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1. Platzbecker U, Haase M, Herbst R, Hänel A, Voigtmann K, Thiede CH, Mohr B, Schleyer E, Leopold T, Orth M, Hänel M, Ehninger G, Bornhäuser M: Activity of sirolimus in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome--results of a pilot study. Br J Haematol; 2005 Mar;128(5):625-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activity of sirolimus in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome--results of a pilot study.
  • Increasing data suggest that sirolimus might affect these pathways positively, thus being of possible therapeutic benefit in patients with this disease.
  • Three patients [1 x refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-2, 1 x RAEB-1, 1 x refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia] showed either a major (1 x platelet, 1 x neutrophil) or a minor (1 x erythroid, 2 x platelet) haematological response according to International Working Group criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Sirolimus / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / blood. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Erythrocyte Count. Female. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Platelet Count. Treatment Outcome


2. Morerio C, Russo I, Rosanda C, Rapella A, Leszl A, Basso G, Maserati E, Pasquali F, Panarello C: 17q21-qter trisomy is an indicator of poor prognosis in acute myelogenous leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2001 Jan 1;124(1):12-5
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  • A reciprocal translocation (9;11) is often found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), mostly of the M5a type.
  • We report a case of a child with AML, in whom t(9;11) was observed at diagnosis as the sole structural abnormality, together with trisomies 19 and 21.
  • The diagnosis was AML evolving from a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and the blast morphology was undifferentiated.
  • Chemotherapy failed to induce morphological remission and the patient's condition soon worsened.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / genetics. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 / genetics. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Genetic Markers. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Karyotyping. Male. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11165316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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3. Raza A, Mehdi M, Mumtaz M, Ali F, Lascher S, Galili N: Combination of 5-azacytidine and thalidomide for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer; 2008 Oct 1;113(7):1596-604
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  • [Title] Combination of 5-azacytidine and thalidomide for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: The treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) remains a challenge to the clinician despite recent advances.
  • Many patients will either not respond or will have only limited and/or brief responses to single-agent therapy.
  • Six patients had refractory anemia (RA), 2 patients had RA with ringed sideroblasts, 10 patients had RA with excess blasts (RAEB), 1 patient had RAEB in transformation, 4 patients had chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, 1 patient had chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis, and 16 patients had AML.
  • It was noteworthy that 9 of 14 patients with AML had a history of prior MDS, 2 of 9 patients achieved a CR, 4 of 9 patients had HI (HI-E and bilineage HI), and 1 patient had stable disease and was continuing treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current findings indicated that a combination of low-dose AZA and thalidomide was well tolerated and was effective therapy for the treatment of patients with MDS and AML arising from prior MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Azacitidine / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Thalidomide / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Pilot Projects. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


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4. Terpos E, Mougiou A, Kouraklis A, Chatzivassili A, Michalis E, Giannakoulas N, Manioudaki E, Lazaridou A, Bakaloudi V, Protopappa M, Liapi D, Grouzi E, Parharidou A, Symeonidis A, Kokkini G, Laoutaris NP, Vaipoulos G, Anagnostopoulos NI, Christakis JI, Meletis J, Bourantas KL, Zoumbos NC, Yataganas X, Viniou NA, Greek MDS Study Group: Prolonged administration of erythropoietin increases erythroid response rate in myelodysplastic syndromes: a phase II trial in 281 patients. Br J Haematol; 2002 Jul;118(1):174-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) improves anaemia in approximately 20% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
  • We investigated the potential advantage of a prolonged administration of rHuEpo to achieve higher erythroid response rates (RR) in 281 MDS patients: 118 with refractory anaemia (RA), 77 with refractory anaemia and ringed sideroblasts (RARS), 59 with refractory anaemia with excess of blasts and blast count < 10% (RAEB-I), and 27 with RAEB and blast count between 11-20% (RAEB-II).
  • Response to treatment was evaluated after 12 and 26 weeks of therapy.
  • The overall RR was 45.1%; the RR for RA, RARS, RAEB-I and RAEB-II were 48.3%, 58.4%, 33.8% and 13% respectively.
  • A significant increase in RR was observed at week 26 in RA, RARS and RAEB-I patients, as the response probability increased with treatment duration.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia, Refractory / drug therapy. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Anemia, Sideroblastic / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


