.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Female. Humans. Kidney / drug effects. Kidney Function Tests. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Outpatients. Treatment Outcome. Viscera / pathology


13. Shah RN, Ahmad T, Eisen TG: Treatment of recurrent or metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2004 Dec;4(6):1069-80
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  • [Title] Treatment of recurrent or metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
  • The management of recurrent renal cell carcinoma is challenging as it requires close collaboration between surgeons, radiation oncologists and medical oncologists.
  • To date, treatment options for metastatic disease have been of modest benefit.
  • The disease has therefore been a good model for novel drug development programs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15606334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 114
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15. Dancey JE, Curiel R, Purvis J: Evaluating temsirolimus activity in multiple tumors: a review of clinical trials. Semin Oncol; 2009 Dec;36 Suppl 3:S46-58
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  • Temsirolimus, a novel analog of rapamycin, has shown promising preclinical and early clinical anti-tumor activity in various solid and hematologic tumor types, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy or other targeted agents.
  • Randomized phase III trials have already demonstrated significant clinical benefits of treatment with single-agent temsirolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma and relapsed and/or refractory mantle cell lymphoma.
  • Other malignancies studied in the phase I and II trial settings include glioblastoma, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sirolimus / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19963100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 624KN6GM2T / temsirolimus; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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16. Singhal S, Mehta J: Thalidomide in cancer. Biomed Pharmacother; 2002 Feb;56(1):4-12
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  • [Title] Thalidomide in cancer.
  • Thalidomide has immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic properties which may underlie its activity in cancer.
  • After its success in myeloma, it has been investigated in other plasma cell dyscrasias, myelodysplastic syndromes, gliomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, renal cell carcinoma, advanced breast cancer, and colon cancer.
  • Thalidomide causes responses in 30-50% of myeloma patients as a single agent, and acts synergistically with corticosteroids and chemotherapy.
  • Responses have also been seen in one-third of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma, in a small proportion of patients with renal cell carcinoma and high-grade glioma, and in some patients with colon cancer in combination with irinotecan.
  • The drug is being investigated currently in a number of clinical trials for cancer.
  • Thrombotic phenomena are especially common when thalidomide is combined with chemotherapy.
  • Adverse effects severe enough to necessitate cessation of therapy are seen in around 20% of patients.
  • A therapeutic trial of thalidomide is essential in all patients with relapsed or refractory myeloma.
  • In other cancers, the best way to use the drug is in the setting of clinical trials.
  • In the absence of access to studies or alternative therapeutic options, thalidomide could be considered singly or in combination with standard therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11905508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0753-3322
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine & pharmacothérapie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Pharmacother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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17. Miller AA, Herndon JE 2nd, Gu L, Green MR, Cancer and Leukemia Group B: Phase II trial of karenitecin in patients with relapsed or refractory non-small cell lung cancer (CALGB 30004). Lung Cancer; 2005 Jun;48(3):399-407
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of karenitecin in patients with relapsed or refractory non-small cell lung cancer (CALGB 30004).
  • PURPOSE: This Phase II trial was designed to determine the response rate, survival, failure-free survival, and toxicity of second-line therapy with karenitecin in patients with relapsed or refractory non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • METHODS: Eligibility criteria included: only one prior chemotherapy program, measurable disease, performance status 0-1, adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function.
  • Cases were stratified as relapsed or refractory.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were accrued and 52 were eligible of whom 28 had relapsed and 24 had refractory disease.
  • Overall patient characteristics were: median age 63 years (range, 45-79 years), 52% males, 63% performance status 1, 50% adenocarcinoma, 21% squamous, 15% large cell, and 12% undifferentiated NSCLC.
  • In both strata, one patient each (4%) had a partial response and 12 patients each (43% for relapsed, 50% for refractory) had stable disease.
  • Median survival was 10.4 months (95% CI, 8.5-17.0) for relapsed NSCLC and 6.0 months (95% CI, 3.7-9.7) for refractory NSCLC.
  • One-year survival was 36% (95% CI, 14-58%) and 21% (95% CI, 5-37%) for relapsed and refractory NSCLC, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Second-line treatment with karenitecin was tolerable with reversible bone marrow suppression as the major toxicity.
  • The partial response rates, median survival times, and 1-year survival rates in the relapsed and refractory subgroups are comparable to overall second-line outcomes for other agents considered active in this clinical setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15893009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA08025; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11789; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA12046; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33601; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35421; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA41287; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45389; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45418; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47577; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77298; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77440; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA86726
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 24R60NVC41 / cositecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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18. Amato R: Thalidomide for recurrent renal-cell cancer in a 40-year-old man. Oncology (Williston Park); 2000 Dec;14(12 Suppl 13):33-6
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  • [Title] Thalidomide for recurrent renal-cell cancer in a 40-year-old man.
  • Anderson Cancer Center to determine the feasibility of using thalidomide in a population of renal-cell carcinoma patients who had progressive disease despite chemotherapy and immunotherapy.
  • Metastatic renal-cell carcinoma patients with adequate oral function were entered onto a study after signing an internal review board-approved informed consent.
  • There were no exclusion criteria for prior therapy.
  • Nineteen previously treated patients and one untreated patient with progressive renal-cell carcinoma received oral thalidomide as a single agent.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adult. Drug Therapy, Combination. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pilot Projects. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 11204672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Interleukin-2; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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19. Procopio G, Verzoni E, Gevorgyan A, Mancin M, Pusceddu S, Catena L, Platania M, Guadalupi V, Martinetti A, Bajetta E: Safety and activity of sorafenib in different histotypes of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Oncology; 2007;73(3-4):204-9
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  • [Title] Safety and activity of sorafenib in different histotypes of advanced renal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety in unresectable or advanced renal carcinoma treated with sorafenib, in a situation closely similar to the everyday medical practice.
  • They were either previously untreated or relapsed after one or more previous treatments with systemic therapy.
  • Most of them had clear cell renal carcinoma (RCC), but other histological types such as papillary, chromophobe, Bellini ducts, sarcomatoid and mixed forms were also represented.
  • Response was observed in the majority of patients with RCC, but also in some patients with non-clear cell RCC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm previous ones reported in the literature concerning the efficacy and the safety of sorafenib as second-line treatment in patients with RCC.
  • In addition, they disclose the hypothesis that sorafenib could be effective also in patients who underwent multiple previous treatments and in those with histology different from clear cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzenesulfonates / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pyridines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18418013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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20. Miller AA, Pang H, Hodgson L, Ramnath N, Otterson GA, Kelley MJ, Kratzke RA, Vokes EE, Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB): A phase II study of dasatinib in patients with chemosensitive relapsed small cell lung cancer (Cancer and Leukemia Group B 30602). J Thorac Oncol; 2010 Mar;5(3):380-4
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  • [Title] A phase II study of dasatinib in patients with chemosensitive relapsed small cell lung cancer (Cancer and Leukemia Group B 30602).
  • INTRODUCTION: SRC is an oncogene with an essential role in the invasiveness and metastasis of solid tumors including small cell lung cancer.
  • The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of second-line dasatinib in patients with chemosensitive (relapse or progression > or =90 days after completing first-line therapy) small cell lung cancer.
  • METHODS: Patients with measurable disease; performance status 0 to 1; no more than one prior platinum-based chemotherapy regimen; and adequate hematologic, hepatic, and renal function were eligible.
  • RESULTS: Between April 2007 and December 2008, 45 patients were enrolled, but one patient never received any protocol therapy and one patient was ineligible: male/female, 17/26; white/black/unknown, 40/2/1; median age, 64 years (range, 35-84 years); and performance status 0/1, 12/31.
  • With a median follow-up time of 7.1 months, median estimated overall survival and PFS times for the 43 eligible and treated patients were 17.0 and 5.9 weeks, respectively.
  • Common reasons for removal of patients from protocol treatment were progressive disease (65%) and adverse events (26%).

