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1. Roecker AM, Stockert A, Kisor DF: Nelarabine in the treatment of refractory T-cell malignancies. Clin Med Insights Oncol; 2010 Dec 01;4:133-41
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  • [Title] Nelarabine in the treatment of refractory T-cell malignancies.
  • Nelarabine is a nucleoside analog indicated for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) that is refractory or has relapsed after treatment with at least two chemotherapy regimens.
  • After being first synthesized in the late 1970s and receiving FDA approval in 2005, the appropriate use of nelarabine for refractory hematologic malignancies is still being elucidated.
  • Dose-dependent toxicities, including neurotoxicity and myelosuppression, have been documented and may, in turn, limit the ability to appropriately treat the diagnosed malignancy.
  • This article will summarize the pharmacologic properties of nelarabine and will address the current place in therapy nelarabine holds based upon the results of the available clinical trials to date.

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  • (PMID = 21151585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-5549
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Insights Oncol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999959
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Arranon / Atriance / T-cell / leukemia / lymphoma / nelarabine
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2. Crawford LJ, Walker B, Irvine AE: Proteasome inhibitors: a therapeutic strategy for haematological malignancy. Front Biosci; 2008;13:4285-96
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  • [Title] Proteasome inhibitors: a therapeutic strategy for haematological malignancy.
  • In recent years, inhibition of proteasome function has emerged as a novel anti-cancer therapy.
  • Proteasome inhibition is now established as an effective treatment for relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma and offers great promise for the treatment of other haematological malignancies, when used in combination with conventional therapeutic agents.
  • Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor to be used clinically and a second generation of proteasome inhibitors with differential pharmacological properties are currently in early clinical trials.
  • This review summarises the development of proteasome inhibitors as therapeutic agents and describes how novel assays for measuring proteasome activity and inhibition may help to further delineate the mechanisms of action of different proteasome inhibitors.
  • This will allow for the optimized use of proteasome inhibitors in combination therapies and provide the opportunity to design more potent and therapeutically efficacious proteasome inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Proteasome Inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Boronic Acids / therapeutic use. Bortezomib. Cell Nucleus / enzymology. Cytoplasm / enzymology. Humans. Leukemia / drug therapy. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex. Pyrazines / therapeutic use. Ubiquitin / antagonists & inhibitors. Ubiquitin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18508511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-9946
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front. Biosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazines; 0 / Ubiquitin; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex; EC 3.4.99.- / ATP dependent 26S protease
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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3. Klein CE, Tangen CM, Braun TJ, Hussain MH, Peereboom DM, Nichols CR, Rivkin SE, Dakhil SR, Crawford ED: SWOG-9510: evaluation of topotecan in hormone refractory prostate cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group study. Prostate; 2002 Sep 1;52(4):264-8
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  • [Title] SWOG-9510: evaluation of topotecan in hormone refractory prostate cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group study.
  • BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men, and as many as 70% of those initially treated for localized disease will ultimately progress and be considered candidates to receive therapy for metastatic cancer [Fuks et al.: Int J Radiat Oncol Bio Phys 21:537-547, 1991; Chodak et al.: N Engl J Med 330:246-248, 1994].
  • Although most will respond initially to hormone manipulation, essentially all will fail and require additional therapy.
  • No standard chemotherapy approach has been shown to prolong survival significantly, and new agents are desperately needed.
  • Topotecan is a new topoisomerase-1 inhibitor whose early investigation suggested possible activity in hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: In this phase II trial, patients having failed one or two prior androgen ablative therapies were treated with 21-day continuous intravenous infusions of topotecan at a dose of 0.5 mg/m(2) per day every 28 days.
  • The most common toxicities were hematologic, with 8 of 24 assessable patients experiencing grade 4 toxicity.
  • CONCLUSION: Topotecan infusions at this dose are ineffective in the management of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Topotecan / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12210486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA12213; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14028; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA20319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35281; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37981; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38296; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45807; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63844; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76462; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA96429
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan
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4. Berkers CR, Verdoes M, Lichtman E, Fiebiger E, Kessler BM, Anderson KC, Ploegh HL, Ovaa H, Galardy PJ: Activity probe for in vivo profiling of the specificity of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Nat Methods; 2005 May;2(5):357-62
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  • Proteasome inhibitors, such as the dipeptide boronic acid bortezomib, are emerging as important tools in the treatment of the fatal hematologic malignancy multiple myeloma.
  • Despite the recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of bortezomib (PS341, Velcade) for the treatment of refractory multiple myeloma, many of the basic pharmacologic parameters of bortezomib and its mode of action on myeloma cells remain to be determined.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Bortezomib. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Humans. Leupeptins / pharmacology. Mice. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15846363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1548-7091
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature methods
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Methods
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Leupeptins; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazines; 133407-82-6 / benzyloxycarbonylleucyl-leucyl-leucine aldehyde; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
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5. Ballen KK, Becker PS, Emmons RV, Fitzgerald TJ, Hsieh CC, Liu Q, Heyes C, Clark Y, Levy W, Lambert JF, Chiafari F, Szymanski I, Rososhansky S, Popovsky MA, Stewart FM, Quesenberry PJ: Low-dose total body irradiation followed by allogeneic lymphocyte infusion may induce remission in patients with refractory hematologic malignancy. Blood; 2002 Jul 15;100(2):442-50
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  • [Title] Low-dose total body irradiation followed by allogeneic lymphocyte infusion may induce remission in patients with refractory hematologic malignancy.
  • Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is curative for certain cancers, but the high doses of chemotherapy/radiotherapy lead to toxicity.
  • Here, we treat patients with refractory cancer with 100 cGy total body irradiation (TBI) followed by infusion of nonmobilized pheresed allogeneic peripheral blood cells.
  • Twenty-five patients, with a median age of 47 years, with refractory cancers were enrolled.
  • Twelve patients with hematologic malignancies were treated; 1 received a cord blood transplant and 11 received sibling donor cells.
  • The development of chimerism correlated with hematologic malignancy (P <.001), total previous myelotoxic chemotherapy (P <.001), T-cell dose (P =.03), and graft-versus-host disease (P =.01).
  • Engraftment was achieved in patients with hematologic malignancies who had been heavily pretreated, suggesting the degree of immunosuppression may be a determinant of engraftment.