5. Dixit A, Chatterjee T, Mishra P, Choudhary DR, Mahapatra M, Saxena R, Choudhry VP: Cyclosporin A in myelodysplastic syndrome: a preliminary report. Ann Hematol; 2005 Sep;84(9):565-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Therapeutic approaches are not well established in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • We evaluated response to cyclosporin A (CyA) in 19 cases with MDS who were enrolled for the study [13 refractory anemia (RA), 5 refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB), and 1 refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS)].
  • Four cases of RA showed minor response and two cases of RA did not respond to CyA therapy.
  • A minor response was also seen in one RAEB and one RARS case, while one RAEB case that initially showed a major response relapsed on therapy.
  • The first effect of therapy was evident after a mean period of 2.5 months.
  • One case developed renal failure on therapy and later died of septicemia.
  • CyA could be an effective mode of therapy in patients with MDS especially those having RA.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclosporine / administration & dosage. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anemia, Refractory / drug therapy. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Anemia, Sideroblastic / drug therapy. Bone Marrow / pathology. Female. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Platelet Count. Renal Insufficiency / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome


6. Horikoshi M, Machida U, Itikawa M, Seo S, Masuda S, Kurokawa M, Ogawa S, Sunaga S, Honda H, Aoki K, Chiba S, Mitani K, Hirai H, Yazaki Y: [Essential thrombocythemia in transformation from myelodysplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia with inv(3) after treatment for gastric cancer]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2000 Jan;41(1):68-71
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  • [Title] [Essential thrombocythemia in transformation from myelodysplastic syndrome to acute myeloid leukemia with inv(3) after treatment for gastric cancer].
  • In March 1990, a 61-year-old man was given a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia with a normal karyotype and subsequently treated with hydroxyurea.
  • Refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation and chromosomal abnormalities including -5, -7, 20q-developed in August 1998.
  • Combined chemotherapy with daunorubicin, cytarabine, mercaptopurine, and prednisolone, had only limited effectiveness.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Gastrectomy. Humans. Hydroxyurea / therapeutic use. Karyotyping. Male. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Uracil / administration & dosage


7. Zhou FL, Zhang WG, Cao XM, Chen YX, He AL, Liu J, Zhao WH, Ma XR, Chen G: [Retrospective observation of curative effects on MDS refractory anemia with combination of all-trans retinoic acid, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and androgen]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Oct;13(5):861-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Retrospective observation of curative effects on MDS refractory anemia with combination of all-trans retinoic acid, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and androgen].
  • This study was aimed to examine whether a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and androgen possesses the therapeutic value for the MDS-refractory anemia (MDS-RA), and to analyze the mechanisms in detail.
  • The remaining 33 cases (group B) were provided with vitamin supplementation, chalybeate drugs, and one or two of the combination.
  • The further treatment for 16 out of 62 patients (25.81%), 13 failures (10 deaths, 2 RAEB and 1 RAEB-T) and 3 transformations (M(2), M(3), M(5)) with a median survival interval of 26.25 months, were observed and interrupted for some reasons.
  • Furthermore, the disease progression was observed in 12 out of 33 patients (36.36%) with a median survival interval of 16 months, 9 failures (including 6 deaths, 2 RAEB and 1 RAEB-T) and 3 transformations (M(2), M(3), M(4)).
  • The following requirements, if were met, would be significant for prognosis: the combination regiment, no transformation, children, no complication, female, 90-120 g/L of hemoglobin concentration, normal cellular bone marrow and uni-cytopenias (P < 0.05).
  • Moreover, Cox regression showed that therapy, transformation and age are all the independent factors (P < 0.05).
  • It is concluded that the combination of above mentioned 3 drugs may be effective and safe treatment for the patients with MDS-RA.
  • Its relevant mechanisms can be involved in the combination, that elicits a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as differentiation, anti-tumor-promotion, anti-apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis, anti-cachexia and immunoregulation.


8. Raza A, Qawi H, Lisak L, Andric T, Dar S, Andrews C, Venugopal P, Gezer S, Gregory S, Loew J, Robin E, Rifkin S, Hsu WT, Huang RW: Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes benefit from palliative therapy with amifostine, pentoxifylline, and ciprofloxacin with or without dexamethasone. Blood; 2000 Mar 1;95(5):1580-7
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  • [Title] Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes benefit from palliative therapy with amifostine, pentoxifylline, and ciprofloxacin with or without dexamethasone.
  • Thirty-five patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were registered on protocol MDS 96-02 and were receiving continuous therapy with pentoxifylline 800 mg 3 times a day and ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice a day by mouth; dexamethasone was added to the regimen for the partial responders and the nonresponders after 12 weeks at a dose of 4 mg by mouth every morning for 4 weeks.
  • Amifostine was administered intravenously 3 times a week at 3 dose levels (200 mg/M(2), 300 mg/M(2), and 400 mg/M(2)) to cohorts of 10 patients each.
  • Therapy has been continued for 1 year in responders.
  • Twenty-nine have completed at least 12 weeks of therapy and are available for response evaluation.
  • Of the 21 men and 8 women (median age, 67 years), 20 had refractory anemia (RA), 3 had RA with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), 5 had RA with excess blasts (RAEB), and 1 had chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL).
  • Interestingly, the responses were frequently slow to appear, and continued improvement in counts was seen up to 12 months of therapy and beyond.
  • This study supports the feasibility of treating patients with MDS with the unique approach of cytoprotection and anticytokine therapies as well as the principle that prolonged commitment to treatment is desirable when noncytotoxic agents are administered. (Blood.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Amifostine / administration & dosage. Amifostine / adverse effects. Anorexia / chemically induced. Blood Cell Count / drug effects. Ciprofloxacin / administration & dosage. Ciprofloxacin / adverse effects. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / adverse effects. Female. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Hypotension / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Pentoxifylline / administration & dosage. Pentoxifylline / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome