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  • (PMID = 20087228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA032291; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33601; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77597; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11789; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA077658; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77406; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32291; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA086726; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA41287; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA035279; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA045808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA031946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA033601; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA031946-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA077597; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35279; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA114558; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA045418; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA86726; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA031946-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA041287; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA035113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114558-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45418; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77658; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77298; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA047642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31983; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA003927
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS181118; NLM/ PMC2853764
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21. Joerger M, Omlin A, Cerny T, Früh M: The role of pemetrexed in advanced non small-cell lung cancer: special focus on pharmacology and mechanism of action. Curr Drug Targets; 2010 Jan;11(1):37-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of pemetrexed in advanced non small-cell lung cancer: special focus on pharmacology and mechanism of action.
  • Pemetrexed is a newer antifolate drug that has been approved as first-line treatment for patients with advanced non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in combination with cisplatin, and as single agent for relapsed or chemotherapy refractory NSCLC after platinum-containing chemotherapy, at a dose of 500 mg/m(2).
  • Pemetrexed undergoes rapid renal elimination as unchanged parent compound, with a terminal half-life of between two to five hours.
  • The results from the phase III upfront registration study, a retrospective observational data, and a recent maintenance study of pemetrexed in NSCLC suggest histological subtype to be the most important predictive marker for clinical outcome in patients receiving pemetrexed, Pemetrexed is active in patients with non-squamous cell NSCLC while no benefit is seen in patients with squamous-cell histology, possibly as a result of different expression of intratumoral TYMS.
  • These are important steps towards individualisation of anticancer treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Glutamates / pharmacology. Glutamates / therapeutic use. Guanine / analogs & derivatives. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Lung Cancer.
  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Non-small cell lung cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Lung Cancer.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PEMETREXED .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GUANINE .
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  • (PMID = 19839929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5592
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glutamates; 04Q9AIZ7NO / Pemetrexed; 5Z93L87A1R / Guanine
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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22. Eralp Y, Saip P, Sakar B, Tas F, Aydiner A, Topuz E: Efficacy of cisplatin and cyclophosphamide combination for recurrent and metastatic carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2003;24(3-4):323-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of cisplatin and cyclophosphamide combination for recurrent and metastatic carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • The efficacy of a combination of cyclophosphamide and cisplatin in patients with metastatic and recurrent carcinoma of the cervix, was tested.
  • All patients received a median of four cycles of chemotherapy.
  • Overall response rate and progressive response in patients with relapse within the previous radiation field were 9.5% and 66.7%, respectively; while for patients who had recurrent disease outside any irradiated area both were 44.4%.
  • WHO grade 3 and 4 toxicity were anemia: 13 (43.3%), leucopenia: one (3.3%), thrombocytopenia: two (6.6%), renal: one, emesis: nine (30.0%) patients.
  • Univariate analysis revealed that progressive response to chemotherapy was the only prognostic factor for survival (7.1 vs 16.8 months, p = 0.003).
  • Further studies are required to determine a better therapeutic approach for patients with relapsed carcinoma of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / mortality. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome






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