  • Low-dose TBI and allogeneic lymphocyte infusion may induce remission in patients with refractory hematologic malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematologic Neoplasms / therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Lymphocyte Transfusion / methods. Whole-Body Irradiation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Fetal Blood. Graft Survival. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiation Dosage. Remission Induction / methods. Salvage Therapy. Transplantation Chimera. Transplantation Conditioning / adverse effects. Transplantation Conditioning / methods. Transplantation Conditioning / mortality. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Blood. 2003 Jan 1;101(1):373; author reply 373-4 [12485941.001]
  • (PMID = 12091334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Devizzi L, Guidetti A, Tarella C, Magni M, Matteucci P, Seregni E, Chiesa C, Bombardieri E, Di Nicola M, Carlo-Stella C, Gianni AM: High-dose yttrium-90-ibritumomab tiuxetan with tandem stem-cell reinfusion: an outpatient preparative regimen for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Nov 10;26(32):5175-82
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  • PURPOSE: To develop high-dose myeloablative therapy for CD20(+) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) as a safe and widely applicable regimen.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with relapsed/refractory (n = 25) or de novo high-risk (n = 5) NHL received one myeloablative dose of yttrium-90 ((90)Y)-ibritumomab tiuxetan after five chemotherapy courses, including three cycles of anthracycline- or platinum-containing regimens, one cycle of cyclophosphamide (4 to 7 g/m(2)), and one cycle of cytarabine (12 to 24 g/m(2)).
  • To minimize hematologic toxicity, stem cells were reinfused at days 7 and 14 after (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan.
  • Hematologic toxicity was mild to moderate and of short duration.
  • After a median observation time of 30 months (range, 22 to 48 months), no myeloid secondary malignancy or chromosomal abnormality was observed, the OS rate was 87%, and the EFS rate was 69%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Ambulatory Care. Antigens, CD20 / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cytogenetic Analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Time Factors. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2009 Mar 1;27(7):1145-6; author reply 1146 [19171699.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Nov 10;26(32):5147-50 [18854559.001]
  • (PMID = 18854569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / ibritumomab tiuxetan
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7. Dorr RT, Briggs A, Kintzel P, Meyers R, Chow HH, List A: Comparative pharmacokinetic study of high-dose etoposide and etoposide phosphate in patients with lymphoid malignancy receiving autologous stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2003 Apr;31(8):643-9
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  • [Title] Comparative pharmacokinetic study of high-dose etoposide and etoposide phosphate in patients with lymphoid malignancy receiving autologous stem cell transplantation.
  • The pharmacokinetics of two etoposide (E) formulations were evaluated in patients with refractory hematologic malignancies receiving high-dose conditioning with autologous stem cell transplantation.
  • There was no procedure-related mortality and eight patients remained alive 1 year post-transplant.
  • The combination of high-dose EP with melphalan is an active preparative regimen prior to ABMT for hematologic malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Etoposide / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / pharmacokinetics. Lymphoma / therapy. Organophosphorus Compounds / pharmacokinetics. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Area Under Curve. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Humans. Life Expectancy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Melphalan / pharmacokinetics. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Multiple Myeloma / therapy. Time Factors. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 12692603.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-23074; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA17094; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23078
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 528XYJ8L1N / etoposide phosphate; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
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8. Richardson P, Mitsiades C, Laubach J, Schlossman R, Ghobrial I, Hideshima T, Munshi N, Anderson K: Lenalidomide in multiple myeloma: an evidence-based review of its role in therapy. Core Evid; 2009;4:215-45
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  • [Title] Lenalidomide in multiple myeloma: an evidence-based review of its role in therapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a relatively common and incurable hematological malignancy.
  • Currently, there is no single standard therapy, with choice of treatment dependent on individual patient factors.
  • Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug with potent antitumor, antiangiogenic, immunomodulatory, and proapoptotic activity in MM.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the evidence for the use of lenalidomide in its current indication in relapsed or refractory MM, and additionally its investigational use for the treatment of newly diagnosed MM.
  • EVIDENCE REVIEW: In patients with relapsed and refractory MM, adding lenalidomide to high-dose dexamethasone significantly improves response rates and time-to-progression, relative to high-dose dexamethasone alone.
  • Outcome is independent of patient age, number of previous therapies, type of previous therapy (including thalidomide or autologous stem cell transplantation), renal impairment, and beta(2)-microglobulin level.
  • Myelosuppression is the predominant toxicity observed, although some studies have shown high incidences of venous thromboembolism in the absence of prophylactic antithrombotic anticoagulation therapy.
  • ROLE IN THERAPY: The encouraging results obtained with lenalidomide alone and in combination with dexamethasone in patients with relapsed or refractory MM have led to its adoption as a recommended therapy in patients who have received at least one prior treatment.
  • Emerging evidence supports the ongoing investigation of lenalidomide in combination with low-dose dexamethasone, and in other combinations including bortezomib, for use both in relapsed, refractory, and newly diagnosed MM.

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  • (PMID = 20694078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-175X
  • [Journal-full-title] Core evidence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Core Evid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899783
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; evidence / lenalidomide / multiple myeloma / outcomes / treatment
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9. Mikala G, Jákó J, Vályi-Nagy I: [Proteasome inhibition: a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of multiple myeloma]. Orv Hetil; 2004 Jan 11;145(2):67-74
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  • [Title] [Proteasome inhibition: a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of multiple myeloma].
  • Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy with currently no definitive treatment available.
  • Although, therapy may include allogenic bone marrow transplantation, high-dose ablative chemotherapy followed by bone marrow or peripheral stem cell transplantation, melphalan/corticosteroid therapy, alpha-interferon treatment, and combined cytostatic chemotherapy, currently none of these alternatives offer cure for the disease.
  • Introduction of thalidomide into the therapeutic arsenal provided a breakthrough in the treatment of refractory and/or relapsing disease, however, clinical experience indicated need for alternative treatments for thalidomide resistant disease as well as for intolerant patients.
  • Proteasome inhibitors, hallmarked by bortezomib may represent one of the much needed therapeutic options.
  • The results of the SUMMIT investigation that involved 202 heavily pretreated patients were convincing enough to prompt the FDA to register this drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
  • In this review, the proteasome and its inhibition as a pharmacotherapeutic avenue are introduced.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Boronic Acids / therapeutic use. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Multienzyme Complexes / antagonists & inhibitors. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Multiple Myeloma / enzymology. Pyrazines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bortezomib. Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Cysteine Endopeptidases / metabolism. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 14978877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; 0 / Pyrazines; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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10. White CA, Weaver RL, Grillo-López AJ: Antibody-targeted immunotherapy for treatment of malignancy. Annu Rev Med; 2001;52:125-45
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  • [Title] Antibody-targeted immunotherapy for treatment of malignancy.