9. Lu Y, Wu T, Cao XY, Wang JB, Yin YM, Lu DP: [Effects of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on 60 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Mar;49(3):200-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • DFS rates in RA/RAS/5q-, RCMD, RAEB-I/RAEB-II and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) subgroups were 84.6%, 80.0%, 81.0%, 56.2%, respectively (P > 0.05).
  • DFS rates for percentages of blasts in bone marrow pre-transplant were 87.0%, 65.5%, 75.0% in < 5% blasts, 5% - 20% blasts, > 20% blasts subgroups, respectively (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Since favorable clinical outcomes have been seen in all kinds of MDS by allo-HSCT, HSCT should be the first-line therapy for MDS.
  • No significant differences are found based on different stem cell donors and the percentages of bone marrow blasts pre-HSCT, unrelated or haploidentical donors should be important alternatives if there is no identical sibling available.
  • Chemotherapy before transplantation is not necessary except overt acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


10. Fukuda N, Shinohara K, Ota I, Muraki K, Shimohakamada Y: Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome in a case of cutaneous adult T-cell lymphoma. Int J Hematol; 2002 Jan;75(1):67-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome in a case of cutaneous adult T-cell lymphoma.
  • We report a case of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) in adult T-cell lymphoma.
  • A 69-year-old man suffered from cutaneous adult T-cell lymphoma, which was treated with radiation to the skin and combination chemotherapy of CHOP-V-MMV and VEPA-B.
  • After 14 months of these therapies, anemia and thrombocytopenia appeared, and bone marrow aspiration smears showed immature myeloblasts, dysplastic erythroblasts, and micromegakaryocytes.
  • Therapy-related MDS of refractory anemia with an excess of blasts was diagnosed.
  • The patient died of pneumonia 21 months after diagnosis of cutaneous adult T-cell lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / etiology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / complications. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Chromosome Aberrations. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Fatal Outcome. HTLV-I Infections / complications. Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 / isolation & purification. Humans. Japan. Leukemia, Myeloid / complications. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / complications. Male. Nitrosourea Compounds / administration & dosage. Nitrosourea Compounds / adverse effects. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prednisolone / adverse effects. Proviruses / isolation & purification. Remission Induction. Translocation, Genetic. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects


11. Huebner G, Karthaus M, Pethig K, Freund M, Ganser A: Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia secondary to heart transplantation. Transplantation; 2000 Aug 27;70(4):688-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myelogenous leukemia secondary to radiotherapy, radiation exposure, and chemotherapy is a well-documented malignant stem cell disorder.
  • Immunosuppression consisted uniformly of a combination of prednisone, cyclosporine, and azathioprine.
  • One patient with MDS, refractory anemia with excess of blasts according to the FAB criteria, is alive with transfusion dependency 32 months after diagnosis.
  • Treatment results are poor in this subgroup of patients with secondary leukemia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromosome Aberrations. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged


12. Kuendgen A, Knipp S, Fox F, Strupp C, Hildebrandt B, Steidl C, Germing U, Haas R, Gattermann N: Results of a phase 2 study of valproic acid alone or in combination with all-trans retinoic acid in 75 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Ann Hematol; 2005 Dec;84 Suppl 1:61-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of a phase 2 study of valproic acid alone or in combination with all-trans retinoic acid in 75 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Valproic acid (VPA) inhibits histone deacetylase activity and induces differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts in vitro.
  • Median treatment duration was 4 months for VPA and 2 months for ATRA.
  • Response rates were strongly dependent on disease type according to WHO classification.
  • We found a response rate of 52% in MDS patients with a normal blast count (refractory sideroblastic anemia, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, and refractory sideroblastic cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia).
  • The response rate was 6% in refractory anemia with excess blasts (I + II), 16% in AML, and 0% in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
  • For patients with high-risk MDS, VPA may be combined with chemotherapy or demethylating drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Female. Histone Deacetylases / drug effects. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome. Tretinoin / administration & dosage