  • Despite testing since the mid-1900s, only in the past three years have some monoclonal antibodies provided sufficient efficacy and safety data to support regulatory approval as cancer therapy.
  • Adjuvant-edrecolomab monoclonal antibody was approved in Germany after demonstration of a statistically significant 32% improvement over observation alone in the seven-year mortality rate for patients with colorectal cancer.
  • Similarly, trastuzumab monoclonal antibody combined with chemotherapy prolonged the median time to the progression of breast cancer compared to chemotherapy alone.
  • Unconjugated monoclonal antibodies investigated for the treatment of hematologic malignancies include anti-idiotype, CAMPATH-1, and rituximab.
  • Rituximab was the first such therapy approved in the United States for relapsed or refractory low-grade or follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after demonstration of an overall response rate of 48% and a duration of response of 11.7 months.
  • The radioisotope-conjugated monoclonal antibodies tested as therapy include anti-B1, LYM-1, LL2, anti-CD33, and ibritumomab tiuxetan.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Immunotherapy / methods. Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Humans. Rituximab. Trastuzumab. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Annu Rev Med 2002;53:xi
  • (PMID = 11160771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4219
  • [Journal-full-title] Annual review of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Annu. Rev. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Edrecolomab; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
  • [Number-of-references] 108
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11. Cavo M: Current status of bortezomib in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Curr Hematol Malig Rep; 2007 May;2(2):128-37
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  • [Title] Current status of bortezomib in the treatment of multiple myeloma.
  • Bortezomib (formerly PS-341) has been the first proteasome inhibitor to enter clinical trials in cancer patients.
  • Preclinical studies showing that this novel agent directly inhibits the proliferation of myeloma cells, induces their apoptosis, and abrogates paracrine tumor growth through alteration of interactions of myeloma and stromal cells and through nuclear factor kappaB-dependent cytokine secretion prompted the design of large phase II and III studies of bortezomib in patients with advanced relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma.
  • Favorable results of these studies led to accelerated approval for use of bortezomib in patients with multiple myeloma who have progressed after at least their second therapy and, more recently, to expanded approval for second-line use in patients in whom one prior therapy has failed.
  • Combination studies of bortezomib with various agents, including dexamethasone, DNA-damaging drugs (such as melphalan, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin), thalidomide, and lenalidomide, are currently ongoing in patients with both relapsed/refractory and newly diagnosed disease.
  • Bortezomib may be the "backbone" for the development of more effective treatment strategies to improve patient outcome in multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Boronic Acids / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Proteasome Inhibitors. Pyrazines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Bortezomib. Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects. Clinical Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytokines / secretion. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology. Multicenter Studies as Topic / statistics & numerical data. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Salvage Therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. Stromal Cells / pathology. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 20425361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-822X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current hematologic malignancy reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Hematol Malig Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazines; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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12. Leitman SF, Tisdale JF, Bolan CD, Popovsky MA, Klippel JH, Balow JE, Boumpas DT, Illei GG: Transfusion-associated GVHD after fludarabine therapy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Transfusion; 2003 Dec;43(12):1667-71
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  • [Title] Transfusion-associated GVHD after fludarabine therapy in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  • BACKGROUND: Fludarabine, a purine antimetabolite with potent immunosuppressive properties, has previously been associated with the development of transfusion-associated GVHD (TA-GVHD) in patients with hematologic malignancies.
  • STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A 42-year-old female with refractory lupus nephritis received three monthly cycles of fludarabine (30 mg/m2/day on Days 1-3) and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2 on Day 1).
  • Two weeks later, fever, rash, aminotransferase elevations, hyperbilirubinemia, and pancytopenia developed.
  • Treatment with antithymocyte globulin, cyclosporine, and prednisone was followed by preparatory conditioning for a PBPC transplant from an HLA-identical sibling, but the patient died of disseminated candidiasis before transplant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fludarabine and other purine analogs are increasingly used in the treatment of disorders other than hematologic malignancy, such as autoimmune disease.
  • The occurence of TA-GVHD after fludarabine therapy in a patient with lupus strongly suggests that this drug is sufficiently immunoablative to be an independent risk factor for TA-GVHD.
  • Irradiation of blood components should be considered in all patients who receive fludarabine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythrocyte Transfusion / adverse effects. Graft vs Host Disease / etiology. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / drug therapy. Platelet Transfusion / adverse effects. Vidarabine / adverse effects. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Drug Therapy, Combination. Fatal Outcome. Female. Histocompatibility Testing. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Transfusion. 2003 Dec;43(12):1652-4 [14641857.001]
  • [CommentIn] Transfusion. 2003 Dec;43(12):1655-7 [14641858.001]
  • (PMID = 14641861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Transfusion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transfusion
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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13. Picardi A, Fabritiis Pd Pd, Cudillo L, Dentamaro T, Cupelli L, Ballatore G, Venditti A, Caravita T, Cristina Cox M, Catalano G, Amadori S: Possibility of long-term remission in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies after reduced intensity conditioning regimen (RIC) and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Hematol J; 2004;5(1):24-31
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  • [Title] Possibility of long-term remission in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies after reduced intensity conditioning regimen (RIC) and allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
  • High-dose chemotherapy and radiation used as a preparative regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) produces a considerable morbidity and mortality.
  • An alternative strategy, developed to reduce transplant-related toxicity and to induce graft versus malignancy effect in the presence of full hematopoietic engraftment, includes the application of RIC that provide sufficient immunosuppression.
  • In all, 22 patients with hematologic malignancies and HLA-identical sibling donors were included in this study.
  • All patients were either refractory to therapy or beyond first complete remission (CR).
  • All the durable responses occurred in patients who developed GVHD.
  • provide durable responses in patients not eligible for conventional SCT exploiting the graft-versus-malignancy effect and (3).

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  • (PMID = 14745426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1466-4860
  • [Journal-full-title] The hematology journal : the official journal of the European Haematology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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14. Saccaro S, Fonseca R, Veillon DM, Cotelingam J, Nordberg ML, Bredeson C, Glass J, Munker R: Primary plasma cell leukemia: report of 17 new cases treated with autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation and review of the literature. Am J Hematol; 2005 Apr;78(4):288-94
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  • Primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL) is a rare hematologic malignancy characterized by the proliferation of plasma cells in blood, bone marrow, and other organs in the absence of established multiple myeloma.