13. Chang KL, O'Donnell MR, Slovak ML, Dagis AC, Arber DA, Niland JC, Forman SJ: Primary myelodysplasia occurring in adults under 50 years old: a clinicopathologic study of 52 patients. Leukemia; 2002 Apr;16(4):623-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This is a report of the clinical, morphologic and cytogenetic features of 52 cases of primary MDS occurring in adults under the age of 50 years.
  • Cases secondary to chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded.
  • The interval between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was brief (median, 4 weeks; range, 1-32 weeks).
  • Forty-two (81%) of the patients were classified using FAB criteria for blood and bone marrow morphology: refractory anemia (RA), 11; refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (RARS), four; refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), 12; chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), three; refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T), 12 patients.
  • Abnormalities involving chromosome 7 was the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality (31%).
  • For the 49 patients for whom information regarding AML transformation was available, 23 (47%) progressed to acute myeloid leukemia, with an overall median time to progression of 2 months (range 3 weeks to 3 years).
  • In each category except for RARS, approximately half of the patients progressed, with a slightly less median time to progression in RAEB-T than for the other subtypes of MDS.
  • Thirteen patients underwent bone marrow transplantation at the time of presentation of their disease.


14. Vaena DA, Walker P, Pennington K, Stephens A, Stender MJ, Yiannoutsos CT, Young C, Stoner C, Cripe LD, Hoosier Oncology Group: Phase II study of low-dose topotecan in myelodysplastic syndromes: a Hoosier Oncology Group (HOG) study. Leuk Res; 2004 Jan;28(1):49-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Therefore, we studied topotecan 1.5mg/m2 per day i.v. over 2 h for three consecutive days in 20 patients with high-risk MDS (12 RAEB; 4 RAEB-T; 4 CMMoL).
  • There were three deaths within the first cycle of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Topotecan / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / diagnosis. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome


15. Shoji N, Ito Y, Kimura Y, Nishimaki J, Kuriyama Y, Tauchi T, Yaguchi M, Payzulla D, Ebihara Y, Ohyashiki K: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis as a terminal complication in myelodysplastic syndromes: a report of four cases detected on autopsy. Leuk Res; 2002 Jun;26(6):591-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • They consisted of two refractory anemia (RA) and two patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEBt) at the time of MDS diagnosis, but all of them developed leukemic phase and were resistant to chemotherapy at the time of pulmonary episodes.


16. Li ZL, Gong M, Xu SH, Huang FZ, Chen YR, Ma YG: [Cyclosporine A based therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Oct;13(5):867-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cyclosporine A based therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome].
  • To determine the efficacy and tolerance to cyclosporine A (CsA) based therapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 16 patients with MDS consisting of 10 refractory anemia (RA) and 6 refractory anemia with accessory blasts less than 10% (RAEB-1) were analyzed.
  • Treatment responses were classified according to the International Working Group (IWG) criteria as complete remission (CR), partial remission (PR), hematological improvement (HI) and no response (NR).
  • Response rates shown in neutrophil lineage, platelet and erythroid lineage were 83.3%, 66.7% and 60%, respectively; their shortest time required to obtain some hematologic improvement after initiation of CsA therapy was 2 weeks, 1 month and 1 month, respectively.
  • Of 13 patients being transfusion-dependent before treatment, 3 patients did not need transfusion any more and 5 showed the reduced transfusion requirements after CsA therapy.
  • Of 6 patients with RAEB, 1 patient had no response and died of RAEB-t and 5 patients had transient responses.
  • The total response rate decreased to 50% in the patients with CsA therapy lasting more than 3 months at the end of following-up.
  • In conclusion, the usefulness of CsA based therapy for MDS-RA and RAEB-1 with any marrow cellularity is useful, the CsA dose of 3-5 mg/(kg.d) is safe and efficacious.


17. Perez A, Kennedy C, Standen G, Oxley J: A case of monocytic leukaemia cutis in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome transforming to acute myeloid leukaemia. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2004 Sep;29(5):497-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 49-year-old woman presented with a 1-year-history of a widespread eruption which proved to be due to leukaemia cutis.
  • Subsequently, she developed pancytopaenia and a bone marrow biopsy revealed refractory anaemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T) with a high monoblastic component.
  • Prompt diagnosis in this situation may identify a group of high-risk patients with myelodysplastic syndrome for whom chemotherapy and allogenic bone marrow transplantation, rather than the more conventional approach of supportive treatment, could be a more appropriate management strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / pathology. Leukemia / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology


18. Honda Y, Manabe A, Tsuchida M, Zaike Y, Masunaga A, Inoue M, Kobayashi R, Ohtsuka Y, Kikuchi A, Nakahata T, MDS Committee, the Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology: Clinicopathological characteristics of erythroblast-rich RAEB and AML M6a in children. Int J Hematol; 2008 Dec;88(5):524-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological characteristics of erythroblast-rich RAEB and AML M6a in children.
  • The distinction between RAEB, RAEB-T and AML M6a is difficult when erythroblasts in the bone marrow (BM) exceed 50%.
  • We analyzed 19 children (2 RAEB, 13 RAEB-T and 4 AML M6a) enrolled in a prospective pathological central review in Japan and divided them into two groups according to the myeloblasts percentage among non-erythroid cells in BM: group A (n = 8), 5-19% myeloblasts; group B (n = 11), 20% or more myeloblasts.
  • Six with group A and seven with group B treated with AML type chemotherapy achieved complete remission.
  • Five with group A and seven with group B undergoing SCT are alive at a median of 3 years after diagnosis.
  • Erythroblast-rich RAEB and AML M6a in children have similar characteristics and may belong to a single disease entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / pathology. Erythroblasts / pathology. Granulocyte Precursor Cells / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Japan. Leukocyte Count. Male. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Stem Cell Transplantation. Time Factors. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 18951200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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19. Takizawa A, Miura T, Fujinami K, Osada Y, Tanaka M, Maruta I: [A case of therapy-related leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome following treatment of refractory testicular germ cell tumor]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Nov;96(7):701-4
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  • [Title] [A case of therapy-related leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome following treatment of refractory testicular germ cell tumor].
  • We report a patient with a refractory testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) who developed therapy-related leukemia (TRL) after undergoing salvage chemotherapy and multiple operations for repeat recurrences.
  • Fifty months after the initial therapy, pancytopenia and myeloblasts were observed in the patient's peripheral blood while the patient was undergoing salvage chemotherapy for a fifth recurrence.
  • A bone marrow examination showed evidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation (RAEB in T) under French-America-British (FAB) classification.
  • The patient has received induction chemotherapy for TRL with Cytarabine, Daunorubicin and Fludarabine while a bone marrow transplantation has been scheduled.
  • Recently, TRL associated with chemotherapy are being reported with increasing frequency in the literature.
  • Since early detection and treatment are necessary for the management of TRL, peripheral blood examinations should be performed after a diagnosis of refractory germ cell tumor has been made.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / etiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Male


20. Yamada T, Tsurumi H, Kasahara S, Hara T, Sawada M, Moriwaki H: Immunosuppressive therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome: efficacy of methylprednisolone pulse therapy with or without cyclosporin A. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2003 Aug;129(8):485-91
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  • [Title] Immunosuppressive therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome: efficacy of methylprednisolone pulse therapy with or without cyclosporin A.
  • We investigated whether immunosuppressive therapy using methylprednisolone (mPSL) with or without cyclosporin A (CsA) could benefit patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • Eligibility criteria for this study were a clinical diagnosis of MDS with less than 5% blast in peripheral blood, less than 10% blast in bone marrow and advanced cytopenia.
  • Among 73 patients with MDS, 18 eligible and consecutive patients (8 men and 10 women), aged 48 to 87 years (median: 66.5 years) were assigned to receive mPSL pulse therapy (1,000 mg daily for 3 consecutive days, followed by tapering oral prednisolone; n= 12) or mPSL pulse with CsA therapy (4 to 5 mg/kg administered twice daily; n= 6).
  • Six of 18 patients (33.3%; 3 of 10 patients with RA, 2 of 6 patients with RAEB, 1 of 2 patients with CMMoL) responded to immunosuppressive therapy.
  • One of 6 patients with hypocellular bone marrow and 5 of 12 patients with normocellular or hypercellular marrow responded to immunosuppressive therapy.
  • No patient with myelofibrosis responded to the therapy.
  • It is possible that immunosuppressive therapy might be effective for a certain subset of patients with MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclosporine / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Hemoglobins / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pulse Therapy, Drug. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


21. Xu ZF, Qin TJ, Zhang Y, Liu KQ, Hao YS, Xiao ZJ: [Cyclosporine A in combination with thalidomide for the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Jul;31(7):451-5
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  • [Title] [Cyclosporine A in combination with thalidomide for the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes].
  • METHODS: A total of thirty-seven patients with MDS-RCMD or-RAEB-I were treated with CsA in combination with thalidomide.
  • Some patients developed grades I-II hepatic or nephritic impairment, constipation, lethargy, dizziness, edema, rashes or numbness, and all were tolerable and reversible.
  • CONCLUSION: CsA in combination with thalidomide appears to be effective mainly in inducing HI-E and relatively well-tolerated for the treatment of patients with MDS.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Humans. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21122398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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22. McManus PM: Classification of myeloid neoplasms: a comparative review. Vet Clin Pathol; 2005 Sep;34(3):189-212
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  • 1) AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities, 2) AML with multilineage dysplasia, 3) AML with previous chemotherapy and/or radiation, and 4) AML, not otherwise categorized.
  • The lower blast percentage eliminates one category of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation.
  • A new MDS category was created: refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD), with lineage dysplasia assessed using newly defined percentage limits.
  • At least 10% of cells from each of 2 lineages must display atypia for a diagnosis of RCMD.


23. Hiçsönmez G, Cetin M, Yenicesu I, Olcay L, Koç A, Aktaş D, Tunçbilek E, Tuncer M: Evaluation of children with myelodysplastic syndrome: importance of extramedullary disease as a presenting symptom. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 Aug;42(4):665-74
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  • EMD was present at diagnosis in 12 (36%) of the 33 children with MDS.
  • Lymphadenopathy (n=1), gingival hypertrophy (n=2), orbital granulocytic sarcoma (n=1) and spinal mass (n=1) were the presenting findings in 5 patients with refractory anemia with excess of blasts in transformation.
  • Since high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP, 20-30 mg/kg/day) has been shown to induce differentiation and apoptosis of myeloid leukemic cells in children with different morphological subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia in vivo and in vitro, 25 children with de novo MDS were treated with combined HDMP and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Dramatic improvement of EMD and decrease in blast cells both in the peripheral blood and bone marrow were obtained following administration of short-course HDMP treatment alone as observed in children with AML.
  • In addition, the beneficial effect of HDMP combined with more intensive chemotherapy should be explored as alternative therapy in children with MDS not suitable for bone marrow transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic / drug therapy. Male. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome


24. Potru R, Ahn J, Fung H, Cohen SM: A case of myelodysplastic syndrome in a liver transplant patient. Transplant Proc; 2009 Nov;41(9):3947-8
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  • In 2007, the patient developed weakness, malaise, and shortness of breath.
  • Bone marrow biopsy showed MDS, with refractory anemia and excess blasts-1.
  • The patient underwent chemotherapy and reduction in immunosuppression without a clinical response.
  • Our experience suggested that MDS, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pancytopenia after OLT.
  • Once diagnosed, immunosuppression reduction, chemotherapy, and even stem cell transplantation may be the appropriate treatment in selected candidates.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Cirrhosis / surgery. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia / drug therapy. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Hepatitis C / complications. Hepatitis C / drug therapy. Hepatitis C / surgery. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use. Recombinant Proteins. Recurrence. Reoperation


25. Kaeferstein A, Krug U, Tiesmeier J, Aivado M, Faulhaber M, Stadler M, Krauter J, Germing U, Hofmann WK, Koeffler HP, Ganser A, Verbeek W: The emergence of a C/EBPalpha mutation in the clonal evolution of MDS towards secondary AML. Leukemia; 2003 Feb;17(2):343-9
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  • [Title] The emergence of a C/EBPalpha mutation in the clonal evolution of MDS towards secondary AML.
  • No mutations were found in patients with refractory anemia (0/27), refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts (0/7), refractory anemia with excess of blasts (RAEB 0/16) or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML 0/5).
  • One out of 13 patients with RAEB-T/AML secondary to MDS showed a mutation in the C/EBPalpha gene.
  • Interestingly this mutation could not be detected at diagnosis in the initial RAEB and RAEB-T stage.
  • The mutation appeared at relapse after chemotherapy for RAEB-T.
  • The emergence of a bast clone carrying a C/EBPalpha mutation at relapse indicates that this mutation may confer a growth advantage in a myeloid cell with an established differentiation block.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / genetics. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / pathology. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational


26. Ribrag V, Suzan F, Ravoet C, Feremans W, Guerci A, Dreyfus F, Damaj G, Vantelon JM, Bourhis JH, Fenaux P: Phase II trial of CPT-11 in myelodysplastic syndromes with excess of marrow blasts. Leukemia; 2003 Feb;17(2):319-22
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of CPT-11 in myelodysplastic syndromes with excess of marrow blasts.
  • We conducted a phase II trial of CPT-11 in 26 patients with high-risk MDS (RAEB 1: n = 4; RAEB 2: n = 9; MDS having progressed to AML: n = 10; CMML: n = 3) who could not receive anthracycline/cytarabine intensive chemotherapy.
  • Induction therapy consisted of four courses of CPT-11 given intravenously at 200 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks.
  • Patient characteristics were: median age, 71 (range 51-77); sex, (M/F), 21/5, median % marrow blasts cells, 13.5 (range 7-52).
  • Six patients stopped treatment after only one or two courses of CPT-11 due to severe infection (n = 2), progressive disease (n = 3), acute lysis syndrome with renal failure (n = 1).
  • Thus CPT-11 has an interesting activity in MDS with excess of blasts; toxicity is easily managed and most patients can be treated in the out-clinic setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / pathology. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Blast Crisis. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Time Factors