  • PPCL has a poor prognosis when treated with conventional therapy for multiple myeloma.
  • He was treated with hyper-CVAD, entered complete remission, and then proceeded to high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral stem-cell support.
  • He was treated with VAD chemotherapy and underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from his HLA-identical sister.
  • He remained in complete remission for 3 years and then developed progressive refractory disease, dying 7 years after the initial diagnosis.
  • Finally, the features of PPCL, the outcome, published data of SCT for PPCL, and indications for treatment are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Plasma Cell / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15795922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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15. Morgan-Meadows S, Thomas JP, Mulkerin D, Berlin JD, Bailey H, Binger K, Volkman J, Alberti D, Feierabend C, Marrocha R, Arzoomanian RZ, Wilding G: Phase I study of eniluracil, oral 5-fluororacil and gemcitabine in patients with advanced malignancy. Invest New Drugs; 2002 Nov;20(4):377-82
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  • [Title] Phase I study of eniluracil, oral 5-fluororacil and gemcitabine in patients with advanced malignancy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed, incurable malignancy (solid tumor or lymphoma) refractory to standard therapy or for which no standard therapy exists were enrolled.
  • The treatment plan consisted of weekly gemcitabine for three weeks with twice daily dosing of 5-FU and eniluracil for 21 days beginning on day one of gemcitabine.
  • Eight patients received less than 2 cycles of therapy.
  • Hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity predominated, with 48% of courses resulted in grade one or two neutropenia.
  • Hematologic toxicity was dose limiting.
  • One treatment related death occurred.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Uracil / administration & dosage. Uracil / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Patients / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 12448654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 2E2W0W5XIU / eniluracil; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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16. McNall-Knapp RY, Williams CN, Reeves EN, Heideman RL, Meyer WH: Extended phase I evaluation of vincristine, irinotecan, temozolomide, and antibiotic in children with refractory solid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Jul 1;54(7):909-15
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  • [Title] Extended phase I evaluation of vincristine, irinotecan, temozolomide, and antibiotic in children with refractory solid tumors.
  • PROCEDURE: Patients under 22 years with recurrent or refractory solid tumors were eligible.
  • A course of chemotherapy was given every 28 days.
  • Hematologic toxicity was mild and not prolonged.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This combination is safe and shows activity in pediatric patients with recurrent malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20405511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7673326042 / irinotecan; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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17. DeAngelo DJ, Stone RM: New agents for the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Curr Hematol Malig Rep; 2008 Jul;3(3):135-43
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  • [Title] New agents for the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Although all patients are treated with similar intensive chemotherapy regimens, good outcomes have occurred more frequently in children than adults.
  • Current adult treatment regimens result in CR rates approaching 80%, with EFS at 5 years of only 30% to 40%.
  • Regardless of age, patients with relapsed or refractory ALL have extremely poor outcomes, because CR rates are low and seldom durable.
  • Clearly, new agents are required to improve the outcome of patients with relapsed or refractory ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Nucleosides / chemistry. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Asparaginase / chemistry. Asparaginase / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Liposomes / chemistry. Liposomes / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / analogs & derivatives. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Receptors, Notch / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Notch / metabolism. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 20425458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-822X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current hematologic malignancy reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Hematol Malig Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Nucleosides; 0 / Receptors, Notch; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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19. Maertens J, Raad I, Petrikkos G, Boogaerts M, Selleslag D, Petersen FB, Sable CA, Kartsonis NA, Ngai A, Taylor A, Patterson TF, Denning DW, Walsh TJ, Caspofungin Salvage Aspergillosis Study Group: Efficacy and safety of caspofungin for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of conventional antifungal therapy. Clin Infect Dis; 2004 Dec 1;39(11):1563-71
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  • [Title] Efficacy and safety of caspofungin for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of conventional antifungal therapy.
  • METHODS: We investigated the efficacy and safety of caspofungin in the treatment of IA.
  • Ninety patients with IA who were refractory to or intolerant of amphotericin B, lipid formulations of amphotericin B, or triazoles were enrolled to receive caspofungin.
  • RESULTS: Efficacy was assessed for 83 patients who had infection consistent with definitions of IA and who received >or=1 dose of study drug.
  • Common underlying conditions included hematologic malignancy (48% of patients), allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (25% of patients), and solid-organ transplantation (11% of patients).
  • Seventy-one patients (86%) were refractory to and 12 patients (14%) were intolerant of previous therapy.
  • A favorable response to caspofungin therapy was observed in 37 (45%) of 83 patients, including 32 (50%) of 64 with pulmonary aspergillosis and 3 (23%) of 13 with disseminated aspergillosis.
  • Two patients discontinued caspofungin therapy because of drug-related adverse events.
  • Drug-related nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity occurred infrequently.
  • CONCLUSION: Caspofungin demonstrated usefulness in the salvage treatment of IA.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Aspergillosis / drug therapy. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Aged. Echinocandins. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 15578352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Echinocandins; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; F0XDI6ZL63 / caspofungin
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20. Sjak-Shie NN, Vescio RA, Berenson JR: Recent advances in multiple myeloma. Curr Opin Hematol; 2000 Jul;7(4):241-6
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  • Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy, with approximately 15,000 new cases each year in the United States.
  • The roles of cytogenetic abnormalities as well as aberrant angiogenesis and cytokine expression in the etiology of myeloma continue to be explored and may lead to future therapeutic strategies.
  • Finally, thalidomide offers significant clinical benefit to patients with myeloma previously refractory to multiple agents, and its role in early stages of the disease is under investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / pathology. Bone Marrow / virology. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Chromosome Aberrations. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytokines / physiology. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Growth Substances / physiology. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Herpesviridae Infections / diagnosis. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Osteolysis / drug therapy. Osteolysis / etiology. Osteolysis / radiotherapy. Plasma Cells / pathology. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10882180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1065-6251
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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21. McAfee SL, Powell SN, Colby C, Spitzer TR: Dose-escalated total body irradiation and autologous stem cell transplantation for refractory hematologic malignancy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 May 1;53(1):151-6
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  • [Title] Dose-escalated total body irradiation and autologous stem cell transplantation for refractory hematologic malignancy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation of total body irradiation (TBI) above the previously reported maximally tolerated dose, we have undertaken a Phase I-II trial of dose-escalated TBI with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) for chemotherapy-refractory lymphoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Nine lymphoma patients with primary refractory disease (PRD) or in resistant relapse (RR) received dose-escalated TBI and PBSCT.
  • Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 1 patient who received 1,800 cGy after receiving recombinant alpha-interferon (with exacerbation after rechallenge with interferon).
  • CONCLUSION: TBI in a dose range 1,600-2,000 cGy as preparative therapy for autologous PBSCT is feasible and has substantial activity in chemorefractory non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Whole-Body Irradiation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 12007954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Shoji N, Ito Y, Kimura Y, Nishimaki J, Kuriyama Y, Tauchi T, Yaguchi M, Payzulla D, Ebihara Y, Ohyashiki K: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis as a terminal complication in myelodysplastic syndromes: a report of four cases detected on autopsy. Leuk Res; 2002 Jun;26(6):591-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is one of the complications of hematologic malignancy and immunosuppressive diseases.
  • They consisted of two refractory anemia (RA) and two patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEBt) at the time of MDS diagnosis, but all of them developed leukemic phase and were resistant to chemotherapy at the time of pulmonary episodes.
  • Previously, 69 patients with PAP associated with hematologic disorders have been reported, but there have been only seven cases with MDS, including our four patients.
  • Of the 69 reported cases of PAP in hematologic malignancies, 24/63 (38%) informative patients with infection had fungal infections of the lung; 2/7 (29%) MDS cases had fungal infection.


23. Chung HJ, Seo EJ, Kim KH, Jang S, Park CJ, Chi HS, Lee JH, Lee JH, Lee KH: [Hematologic and clinical features of 3q21q26 syndrome: extremely poor prognosis and association with central diabetes insipidus]. Korean J Lab Med; 2007 Apr;27(2):133-8
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  • [Title] [Hematologic and clinical features of 3q21q26 syndrome: extremely poor prognosis and association with central diabetes insipidus].
  • METHODS: From May 2001 to June 2006, a total of 5 patients with hematologic malignancy were found to have 3q21q26 syndrome and monosomy 7.
  • RESULTS: The rearrangement type of 3q21q26 was inv(3)(q21q26) in four patients and t(3;3)(q21;. q26) in one.
  • These patients' French American British types were AML M1, M2, M4 and M7, showing evident dysmegakaryopoiesis.
  • All the five patients were refractory or in early relapse.
  • While DI was well controlled with oral desmopressin, leukemia was refractory to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Disorders / complications. Chromosome Disorders / diagnosis. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3. Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / complications. Hematologic Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18094565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Lab Med
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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24. Thomas X: The role of timed sequential chemotherapy in adult acute myelogenous leukemia. Curr Hematol Malig Rep; 2008 Apr;3(2):89-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of timed sequential chemotherapy in adult acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • Consecutive trials of timed sequential chemotherapy (TSC) have been conducted in adults with acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • The rationale for TSC was based on the observation that leukemic cells can be recruited synchronously into the cell cycle after initial intensive therapy, at which time they may become more susceptible to killing by chemotherapeutic agents.
  • This article reviews the results of important trials in which TSC was used as an induction regimen in de novo, relapsed, or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia or as postremission therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans


25. Spitzer TR, McAfee SL, Dey BR, Colby C, Hope J, Grossberg H, Preffer F, Shaffer J, Alexander SI, Sachs DH, Sykes M: Nonmyeloablative haploidentical stem-cell transplantation using anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody (MEDI-507)-based conditioning for refractory hematologic malignancies. Transplantation; 2003 May 27;75(10):1748-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nonmyeloablative haploidentical stem-cell transplantation using anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody (MEDI-507)-based conditioning for refractory hematologic malignancies.
  • Twelve patients (three cohorts of four patients each) received cyclophosphamide, MEDI-507, and haploidentical unmanipulated bone marrow (n=8) or ex vivo T-cell-depleted peripheral blood stem cells (n=4) for chemorefractory hematologic malignancy.
  • Nonmyeloablative preparative therapy with MEDI-507 and haploidentical SCT have led to the reliable induction of at least transient mixed chimerism as a potential platform for adoptive cellular immunotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD2 / immunology. Hematologic Neoplasms / surgery. Stem Cell Transplantation. Transplantation Conditioning / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow / physiology. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Cohort Studies. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Drug Administration Schedule. Graft Rejection / epidemiology. Haploidy. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Incidence. Middle Aged. Stem Cells / physiology. Transplantation Chimera

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  • (PMID = 12777868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1337
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplantation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA79986-02; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL63474
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD2; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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26. Ludwig H, Khayat D, Giaccone G, Facon T: Proteasome inhibition and its clinical prospects in the treatment of hematologic and solid malignancies. Cancer; 2005 Nov 1;104(9):1794-807
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  • [Title] Proteasome inhibition and its clinical prospects in the treatment of hematologic and solid malignancies.
  • Preclinical studies have shown that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib decreases proliferation, induces apoptosis, enhances the activity of chemotherapy and radiation, and reverses chemoresistance in a variety of hematologic and solid malignancy models in vitro and in vivo.
  • In two Phase II trials, SUMMIT and CREST, it was found that treatment with bortezomib, alone or in combination with dexamethasone, produced durable responses with meaningful survival benefits in patients with recurrent and/or refractory multiple myeloma.
  • Clinical trials evaluating the safety and activity of bortezomib alone or in combination regimens with dexamethasone, doxorubicin, melphalan, prednisone, and/or thalidomide in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma have shown encouraging results.
  • Preliminary studies suggest that bortezomib may serve as induction therapy before stem cell transplantation.
  • Further studies with bortezomib as monotherapy and in combination regimens in the treatment of solid and hematologic malignancies are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Boronic Acids / therapeutic use. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Proteasome Inhibitors. Pyrazines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Bortezomib. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Models, Molecular. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Protease Inhibitors / adverse effects. Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / chemistry. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / physiology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16178003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazines; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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27. Rajkumar SV, Gertz MA, Kyle RA, Greipp PR, Mayo Clinic Myeloma, Amyloid, and Dysproteinemia Group: Current therapy for multiple myeloma. Mayo Clin Proc; 2002 Aug;77(8):813-22
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  • [Title] Current therapy for multiple myeloma.
  • Multiple myeloma is an incurable plasma cell malignancy that accounts for 10% of all hematologic cancers.