27. Duell T, Poleck-Dehlin B, Schmid C, Wunderlich B, Ledderose G, Mittermuller J, Kolb HJ, Schmetzer H: Clonal karyotype evolution involving ring chromosome 1 with myelodysplastic syndrome subtype RAEB-t progressing into acute leukemia. Acta Haematol; 2006;116(2):131-6
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  • [Title] Clonal karyotype evolution involving ring chromosome 1 with myelodysplastic syndrome subtype RAEB-t progressing into acute leukemia.
  • The diagnosis of a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) FAB subtype RAEB-t was established in April 1993 by histological bone marrow (BM) examination, and therapy with low-dose cytosine arabinoside was initiated.
  • One month later, the patient progressed to an acute myeloid leukemia (AML), subtype M4 with 40% BM blasts and cytogenetic examination showed clonal evolution by the appearance of additional numerical aberrations in addition to the ring chromosome [46,XY,r(1),+8,-21/45,XY,r(1),+8,-21,-22/46, XY].
  • Intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy was applied to induce remission in preparation for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from the patient's HLA-compatible son.
  • This is an interesting case of a patient with AML secondary to MDS.
  • With the ring chromosome 1 we also describe a rare cytogenetic abnormality that predicted the poor prognosis of the patient, but the patient could be cured by adoptive immunotherapy and the application of donor's PB-SC.
  • This case confirms the value of cytogenetic analysis in characterizing the malignant clone in hematological neoplasias, the importance of controlling the quality of an induced remission and of the detection of a progress of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1. Leukemia / genetics. Ring Chromosomes
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Chromosome Banding. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Karyotyping. Male. Middle Aged


28. Parikh SH, Mendizabal A, Martin PL, Prasad VK, Szabolcs P, Driscoll TA, Kurtzberg J: Unrelated donor umbilical cord blood transplantation in pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome: a single-center experience. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2009 Aug;15(8):948-55
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  • Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) respond poorly to chemotherapy.
  • The median age was 11.1 years (range: 1.1-19.7), median weight was 38.6 kg (range: 9.6-62.6), 61% of patients were male, and median time from diagnosis to transplant was 6.6 months (range: 2.0-61.4).
  • MDS stage was refractory anemia (RA) in 12, refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) in 8, and refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T) in 3 patients; 18 (78%) patients had primary MDS.
  • Three patients developed acute GVHD (aGVHD) grades II-IV with a cumulative incidence at 100 days of 13% (95% CI 0.0%-27.1.0%).
  • Ten patients died: 3 graft failure, 4 relapse, 2 infections (1 adenovirus, 1 toxoplasmosis), and 1 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lymphoproliferative disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts. Chemoprevention / methods. Child. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / drug therapy. Graft vs Host Disease / prevention & control. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Tissue Donors. Treatment Outcome. Whole-Body Irradiation. Young Adult


29. Cesaro S, Strugo L, Alaggio R, Cecchetto G, Rigobello L, Pillon M, Cusinato R, Zanesco L: Voriconazole for invasive aspergillosis in oncohematological patients: a single-center pediatric experience. Support Care Cancer; 2003 Nov;11(11):722-7
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  • Voriconazole is a new triazole active orally and parenterally that recently proved effective in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and in empirical antifungal therapy for persistently febrile neutropenic patients.
  • We report our experience with voriconazole in seven children with invasive aspergillosis, i.e., four girls and three boys with a median age of 5 (range 2-13) years affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (3), acute myeloid leukemia (2), refractory anemia with excess of blasts (1), and severe aplastic anemia (1).
  • First-line therapy in all patients was liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) administered at a dosage of 3-5 mg/kg day.
  • The voriconazole treatment was well tolerated.
  • Three patients are alive and well 6, 5, and 4 months after the diagnosis of aspergillosis.
  • Voriconazole appears to be an effective salvage treatment for invasive aspergillosis in pediatric patients, with good responses in patients who recover from neutropenia or are not relapsing.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifungal Agents / administration & dosage. Aspergillosis / drug therapy. Aspergillosis / etiology. Hematologic Neoplasms / therapy. Pyrimidines / administration & dosage. Triazoles / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Amphotericin B / administration & dosage. Anemia, Aplastic / drug therapy. Anemia, Refractory / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Male. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Neutropenia / complications. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Voriconazole