  • For decades the mainstay of therapy has been the use of melphalan and prednisone; with this regimen, the median survival is approximately 3 years.
  • Because of the increasing use of transplantation as initial therapy, several therapeutic issues have emerged: the role of tandem transplantation, early vs delayed transplantation, and the role of allogeneic transplantation.
  • The pronounced activity of thalidomide in patients with refractory myeloma represents another important advance.
  • This has prompted the study of several novel agents in the treatment of myeloma, at least 2 of which appear promising.
  • The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances and provide an evidence-based approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Myeloma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Recurrence. Thalidomide / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Mayo Clin Proc. 2002 Dec;77(12):1395; author reply 1395 [12479531.001]
  • [CommentIn] Mayo Clin Proc. 2003 Jan;78(1):118; author reply 118 [12528887.001]
  • (PMID = 12173715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62242; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85818; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA93842
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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28. Gürman G, Arat M, Ilhan O, Konuk N, Beksaç M, Celebi H, Ozcan M, Arslan O, Ustün C, Akan H, Uysal A, Koç H: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation without myeloablative conditioning for patients with advanced hematologic malignancies. Cytotherapy; 2001;3(4):253-60
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  • [Title] Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation without myeloablative conditioning for patients with advanced hematologic malignancies.
  • BACKGROUND: The effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) on hematologic malignancies is based on the graft-versus-malignancy effect.
  • Once mixed chimeric status, and host versus graft with graft versus host tolerance are achieved, further strengthening of chimerism and graft-versus-malignancy effect can be obtained by donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) when needed.
  • METHODS: The patient group consisted of 13 patients with advanced hematological malignancies: seven had CML, four of them in blastic-, two in chronic- and the remainder in accelerated-phase; four patients with AML, refractory or in second remission state; one patient with primary refractory secondary AML; and one patient with ALL relapsed after alloHCT.
  • Two CML patients in blastic phase (CML-BP), and the primary refractory secondary AML patient did not respond to procedure.
  • In four patients, drug therapy in conventional doses was added to post-transplant DLIs for their relapsed or refractory diseases.
  • A patient with CML-BP achieved CR and full donor chimerism after transplantation, but developed refractory post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in the 19th month.
  • Two patients with refractory AML, one patient with relapsed ALL and two patients with CML in chronic phase were in complete chimeric status and free of disease signs.
  • Acute GvHD, Grade II-III, was observed in five patients, and two of them developed secondary progressive chronic GvHD subsequently.
  • We observed one early death in a platelet transfusion refractory blastic phase CML patient due to intracranial hemorrhage.
  • Procedure-related severe toxicity was not observed, either in standard-risk patients or stem-cell donors.
  • The second step, which was the result of the graft-versus-malignancy effect, could be seen in most of the patients, but was not sustained in all of them because of the aggressiveness of their malignancy.
  • The role of NMA conditioning, and of the treatment in standard disease indications, remains to be determined in further studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Graft Survival / immunology. Graft vs Tumor Effect / immunology. Hematologic Neoplasms / immunology. Hematologic Neoplasms / therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / immunology. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Transplantation Conditioning / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow Purging / adverse effects. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / immunology. Graft vs Host Disease / physiopathology. Host vs Graft Reaction / immunology. Humans. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / immunology. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / physiopathology. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / physiopathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Myeloablative Agonists / therapeutic use. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / physiopathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Remission Induction / methods. Secondary Prevention. Transplantation Chimera / immunology. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 12171713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3249
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Myeloablative Agonists
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29. Melo JV, Hughes TP, Apperley JF: Chronic myeloid leukemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program; 2003;:132-52
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  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was the first human malignancy to be associated with a specific genetic lesion, the Philadelphia chromosome, harboring the BCR-ABL oncogene.
  • Since then, it has become a paradigm for the discovery of molecular mechanisms and targeted therapeutic approaches in the field of hematologic neoplasias.
  • In this report, we discuss the biological basis for such translation and highlight the current and potential tools for the effective treatment of CML patients.
  • The first part presents a review of the basic concepts on the biology of CML and their application to the design of targeted therapy.
  • The mechanisms of action of the molecular-specific drugs currently used in clinical trials are discussed, with emphasis on the description of the most promising new compounds that are enhancing the potential for effective alternative or combination chemotherapy in CML.
  • In particular, we discuss the relative value of regular quantitative RT/PCR and cytogenetic analyses, how responding patients should be monitored and managed, and how to investigate patients who are refractory or become resistant to imatinib treatment.
  • We review the current treatment options, highlight the factors impacting on decision making, discuss the range of possibilities for future therapeutic strategies and propose a systematic approach for individualizing treatment for patients in different disease categories.


30. Mone A, Puhalla S, Whitman S, Baiocchi RA, Cruz J, Vukosavljevic T, Banks A, Eisenbeis CF, Byrd JC, Caligiuri MA, Porcu P: Durable hematologic complete response and suppression of HTLV-1 viral load following alemtuzumab in zidovudine/IFN-{alpha}-refractory adult T-cell leukemia. Blood; 2005 Nov 15;106(10):3380-2
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  • [Title] Durable hematologic complete response and suppression of HTLV-1 viral load following alemtuzumab in zidovudine/IFN-{alpha}-refractory adult T-cell leukemia.
  • Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a highly chemoresistant and usually fatal T-cell malignancy due to the human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1).
  • After chemotherapy failure, antiretrovirals and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) produce brief responses followed by progression and death.
  • A patient with refractory chronic ATL in transformation achieved longer than a 1-year complete hematologic response following 12 weeks of outpatient subcutaneous alemtuzumab.

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  • (PMID = 16076875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA10215-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA95426; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009338
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CD52 antigen; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1895052
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31. Ballen KK, Colvin G, Porter D, Quesenberry PJ: Low dose total body irradiation followed by allogeneic lymphocyte infusion for refractory hematologic malignancy--an updated review. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 May;45(5):905-10
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  • [Title] Low dose total body irradiation followed by allogeneic lymphocyte infusion for refractory hematologic malignancy--an updated review.
  • Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is curative for certain cancers, but the high doses of chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in conventional myeloablative conditioning regimens may lead to severe toxicity.
  • In our initial study, we treated 25 patients with refractory cancers with 100 cGy total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic, non mobilized peripheral blood cells.
  • Twelve patients with hematologic malignancies were treated, 1 received a cord blood transplant and 11 received sibling donor cells.