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  • (PMID = 13680324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-4355
  • [Journal-full-title] Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Support Care Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Triazoles; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B; JFU09I87TR / Voriconazole
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30. Ferrero D, Darbesio A, Giai V, Genuardi M, Dellacasa CM, Sorasio R, Bertini M, Boccadoro M: Efficacy of a combination of human recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3 to improve moderate to severe anaemia in low/intermediate risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol; 2009 Feb;144(3):342-9
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  • [Title] Efficacy of a combination of human recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3 to improve moderate to severe anaemia in low/intermediate risk myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • The efficacy of human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has generally been best in untransfused patients with 'refractory anaemia' according to the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • We treated 63 MDS patients [excluding refractory anaemia with excess blasts, type 2 (RAEB2)] with a previously tested combination of 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3 +/- 6-thioguanine in addition to rEPO.
  • Most patients were categorized as refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and RAEB1, with intermediate 1 International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score; all had Hb <95 g/l, and 70% required regular erythrocyte transfusions.
  • Treatment was well tolerated, and erythroid response rate according to new International Working Group criteria was 60%: 50% in RAEB1 and 64% in non-RAEB patients (P = 0.383).
  • Median survival reached 14 months for RAEB1 and 55 months for non-RAEB patients, with a significant difference in the latter between responders and non-responders (median 82 months vs. 44 months; P = 0.036).
  • Our combined therapy, independent of rEPO dosage, achieved in patients with unfavourable response predictors, a rate of anaemia improvement comparable to the best obtained in lower risk patients by high-dose rEPO.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia / drug therapy. Calcitriol / therapeutic use. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Isotretinoin / therapeutic use. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Vitamins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins. Risk. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


31. Germing U, Strupp C, Kuendgen A, Aivado M, Giagounidis A, Hildebrandt B, Aul C, Haas R, Gattermann N: Refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB): analysis of reclassification according to the WHO proposals. Br J Haematol; 2006 Jan;132(2):162-7
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  • [Title] Refractory anaemia with excess of blasts (RAEB): analysis of reclassification according to the WHO proposals.
  • The French-American-British (FAB) classification assigns patients with myelodysplastic syndromes to the category of refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) if they have a medullary blast count of 5-20%, and/or a peripheral blast count of 2-5%.
  • The new World Health Organization (WHO) classification subdivides RAEB into RAEB I with a medullary blast count < or =10% and a peripheral blast count < or =5% and RAEB II with >10% medullary and/or >5% peripheral blasts.
  • RAEB II is also diagnosed if Auer rods are present.
  • In 558 patients, we analysed these subtypes of RAEB in terms of haematological characteristics, karyotype anomalies and prognosis.
  • RAEB I was diagnosed in 256 and RAEB II in 302 patients.
  • In the RAEB II group, 22% of patients had >5% peripheral blasts or the presence of Auer rods.
  • The median survival was 16 months for RAEB I as compared with 9 months for RAEB II.
  • No significant differences were identified between the RAEB subtypes with respect to clinical, morphological, haematological and cytogenetic parameters.
  • The survival data support the WHO reclassification of RAEB based on peripheral and medullary blast counts and Auer rods.
  • The WHO classification is useful for diagnosis and provides risk stratification, supported by cytogenetic data for clinical decision making, identifying those RAEB patients with an unfavourable prognosis who should be offered chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / classification

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  • [ErratumIn] Br J Haematol. 2006 Jul;134(2):247
  • (PMID = 16398650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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32. Ebihara Y, Manabe A, Tsuruta T, Ishikawa K, Hasegawa D, Ohtsuka Y, Kawasaki H, Ogami K, Wada Y, Kanda T, Tsuji K: The effect of donor leukocyte infusion on refractory pure red blood cell aplasia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome developing from Kostmann syndrome. Int J Hematol; 2007 Dec;86(5):446-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effect of donor leukocyte infusion on refractory pure red blood cell aplasia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome developing from Kostmann syndrome.
  • We describe the clinical course of a patient who experienced refractory pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) after undergoing HLA-matched allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (allo-PBSCT) for refractory anemia with an excess of blasts in transformation that had evolved from Kostmann syndrome.
  • The treatment for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) developing from Kostmann syndrome has not been standardized.
  • We treated this patient with allo-PBSCT using a regimen combining high-dose cytosine arabinoside with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, in addition to total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide without preceding intensive chemotherapy.
  • Erythroid engraftment was not evident, however, and the patient was given a diagnosis of PRCA.
  • The PRCA did not respond to various therapies, including the discontinuation of immunosuppressants for the induction of chronic GVHD, human recombinant erythropoietin, immunosuppressive treatment with steroids, cyclosporin A, and human anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab).
  • The patient received transfusions 48 times until the resolution of his anemia by donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) at 25 months after PBSCT.
  • The results indicate that the conditioning regimen we describe seems safe and effective for those who have MDS/AML and that DLI might be a valuable approach for refractory PRCA after ABO-incompatible SCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukocyte Transfusion. Living Donors. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy. Myelopoiesis. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure / therapy






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