  • The development of chimerism correlated with total previous myelotoxic chemotherapy (p < 0.001).

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  • (PMID = 15291347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA104092-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA104092-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / L30 CA104092-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / L30 CA104092-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3
  • [Number-of-references] 39
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS23277; NLM/ PMC1986764
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32. Williams ME, Densmore JJ: Biology and therapy of mantle cell lymphoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2005 Sep;17(5):425-31
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  • [Title] Biology and therapy of mantle cell lymphoma.
  • Standard and effective treatment approaches have yet to be established.
  • Clinical trials using chemotherapy plus rituximab have shown improved response rates, including complete remissions, but without cure in most cases, indicating a clear need for new treatment approaches.
  • Novel therapies for relapsed disease using the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, thalidomide plus rituximab, the cyclin inhibitor flavopiridol, or inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have shown encouraging clinical responses.
  • Stem cell transplantation, including nonmyeloablative approaches, are being incorporated into therapeutic regimens and show promise in both the front-line and relapsed/refractory settings.
  • SUMMARY: This review summarizes recent advances in the biology, pathogenesis, and therapy of mantle cell lymphoma and identifies ongoing areas of clinical investigation and new treatment approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / physiopathology. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunotherapy. Prognosis


33. Kaufman J, Gleason C, Lonial S: Treatment of relapsed and refractory myeloma. Curr Hematol Malig Rep; 2009 Apr;4(2):99-107
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  • [Title] Treatment of relapsed and refractory myeloma.
  • Treatment options for patients with relapsed and refractory myeloma have dramatically changed as a result of the approval of bortezomib, thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib/liposomal doxorubicin by the US Food and Drug Administration.
  • These changes have resulted in improved responses to salvage therapy and, in many cases, improved overall survival.
  • The challenge for clinicians is choosing which agent to use and deciding whether a single agent or combination therapy is the optimal treatment option for each patient.
  • This article outlines some of the data underpinning the use of bortezomib, thalidomide, lenalidomide, or combinations of these agents in the setting of relapsed myeloma, as well as a number of potential future agents or combinations that may improve outcomes for patients with relapsed and refractory disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Boronic Acids / administration & dosage. Boronic Acids / therapeutic use. Bortezomib. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pyrazines / administration & dosage. Pyrazines / therapeutic use. Thalidomide / administration & dosage. Thalidomide / analogs & derivatives. Thalidomide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20425421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-822X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current hematologic malignancy reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Hematol Malig Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Pyrazines; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; F0P408N6V4 / lenalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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34. Wakabayashi S, Ohashi K: [Oral molecular targeting agents in hematological malignancy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Jul;37(7):1214-8
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  • [Title] [Oral molecular targeting agents in hematological malignancy].
  • Molecular target therapy is progressive and promising in various hematological malignancies.
  • Imatinib is now the treatment of choice for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia.
  • Eight-year data from the pivotal trial of imatinib, the IRIS trial, showed high long-term response rates and favorable tolerability profile compared with previous therapies.
  • For patients with primary resistance to imatinib, hematologic disease recurrence, or emergent BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations, the potent second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors dasatinib and nilotinib are now available.
  • Since the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in the 1980s, the strategy for treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has shifted from conventional chemotherapy to cell differentiation.
  • The combination of ATRA and anthracycline-based chemotherapy is currently the standard approach to treat newly-diagnosed APL.
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is also one of the major therapeutic targets in using molecular based technology.
  • The recent availability of clinical data regarding thalidomide and lenalidomide has provided effective treatment options for patients with both newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory MM.
  • Overall, this paper focuses on a comprehensive review of the current literature and provides data supporting molecular target therapy for patients with CML, APL, or MM.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hematologic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20647701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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35. Mesa RA: New drugs for the treatment of myelofibrosis. Curr Hematol Malig Rep; 2010 Jan;5(1):15-21
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  • [Title] New drugs for the treatment of myelofibrosis.
  • Cure is potentially achievable through allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but this therapy is either inappropriate or not feasible for most patients.
  • MF patients suffer from a range of debilitating disease manifestations (eg, massive splenomegaly, cytopenias, constitutional symptoms, and transformation to a treatment-refractory blast phase).
  • Currently available therapies are palliative but can be of significant value to some MF patients for anemia, splenomegaly, or sometimes both manifestations.
  • New medical therapies for MF revolve around three main themes: immunomodulation (to assist anemia), hypomethylation strategies, and (the most robust pipeline) the use of targeted JAK2 inhibitors.
  • Future targeted agents, and perhaps combinations of agents that currently show complementary benefits, are anticipated to further enhance the efficacy of medical therapy for MF.
  • [MeSH-major] Drugs, Investigational / therapeutic use. Primary Myelofibrosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia / drug therapy. Anemia / etiology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. DNA Methylation / drug effects. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Janus Kinase 2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Janus Kinase 2 / genetics. Palliative Care. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Splenomegaly / drug therapy. Splenomegaly / etiology. Thrombocytopenia / drug therapy. Thrombocytopenia / etiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20425392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-822X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current hematologic malignancy reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Hematol Malig Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Investigational; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.2 / JAK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinase 2
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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36. Tsukune Y, Isobe Y, Yasuda H, Shimizu S, Katsuoka Y, Hosone M, Oshimi K, Komatsu N, Sugimoto K: Activity and safety of combination chemotherapy with methotrexate, ifosfamide, l-asparaginase and dexamethasone (MILD) for refractory lymphoid malignancies: a pilot study. Eur J Haematol; 2010 Apr;84(4):310-5
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  • [Title] Activity and safety of combination chemotherapy with methotrexate, ifosfamide, l-asparaginase and dexamethasone (MILD) for refractory lymphoid malignancies: a pilot study.
  • Optimal salvage chemotherapy has not been established for lymphoid malignancy, which is refractory to the conventional cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone regimen.
  • To explore an effective regimen, we conducted a phase I pilot study of combination chemotherapy with methotrexate, ifosfamide, l-asparaginase and dexamethasone (MILD), which are unaffected by MDR1-encoded P-glycoprotein.
  • A total of 18 patients with lethal lymphoid malignancy were enrolled over a 2-yr period.
  • Eleven patients completed two courses of MILD therapy.
  • Treatment-related death because of systemic mucormycosis was observed in one patient.
  • Major treatment-related adverse events were grade 3 or more hematologic toxicities, which included lymphopenia corresponding to dose-limiting toxicity.
  • The most common grade 3 non-hematologic toxicity was febrile neutropenia.
  • MILD therapy was feasible and presented acceptable toxicity in patients with refractory or lethal lymphoid malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20015242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0609
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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37. Kennedy B, Rawstron A, Carter C, Ryan M, Speed K, Lucas G, Hillmen P: Campath-1H and fludarabine in combination are highly active in refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood; 2002 Mar 15;99(6):2245-7
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  • [Title] Campath-1H and fludarabine in combination are highly active in refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • Combination therapy is now the conventional treatment for most hematologic malignancies.
  • Monoclonal antibody treatments may sensitize tumor cells to subsequent chemotherapy.
  • We report the combination of Campath-1H with fludarabine in patients with CLL refractory to each agent used singly.
  • Five patients responded, including one who had a complete response by National Cancer Institute criteria.
  • Campath-1H combined with fludarabine is a highly promising novel therapy for refractory CLL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Neoplasm / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Vidarabine / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bone Marrow / pathology. Drug Resistance. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Therapeutic Equivalency. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11877305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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38. Wahl RL: Tositumomab and (131)I therapy in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Nucl Med; 2005 Jan;46 Suppl 1:128S-40S
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  • [Title] Tositumomab and (131)I therapy in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Currently, it is approved for use in patients whose disease has relapsed after chemotherapy and is refactory to rituximab, including patients whose tumors have transformed to a higher histologic grade.
  • This review outlines the current and evolving status of this therapeutic regimen at nonmyeloablative doses.
  • METHODS: Clinical data from multiple published studies and preliminary communications encompassing more than 1,000 patients were reviewed to describe the current status of tositumomab and (131)I-tositumomab therapy.
  • The therapy is delivered in 2 parts, a dosimetric dose and a therapeutic dose.
  • The therapeutic radioactivity millicurie dose is calculated on a patient-individualized ("tailored") basis.
  • A series of 3 total-body gamma-camera scans are used to determine the patient-specific pharmacokinetics (total-body residence time) of the radiolabeled antibody conjugate required to deliver the desired total-body radiation dose, typically 75 cGy.
  • RESULTS: In clinical trials, objective response rates in patients who had been extensively pretreated with chemotherapy ranged from 47% to 68%.
  • Tositumomab and (131)I-tositumomab therapy also was effective in patients who had failed to respond to or who had relapsed after rituximab therapy, with a 68% overall response rate.
  • Single-center trials using tositumomab and (131)I-tositumomab therapy alone or after chemotherapy in previously untreated patients have shown response rates in excess of 90%, with most responses complete.
  • Toxicity is predominately hematologic; however, human antimouse antibodies, hypothyroidism, and myelodysplastic syndrome have been reported in a small fraction of patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Tositumomab and (131)I-tositumomab therapy at patient-specific, nonmyeloablative doses is safe and effective in treatment of relapsed and refractory follicular NHL.
  • Toxicity is mainly hematologic and reversible.
  • Tositumomab and (131)I-tositumomab therapy is assuming a growing role in this common malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Immunotherapy / methods. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15653661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / iodine-131 anti-B1 antibody
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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39. Ogasawara T, Yasuyama M, Kawauchi K: Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome with monosomy 5 after successful treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (M2). Am J Hematol; 2005 Jun;79(2):136-41
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  • [Title] Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome with monosomy 5 after successful treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (M2).
  • We describe a patient who developed myelodysplastic syndrome over 2 years after achieving complete remission of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • The patient was treated in July 1998 with anthracycline, etoposide, and behenoyl cytarabine chemotherapy for AML (French-American-British classification, M2; World Health Organization classification, AML with maturation) and achieved complete remission.
  • The patient was diagnosed with high-grade myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) subtype.
  • Therapy-related MDS and AML (t-MDS/t-AML) developing after treatment for acute leukemia is unusual; the primary leukemia associated with most cases of t-MDS/t-AML is acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • This unusual case suggests that AML excluding APL should be considered a primary hematologic malignancy for t-MDS/t-AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5. Cytarabine / analogs & derivatives. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / chemically induced. Monosomy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / chemically induced. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / genetics


40. Dey BR, McAfee S, Sackstein R, Colby C, Saidman S, Weymouth D, Poliquin C, Vanderklish J, Sachs DH, Sykes M, Spitzer TR: Successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning in patients with relapsed hematologic malignancy following autologous stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2001;7(11):604-12
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  • [Title] Successful allogeneic stem cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning in patients with relapsed hematologic malignancy following autologous stem cell transplantation.
  • The use of myeloablative preparative therapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) as salvage therapy for adult patients with relapsed hematologic malignancy after autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) is generally unsuccessful due to very high treatment-related mortality rates.
  • We evaluated the outcome of HLA-matched related donor alloSCT following nonmyeloablative preparative therapy in 13 patients (median age, 38 years) with relapsed hematologic malignancies (Hodgkin's disease, n = 4; Hodgkin's disease and advanced myelodysplastic syndrome, n = 1; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, n = 6; multiple myeloma, n = 2) after initial autoSCT.
  • Median time from autoSCT to alloSCT was 12 months (range, 3-24 months); 6 patients had chemotherapy-refractory disease following autoSCT, 6 were in untreated relapse, and 1 had a partial response from salvage chemotherapy.
  • Preparative therapy consisted of cyclophosphamide, 150-200 mg/kg; peritransplantation anti-thymocyte globulin; thymic irradiation (in patients who had not received previous mediastinal irradiation); and a very short course of cyclosporine as GVHD prophylaxis.
  • The median survival time of the 13 patients is currently 10 months (range, 3-39 months), with an overall survival probability at 2 years of 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19%-73%) and a disease-free survival probability at 2 years of 37.5% (95% CI, 12%-65%).
  • Thus, this novel nonmyeloablative alloSCT strategy followed by prophylactic DLI was well tolerated and can result in durable disease-free survival among patients with advanced hematologic malignancies after a failed autoSCT.
  • Further follow-up and evaluation of additional patients are required to conclusively establish the role of this strategy in the treatment of hematologic malignancies after an autologous transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematologic Neoplasms / therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Salvage Therapy / methods. Transplantation Conditioning / methods

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  • (PMID = 11760148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-8791
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 RO1 CA79986-O1A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 RO1 CA79988-O1A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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